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1.
Actual. osteol ; 15(3): 192-204, Sept-Dic. 2019. graf, ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104327

ABSTRACT

Blocking of the growth plate (GP) using plates with screws (tension band plating) is a modern method used to correct deformities and moderate leg length discrepancy in growing children. Determining the duration of temporary bilateral blocking without the occurrence of irreversible changes of GP is of paramount importance important. Methods: Two-month-old Californian breed male rabbits (n=30) were exposed to bilateral blocking of the distal GP of the right femur locking plates with screws for 3, 5, and 7 weeks. The fixators were removed after 5 and 7 weeks in 18 rabbits and 3 weeks after that, animals were sacri!ced. The contralateral limb was used as a control. Histological, histomorphometric, and X-ray analyses were performed. Results: During GP blocking, its height gradually decreased. This decreased was more pronounced after 7 weeks. Destructive changes progressed with an increase in the blocking duration. Three weeks after discontinuation of the bilateral blocking that lasted 5 weeks, the height of the GP signi!cantly increased 1.2 times on the lateral side and 1.9 times on the medial side (p<0.001) compared to the control. When blocking was discontinued after 7 weeks, the structure of the GP was partially restored after 3 weeks, the height of GP signi!cantly increased 1.2 times on the lateral side, and 1.07 times on the medial side (p<0.01) compared to the control. Conclusion: Restoration of the structuralfunctional features of the GP after the removal of the plates depends on the duration of temporary bilateral blocking, which must be taken into account in the clinical setting. (AU)


El bloqueo de la placa de crecimiento (PC) utilizando placas con tornillos (banda de tensión) es un método moderno utilizado para corregir deformidades y alteraciones moderadas en la longitud de las piernas en niños en crecimiento. Es de suma importancia determinar cuál debe ser la duración del bloqueo bilateral temporal sin que ocurran cambios irreversibles en la PC. Métodos: Conejos machos de raza californiana de dos meses de edad (n = 30) fueron expuestos al bloqueo bilateral de la PC distal colocando placas del fémur derecho con tornillos durante 3, 5 y 7 semanas. Los fijadores fueron retirados después de 5 y 7 semanas en 18 de los conejos, y 3 semanas después los animales fueron sacrificados. La extremidad contralateral se utilizó como control. Se realizaron análisis histológicos, histomorfométricos y de rayos X. Resultados: Durante el bloqueo de la PC, su altura disminuyó gradualmente. Esta disminución fue más pronunciada después de 7 semanas. Los cambios destructivos se incrementaron a medida aumentaba la duración del bloqueo. Tres semanas después de la interrupción del bloqueo bilateral que duró 5 semanas, la altura de la PC aumentó significativamente 1.2 veces en el lado lateral y 1.9 veces en el lado medial (p <0.001) en comparación con el control. Conclusión: La restauración de las características funcionales estructurales de la PC después de la extracción de las placas depende de la duración del bloqueo bilateral temporal, lo que debería tenerse en cuenta en el tratamiento clínico de estas alteraciones. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Rabbits , Limb Deformities, Congenital/therapy , Growth Plate/growth & development , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Rabbits/surgery , Xylazine/administration & dosage , Bone Plates , Cefazolin/administration & dosage , Child Development , Harm Reduction , Femur/cytology , Femur/growth & development , Femur/diagnostic imaging , Fixatives/analysis , Growth Plate/abnormalities , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Leg/abnormalities
4.
Journal of Arak University of Medical Sciences-Rahavard Danesh. 2008; 11 (2): 35-41
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-87731

