Los alimentos de origen animal como la carne de pollo, res, pescado y cerdo poseen una amplia demanda en todo el mundo debido, entre otros aspectos, a su valor nutricional, asociado al alto contenido proteico. No obstante, este tipo de proteínas son susceptibles de sufrir reacciones de oxidación, las cuales pueden mediar procesos de fragmentación, agregación, pérdida de solubilidad, funcionalidad y digestibilidad proteica; eventos implicados en la pérdida de su valor nutricional. En este sentido, las proteínas agregadas tienden a no ser digeridas en el tracto gastrointestinal y acumularse en el intestino (colon), donde la microbiota colónica las degrada a productos mutagénicos como fenol y p-cresol, lo que incrementa el riesgo de cáncer colorrectal. Por otra parte, los aminoácidos o péptidos oxidados liberados en la digestión podrían incorporarse en las vías de señalización celular intestinal y favorecer o exacerbar procesos intestinales crónicos como colon irritable o enfermedad de Crohn. Debido al gran interés de esta temática en los últimos años, el objetivo de esta revisión es realizar una descripción general del impacto de proteínas oxidadas de origen animal sobre la salud intestinal.
Animal foods such as chicken, beef, fish and pork are in wide demand throughout the world due, among other things, to their nutritional value, associated with their high protein content. However, this type of protein is susceptible to oxidation reactions, which can mediate processes of fragmentation, aggregation, loss of solubility, functionality, and protein digestibility, which are events involved in the loss of their nutritional value. In this sense, aggregated proteins tend not to be digested in the gastrointestinal tract and accumulate in the intestine (colon), where the colonic microbiota degrades them into mutagenic products such as phenol and p-cresol, which increases the risk of colorectal cancer. On the other hand, the oxidized amino acids or peptides released in digestion could be incorporated into intestinal cell signaling pathways and favor or exacerbate chronic intestinal processes such as irritable bowel syndrome or Crohn's disease. Due to the great interest in this topic in recent years, the objective of this review is to provide a general overview of the impact of oxidized proteins of animal origin on intestinal health.
Alimentos de origem animal como frango, carne bovina, peixe e carne suína são muito procurados em todo o mundo devido, entre outros fatores, ao seu valor nutricional, associado ao seu alto teor de proteínas. No entanto, esse tipo de proteína é suscetível a reações de oxidação, que podem mediar processos de fragmentação, agregação, perda de solubilidade, funcionalidade e digestibilidade da proteína; eventos envolvidos na perda de seu valor nutritivo. Nesse sentido, as proteínas agregadas tendem a não ser digeridas no trato gastrointestinal e se acumulam no intestino (cólon), onde a microbiota colônica as degrada em produtos mutagênicos como fenol e p - cresol, aumentando o risco de câncer colorretal. Por outro lado, os aminoácidos ou peptídeos oxidados liberados na digestão poderiam ser incorporados às vias de sinalização das células intestinais e favorecer ou exacerbar processos intestinais crônicos, como a síndrome do intestino irritável ou a doença de Crohn. Devido ao grande interesse neste tema nos últimos anos, o objetivo desta revisão é fornecer uma descrição geral do impacto das proteínas oxidadas de origem animal na saúde intestinal.
Subject(s)Humans , Animals , Food , Colorectal Neoplasms , Proteins , Colon , Phenol , Digestion , Foods of Animal Origin , Microbiota , Red Meat
SUMMARY: In surgical and anatomical training, use of cadaver remains the most ideal technique. Standard formaldehyde solution preserves cadaveric tissues for an extended period comparing to the unfixed tissues. However, it fails to retain the natural texture, color, and biomechanical features. Phenol based soft embalming methods were developed to maintain these properties, while simultaneously decreasing the biohazard risk. Soft embalming techniques have made the bodies more 'lifelike' and wellfitted for training. Though phenol fixation displays rewarding morphological maintenance, we have scanty evidences on the histological preservation. This mini review primarily discussed the latest reports regarding the effect of phenol-based fixation on the tissue histology. Published literatures revealed phenol-based fixation displayed comparable histological preservation to that ofgold standard paraformaldehyde-based solution. It was concluded that phenol-based solution is an excellent fixative used to preserve tissues for microscopic analysis.
RESUMEN: En el entrenamiento quirúrgico y anatómico, el uso de cadáveres sigue siendo la técnica más ideal. La solución estándar de formaldehído conserva los tejidos cadavéricos durante un período prolongado en comparación con los tejidos no fijados. Sin embargo, no conserva la textura, el color y las características biomecánicas naturales. Se desarrollaron métodos de embalsamamiento blando a base de fenol para mantener estas propiedades y, al mismo tiempo, disminuir el riesgo biológico. Las técnicas de embalsamamiento suaves han hecho que los cuerpos sean más "realistas" y estén mejor preparados para la enseñanza. A pesar que la fijación de fenol muestra un buen mantenimiento morfológico, existe evidencia escasa sobre la preservación histológica. Esta mini revisión se refirió principalmente a los últimos informes sobre el efecto de la fijación en base de fenol en la histología del tejido. La literatura publicada reveló que la fijación a base de fenol mostró una preservación histológica comparable a la de la solución a base de paraformaldehído. Se concluyó que la solución a base de fenol es un excelente fijador utilizado para preservar tejidos para análisis microscópico.
