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Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 653-660, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951604


Abstract This paper briefly reports some effects of irrigations at two critical periods on the phenology of three varieties of cactus pear cultivated in Agadir area: the spineless varieties 'Aissa' and 'Moussa' and the thorny one 'Achefri'. In the first year experiments (2010-2011) treatments of irrigation used were: (T1) 0 mm, (T2) 30 mm during flowering and 30 mm during fruit enlargement and (T3) 30 mm only during fruit enlargement. In the 2nd year experiments, irrigation treatments were: (T1) 0 mm, (T2) 60 mm during flowering and 60 mm during fruit enlargement and (T3) 60 mm only during fruit enlargement. Treatments of irrigation were applied between mid-April and mid-June in the 1st year experiments and in February and May in the 2nd year experiments. Results of the first year experiments showed that the emission of buds was higher in the thorny variety than in the spineless ones (more than 6 emitted buds/cladode vs less than 4.5 in the spineless varieties). In the second year, irrigation increased the emission of buds in the three varieties (more than 7 emitted buds/cladode for each T2 and T3 of all varieties vs not more than 5 for T1) and the duration of the flowering phase of these varieties. However, irrigation did not modify the proportions of fruits reaching commercial maturity during the early or the late period of maturation.

Resumo Este artigo relatou brevemente alguns efeitos das irrigações em dois períodos críticos na fenologia de três variedades de Opuntia cultivadas na área de Agadir: as variedades sem espinhos 'Aissa' e 'Moussa' e um espinhoso 'Achefri'. No primeiro ano (2010-2011) os seguintes tratamentos do experimento da irrigação foram usados: (T1) 0 milímetros, (T2) 30 milímetros durante a florescência e 30 milímetros durante a ampliação do fruto e (T3) 30 milímetros somente durante a ampliação do fruto. No segundo ano das experiências, os tratamentos da irrigação foram: (T1, 0 milímetros), (T2) 60 milímetros durante a florescência e 60 milímetros durante a ampliação do fruto e (T3) 60 milímetros somente durante a ampliação do fruto. Os tratamentos da irrigação foram aplicados entre a metade de abril e metade de junho nas experiências do primeira ano e em fevereiro e maio nas experiências do segundo ano. Os resultados das experiências do primeiro ano mostraram que a emissão de brotos foi maior na variedade espinhosa do que no rufia (mais de 6 emitida gomos/cladode vs inferior a 4,5 no rufia variedades). No segundo ano, a irrigação aumentou a emissão dos botões nas três variedades (mais de 7 botões emitidos/cladÓdio para cada T2 e T3 de todas as variedades não mais que 5 para o T1) e a duração da fase de florescência destas variedades. Contudo, a irrigação não alterou as proporções de frutos que alcançaram a maturidade comercial durante o período adiantado ou atrasado de maturação.

Opuntia/growth & development , Flowers/growth & development , Agricultural Irrigation , Fruit/growth & development , Phenols/chemistry , Seasons , Water , Germination/physiology , Opuntia/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 656-661, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951809


Abstract Hamelia patens, is a plant traditionally used to treat a variety of conditions among the Huastec people of Mexico. The objective of this study is to characterize the phenolic content and critically examine the antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts H. patens, obtained by maceration, Soxhlet and percolation, using ethanol as 70% solvent. Phenolic compounds are characterized by liquid chromatography, coupled to a High Resolution Mass Spectrometry, and the antimicrobial activity was studied from the inhibitory effect of each extract for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi, and by the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration, the percentage of activity and the Index of Bacterial Susceptibility of each extract. The phenolic compound identified in different concentrations in the three extracts was epicatechin. The extracts obtained by the three methods had antimicrobial activity, however, there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) between the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of the extracts obtained by maceration, percolation and Soxhlet. The results of this study contribute to the body of knowledge on the use of extracts in controlling microorganisms with natural antimicrobials.

Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/pharmacokinetics , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacokinetics , Hamelia/chemistry , Chemical Fractionation/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenols/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Mexico , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 296-302, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889227


Abstract The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the antimicrobial potential of the crude extract and fractions of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., popularly known as Santa-Maria herb, against microorganisms of clinical interest by the microdilution technique, and also to show the chromatographic profile of the phenolic compounds in the species. The Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of cardiotonic, anthraquinone, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. The analysis by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of rutin in the crude extract (12.5 ± 0.20 mg/g), ethyl acetate (16.5 ± 0.37 mg/g) and n-butanol (8.85 ± 0.11 mg/g), whereas quercetin and chrysin were quantified in chloroform fraction (1.95 ± 0.04 and 1.04 ± 0.01 mg/g), respectively. The most promising results were obtained with the ethyl acetate fraction, which inhibited a greater number of microorganisms and presented the lowest values of MIC against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 0.42 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 34.37 mg/mL), Paenibacillus apiarus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL) and Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL). Considering mycobacterial inhibition, the best results were obtained by chloroform fraction against M. tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, and M. avium (MIC ranging from 156.25 to 625 µg/mL). This study proves, in part, that the popular use of C. ambrosioides L. can be an effective and sustainable alternative for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by various infectious agents.

Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Chenopodium ambrosioides/chemistry , Phenols/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 41-46, Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888848


Abstract In this study was evaluated the influence of glutamine supplementation on the endogenous content of amino acids, proteins, total phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in Bacupari callus. The explants were inoculated in MS medium, MS with half concentration of the nitrogen salts (MS½) and nitrogen-free MS, supplemented with glutamine (5, 10, 30 and 60mM) named as Gln5, Gln10, Gln30 and Gln60. Amino acids and proteins were analyzed after 20, 80 and 140 days and the secondary metabolites on the 140th day. There was no difference in the amino acids on the 20th day. On the 80th day the treatments MS and MS½ presented the lowest levels. On the 140th day MS and MS½ presented the lowest amino acid concentration and Gln10 the highest. Concerning proteins, there was difference only on the 140th day, being the highest concentrations observed in Gln5, and the lowest in MS½ treatment. Total phenolics content was higher in the treatment Gln60 and lowest in MS. Treatments Gln5, Gln10, Gln30 and MS½ were statistically equal. For flavonoids, the highest values occurred in the treatments Gln30, Gln60 and MS½ and the lowest in Gln5, Gln10 and MS. Similarly, for the proanthocyanidins the highest concentrations were observed in treatment Gln60 and the lowest in Gln5 and MS. In conclusion, the treatment with 60mM of glutamine favors the protein accumulation and production of secondary metabolites in Bacupari callus.

Resumo Nesse estudo foi avaliado o efeito da suplementação com glutamina no conteúdo endógeno de aminoácidos, proteínas, fenólicos totais, flavonoides e proantocianidinas em calos de Bacupari. Os explantes foram inoculados em meio MS, meio MS com metade da concentração de dos sais de nitrogênio (MS½) e meio MS sem nitrogênio suplementado com glutamina (5, 10, 30 e 60mM) denominados como Gln5, Gln10, Gln30 e Gln60. Os aminoácidos e as proteínas foram analisados após 20, 80 e 140 dias e os metabólitos secundários no 140° dia. Não houve diferença nos aminoácidos no 20° dia. No 80° dia os tratamentos MS e MS½ apresentaram os menores níveis. No 140° dia, MS e MS½ apresentaram as menores concentrações de aminoácidos e o Gln10 as maiores. A respeito das proteínas, houve diferença apenas no 140° dia, sendo as maiores concentrações observadas nos tratamentos Gln, e as menores no MS½. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais foi maior no tratamento Gln60 e menor no MS. Os tratamentos Gln5, Gln10, Gln30 e MS½ foram estatisticamente iguais. Para os flavonóides, os maiores valores ocorreram nos tratamentos Gln30, Gln60 e MS½ e os menores no Gln5, Gln10 e MS. Da mesma forma, para as proantocianidinas, as maiores concentrações foram observadas no tratamento Gln60 os menores no Gln5 e MS. Em conclusão, o tratamento com 60 mM de glutamina favorece o acúmulo de proteínas e a produção de metabólitos secundários em calos de Bacupari.