ABSTRACT

The vast majority of children with febrile seizure have a normal long term out come, but their parents are always worrying about recurrent febrile seizure. With attention to controversy in treatment a precise knowledge of the short and long term side effect is an important prerequisite for assessing the various treatment strategies. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of intermittent Diazepam and continuous Phenobarbital for the prophylaxis of recurrence of febrile seizure. In this clinical trial study 100 children with febrile seizure treated with intermittent Diazepam were compared with 100 children with febrile seizure treated with continuous Phenobarbital. Diazepam [1 mg/kg/d] was administered orally every eight hours during all febrile illness and Phenobarbital [3-5 mg/kg/d] was administered daily. Data were analyzed by chi-square and t-test. During a mean follow up of 19 months, recurrence rates in the two groups were similar [14%]. 74% of children receiving Phenobarbital had side effects versus 26% receiving Diazepam. [p=0.00001]. Mean of fever in year was 3.2 +/- 1.4 in Phenobarbital group and 3.0 +/- 1.1 in which had no significant difference. Oral Diazepam, given only when fever is present, is safe and reduces the risk of recurrent febrile seizure


Subject(s)
Humans , Seizures, Febrile/drug therapy , Diazepam , Diazepam/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome , Phenobarbital , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Clinical Trials as Topic
5.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-44916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Refractory status epilepticus (RSE), defined as status epilepticus that fails to respond to first, second and third-line therapy. The RSE is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment guidelines of RSE give a spectrum of options, such as, continuous intravenous (i.v.) midazolam (MDL), or continuous i.v. propofol (PRO) as alternatives to phenobarbital (PB) or continuous i.v. pentobarbital (PTB). OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of very-high-dose phenobarbital (VHDPB) for treatment RSE. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study MATERIAL AND METHOD: The authors collected and analyzed data from adult patients who were diagnosed with RSE. RESULTS: The authors present 10 patients with RSE who were treated with VHDPB. All of them were generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE). Ages ranged from 16-86 years old (mean.: 43 years). PB dosage ranged 40-140 mg/kg/day (mean: 70 mg/kg/day). The duration of status epilepticus (SE) varied widely, ranged 1-44 days (mean: 7 days). PB level ranged 35.29-218.34 ug/mL (mean 88.1 ug/mL). RSE was controlled by VHDPB 70%, 30% were not controlled. ConclusioN: VHDPB were considered as alternative treatment for RSE.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Status Epilepticus/drug therapy , Treatment Failure
6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37829

ABSTRACT

Phenobarbital (PB), a rodent non-genotoxic carcinogen, showed hormesis, biphasic effects on rat liver carcinogenesis. To test the hypothesis that the hormesis earlier observed for PB induced hepatocarcinogenesis might also exist in the TGF-alpha transgenic mice model, one which is highly susceptible to carcinogenesis, the carcinogenic or promotion effects of a wide range of phenobarbital (PB) concentrations were investigated. Two weeks after a single i.p. dose of 5 mg /kg bw of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) to 15 day old mice, animals were treated with diet containing PB at doses of 0, 2, 15 or 500 ppm. The incidence and multiplicity of tumors, including hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas, were significantly increased by the high dose of PB, but no significant difference among the groups receiving 2 and 15 ppm for liver tumors when compared to DEN alone group. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen indices for liver tumors and surrounding hepatocytes in high dose PB treated mice were significantly increased, but no change was noted at the lower doses. The total cytochrome P450 content in the liver was also elevated by 500 ppm of PB, while hepatic 8-OHdG levels demonstrated no significant change. In conclusion, PB at high dose enhances DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in TGF-alpha transgenic mice, but low doses lack any significant effects. One possible mechanism of phenobarbital carcinogenicity might be influenced by cytochrome P450 system exhibiting a strong promoting activity for liver of mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Carcinogenicity Tests , Carcinogens/administration & dosage , Diethylnitrosamine/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Liver Neoplasms/chemically induced , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Transforming Growth Factor alpha/genetics
7.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 43(4): 435-441, 2006. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-461487