Subject(s)Humans , Histological Techniques/methods , Phenol/chemistry , Embalming/methods , Fixatives/chemistry , Cadaver , Microscopy
RESUMEN Las enfermedades gastrointestinales equinas tienen una alta incidencia con un pronóstico variable en la práctica clínica. La mayoría de los estudios se limitan a describir lesiones ulcerativas y lesiones inflamatorias. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el potencial diagnóstico complementario de la cromoendoscopia convencional en la mucosa gas-troesofágica y duodenal proximal del equino. El estudio incluyó 20 caballos criollos colombianos de ambos sexos (12 hembras y 8 machos), con edades entre 5 y 20 años, peso entre 250 y 350 kilogramos, condición corporal 4-5/9 y con historial de alteraciones digestivas en los últimos 3 meses; quienes previo a la evaluación por gastroscopia y cromoendoscopia se sometieron a ayuno (sólidos 12h y líquidos 4h) y sedación (xilacina 0,5 mg/kg/iv). Se utilizaron tinciones como rojo fenol, lugol, índigo carmín, azul de metileno y ácido acético y se tomaron biopsias de los segmentos que mostraron reacción. El azul de metileno reveló 52% de las lesiones, el lugol 19%; por su parte, el rojo fenol, el índigo carmín y el ácido acético revelaron el 9,5% restante. El epitelio escamoso fue el más afectado (66,6%), el glandular (19%), antro pilórico (9,5%) y duodeno proximal (4,7%). Los hallazgos histopatológicos fueron hiperplasia, hipertrofia, hiperqueratosis, congestión, degeneración vacuolar, infiltrados celulares, fibrosis, necrosis y atrofia en diferentes grados de severidad. La cromoendoscopia reveló lesiones prematuras, que pasaron desapercibidas con las técnicas convencionales de endoscopia del tracto digestivo. Este es el primer estudio que emplea la cromoendoscopia en equinos; a pesar de que la técnica mejoró la visualización y facilitó la ubicación y descripción de lesiones ulcerativas prematuras a través de la histopatología, se recomiendan mayores estudios controlados y con un número más amplio de muestras.
ABSTRACT Equine gastrointestinal diseases have a high occurrence with a variable prognostic in clinic practice. Most of the studies limits to describe ulcerative and inflammatory lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential complementary diagnostic of conventional chromoendoscopy on the gastroesophageal and proximal duodenal mucosa of the equine. 20 Colombian creole horses, of both sexes (12 females and 8 males), with ages between 5 and 20 years old, weight between 250 and 350 kilograms, body condition 4-5/9, that had presented digestive alterations in the last 3 months, were subjected to fasting (solids 12h and liquids 4h) and sedated (xylazine 0,5 mg/kg/iv) to be evaluated by gastroscopy and chromoendoscopy, using for stains phenol red, lugol, indigo carmine, methylene blue and acetic acid, taking biopsy samples of the segments that showed reaction. The methylene blue revealed 52%, lugol 19%, and phenol red, indigo carmine and acetic acid revealed only 9,5% of the lesions, being the squamous epithelium the most affected (66,6%), glandular epithelium (19%), pyloric antrum (9,5%) and proximal duodenum (4,7%), where histopathological findings were hyperplasia, hypertrophy, hyperkeratosis, congestion, vacuolar degeneration, cellular infiltrates, fibrosis, necrosis and atrophy in different degrees of severity. Chromoendoscopy revealed lesions premature, which go unnoticed with conventional light endoscopy techniques. This is the first study using chromoscopy in horses to show that the reagents used allow a better visualization of injuries than the conventional technique, helping histopathological studies and molecular biology to understand ulcerative premature injuries and possible pathophysiological pathways. However, larger controlled studies and a larger number of samples are needed.