Phenols/analysis , Clusiaceae/metabolism , Clusiaceae/chemistry , Glutamine/metabolism , Glutamine/chemistry , Nitrogen/metabolism , Nitrogen/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Proteins/analysis , Plant Proteins/chemistry , Flavonoids/metabolism , Flavonoids/chemistry , Proanthocyanidins/chemistry , Tissue Culture Techniques
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 98-107, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888842


Abstract The family Verbenaceae hosts important species used in traditional medicine of many countries. The taxonomic controversies concerning the specific delimitation of several of its species make it difficult to guarantee the botanical origin of herbal preparations based on species of this family. To contribute to the development of both specific chemomarkers and a quality control tool to authenticate the botanical origin of herbal preparations of Verbenacea species, we determined the foliar HPLC-DAD phenolic profiles and the antioxidant properties of 10 wild species of this family occurring in Mexico. The contents of phenols and flavonoids varied significantly among species. Priva mexicana showed the highest levels of total phenolics (53.4 mg g-1 dry tissue) and Verbena carolina had the highest levels of flavonoids (17.89 mg g-1 dry tissue). Relevant antioxidant properties revealed by antiradical and reducing power were found for the analyzed species. These properties varied significantly in a species-dependent manner. The phenolic compounds accumulated were flavones and phenolic acids. Flavones were the only type of flavonoids found. The results of a cluster analysis showed that the compounds were accumulated in species-specific profiles. The phenolic profiles are proposed as valuable chemomarkers that can become a useful tool for the quality control concerning the botanical origin of herbal medicinal preparations based on the species analyzed. In addition, phenolic profiles could contribute importantly to solve the taxonomic controversies concerning species delimitation in the family Verbenaceae.

Resumo A família Verbenaceae compreende importantes espécies utilizadas na medicina popular de muitos países. As dificuldades taxonômicas relativas à delimitação específica de muitas das suas espécies face difícil a verificar a origem botânico das preparações herbales baseadas nas espécies desta família. Para fazer uma contribuição ao desenvolvimento de indicadores taxonômicos e dum método de controle de qualidade para verificar a origem botânico de preparações herbales das espécies de Verbenaceae, os perfis fenólicos, obtidos pares HPLC-DAD, e as atividades antioxidantes das folhas de 10 espécies selvagens Mexicanas desta família foram determinados. Os conteúdos dos compostos fenólicos totais e dos flavonoides foram significativamente diferentes entre as espécies. Priva mexicana apresentou a maior quantidade de compostos fenólicos totais (53.4 mg g-1 amostra seca) e Verbena carolina apresentou a maior quantidade de flavonoides (17.89 mg g-1 amostra seca). Verifica-se importantes propriedades antioxidantes, como os resultados dos ensaios da capacidade antiradical e do poder redutor indicaram. As propriedades antioxidantes foram significativamente diferentes entre as espécies. Verificou-se que os compostos fenólicos conteúdos nas folhas das espécies analisadas foram só flavonas e ácidos fenólicos. Os resultados das análises de agrupamento provarãn que os perfiles fenólicos foram espécie-específicos. Estes perfis podem ser considerados como indicadores químicos da qualidade relativa à origem botânico de preparações medicinais baseadas nas espécies analisadas e podem fazer importantes contribuições para a delimitação específica na família Verbenaceae.

Phenols/analysis , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Verbenaceae , Mexico
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1841-1850, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886758


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the composition and antioxidant potential of leaves of a new variety of Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia UEM-13). Stevia leaves of UEM-13 contain rebaudioside A as the main glycoside, while most wild Stevia plants contain stevioside. Furthermore can be multiplied by seed, which reduces the cost of plant culture techniques as other clonal varieties are multiplied by buds, requiring sophisticated and expensive seedling production systems. Ethanol and methanol were used in the extraction to determine the bioactive compounds. The methanolic extract was fractionated sequentially with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and isobutanol, and the highest concentration of phenolic compounds and flavonoids was obtained in the ethyl acetate fraction (524.20 mg galic acid equivalent/g; 380.62 µg quercetin equivalent/g). The glycoside content varied greatly among the fractions (0.5% - 65.3%). Higher antioxidant potential was found in the methanol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction with 93.5% and 97.32%, respectively. In addition to being an excellent source for obtaining of extracts rich in glycoside, this new variety can also be used as raw material for the production of extracts or fractions with a significant amount of antioxidant activity and potential to be used as additives in food.

Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Stevia/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Stevia/classification , Glycosides/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 373-382, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886653


ABSTRACT Cardanol is a constituent of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid that presents larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. The isolation of cardanol is somewhat troublesome, however, in this work we describe an efficient and inexpensive method to obtain it as a pure material. The compound was used as starting material to make chemical transformation leading to saturated cardanol, epoxides and, halohydrins. These derivatives were tested for toxicity against Aedes aegypti larvae. The results showed that iodohydrins are very promising compounds for making commercial products to combat the vector mosquito larvae presenting a LC50 of 0.0023 ppm after 72 h of exposure.