ABSTRACT

Com a finalidade de avaliar a variação na concentração sérica do fenobarbital durante um intervalo de 12 horas da sua administração, as concentrações séricas foram mensuradas a cada duas horas em 30 cães cronicamente medicados, durante no mínimo um mês. A determinação dos valores séricos de fenobarbital, por meio de Imunofluorescência polarizada. Os valores de meia-vida obtidos variaram de 13-131 horas, sendo que a maioria dos cães atingiram o estado de equilíbrio dinâmico por volta de 15 dias, e todos após quatro semanas, recomendando-se assim monitoração após quatro semanas do início da terapia ou após cada ajuste de dose. Houve diferença significante entre as médias das amostras coletadas duas e quatro horas (pico) com as das amostras coletadas imediatamente antes e oito, 10 e 12 horas após sua administração. Assim, para a monitoração, pode-se realizar a coleta sangüínea, imediatamente antes da administração do fenobarbital, ou em qualquer horário, entre oito a 12 horas após sua administração e nos casos suspeitos de intoxicação uma segunda amostra pode ser coletada dentro de duas a quatro horas após a sua administração.


In order to evaluate daily changes of concentration of phenobarbital during the interval of 12 hours of its administration, serum phenobarbital concentration were measured each two hours in 30 dogs submitted to the referred drug therapy for at least one month. All serum phenobarbital drug concentration were determined by use of a fluorecence polarization immunoassay. The values of half-lives obtained varied from 13 to 131 hours, most dogs reached steaty state serum concentrations by 15 days, and all dogs after four weeks. Therefore, clinicians should monitor serum phenobarbital concentrations four weeks after initiating treatment or after a change in dosage. There was significant difference among the averages of the samples two and four hours (peak) with the ones samples colected immediately before, and eight, 10 and 12 hours after its administration. In order to monitore serum phenobarbital concentrarions, its is suggest that blood collection is measured just before the dose or at any time between eight and 12 hours after its administration. If a concern arises regarding toxicity, a second sample should be colleted between two and four hours after phenobarbital administration.


Subject(s)
Dogs , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/prevention & control , Epilepsy/veterinary , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Phenobarbital/analysis , Phenobarbital/therapeutic use
8.
Indian J Cancer ; 2004 Apr-Jun; 41(2): 72-80
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-50489

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: DNA damage from micronutrient deficiencies has been suggested as one major cause of cancer. Therefore studies involving vitamin supplementation, particularly with those with anti-oxidant activity, in combating cancer have routinely been carried out in both in vivo and in vitro systems, but relatively much less in mice. AIMS: The present study examines if L-Ascorbic acid (AA; vitamin C) administration has any protective abilities in combating p-DAB induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice at cytogenetical, biochemical, histological and ultra-structural levels. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: To test if AA had a protective action against genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and tissue damage in liver during p-dimethylaminoazobenezene (p-DAB) induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice, a group of mice were chronically fed 0.06% p-DAB and 0.05% phenobarbital (PB) for a varying period of time (7, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days). A sub-group of the p-DAB plus PB fed mice were also fed 1% L-ascorbic acid. Several assays were periodically conducted (at the six intervals of fixation) for determination of genotoxic (based on chromosomal, nuclear and sperm head anomalies), cytotoxic (based on the marker enzymes aspartate transaminase; AST, alanine aminotransferase; ALT; acid phosphatase; ACP; alkaline phosphatase; ALKP; lipid peroxidation; LPO); and tissue damaging (based on optical and electron microscopic studies of liver at day 60 only) effects in these different groups of mice as compared to normal healthy control. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Adult healthy mice of Swiss Albino strain, reared and maintained in the animal house of the Department of Zoology, Kalyani University, under supervision of Animal Welfare Committee (which oversees ethical issues), served as materials for the present study. Widely practiced standard technique has been followed for each protocol. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The significance test between different series of data was conducted by student's t-test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results of all these studies indicated that AA had protective action against p-DAB induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , Antimutagenic Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Carcinogens , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , GABA Modulators/administration & dosage , Liver/drug effects , Liver Neoplasms/chemically induced , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Mutagenicity Tests , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Sperm Head/pathology , Time Factors , p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
9.
Indian Pediatr ; 2004 Apr; 41(4): 327-32
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-7034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of oral phenobarbitone in "at risk " term neonates (with high cord bilirubin) in decreasing hyperbilirubinemia. DESIGN: Double blind, placebo-control, randomized trial. SETTING: Tertiary level neonatal unit. OUTCOME: Primary-hyperbilirubinemia defined as total serum bilirubin (TSB) greater than 13 mg/dL. Secondary-TSB at 72 +/- 12 hr, need for phototherapy or exchange transfusion and side effects of phenobarbitone therapy. METHODS: All consecutively born term healthy neonates with cord bilirubin > or = 2.5 mg/dL were randomly assigned to receive either phenobarbitone (n = 37) or placebo (n = 38) after obtaining informed consent. Phenobarbitone was administered orally (5 mg/kg/day) for 3 days starting within 12 hours of birth. The neonates were followed up till seven days of life. TSB was estimated in neonates who developed jaundice with clinically assessed level of 8-10 mg/dL and at 72 +/-12 hours of age in 55 neonates. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics were similar in two groups. There was no significant reduction in incidence of hyperbilirubinemia in phenobarbitone group compared to in placebo group (6/37 (16.2%) versus 13/38 (34.3%); RR 0.47, 95% confidence interval: 0.20-1.11; risk difference: -18.1%, 95% confidence interval: -39.5 to 3.3%). However TSB at 72 +/-12 hours in phenobarbitone group (mean +/- S.D: 10.0 +/- 3.7 mg/dL) was significantly lesser than in placebo group (mean +/- S.D: 12.3 +/- 3.3 mg/dL) (difference of means: -2.3 mg/dL, 95% confidence interval: -3.9 to -0.7 mg/dl, P = 0.018). No significant difference with respect to need for treatment was observed in two groups. No significant adverse effects of phenobarbitone were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic phenobarbitone is not helpful in reducing the incidence of hyper-bilirubinemia in "at risk" term neonates.