Subject(s)Animals , Wounds and Injuries , Gastroscopy , Coloring Agents , Endoscopy , Horses , Atrophy , Vacuoles , Biopsy , Cells , Carmine , Fasting , Acetic Acid , Phenol , Duodenum , Epithelium , Age and Sex Distribution , Esophagogastric Junction , Hyperplasia , Hypertrophy , Methylene Blue , Mucous Membrane , Necrosis
BACKGROUND: Taraxacum species (commonly known as dandelion) used as herbal medicine have been reported to exhibit an antiproliferative effect on hepatoma cells and antitumor activity in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Although several investigations have demonstrated the safety of Taraxacum officinale, the safety of tissue-cultured plants of T. formosanum has not been assessed so far. Therefore, the present study examines the safety of the water extract of the entire plant of tissue cultured T. formosanum based on acute and subacute toxicity tests in rats, as well as the Ames tests. RESULTS: No death or toxicity symptoms were observed in the acute and subacute tests. The results of the acute test revealed that the LD50 (50% of lethal dose) value of the T. formosanum water extract for rats exceeded 5â¯g/kg bw. No abnormal changes in the body weight, weekly food consumption, organ weight, or hematological, biochemical, and morphological parameters were observed in the subacute toxicity test. Thus, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of T. formosanum water extract was estimated to be higher than 2.0â¯g/kg. Finally, the results of the Ames test revealed that T. formosanum water extract was not genotoxic at any tested concentration to any of five Salmonella strains. CONCLUSIONS: The water extract of tissue-cultured T. formosanum was non-toxic to rats in acute and subacute tests and exhibited no genotoxicity to five Salmonella strains.
Subject(s)Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Taraxacum/toxicity , Tissue Culture Techniques/methods , Safety , Flavonoids/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Urinalysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Phenol/analysis , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Herbal Medicine , Taraxacum/chemistry , Serum , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Toxicity Tests, Subacute , Mutagenicity Tests
Objetivo: avaliar o efeito biomodificador dos agentes de ligações cruzadas nas propriedades mecânicas do colágeno dentinário. Material e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo laboratorial in vitro, nos quais foram confeccionadas 18 barras de dentina a partir de terceiros molares humanos extraídos e livres de cárie. Os espécimes foram desmineralizados em ácido fosfórico a 10%, por 5 horas, distribuídos aleatoriamente nos grupos distintos e mantidos em suas respectivas soluções de pré-tratamento: água destilada (AD), Proantocianidina a 6,5% (PAC6,5) e Cardanol a 6,5% (CAR6,5) por períodos de 1 hora. Foram realizados os testes de flexão de três pontos para obtenção do módulo de elasticidade (ME) e modificação de massa (MM). Foram submetidos ao teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnoff seguido, do teste de ANOVA à um critério e pós teste de Tukey para a MM, e Dunns para diferença de ME (p<0,05). Resultados: Os valores obtidos no ME mostraram mudanças estatísticas notáveis em todos os grupos testados, quando comparados ao controle negativo (p<0,001), assim como na variação de massa foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas nos valores médios entre os grupos testados (p=0,012). Conclusão: o uso da PAC6,5 irá melhorar as propriedades mecânicas do colágeno
Objective: to evaluate the biomodifying effect of cross-linking agents on the mechanical properties of the teeth. Material and Methods: this is an in vitro laboratory study, in which 18 bars of dentin were made from extracted, caries-free human third molars. The samples were demineralized in 10% phosphoric acid for 5 hours, randomly distributed in different groups and kept in their pre-treatment solutions: distilled water (AD), Proanthocyanidin at 6.5% (PAC6.5) and Cardanol at 6.5% (CAR6.5) for periods of 1 hour. Three-point bending tests were performed to obtain the modulus of elasticity (ME) and mass modification (MM). They were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test followed by the Kruskal-Wallis' test and the Tukey's post-test for mass modification, and Kruskal-Wallis' test after a Dunn's test for difference in the modulus of elasticity(p <0.05). Results: the values selected in the ME show possible statistical changes in all groups tested, when compared to the negative control (p<0.001), as well as the mass variation. Data were shown in the average values between the groups tested (p = 0.012). Conclusion: The use of PAC6.5 will improve the mechanical properties of the collection
Subject(s)Collagen , Collagen/chemistry , Proanthocyanidins , Distilled Water , Phenol
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Knowledge of triatomine bloodmeal sources is essential for understanding vector-host interactions in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles. Expensive commercial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction kits are widely used for bloodmeal identification. This study assessed the performance of an inexpensive phenol-chloroform DNA extraction protocol for identification of triatomine bloodmeal sources, comparing it with a commercially available kit. METHODS: Both methods were used to obtain DNA from the intestinal contents of Triatoma brasiliensis blood-fed on either Columba sp., Mus musculus, or Gallus gallus. Subsequently, the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and compared with GenBank data. RESULTS: Twelve (80%) samples extracted with the commercial kit and four (26.7%) with phenol-chloroform were pure (according to the A260/A280 ratio). Samples extracted with phenol-chloroform, except for Columba sp. samples, had higher DNA concentration than those extracted with the commercial kit. Samples extracted using phenol-chloroform and blood-fed on G. gallus had significantly higher DNA concentration than those blood-fed on Columba sp. (p-value <0.001) and M. musculus (p-value <0.001). The 215-base-pair 12S rRNA fragment was amplified from all samples and produced reliable sequences, enabling the identification of the bloodmeal source, most of which showed identity and coverage above 95%. The phenol-chloroform method was much less expensive than the commercial kit but took considerably more time to perform. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that both DNA extraction methods produced reliable sequences enabling identification of triatomine bloodmeal sources but differed greatly in cost and time required.