Animals , Phenols/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/toxicity , Phenols/chemistry , Time Factors , Insecticides/chemical synthesis , Insecticides/toxicity , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
Journal of Veterinary Research. 2017; 72 (1): 53-61
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-187518


Background: Honey is recognized as having different biological properties including antioxidant effects. Phenolic acids and flavonoids are the main antioxidant in this apiary product

Objectives: In this study eight samples of Sabalan honey were screened to evaluate the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content

Methods: Antioxidant activity of honey samples was determined by DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-l-picryl hydrazyl] method and p-carotene bleaching assay, total phenolic and flavonoid by Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminium chloride methods, in addition, in all samples, some physico-chemical parameters [pH, acidity, diastase activity, existence or nonexistence of HMF] were measured according to Iranian National Standardization N92. Data were analyzed using ANOVA [one-way]

Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid content of honeys ranged respectively from 15.71- 41.58 [mg GAE/l00g honey] and 3.80-13.20 [mg QE/100g honey]. Antioxidant activity was between 23.19%-94.25%, p-carotene bleaching inhibition 69.54%-85.69%, pH ranged from 3.63-3.83, Acidity 11.99-20.50 mEq/kg, diastase activity of all samples was negative except sample No. 1. All samples had positive HMF results

Conclusions: Regarding the above results, it could be concluded that the honey samples have significant antioxidant activity. All parameters of physicochemical test were according to the international specifications except diastase and HMF tests, which may be due to improper processing and storage condition, heating treatment, old honey,etc.

Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Phenols/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 298-304, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780847


Abstract Algae can tolerate a broad range of growing conditions but extreme conditions may lead to the generation of highly dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may cause the deterioration of cell metabolism and damage cellular components. The antioxidants produced by algae alleviate the harmful effects of ROS. While the enhancement of antioxidant production in blue green algae under stress has been reported, the antioxidant response to changes in pH levels requires further investigation. This study presents the effect of pH changes on the antioxidant activity and productivity of the blue green alga Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. The algal dry weight (DW) was greatly enhanced at pH 9.0. The highest content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids (10.6 and 2.4 mg/g DW, respectively) was recorded at pH 8.5. The highest phenolic content (12.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g DW) was recorded at pH 9.5. The maximum production of total phycobiliprotein (159 mg/g DW) was obtained at pH 9.0. The antioxidant activities of radical scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity were highest at pH 9.0 with an increase of 567, 250 and 206% compared to the positive control, respectively. Variation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) was also reported. While the high alkaline pH may favor the overproduction of antioxidants, normal cell metabolism and membrane function is unaffected, as shown by growth and chlorophyll content, which suggests that these conditions are suitable for further studies on the harvest of antioxidants from S. platensis.

Spirulina/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Phenols/metabolism , Phenols/chemistry , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Spirulina/growth & development , Spirulina/chemistry , Phycobiliproteins/metabolism , Phycobiliproteins/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Antioxidants/chemistry
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 18(1): 194-207, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-736436


OBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores pessoais associados à prevalência e duração dos benefícios auxílio-doença decorrentes de sinovite e tenossinovite (CID10 M65). MÉTODO: Estudo transversal referente aos benefícios auxílio-doença decorrentes de sinovite e tenossinovite concedidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Seguro Social aos empregados no Brasil em 2008. Dados sobre o ramo de atividade econômica (Classificação Nacional de Atividades Econômicas - CNAE divisão, classe), sexo, idade, espécie e duração dos benefícios foram coletados do Sistema Único de Benefícios. A população corresponde à média mensal dos vínculos empregatícios declarados ao Cadastro Nacional de Informações Sociais. RESULTADOS: Em 2008 foram concedidos 35.601 benefícios auxílio-doença decorrentes de sinovite e tenossinovite, com prevalência de 10,9/10.000 vínculos empregatícios. No conjunto dos benefícios auxílio-doença houve maior razão de prevalência (RP) acidentária (RP 1,2), sendo esta maior em mulheres (RP 3,3), e em trabalhadores com idade acima de 39 anos (RP 1,4). As CNAE 37-Esgoto (55,4) e 60-Atividade de rádio e TV (47,1) apresentaram as maiores prevalências, no entanto, 64-Atividade de serviços financeiros e 6422-Bancos múltiplos caracterizaram mais acidentes de trabalho (RP 3,2 e 3,8, respectivamente) e maior duração (70 e 73 dias, respectivamente). A maior duração de benefício ocorreu entre trabalhadores com idade superior a 39 anos. Tanto a CNAE-divisão 60-Atividade de rádio e TV, quanto a CNAE-classe 6010-Atividade de rádio apresentaram elevadas razões de feminilidade (RP 8,1 e 10,8, respectivamente). CONCLUSÃO: A incapacidade para o trabalho por sinovite e tenossinovite apresenta associação tanto da prevalência quanto da duração com o ramo de atividade, sexo, idade e espécie de benefício (previdenciário/acidentário). .