Subject(s)
Double-Blind Method , Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists/administration & dosage , Humans , Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal/prevention & control , Infant, Newborn , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies
10.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 140(2): 147-153, mar.-abr. 2004. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-632036

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad del Fenobarbital (Fb), administrado en forma temprana y a dosis alta, en la prevención de la encefa-lopatía hipóxico-isquémica (EHI), secundaria a asfixia perinatal (APN). Material y métodos: mediante un ensayo clínico al azar, se asignaron a recién nacidos (RN) de término o postérmino con APN, a un grupo experimental (A) o al control (B); a los del primero se le administró Fb a 40 mg/Kg iniciado en la primera hora de edad, y a los del grupo B sólo en caso de crisis convul-sivas, a dosis habitual; el resto del tratamiento fue similar. Se evaluó la frecuencia de EHI, según la clasificación de Sarnat, así como otras complicaciones de la APN. Se midieron los signos vitales en uno y otro grupos y los niveles séricos de Fb en el grupo A. Se utilizaron las pruebas estadísticas de t o de U Mann-Whitney, X ² cuadrada o probabilidad exacta de Fisher. Se obtuvo consentimiento informado de los padres. Resultados: fueron 37 RN en el grupo A y 36 en el B, similares en proporción de sexos, edad gestacional y gasometría inicial, el peso fue mayor en el grupo A (p < 0.05). El diagnóstico de APN se hizo por pH < 7.00 y uno o dos de los criterios usados de asfixia, en la mayoría de los neonatos. Hubo diferencia respecto al momento de inicio y la cantidad total del Fb, entre los grupos. La EHI se presentó en 5/37 (13.5%) niños del grupo A y en 8/36 (22.2%) del B; las crisis convulsivas, o estadio II de EHI, se observaron en 4/37 (10.8%) y 4/36 (11.1%), respectivamente, sin diferencia en estas proporciones, ni en la frecuencia de otras complicaciones. La aplicación del Fb no originó efectos adversos en los signos vitales y todos los RN que lo recibieron tuvieron niveles séricos adecuados y sólo uno mostró niveles tóxicos. Discusión: no hubo diferencia significativa en la frecuencia global de EHI ni en la de convulsiones, o estadio II de EHI, entre los neonatos que recibieron Fb y a los que se no se les aplicó; por lo anterior, y aunque no hubo efectos colaterales, no se recomienda su empleo con este fin. Se plantea la necesidad del seguimiento de estos recién nacidos para valorar los efectos del Fb a largo plazo, ya que pudiera tener efecto favorable sobre el desarrollo psicomotor.


