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Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1786-1796, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134512


SUMMARY: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical widely used to make polycarbonate plastics for packaging and epoxy resins. This study sought to examine how selenium (Se) affects BPA toxicity in terms of albino rats' histological structure, antioxidant enzymes and reproductive organs (seminiferous tubules). Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: Group 1: Control; Group 2: Orally administered BPA; Group 3: Orally administered sodium selenite; Group 4: Treated daily with BPA followed by selenium (Se). All experiment done for 4 weeks. BPA exposure caused changes in the testicular histological structure, which consists apoptosis, and led to changes in several biochemical markers: Malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. However, these BPA side effects may be ameliorated in rats treated with BPA-plus-Se. These protective effects of Se may attributable to its ability to remove potentially damaging oxidizing agents in living organisms. The results may confirm that Se countered the oxidant effects and increased the BPA-induced stress response in rats. So, Se promotes the healthy growth and development of mammals by protecting them from oxidative stress. As human are greatly exposed to BPA and it can accumulate in tissues, there is concern about human reproductive functions particularly for occupational workers exposed usually to greater levels of BPA. Thus, the use of BPA in multiple industries must be restricted and the inaccurate usage of plastic containers should be avoided to decrease the health hazards. Administration of Se may protect against the adverse effects of BPA on reproductive functions and structures.

RESUMEN: El bisfenol A (BPA) es un químico industrial ampliamente utilizado para fabricar plásticos de policarbonato para envases y resinas epoxi. Este estudio examinó el efecto de selenio (Se) en la toxicidad del BPA en términos de la estructura histológica, enzimas antioxidantes y los órganos reproductivos (túbulos seminíferos) de ratas albinas. Se dividieron veinticuatro ratas macho adultas en cuatro grupos experimentales: Grupo 1: control; Grupo 2: BPA administrado por vía oral; Grupo 3: BPA administrado por vía oral para; Grupo 4: tratado diariamente con BPA seguido de selenio (Se). El experimento se realizó durante cuatro semanas y se observó que la exposición al BPA provocó cambios en la estructura histológica testicular, incluyendo apoptosis, y alteraciones en varios marcadores bioquímicos:malondialdehído, catalasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión peroxidasa. Sin embargo, estos efectos secundarios del BPA pueden mejorar en ratas tratadas con BPA-plus-Se. Estos efectos protectores del Se pueden ser atribuidos a la capacidad de eliminar agentes oxidantes potencialmente dañinos en organismos vivos. Los resultados indicaron que se contrarrestaron los efectos oxidantes y aumentó la respuesta al estrés inducido por BPA en ratas, y favorece el crecimiento y desarrollo en los mamíferos al protegerlos del estrés oxidativo. Debido a la exposición al BPA en el ser humano, se puede acumular en los tejidos, por lo que existe una preocupación por el daño a las funciones reproductivas en particular de los trabajadores que generalmente están expuestos a niveles más altos de BPA. Por lo tanto, se debe restringir el uso de BPA en las industrias y evitar el uso incorrecto de envases de plástico para así disminuir los riesgos para la salud. La administración correcta de Se puede proteger contra los efectos adversos del BPA en las funciones y estructuras reproductivas.

Animals , Male , Rats , Phenols/toxicity , Selenium/pharmacology , Testis/drug effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Testis/pathology , Benzhydryl Compounds/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers , Catalase/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(6): 555-568, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284299


Despite the development of modern medicine, alternative medicine, which has not lost its timeliness, remains attractive for the treatment of various diseases. Glabridin, a major flavonoid of Glycyrrhiza glabra, is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was: 1) to determine the possible protective role of glabridin against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the intestine; 2) to evaluate the in vitrocontractile responses of ileum smooth muscles to acetylcholine after an intestinal I/R; and 3) to explain the underlying molecular mechanism of its effect. Rats were assigned to groups of six rats each; 1) I/R, 2) gla10, 3) gla20, 4) gla40, 5) N5-[imino(nitroamino)methyl]-L-ornithine, methyl ester monohydrochloride (L-NAME)+gla40, and 6) Sham group. The healing effect of glabridin was abolished by L-NAME. Glabridin did not cause contractility of the smooth muscles to acetylcholine-induced contractile responses in intestinal I/R. Yet, it increased to spontaneous basal activity.