Subject(s)Animals , Triatoma/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , DNA/genetics , Chloroform , Phenol , Mice
Objective@#To verify the health advisory for short-term exposure to phenol.@*Methods@#The method of this validation experiment was the same as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for toxicology experiments used to determine phenol drinking water equivalent level (DWEL). Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered phenol in distilled water by gavage at daily doses of 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) from implantation (the 6th day post-mating) to the day prior to the scheduled caesarean section (the 20th day of pregnancy). The following information was recorded: general behavior; body weight; number of corpus luteum, live birth, fetus, stillbirth, and implantation; fetal gender; body weight; body length; tail length; and abnormalities and pathomorphological changes in the dams.@*Results@#In the 60 mg/kg b.w. dose group, the mortality of pregnant rats increased with increasing doses, suggesting maternal toxicity. Fetal and placental weights decreased as phenol dose increased from 30 mg/kg b.w., and were significantly different compared those in the vehicle control group, which suggested developmental toxicity in the fetuses. However, the phenol-exposed groups showed no significant change in other parameters compared with the vehicle control group ( > 0.05).@*Conclusion@#Despite using the same method as the US EPA, a different NOEAL of 15 mg/(kg·d) was obtained in this study.
Subject(s)Animals , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Environmental Pollutants , Toxicity , Female , Fetal Development , Phenol , Toxicity , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Toxicity Tests, Acute
Neuroinflammation is an important process underlying a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Carvacrol (CAR) is a phenolic monoterpene commonly used as a food additive due to its antibacterial properties, but it has also been shown to exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of CAR on inflammation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In our study, lipopolysaccharide was injected into the lateral ventricle of rats to induce memory impairment and neuroinflammation. Daily administration of CAR (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) for 21 days improved recognition, discrimination, and memory impairments relative to untreated controls. CAR administration significantly attenuated expression of several inflammatory factors in the brain, including interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, CAR significantly increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, and decreased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA. Taken together, these results show that CAR can improve memory impairment caused by neuroinflammation. This cognitive enhancement is due to the anti-inflammatory effects of CAR medicated by its regulation of BDNF and TLR4. Thus, CAR has significant potential as an inhibitor of memory degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases.
Subject(s)Animals , Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cytokines , Discrimination, Psychological , Food Additives , Hippocampus , Inflammation , Lateral Ventricles , Lipopolysaccharides , Memory , Necrosis , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroprotective Agents , Phenol , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Toll-Like Receptor 4
Abstract Background: Computerized tomography-guided celiac plexus neurolysis has become almost a safe technique to alleviate abdominal malignancy pain. We compared the single needle technique with changing patients' position and the double needle technique using posterior anterocrural approach. Methods: In Double Needles Celiac Neurolysis Group (n = 17), we used two needles posterior anterocrural technique injecting 12.5 mL phenol 10% on each side in prone position. In Single Needle Celiac Neurolysis Group (n = 17), we used single needle posterior anterocrural approach. 25 mL of phenol 10% was injected from left side while patients were in left lateral position then turned to right side. The monitoring parameters were failure block rate and duration of patient positioning, technique time, Visual Analog Scale, complications (hypotension, diarrhea, vomiting, hemorrhage, neurological damage and infection) and rescue analgesia. Results: The failure block rate and duration of patient positioning significantly increased in double needles celiac neurolysis vs. single needle celiac neurolysis (30.8% vs. 0%; 13.8 ± 1.2 vs. 8.9 ± 1; p = 0.046, p ≤ 0.001 respectively). Also, the technique time increased significantly in double needles celiac neurolysis than single needle celiac neurolysis (24.5 ± 5.1 vs. 15.4 ± 1.8; p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences existed as regards Visual Analog Scale: double needles celiac neurolysis = 2 (0-5), 2 (0-4), 3 (0-6), 3 (2-6) and single needle celiac neurolysis = 3 (0-5), 2 (0-5), 2 (0-4), 4 (2-6) after 1 day, 1 week, 1 and 3 months respectively. However, Visual Analog Scale in each group reduced significantly compared with basal values (p ≤ 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences as regards rescue analgesia and complications (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Single needle celiac neurolysis with changing patients' position has less failure block rate, less procedure time, shorter duration of patient positioning than double needles celiac neurolysis in abdominal malignancy.