Objective: to assess usefulness of high-dose early phenobarbital therapy for prevention of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) secondary to perinatal asphyxia (PNA). Material and Methods: by means of a randomized clinical trial, asphyxiated full-term or post-term newborn infants were divided in two groups: Group A was the experimental group, while group B was the control group. Infants in group A received phenobarbital, 40 mg/kg, during the first 60 min after birth. Infants on group B received phenobarbital at conventional doses, only if there was clinical evidence of seizures; otherwise, treatment was similar in both groups. We estimated frequency of HIE according to Sarnat classification and also rate of post-asphyxial complications in other organs. Phenobarbital levels were measured in Group A. Statistical tests used were Student t, Mann-Whitney U, X ² , or Fisher. Informed consent was obtained from parents of each infant. Results: 37 infants belonged to Group A, while Group B was composed of 36 infants. Both groups were similar in sex, gestational age and cord gases. Birth weight was higher in Group A (p<0.05). Diagnostic criteria for PNA a cord pH <7.00 plus one or two criteria of commonly used parameters for asphyxia. There was a difference in total dose of phenobarbital and time of initial dose in both groups. HIE was present in 13.5% (5/37) of group A, and 22.2% (8/36) of group B. Seizures (Stage II of HIE) occurred in 10.8% (4/37) and 11.1% (4/36), respectively, without significant statistical difference. There was also no difference in rate of post-asphyxial, non-brain complications in both groups. There were no side effects or changes in vital signs associated with use of phenobarbital. Only one infant had toxic phenobarbital serum levels. Discussion: there was no significant difference in the overall frequency of HIE, nor in the incidence of seizures or stage II of HIE in both groups. According to these results and even though there were no side effects, we think Phenobarbital is not useful for these purposes. Long-term follow-up of the treated infants is justified, since Phenobarbital might have a beneficial effect on neuro-behavioral development.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Asphyxia Neonatorum/drug therapy , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/prevention & control , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Asphyxia Neonatorum/complications , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/etiology , Time Factors
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 61(4): 897-901, Dec. 2003. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-352421

ABSTRACT

Convulsions triggered by fever are the most common type of seizures in childhood, and 20 percent to 30 percent of them have recurrence. The prophylactic treatment is still controversial, so we performed a systematic review to find out the effectiveness of continuous phenobarbital and intermittent diazepam compared to placebo for febrile seizure recurrence. METHOD: Only randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were analyzed. The recurrence of febrile seizure was assessed for each drug. RESULTS: Ten eligible clinical trials were included. Febrile seizure recurrence was smaller in children treated with diazepam or phenobarbital than in placebo group. Prophylaxis with either phenobarbital or diazepam reduces recurrences of febrile seizures. The studies were clinical, methodological, and statistically heterogeneous. CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of phenobarbital and diazepam could not be demonstrated because clinical trials were heterogeneous, and the recommendation for treatment recurrence should rely upon the experience of the assistant physician yet


Subject(s)
Humans , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Diazepam/administration & dosage , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Seizures, Febrile/prevention & control , Follow-Up Studies , Odds Ratio , Placebos , Recurrence , Time Factors
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 34(3): 397-405, Mar. 2001. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-281622

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to determine if phenobarbital affects the nociception threshold. Systemic (1-20 mg/kg) phenobarbital administration dose dependently induced hyperalgesia in the tail-flick, hot-plate and formalin tests in rats and in the abdominal constriction test in mice. Formalin and abdominal constriction tests were the most sensitive procedures for the detection of hyperalgesia in response to phenobarbital compared with the tail-flick and hot-plate tests. The hyperalgesia induced by systemic phenobarbital was blocked by previous administration of 1 mg/kg ip picrotoxin or either 1-2 mg/kg sc or 10 ng icv bicuculline. Intracerebroventricular phenobarbital administration (5 æg) induced hyperalgesia in the tail-flick test. In contrast, intrathecal phenobarbital administration (5 æg) induced antinociception and blocked systemic-induced hyperalgesia in this test. We suggest that phenobarbital may mediate hyperalgesia through GABA-A receptors at supraspinal levels and antinociception through the same kind of receptors at spinal levels