A pesar del desarrollo de la medicina moderna, la medicina alternativa, sin perder su vigencia, sigue siendo atractiva para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades. Glabradina, el flavonoide mayoritario de Glycyrrhiza glabra, es conocido por su actividad antioxidante y antiinflamatoria. Los propósitos de este estudio fueron: 1) Determinar el posible rol protector de glabradina ante daños intestinales por isquemia/reperfusion (I/R) 2) Evaluar in vitrolas respuestas de contracción de los músculos lisos del ileum ante acetilcolina después de I/R intestinal; y 3) Explicar el mecanismo molecular subyacente de este efecto. Se asignaron grupos de seis ratas: 1) I/R, 2) gla10, 3) gla20, 4) gla40, 5) N5-[imino(nitroamino)metil]-L-ornithina, metil ester monohidrochloruro (L-NAME)+gla40, y 6) Grupo testigo. El efecto curativo de glabridina fue abolido por L-NAME. Glabridina no causó contracción en el músculo liso como respuesta acetilcolina-inducida I/R. Además, incrementa la actividad basal expontánea.

Animals , Rats , Phenols/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Glycyrrhiza , Isoflavones/administration & dosage , Phenols/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Cyclic AMP/analysis , Cyclic GMP/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Ileum/drug effects , Ileum/chemistry , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2015 Jul; 18(3): 352-360
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162335


Background: Tapentadol is a relatively new analgesic. We decided to compare it with tramadol for their various effects after cardiac surgery. Setting: A study in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Sixty adults undergoing cardiac surgery were divided into 2 groups of 30 each by computerized random allotment (Group X = tapentadol 50 mg oral and Group Y = tramadol 100 mg oral). Informed Consent and Institutional Ethics Committee approval were obtained. The patients were given either drug X or drug Y after extubation in this single blinded study, wherein the data collectors and analyzers were blinded to the study. All patients received oral paracetamol qds and either drug X or drug Y tds. The pain score was noted on a Visual Analog Scale before each drug dose, 3 h later and on coughing. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were recorded before the drug dose and 3 h later. Postoperative nausea or vomiting (PONV), temperature, and modified Glasgow Coma Scale readings were recorded. The above readings were obtained for 6 doses (up to 48 h after extubation). Statistics: t‑test, Pearson Chi‑square test, Fisher exact test, and Mantel–Haenszel test were used for statistics. Results: Tapentadol group patients had significantly better analgesia 3 h after the drug and “on coughing” than tramadol group. The difference in their effects on blood creatinine levels, temperature, hemodynamics, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate were not clinically significant. Tapentadol produced lesser drowsiness and lesser vomiting than tramadol. Conclusions: Tapentadol, due to its norepinephrine reuptake inhibition properties, in addition to mu agonist, is a better analgesic than tramadol and has lesser PONV.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Phenols/administration & dosage , Phenols/therapeutic use , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Tramadol/therapeutic use
SJA-Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia. 2013; 7 (3): 322-326
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-130459


Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic with dual mechanism of action, combining mu-opioid receptor agonism with noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in the same molecule. It has an improved side effect profile when compared to opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The dual mechanism of action makes Tapentadol a useful analgesic to treat acute, chronic, and neuropathic pain

Phenols/pharmacokinetics , Phenols/administration & dosage , Phenols/chemistry , Analgesics
Rev. chil. nutr ; 37(3): 377-385, Sept. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-577404


Consumption of fruit and vegetables has the potential to reduce non-transmissible diseases (NTD), such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer, which are major public health concerns. Chile is a major apple producer and exporter in the world. Its production is concentrated in the sixth (O'Higgins) and seventh (Maule) regions of Central Chile. Phenolics and flavonoids are responsible for apple's high antioxidant activity. Many epidemiologic studies have shown that a diet rich in apples can reduce cardiovascular events (myocardial infarct and stroke) and some type of cancers. The mechanisms involved are not well understood. Nevertheless, antioxidants are key-players. Some of their in-vitro activities are inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, cholesterol levels reduction, endothelium protection, reduction of neoplastic cells proliferation and apoptosis activation. Consequently, daily apple consumption campaigns in the country should be implemented, as well as funding research focused on molecular mechanisms involved in its antioxidant activity.

Las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT), especialmente las cardiovasculares (ECV) y el cáncer, representan un grave problema de salud pública. Es conocido que el consumo de frutas y hortalizas disminuye el riesgo de sufrir dichas enfermedades. El manzano (Malus domestica Borkh.) se cultiva en Chile en una amplia zona geográfica, concentrándose principalmente en las regiones sexta y séptima. La actividad antioxidante de la manzana se debe principalmente a su contenido en fenoles y flavonoides. Varios estudios epidemiológicos han mostrado que el consumo de manzanas puede prevenir el desarrollo de ECV (infarto agudo de miocardio y enfermedad cerebro vascular) y ciertos tipos de cáncer. Los mecanismos por los cuales se producen dichos efectos, no están totalmente aclarados, sin embargo la participación de los antioxidantes es fundamental. Entre los principales hallazgos se han descrito, en relación a ECV: inhibición de la oxidación de low-density lipoprotein (LDL), disminución de colesterol total y protección de endotelio; y en relación a cáncer: disminución de la proliferación de células neoplásicas y activación de la apoptosis de las mismas. Debido al incuestionable efecto protector para la salud humana que presenta la ingesta de manzana, se deben impulsar estrategias que apunten a incentivar su consumo diario en el país. Asimismo, se deben seguir estudiando los principios activos y los mecanismos moleculares.