Resumo Introdução: A neurólise do plexo celíaco guiada por tomografia computadorizada tornou-se uma técnica quase segura para aliviar a dor abdominal maligna. Comparamos a técnica de agulha única mudando o posicionamento do paciente e a técnica de agulha dupla usando a abordagem anterocrural posterior. Métodos: No grupo designado para neurólise celíaca com agulha dupla (n = 17), a técnica de abordagem anterocrural posterior foi utilizada com duas agulhas para injetar 12,5 mL de fenol a 10% de cada lado em decúbito ventral. No grupo designado para neurólise celíaca com agulha única (n = 17), a abordagem anterocrural posterior foi utilizada com uma única agulha para injetar 25 mL de fenol a 10% do lado esquerdo com o paciente em decúbito lateral esquerdo e posteriormente virado para o lado direito. Os parâmetros de monitorização foram a taxa de falha dos bloqueios e a duração do posicionamento dos pacientes, o tempo da técnica, os escores da escala visual analógica, as complicações (hipotensão, diarreia, vômitos, hemorragia, dano neurológico e infecção) e a analgesia de resgate. Resultados: A taxa de falha dos bloqueios e a duração do posicionamento dos pacientes aumentaram significativamente na neurólise celíaca com o uso de agulha dupla vs. agulha única (30,8% vs. 0%,13,8 ± 1,2 vs. 8,9 ± 1; p = 0,046, p ≤ 0,001, respectivamente). Além disso, o tempo da técnica foi significativamente maior na neurólise celíaca com agulha dupla que na neurólise celíaca com agulha única (24,5 ± 5,1 vs. 15,4 ± 1,8; p ≤ 0,001). Não houve diferença significativa em relação aos escores da escala visual analógica: neurólise celíaca com agulha dupla = 2 (0-5), 2 (0-4), 3 (0-6), 3 (2-6) e neurolise celíaca com agulha única = 3 (0-5), 2 (0-5), 2 (0-4), 4 (2-6) após um dia,uma semana, um e três meses, respectivamente. No entanto, os escores da escala visual analógica para cada grupo foram significativamente menores comparados aos valores basais (p ≤ 0,001). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa quanto à analgesia de resgate e complicações (p > 0,05). Conclusão: A neurólise celíaca com o uso de agulha única e a alteração do posicionamento do paciente apresenta uma taxa menor de falha do bloqueio, menos tempo de procedimento e menor duração do posicionamento do paciente que o uso de duas agulhas para neurólise celíaca em malignidade abdominal.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Abdominal Pain/therapy , Cancer Pain/therapy , Abdominal Neoplasms/complications , Nerve Block/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Celiac Plexus/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Phenol/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Needles
A acne é uma condição comum que muitas vezes resulta em cicatrizes. Propomos um novo tratamento para as cicatrizes da acne usando: 1- reconstrução química de cicatrizes (CROSS), principalmente com fenol, 2- subcisão com cânula em dois níveis, e 3- microagulhamento. Um total de 139 pacientes foram tratados em 2017 e 2018, dos quais 89 (64%) eram de Fototipos de Fitzpatrick IV-VI. Esta abordagem tripla para o tratamento de cicatrizes de acne resultou em consistente alta satisfação dos pacientes e evidência fotográfica de melhoria. A combinação de CROSS (para estimular a neocolagênese), subcisão (para liberar as traves do tecido conjuntivo dérmico) e microagulhamento (também para estimular a neocolagênese) é eficaz para tratar as cicatrizes da acne.
Acne is a common condition that often results in scarring. We propose a novel treatment of acne scarring using: 1- chemical reconstruction of skin scars (CROSS), mainly with carbolic acid, 2- blunt bi-level cannula subcision, and 3- microneedling. A total of 139 patients were treated from 2017- 2018, of which 89 (64%) were Fitzpatrick Skin Types IV-VI. This triple approach to treating acne scars resulted in consistent high satisfaction from patients and photographic evidence of improvement. A combination of CROSS (to stimulate neocollagenesis), subcision (to release dermal connective tissue tethering), and microneedling (to stimulate neocollagenesis) is effective for acne scar treatment.
Subject(s)Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases , Cicatrix , Acne Vulgaris , Phenol , Cannula
A síndrome piramidal ocorre nas lesões do sistema nervoso central que afetam as vias corticoespinhais e são definidas pela tríade de fraqueza muscular, aumento dos reflexos miotáticos e espasticidade, que é definida pelo aumento involuntário da resistência ao movimento passivo cuja intensidade varia com a velocidade do movimento. Quando a espasticidade interfere na funcionalidade do paciente, dificultando o movimento ativo, causando dor ou dificultando a prestação de cuidados por terceiros, há necessidade de iniciar seu tratamento. Para o tratamento da espasticidade generalizada ou de grandes porções do corpo, a intervenção medicamentosa ocorre por via oral ou intratecal, conforme os recursos disponíveis, mas efeitos colaterais de intensidade variável e indesejáveis podem ocorrer, especialmente o comprometimento da atenção ou da consciência, que prejudicam o processo de reabilitação. O tratamento focal da espasticidade utiliza a toxina botulínica ou os bloqueios nervosos com fenol ou álcool. Este artigo revisa a literatura sobre as técnicas mais adequadas para realizar a neurólise com fenol. Os bloqueios neuromusculares com fenol são um tratamento efetivo, de ação imediata, baixo custo, duração prolongada e de poucos efeitos adversos quando são respeitados os cuidados regulares de aplicação.