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Mice , Hyperalgesia/physiopathology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Receptors, GABA-A/drug effects , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Bicuculline/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , GABA Antagonists/pharmacology , Hyperalgesia/chemically induced , Motor Activity/drug effects , Pain Measurement , Picrotoxin/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
14.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 36(4): 188-193, 1999. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-365168

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar os efeitos morfológicos do tratamento prolongado com fenobarbital, na consolidação de falha óssea diafisária, induzida no rádio esquerdo de rato. Ratos machos albinos da linhagem Wistar, com 40 dias de idade, foram divididos em dois grupos. O grupo experimental foi tratado com fenobarbital (Gardenal®) na dose de 105 mg/kg de peso corpóreo, por via subcutânea, no período de até 90 dias. O grupo controle foi tratado, de modo similar, com solução de NaCl 0,9 por cento. No 30° dia de tratamento, os animais foram submetidos a cirurgia para produção de falha óssea diafisária de 2 mm, no rádio esquerdo. Após 20, 40 e 60 dias de cirurgia, os ratos foram sacrificados por inalação de éter etílico, e o rádio esquerdo foi coletado, fixado e processado para rotina histológica de microscopia óptica com análises morfométricas. As falhas ósseas diafisárias dos ratos experimentais mostravam menor fração de volume de tecido ósseo neoformado, comparativamente com as falhas ósseas diafisárias dos ratos controle. Os resultados observados foram indicativos de que o tratamento prolongado com fenobarbital inibe a osteogênese em osso longo, retardando o processo de reparo de falha óssea diafisária em rato.


Subject(s)
Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology , Bone and Bones/abnormalities , Rats, Wistar , Radius/abnormalities
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 92(5): 677-81, Sept.-Oct. 1997. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-194215

ABSTRACT

Technetium-99 (99m Tc) is a radionuclide that has negligible enviromnental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT) with 99m Tc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with 99m Tc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling (per cent) was determined by paper ascending chromatography performed with acetone (solvent). The 99m Tc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after diferent periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr) when blood, spleen, liver, poral, vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. The radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the worms. We concluded that the worm shiff was due to an action on the lost of the sodium phenobarbital.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Radioisotopes/radiation effects , Mice/parasitology , Schistosoma mansoni/radiation effects
16.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 33(2): 85-90, mar.-abr. 1997. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-190996

ABSTRACT

Os jovens, ainda mais as crianças, são particularmente susceptíveis às crises epiléticas. Em uma estreita faixa etária, os mais diferentes tipos de crises e síndromes podem se apresentar, com diversidade clínica, etiológica e prognóstica. Esta revisão sumariamente aborda várias dessas questões: etiologia, tipos de crises nos diferentes períodos em seus aspectos clínicos, eletroencefalográficos e prognósticos, além dos terapêuticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Valproic Acid/administration & dosage , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Carbamazepine/administration & dosage , Carbamazepine/therapeutic use , Child , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/etiology , Phenytoin/administration & dosage , Phenytoin/therapeutic use , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Phenobarbital/therapeutic use , Primidone/administration & dosage , Primidone/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 33(2): 95-9, mar.-abr. 1997. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-190998

ABSTRACT

Esta revisão levanta questões sobre hormônios, epilepsia e gravidez. A relação entre crises generalizadas ou parciais e hormônios é considerada, e também, o vínculo entre hormônios sexuais e crises como as catameniais. A redução da libido pode estar relacionada às drogas antiepiléticas (DAE) e distúrbios hormonais. As DAE podem induzir malformações congênitas e redução da eficácia de contraceptivos orais. A orientação sobre o cuidado da mulher epilética em idade procriativa pela Liga International contra a Epilepsia é apresentada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Valproic Acid/adverse effects , Carbamazepine/adverse effects , Pregnancy Complications/chemically induced , Epilepsy/metabolism , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Hormones/physiology , Neuroendocrinology , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Phenobarbital/adverse effects , Pregnancy/physiology
18.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 1995 Apr; 39(2): 157-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-107399