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the personal and occupational factors associated with the prevalence and duration of sickness benefit claims due to synovitis and tenosynovitis (CID10 M65). METHODS: Cross-sectional study regarding sickness benefit claims due to synovitis and tenosynovitis granted to employees by National Institute of Social Security in Brazil in 2008. Data on economic activity (Economic Activities National Classification - CNAE division, class), sex, age, type and duration of benefits were collected from the Unified Benefit System. The study's population consists of the average monthly employment contracts declared to the National Register of Social Information. RESULTS: In 2008, 35,601 employees were granted sickness benefits due to synovitis and tenosynovitis, with a prevalence of 10.9/10,000 employments. Sickness benefits showed higher prevalence rates (PR) for work-related claims (PR 1,2), mostly made by females (PR 3.3) and by workers older than 39 years (PR 1,4). The CNAE 37-Sewage (55.4) and 60-Broadcasting Activity (47.1) had the highest overall prevalence. However, the 64-Financial service activities, except insurance and pension funding and 6422-Multiple banks with commercial service had the highest rates of work-related claims (RP 3.2 and 3.8, respectively), and the longer duration (70 and 73 days, respectively). Workers older than 39 years had the highest durations of work disability claims. Both the CNAE-division 60-Broadcasting Activity, and the CNAE-class 6010-Radio showed a high activity ratio of females (PR 8.1 and 10.8, respectively). CONCLUSION: The work disability due to synovitis and tenosynovitis presents prevalence and duration associated with economic activity, sex, age and kind of benefit (non work-related and work-related claims). .

Humans , Globins/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Nerve Tissue Proteins/chemistry , Nitrites/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites , Catalysis , Cysteine/chemistry , Cysteine/metabolism , Disulfides/chemistry , Disulfides/metabolism , Globins/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Kinetics , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Myoglobin/chemistry , Myoglobin/metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Nitrites/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Protein Conformation , Phenol/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Phenylacetates/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Braz. j. biol ; 75(1): 69-76, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744335


The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoids contents and the antioxidant and antitumoral activity of leaf and calyx methanolic extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle) cultivated with poultry litter and organosuper® under three modes of application. The total phenolic content in the each extract was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and for aluminium chloride flavonoids. The antioxidant parameters were analyzed using a 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.) free radical scavenging assay. An antitumor colorimetric assay using sulforhodamine B. The highest contents of phenolic and flavonoids were observed in leaf extracts (389.98 and 104.52 mg g–1, respectively) and calyx extracts (474.09 and 148.35 mg g–1, respectively) from plants cultivated with organosuper®, although these values did not differ significantly from those observed for the other treatments. The average IC50 of leaves (43.48 μg mL–1) and calyces (37.15 μg mL–1) demonstrated that both have substances that may contribute to free radical scavenging action. The methanol extract from calyces showed significant selective activity against a leukemia line (K-562), with IC50 values of 0.12 mg mL–1 (organosuper®) and 1.16 mg mL–1 (poultry litter), with concentration-dependent, cytotoxic and cytocidal effects.

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antioxidante, antitumoral e o conteúdo de fenólicos e flavonoides do extrato metanólico das folhas e cálices de Hibiscus sabdariffa (rosela) cultivada com cama de frango e organosuper ® em três modos de aplicação. O conteúdo fenólico total de cada extrato foi determinado utilizando o reagente de Folin-Ciocalteu e cloreto de alumínio para flavonoides. Os parâmetros antioxidantes foram avaliados pelo ensaio de seqüestro de radical livre 2, 2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH.). Na avaliação antitumoral utilizou-se o ensaio colorimétrico com sulforrodamina B. Observou-se o maior conteúdo de fenólicos e flavonoides em extratos de folhas (389.98 e 104.52 mg g–1, respectivamente) e extratos de cálice (474.09 e 148.35 mg g–1, respectivamente) de plantas cultivadas com organosuper ®, embora esses valores não diferiram significativamente daqueles observados para os outros tratamentos. O IC50 de folhas (43.48 µg mL–1) e cálices (37.15 µg mL–1) demonstrou que ambos têm substâncias que podem contribuir para a ação seqüestradora de radicais livres. O extrato metanólico dos cálices mostrou seletividade na linhagem de leucemia (K-562), com valores de IC50 de 0,12 mg mL–1 (organosuper®) e 1,16 mg mL–1 (cama-de-frango) com concentração-dependente e efeito citotóxico e citocida.

Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Hibiscus/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Plant Leaves/chemistry
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 86-94, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741617


Trypanosoma cruzi strains from distinct geographic areas show differences in drug resistance and association between parasites genetic and treatment response has been observed. Considering that benznidazole (BZ) can reduce the parasite burden and tissues damage, even in not cured animals and individuals, the goal is to assess the drug response to BZ of T. cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, before treatment. Mice infected and treated with BZ in both phases of infection were compared with the untreated and evaluated by fresh blood examination, haemoculture, polymerase chain reaction, conventional (ELISA) and non-conventional (FC-ALTA) serologies. In mice treated in the acute phase, a significant decrease in parasitaemia was observed for all strains. Positive parasitological and/or serological tests in animals treated during the acute and chronic (95.1-100%) phases showed that most of the strains were BZ resistant. However, beneficial effect was demonstrated because significant reduction (p < 0.05%) and/or suppression of parasitaemia was observed in mice infected with all strains (acute phase), associated to reduction/elimination of inflammation and fibrosis for two/eight strains. BZ offered some benefit, even in not cured animals, what suggest that BZ use may be recommended at least for recent chronic infection of the studied region.

Humans , Drug Discovery , Industrial Waste/analysis , Nootropic Agents/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Shoots/chemistry , Stilbenes/isolation & purification , Vitis/chemistry , Agriculture/economics , Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Benzofurans/analysis , Benzofurans/chemistry , Benzofurans/economics , Benzofurans/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , France , Industrial Waste/economics , Molecular Structure , Neuroprotective Agents/chemistry , Neuroprotective Agents/economics , Neuroprotective Agents/isolation & purification , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Nootropic Agents/chemistry , Nootropic Agents/economics , Nootropic Agents/pharmacology , Protein Aggregation, Pathological , Peptide Fragments/antagonists & inhibitors , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/economics , Plant Extracts/economics , Protein Aggregates/drug effects , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Stereoisomerism , Stilbenes/analysis , Stilbenes/chemistry , Stilbenes/economics , Stilbenes/pharmacology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 142-144, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741622


Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) (98.8%), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.8%), Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf) (0.3%) and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León) (0.1%). Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most frequently trapped species. This is the first record of its remarkable ability to adapt to urban green areas. The three other species trapped represent new records of geographic distribution for the study region. These results indicate the need to establish measures for reducing both human contact with this vector and the risk of possible sites of infection.

Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Caesalpinia/chemistry , Food Preservatives/isolation & purification , Fruit/chemistry , Models, Chemical , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Emulsions , Ethanol/chemistry , Food Storage , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Food Preservatives/analysis , Food Preservatives/chemistry , Gallic Acid/analysis , Gallic Acid/chemistry , Gallic Acid/isolation & purification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oxidation-Reduction , Peru , Principal Component Analysis , Phenols/analysis , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Spain , Solvents/chemistry , Ultrasonics/methods , Water/chemistry
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 64(2): 131-138, jun. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752684


Existe un creciente interés por consumir alimentos que además de aportar los componentes básicos para una buena nutrición provean otros compuestos benéficos para la salud. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la composición química de alimentos autóctonos de la región andina y cuantificar algunos componentes funcionales. Se determinó composición centesimal, contenido de vitamina C y compuestos fenólicos totales, actividad antirradical (DPPH) en cáscara y pulpa, fibra dietaria soluble e insoluble, fructooligosacáridos (FOS), almidón total y resistente (en tubérculos y raíces crudos, hervidos y hervidos y almacenados) de 6 variedades de Ocas (Oxalis tuberosa), 4 clones de Mandiocas (Manihot esculenta Crantz) y Yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius). Los resultados mostraron mayor cantidad de compuestos bioactivos y actividad antirradical en la cáscara de ocas. En todos los casos el contenido de fibra insoluble fue mayor que la soluble. Las mandiocas tuvieron mayor contenido de almidón total que las raíces y tubérculos andinos. El proceso de ebullición disminuyó el contenido de almidón resistente en ocas y mandiocas pero cuando éstas se almacenaron por 48h a 5°C, el contenido de almidón resistente aumentó nuevamente. El contenido de FOS en ocas fue similar para todas las variedades (Aproximadamente 7%). El principal componente de los carbohidratos del yacón fueron los FOS (8,89%). Se puede concluir que las raíces y tubérculos estudiados, además de aportar nutrientes, contienen compuestos funcionales que les confieren un valor adicional como alimentos útiles para la prevención de algunas enfermedades no trasmisibles.