The pyramidal syndrome occurs in central nervous system injuries that affect the corticospinal pathways and are defined by the triad of muscular weakness, increased myotatic reflexes and spasticity, which is defined by the involuntary increase in resistance to passive movement that varies in intensity according to the velocity of joint movement. When spasticity interferes with the patient's functioning, making it difficult to actively move, causing pain, or making it difficult to receive care from others, treatment must be stated. For the treatment of generalized spasticity or for large portions of the body, drug intervention may be used either orally or intrathecally, depending on available resources, but undesirable and variable intensity side effects may occur, especially impairment of attention or awareness, which further delays the rehabilitation process. Focal treatment of spasticity utilizes botulinum toxin or nerve blocks with phenol or alcohol. This article reviews the literature on the most suitable techniques for performing phenol neurolysis. Neuromuscular blockade with phenol is an effective treatment, with immediate action, low cost, prolonged duration and few adverse effects when the regular care of application is respected.
Subject(s)Humans , Phenol/therapeutic use , Muscle Spasticity , Nerve Block
PURPOSE: Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is an important traditional medicinal herb. Pharmacological research has indicated that AM has various physiological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anticancer, hypolipidemic, antihyperglycemic, and hepatoprotective activities. The bioactive substances responsible for the physiological activities in AM, including many antioxidant substances, change during the roasting process. This study investigated and compared the changes in the antioxidant constituents of AM caused by roasting. METHODS: DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) and ABTS⁺ (2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) radical scavenging activities and their total phenolic content (TPC) were measured. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was performed to confirm any changes in the isoflavonoids of roasted AM (R-AM),. The cell viability of UVB-induced HDF (Human dermal fibroblast) cells treated with AM and R-AM extracts was investigated. The comet assay was used to examine the inhibitory effects of R-AM extracts on DNA damage caused by oxidative stress. RESULTS: The DPPH and ABTS⁺ radical scavenging activities were 564.6±20.9 and 108.2±3.1 (IC₅₀ value) respectively, from the 2R-AM. The total phenol content was 47.80±1.40 mg GAE/g from the 1R-AM. The values of calycosin and formononetin, which are the known isoflavonoid constituents of AM, were 778.58±2.72 and 726.80±3.45 µg/g respectively, from the 2R-AM. Treatment of the HDF cells with R-AM (50 ~ 200 µg/mL) did not affect the cell viability. Furthermore, the R-AM extracts effectively protected against UVB-induced DNA damage. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that R-AM increases its isoflavonoid constituents and protects against UVB-induced DNA damage in HDF cells.
Subject(s)Astragalus propinquus , Cell Survival , Chromatography, Liquid , Comet Assay , DNA Damage , Oxidative Stress , Phenol , Plants, Medicinal
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical properties of different batches of Saururus chinensis using different roasting temperature that were dried at different using different roasting temperatures and their were determined the antioxidative activities of water and 70% ethanol extracts. METHODS: Extracts were examined for the total phenolic acid content, the and flavonoids contents and the antioxidant properties, including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTs scavenging activity and, the reducing power. RESULTS: Moisture content was significantly higher in the LSC and the crude ash content was significantly higher in the HSC. The crude protein content was higher in the LSC (although not significantly), and the crude fat and carbohydrate contents were higher in the HSC (although not significantly). The total phenolic content was lower in the samples extracted with water, but there was no significant difference. However, the extracts extracted with 70% ethanol at a high drying temperature were significantly higher. The low temperature and high drying temperature batches of Saururus chinensis were significantly higher in the samples extracted with 70% ethanol than those extracted with 70% ethanol. The total phenolic acid content, the total flavonoid content and the electron donating ability were highest in the ethanol extract of Saururuschinensis treated at a high temperature. However, the ABTs radical activity was highest in the water extracted, high-temperature treated Saururuschinensis. The 70% ethanol extract of high temperature roasted Saururuschinensis had the highest antioxidative activities of all the Saururuschinensis batches. CONCLUSION: The total phenolic acid contents, total flavonoid contents, electron donating activity and reducing power activity were highest in all the 70% ethanol extraction batches of the high-temperature treated samples.