Humans , Diet , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Fruit/chemistry , Malus/chemistry , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Antioxidants , Cholesterol, LDL , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Phenols/administration & dosage , Phenols/pharmacokinetics , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Flavonoids/pharmacokinetics , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Cell Proliferation
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 53(5): 646-656, jul. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-525426


É indiscutível o papel da dieta e dos alimentos na manutenção da saúde e na redução do risco de DCNT. Estudos epidemiológicos mostram que o aumento do consumo de alimentos de origem vegetal influencia positivamente a saúde, enquanto estudos in vitro e in vivo em modelo animal elucidam os mecanismos pelos quais compostos bioativos não nutrientes, presentes nos alimentos, atuam na manutenção da saúde e na redução do risco de doenças. A modulação da expressão de genes que codificam proteínas envolvidas em vias de sinalização celular ativadas em DCNT é um dos mecanismos de ação dos compostos bioativos, sugerindo que estes possam ser essenciais à manutenção da saúde. A biodisponibilidade dos compostos bioativos de alimentos, as suas rotas metabólicas e o modo de ação de seus metabólitos são importantes fatores no seu efeito nas DCNT. Todos esses aspectos são temas de investigações recentes, cujos resultados contribuem para a compreensão da ocorrência e desenvolvimento das DCNT e da sua relação com a dieta. Essa revisão visou discutir alguns dos mecanismos envolvidos na resposta inflamatória induzida pela obesidade, apresentar os compostos bioativos de alimentos que modulam essa resposta inflamatória e sua relação com o metabolismo desses compostos.

It is largely accepted the important role of food and feeding habits on health maintenance and development of non transmissible chronic diseases (NTCD). Epidemiologic evidences show that increasing vegetable consumption positively impacts health. On the other hand, in vivo and in vitro studies in animals show that non-nutrient bioactive food substances partly explain the role of food on the maintenance of health and on the risk reduction of these diseases. The modulation of gene expression of proteins that are involved in the cellular signaling pathways of NTCD is an important mechanism of the bioactive food substances, indicating their importance in disease prevention. Bioavailability, metabolic routes and the action of the resultant metabolites of bioactive food compounds are important aspects that may affect NTCD. All these aspects have actively been investigated in the last years and resulted in a greater understanding of the beginning, progression and prevention of NTCD. This review aimed at discussing the involved mechanisms of the inflammatory response induced by obesity and the role of bioactive food compounds in modulating such response.

Animals , Humans , Diet , Food Analysis , Inflammation/etiology , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology , Obesity/complications , Phenols/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/metabolism , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Biological Availability , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Curcumin/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/physiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism
Asunción; s.e; 20041000. 41 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1018774


Lo agentes antimicrobianos son ampliamente usados en el consultorio odontológico. Estos antimicrobianos se desarrollan cada día más, para elegir el que realmente será de utilidad, sin dañar al equipo, instrumentales pero sobre todo para no lastimar al paciente, se los deben conocer y manejarlos correctamente. La intención de este trabajo es describir agentes antimicrobianos de acción no selectiva específicamente para ser usados como agentes de desinfección, especialmente los objetos inanimados y mencionando el posible uso como agentes antisépticos. Se describirán los agentes desinfectantes de conocida efectividad, por ellos se limitarán a escribir las familias de los halógenos, fenólicis y aldehídos, sustancias que en la actualidad, son de mayor reconocimiento como agentes antimicrobianos.

Humans , Aldehydes/administration & dosage , Disinfection/methods , Pharmacology , Phenols/administration & dosage , Halogens/administration & dosage , Dentistry
Rev. Med. Policlin ; 4(1): 47-8, abr. 1994. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-134726


En el pasado el tratamiento del dolor fue secundario en la práctica médica debido a la falta de conocimiento inducido por las escasas investigaciones al respecto. En la actualidad el tema del dolor se ha impulsado al punto que una relativamente que una nueva subespecialidad apareció, llevada a cabo por equipos de especialistas en anestesiologia cirugía, neurologia traumatología, etc. En la presente revisión se enfoca la neurolisis medular subaracnóidea, como una alternativa válido en aquellos pacientes que sufren de dolor maligno como los que padecen de Ca., hemos puesto énfasis como y con que realizarla, sin descuidar sus limitaciones y complicaciones y como encararlas cuando aparecen, no cabe duda que esta técnica es facil y segura respecto a otras técnicas y por esos repasamos aqui. Esperamos y confiamos que sea clara y completa, y sobre todo sea un aporte a la escasa literatura médica nacional sobre el dolor.