There is great interest in consuming foods that can provide the nutrients for a good nutrition and other health beneficial compounds. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of native foods of the Andean region and to quantify some functional components. Proximal composition, vitamin C, total phenolic compounds, antiradical activity (DPPH) in peel and pulp, dietary fiber soluble and insoluble, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), total and resistant starch (in tubers and raw roots, boiled and boiled and stored) of 6 varieties of Oca (Oxalis tuberosa), 4 clones of manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius were determined. The results showed greater amount of bioactive compounds and antiradical activity in the skin of these products. The highest content was found in the oca peel. In all cases, the content of insoluble fiber was greater than the soluble. The manioc had higher total starch than Andean roots and tubers. The boiling process decreased the resistant starch content of ocas and maniocs, but when these are stored for 48 h at 5 ° C, the resistant starch content increased. The FOS content of the ocas was similar for all varieties (7%). The main component of yacon carbohydrates were FOS (8,89%). The maniocs did not contain FOS. It can be concluded that the roots and tubers studied, in addition to provide nutrients, contain functional compounds that confer additional helpful value for preventing no communicable diseases.

Nutritive Value , Oligosaccharides/analysis , Phenols/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Tubers/chemistry , Argentina , Carbohydrates/analysis , Carbohydrates/chemistry , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Food Analysis , Free Radical Scavengers/analysis , Free Radical Scavengers/chemistry , Oligosaccharides/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Reference Values
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Mar; 52(3): 252-260
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150355


Activity differences of the first (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, PAL) and the last (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, CAD) enzymes of phenylpropanoid pathway in the roots of resistant (Yangambi Km5 and Anaikomban) and susceptible (Nendran and Robusta) banana cultivars caused by root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae, were investigated. Also, the accumulation of phenolics and deposition of lignin polymers in cell walls in relation to resistance of the banana cultivars to the nematode were analyzed. Compared to the susceptible cultivars, the resistant cultivars had constitutively significantly higher PAL activity and total soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics than in susceptible cultivars. The resistant cultivars responded strongly to the infection of the nematode by induction of several-time higher PAL and CAD enzymes activities, soluble and wall-bound phenolics and enrichment of lignin polymers in cell wall and these biochemical parameters reached maximum at 7th day postinoculation. In addition, profiles of phenolic acid metabolites in roots of Yangambi Km5 and Nendran were analyzed by HPLC to ascertain the underlying biochemical mechanism of bananas resistance to the nematode. Identification and quantification of soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic acids showed six metabolites and only quantitative, no qualitative, differences occurred between the resistant and susceptible cvs. and between constitutive and induced contents. A very prominent increase of p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids, which are precursors of monolignols of lignin, in resistant cv. was found. These constitutive and induced biochemical alterations are definitely the chemical defenses of resistant cvs. to the nematode infection.

Alcohol Oxidoreductases/genetics , Alcohol Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Animals , Disease Resistance/genetics , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Musa/enzymology , Musa/genetics , Musa/growth & development , Musa/parasitology , Nematoda/genetics , Nematoda/pathogenicity , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/metabolism , Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase/genetics , Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase/metabolism , Plant Diseases/genetics , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Plant Roots/enzymology , Plant Roots/metabolism , Polymers/chemistry , Propanols/chemistry , Propanols/metabolism
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 17(1): 9-9, Jan. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-706523