Subject(s)Ethanol , Flavonoids , Phenol , Saururaceae , Water
PURPOSE: Aster glehnii (AG) and Aster yomena (AY) are medicinal plants that belong to the family Compositea and grow widely in Korea. Plants in the genus Aster have been used to treat snakebite wounds or bruises in oriental medicine. This study compared the effects of anti-oxidants and anti-adipocyte differentiation according to the species (the aerial parts of AG and AY). METHODS: AG and AY were extracted using 70% ethanol (−E) and water (−W) at room temperature. The anti-oxidant activities were measured by total phenol contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), DPPH and ABTS+ assay. In addition, correlation analysis was performed for the anti-oxidant compounds and effect. The level of anti-adipocyte differentiation was assessed using an oil red O assay on pre-adipocytes. RESULTS: AG-W showed higher TPC (6.92 µg/mL) and AG-E presented higher TFC (8.22 µg/mL) than the other extracts. Furthermore, AG-E exhibited higher radical scavenging activity in the DPPH and ABTS+ assay (IC50: 104.88 and 30.06 µg/mL). In the cytotoxicity assay, AG and AY extracts at concentrations less than 100µg/mL were non toxic. AG-W reduced the lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells significantly after differentiation (70.49%) compared to the other extracts. CONCLUSION: These results show that the water extract of AG has anti-oxidant effects and reduces the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Therefore, AG has utility as a functional food material for its anti-oxidant activities and ability to prevent lipid accumulation.
Subject(s)3T3-L1 Cells , Adipocytes , Antioxidants , Contusions , Ethanol , Functional Food , Humans , Korea , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Phenol , Plants, Medicinal , Snake Bites , Water , Wounds and Injuries
Purpurogallin, a natural phenol obtained from oak nutgalls, has been shown to possess antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. Recently, in addition to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation that induces cell apoptosis via oxidative stress, particulate matter 2.5 (PM(2.5)) was shown to trigger excessive production of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we observed that UVB radiation and PM(2.5) severely damaged human HaCaT keratinocytes, disrupting cellular DNA, lipids, and proteins and causing mitochondrial depolarization. Purpurogallin protected HaCaT cells from apoptosis induced by UVB radiation and/or PM(2.5). Furthermore, purpurogallin effectively modulates the pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins under UVB irradiation via caspase signaling pathways. Additionally, purpurogallin reduced apoptosis via MAPK signaling pathways, as demonstrated using MAPK-p38, ERK, and JNK inhibitors. These results indicate that purpurogallin possesses antioxidant effects and protects cells from damage and apoptosis induced by UVB radiation and PM(2.5).
Subject(s)Antioxidants , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Apoptosis , DNA , Humans , Keratinocytes , Oxidative Stress , Particulate Matter , Phenol , Reactive Oxygen Species
BACKGROUND: We aimed to find the exposure level of environmental harmful substances related to the secondhand smoke (SHS) using a nationally representative data of the general population in Korea. METHODS: Total 3,533 people were included in this study. We compared the proportion exceeding 95 percentile of the concentrations of harmful substances by sex according to SHS exposure. 16 kinds of substances related to tobacco smoke were analyzed including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, and environmental phenol. For 16 kinds of substances, the odds ratios (ORs) for exceeding 95 percentile of each harmful substance were calculated by multiple logistic regression according to SHS exposure. Age, education level, marital status, body mass index, drinking, and exercise were adjusted as covariates. Cotinine level was additionally adjusted to increase reliability of our results. RESULTS: SHS was associated with high exposure of mercury, methylhippuric acid, fluorene, and cotinine. In women, SHS was associated with mercury, methylhippuric acid, fluorene, and cotinine, while in men, it was associated with cotinine. After adjusting covariates, ORs of blood mercury, methylhippuric acid and hydroxyfluorene in the exposed gruop were greater than that in the non-exposed group. Especially in female, methylhippuric acid and hydroxyfluorene showed consistent result. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding demonstrates that SHS is related to several harmful substances. Therefore, to reduce the health effects of SHS, it is necessary to educate and publicize the risk of SHS. Future studies are necessary to more accurately analyze factors such as exposure frequency, time, and pathway of SHS.