Humans , Male , Female , Pain/complications , Pain/diagnosis , Pain/therapy , Phenols/administration & dosage
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-63928


We analyzed our experience in 125 patients with variceal bleeding to compare the efficacy and complications of various schedules of endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy. The schedules for the first three injections were as follows: (A) 3-5 ml of aqueous phenol injected at intervals of three weeks (Group I, n = 28), one week (Group II, n = 30) and three days (Group IIIa, n = 33), and (B) 2-3 ml of phenol at each site at intervals of 3 days (Group IIIb, n = 34). Subsequent injections were given at four week intervals for all groups. Varices could be obliterated significantly earlier (p less than 0.001) in patients injected at 3-day intervals (mean +/- SD 9.12 +/- 5.95 weeks) as compared with those injected at 1-week (13.50 +/- 10.28 weeks) and 3-week (20.55 +/- 7.77 weeks) intervals. The rebleeding rate was not significantly less in the 3-day interval group (Group IIIa--16.66% and Group IIIb--17.64%) as compared with the 1-week (23.3%) and 3-week (28.5%) groups. However the mortality due to rebleed was significantly less (p less than 0.05) in patients injected at 3-day interval (nil), as compared with those injected at 1-week (13.3%) and 3-week (10.7%) intervals. Mucosal ulcerations and stricture formation were observed significantly (p less than 0.001) more frequently in patients undergoing sclerotherapy at 3-day intervals (Group IIIa--51.5% and 18.18%) with 3-5 ml of phenol as compared with those injected similar volume at 1-week (16.66% and 3.3%) and 3-week (7.1% and 3.5%) intervals respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Adult , Drug Administration Schedule , Endoscopy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Male , Phenol , Phenols/administration & dosage , Sclerosing Solutions/administration & dosage
RBM rev. bras. med ; 46(5): 165-7, maio 1989. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-75851


O propofol (diisoprofpilfenol) é um novo anestésico endovenoso. Este ensaio teve por objetivo estudar as possíveis alteraçöes hemodinâmicas produzidas pelo propofol, bem como o tempo de perda da consciência, tempo de hipnose e tempo de orientaçäo. Os resultados mostraram que o propofol produz induçäo rápida e suave, e que as alteraçöes da P/A.S., P.A.D. situaram-se a uma queda em torno de 20% dos valores iniciais, con nítida recuperaçäo já aos 10 min. Praticamente näo ocorreu variaçäo da F.C. Dos efeitos colaterais, merece destaque a apnéia transitória ocorrida em 50% dos casos, mas que reverteu espontaneamente sem a necessidade de suporte ventilatório

Adolescent , Middle Aged , Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Phenols/administration & dosage , Anesthetics , Clinical Trials as Topic , Phenols/pharmacology
RBM rev. bras. med ; 46(4): 131-4, abr. 1989. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-74552


O uso do propofol para a induçäo de anestesia foi estudado em 21 pacientes com estado físico ASA-I e II, submetidas a curetagem uterina. As pacientes näo recebeam medicaçäo pré-anestésica e a induçäo foi realizada com propofol na dosagem de 2,5 mg/Kg e a manutençäo da anestesia com óxido nitroso e oxigênio (50%) complementada com volus de propofol e agentes inalatórios. Houve induçäo anestésica em todos os casos em tempo médio de 22 seg. A incidência de apnéia foi de 72%. Como efeitos colaterais foram observados dor a injeçäo em 4,8%, movimento em 4,8% e tremor em 9,6%. A induçäo foi considerada boa em 72% e adequada em 24% dos casos. A queda média de pressäo arterial sistólica foi de 15,5 mmHg e da diastólica de 8,4mmHg

Adult , Middle Aged , Humans , Female , Cervix Uteri/surgery , Curettage , Phenols/administration & dosage , Phenols/adverse effects
West Indian med. j ; 37(4): 229-31, dec. 1988. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-78626


Propofol, a new intravenous anaesthetic induction agent, was evaluated on female patients undergoing short surgical procedures. The incidence of pain on injection, apnonea following injection, and the fall of systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels, was similar to yhat previously reported. There was no significant fall in pulse rate. The quality of anaeshesia during induction was good in all patients who reported they would be happy to receive the drug agaim

Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Humans , Female , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Apnea/chemically induced , Phenols/administration & dosage , Phenols/adverse effects , Hypotension/chemically induced