ABSTRACT

Hyperphagia was induced in mice by p.o. administration of different types of CNS depressant drugs, like chlordiazepoxide 25 mg/kg diazepam 2.5 mg/kg, cyproheptadine 2 mg/kg and phenobarbitone 25 mg/kg. Such hyperphagia was abolished by pretreatment with naloxone 0.1 mg/kg sc. Naloxone per se at this dose produced no significant effect on the food intake. This is suggestive of the role of peptidergic mechanisms in the feeding behaviour in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Anxiety Agents/toxicity , Central Nervous System Depressants/administration & dosage , Chlordiazepoxide/administration & dosage , Cyproheptadine/administration & dosage , Diazepam/administration & dosage , Eating/drug effects , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , Female , Histamine Antagonists/toxicity , Hypnotics and Sedatives/toxicity , Male , Mice , Naloxone/administration & dosage , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , beta-Endorphin/physiology
19.
Arch. Inst. Nac. Neurol. Neurocir ; 10(1): 25-32, ene.-abr. 1995. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-173985

ABSTRACT

El presente estudio prospectivo, fue realizado en la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, con 50 niños con epilepsia(E), que fueron captados entre mayo de 1990 y 1991, aquí, se reporta lo observado hasta noviembre de 1993. El 88 por ciento de los pacientes recibieron monoterapia. Un 48 por ciento cursan con más 2 de años sin reaparición de las crisis. En la actualidad 8 pacientes (14 por ciento), se encuentran libres de medicamento, es decir de alta. La relación entre dosis en mg/k/d y el nivel sérico de los anticonvulsivos mostró variabilidad, indicando la necesidad de monitorizar los niveles séricos. Los escasos efectos secundarios fueron transitorios, y desaparecieron con la modificación de medidas higiénico-dietéticas. Los estudios de EEG muestran normalidad en 22 por ciento actualmente, y 42 por ciento presentan datos de anormalidad. Este trabajo mostró buenos resultados en el manejo establecido; y se aprecio la relevancia de la aplicación de este paquete de atención integral, destacando la insustituible participación de los medicamentos; atendiendo los aspectos psicosociales concomitantes, investigando la percepción concepción, creencias y expectativas de pacientes, familiares y sociedad, acerca de la E.; con el objetivo de incidir sobre ellos, y seguir las recomendaciones establecidas; ésto fue desicivo para pronóstico. Lo anterior resultados obtenidos, los consideramos originales, satisfactorios y prometedores, y es de tomar en consideración, que no hay trabajos de este tipo en el país


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Female , Valproic Acid/administration & dosage , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Carbamazepine/administration & dosage , Epilepsy/therapy , Phenytoin/administration & dosage , Neurology , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Seizures/etiology
20.
Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 1995; 9 (2): 131-6
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-38545

ABSTRACT

The study of toxicities which are caused by free radical inducing chemicals [e.g., carbon tetrachloride], helps to determine the mode of action of those important drugs which act by inhibiting free radicals. Evaluation of toxicities induced by carbon tetrachlonde and phenobarbitone administration was carried out in seventy healthy male rabbits. Each animal received CCL4 0.25-0.5 mL/kg body weight, intraperitoneally, twice weekly for eleven doses. During this period, the only water which was provided for drinking to these animals contained 0.25 g/L pentobarbitone. Examination of these animals revealed that carbon tetrachloride produced severe liver and kidney injuries which could be assessed by physical parameters, liver and kidney function tests, and microscopic examinations of the vital organs of these animals


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Male , Free Radicals/toxicity , Carbon Tetrachloride/toxicity , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Phenobarbital/toxicity
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