Subject(s)Adult , Body Mass Index , Cotinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drinking , Education , Environmental Health , Female , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Marital Status , Metals, Heavy , Odds Ratio , Phenol , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Smoke , Tobacco , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Volatile Organic Compounds
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vascular inflammation is an important feature in the atherosclerotic process. Recent studies report that leaves and branches of Carpinus turczaninowii (C. turczaninowii) have antioxidant capacity and exert anti-inflammatory effects. However, no study has reported the regulatory effect of C. turczaninowii extract on the arterial inflammatory response. This study therefore investigated modulation of the arterial inflammatory response after exposure to C. turczaninowii extract, using human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs). MATERIALS/METHODS: Scavenging activity of free radicals, total phenolic content (TPC), cell viability, mRNA expressions, and secreted levels of cytokines were measured in LPS-stimulated (10 ng/mL) HAoSMCs treated with the C. turczaninowii extract. RESULTS: C. turczaninowii extract contains high amounts of TPC (225.6 ± 21.0 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of the extract), as well as exerts time-and dose-dependent increases in strongly scavenged free radicals (average 14.8 ± 1.97 µg/mL IC50 at 40 min). Cell viabilities after exposure to the extracts (1 and 10 µg/mL) were similar to the viability of non-treated cells. Cytokine mRNA expressions were significantly suppressed by the extracts (1 and 10 µg/mL) at 6 hours (h) after exposure. Interleukin-6 secretion was dose-dependently suppressed 2 h after incubation with the extract, at 1–10 µg/mL in non-stimulated cells, and at 5 and 10 µg/mL in LPS-stimulated cells. Similar patterns were also observed at 24 h after incubation with the extract (at 1–10 µg/mL in non-stimulated cells, and at 10 µg/mL in the LPS-stimulated cells). Soluble intracellular vascular adhesion molecules (sICAM-1) secreted from non-stimulated cells and LPS-stimulated cells were similarly suppressed in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h exposure to the extracts, but not after 2 h. In addition, sICAM-1 concentration after 24 h treatment was positively related to IL-6 levels after 2 h and 24 h exposure (r = 0.418, P = 0.003, and r = 0.524, P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that C. turczaninowii modulates the arterial inflammatory response, and indicates the potential to be applied as a therapeutic use for atherosclerosis.
Subject(s)Antioxidants , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Betulaceae , Cell Survival , Cytokines , Free Radicals , Gallic Acid , Humans , Inflammation , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Interleukin-6 , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Phenol , RNA, Messenger
RESUMO As distrofias ungueais são frequentes e acometem principalmente pacientes idosos. Os tratamentos clínicos são geralmente insuficientes e apresentam recidivas, sendo por vezes necessário abordagens cirúrgicas. Objetivos: Utilizar a técnica de matricectomia total com fenol a 88% para destruição permanente das unhas e avaliar sua eficácia. Métodos: Foi realizado a matricectomia total com aplicação da solução de fenol 88% em 20 pacientes, e avaliado o grau de melhora relatado pelo paciente, 12 meses após o procedimento cirúrgico. Além disso, foi avaliado a dor, a satisfação dos pacientes com a aparência estética final e a interferência para o uso de sapatos fechados e atividades diárias, bem como as complicações e recidivas do procedimento. Resultados: Antes da cirurgia, 60% dos pacientes relataram dor e 12 meses após a cirurgia, apenas uma paciente apresentou dor e em menor intensidade. A grande maioria dos pacientes ficou satisfeita com os resultados estéticos, sendo que apenas um paciente apresentou muita interferência na aparência estética após o procedimento. A interferência no uso de sapatos fechados reduziu de 89% para 21%. Igualmente, 79% dos participantes experimentavam algum grau de interferência da onicodistrofia para realizar as atividades diárias antes da cirurgia, e após a mesma, só 5%. Três pacientes apresentaram recidivas e nenhum paciente relatou complicações. Conclusão: A matricectomia química total com fenol a 88% é uma técnica segura, barata e possui alto índice de satisfação do paciente. Palavras-chaves: distrofia ungueal, matricectomia total, fenol 88%.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Phenol , Nail Diseases
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress is a major effector of various diseases; accordingly, antioxidants are frequently ingested in order to prevent or alleviate disease symptoms. Kimchi contains various natural antioxidants, and it is known that the functional activity varies depending on the ingredients and fermentation state. Black raspberries (BR) contain various bioactive compounds with antioxidant effects. This study investigated the antioxidant and liver-protection effects of kimchi supplemented with black raspberry juice powder (BJP). MATERIALS/METHODS: BJP-added kimchi (BAK; at 0.5%, 1%, and 2% concentrations of BJP) and control (without BJP) were prepared and fermented at 4℃ for 4 weeks. Changes in the antioxidant effects of BAK during fermentation were investigated. In addition, the protective activity of BAK against oxidative stress was investigated in a liver cirrhosis-induced animal model in vivo. RESULTS: BAK groups showed the acidity and pH of optimally ripened (OR) kimchi at 2 weeks of fermentation along with the highest lactic acid bacterial counts. Additionally, BAK groups displayed a higher content of phenolic compounds and elevated antioxidant activities relative to the control, with the highest antioxidant effect observed at 2 weeks of fermentation of OR 1% BAK. After feeding the OR 1% BAK to thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis rats, we observed decreased glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities and elevated superoxide dismutase activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings showed that the antioxidant effects of OR BAK and feeding of OR 1% BAK resulted in liver-protective effects against oxidative stress.