Background Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is one of the most important pathogens of rice (Oryza sativa L.) that causes severe yield losses in all rice-growing regions. Sclerotia, formed from the aggregation of hyphae, are important structures in the life cycles of R. solani and contain a large quantity of polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and pigments. In order to extract high-quality total RNA from the sclerotia of R. solani, five methods, including E.Z.N.A.™ Fungal RNA Kit, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-sodium borate, SDS-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), guanidinium thiocyanate (GTC) and modified Trizol, were compared in this study. Results The electrophoresis results showed that it failed to extract total RNA from the sclerotia using modified Trizol method, whereas it could extract total RNA from the sclerotia using other four methods. Further experiments confirmed that the total RNA extracted using SDS-sodium borate, SDS-PVP and E.Z.N.A.™ Fungal RNA Kit methods could be used for RT-PCR of the specific amplification of GAPDH gene fragments, and that extracted using GTC method did not fulfill the requirement for above-mentioned RT-PCR experiment. Conclusion It is concluded that SDS-sodium borate and SDS-PVP methods were the better ones for the extraction of high-quality total RNA that could be used for future gene cloning and expression studies, whereas E.Z.N.A.™ Fungal RNA Kit was not taken into consideration when deal with a large quantity of samples because it is expensive and relatively low yield.

Rhizoctonia/genetics , RNA/isolation & purification , Phenols/chemistry , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/chemistry , Thiocyanates/chemistry , Borates/chemistry , RNA, Fungal/genetics , Povidone/chemistry , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Electrophoresis , Guanidines/chemistry
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 709-715, July-Sept. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699803


Phenolic compounds of nutraceutical importance viz., catechins (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) were estimated in fresh green tea shoots of Camellia sinensis (L) O Kuntze cultivar. The total polyphenols and total catechins were in the range of 219.90 to 317.81 and 140.83 to 271.39 g/kg, respectively in monthly samples of tea. The values of C, EC, EGC, EGCG and ECG in tea powders as analyzed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were in the range of 1.560 to 3.661, 13.338 to 27.766, 26.515 to 39.597, 62.903 to 102.168 and 18.969 to 39.469 mg/g, respectively. Effect of tea extracts and standard flavanols against five pathogenic bacteria viz., Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC-839), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-741), Bacillus cereus (MTCC-1272), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96) and Escherichia coli (MTCC-443), and eleven indigenous potential bacterial probiotics belonging to genera Enterococcus, Bacillus and Lactobacillus spp. obtained from fermented foods of Western Himalayas, was investigated. EGCG, ECG and EGC exhibited antibacterial activity but, C and EC did not show this activity. Tea extracts having high concentrations of EGCG and ECG were more potent in antibacterial action against bacterial pathogens. Tea extracts and standard flavan-3-ols augmented viability of potential probiotics in an order of EGCG > EGC > ECG > EC > C. Tea extracts and standard flavanols had no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443) but, in combination with probiotic culture supernatants, this activity was seen. The Kangra tea thus, exerts antibacterial effect on bacterial pathogens through EGCG, ECG and EGC constituents while stimulatory effect on growth of indigenous potential probiotics.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Camellia sinensis/chemistry , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/pharmacology , Probiotics , Phenols/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Bacteria/growth & development , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/chemistry , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/isolation & purification , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (3): 553-559
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142616


The present study aimed to establish relationship between urease and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities on the one hand and on the other between anti-enzymatic activities and total phenolic contents of the methanolic extract of roots of Rumex acetosella and its fractions in various solvents. The methanolic extract and its fractions in chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water showed remarkable inhibitory activities against both urease and alpha-amylase, there was a close correspondence between urease and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of the plant samples. The n-butanol fraction which had the highest total phenolic content [252.19 +/- 2.32 micro g of Gallic Acid Equivalents/mg of dry mass of the sample] showed prominent activity against both urease and alpha-amylase indicating a possible role of phenolics in inhibiting the activities of these enzymes. The samples displayed enzyme inhibitory activities in a dose dependent manner and their effectiveness was comparable with that of the standards, thiourea [for urease] and acarbose [for alphaamylase]. The samples were manifold more effective against urease than alpha-amylase; 2.8 mg/mL of MeOH extract produced about 81% inhibition in alpha-amylase activity, while only 10 micro g/mL of the extract was required to create the same inhibition in urease activity. The IC[50] values of methanolic, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic, aqueous and standard solutions were 1.29, 1.31, 1.90, 1.38, 0.85 and 1.20 [mg/mL] respectively against alpha-amylase and 0.99, 3.89, 1.76, 0.91, 0.85 and 0.97 [micro g/mL] respectively against urease. The total phenolic content in MeOH, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions was 108.88 +/- 2.65, 43.70 +/- 1.90, 34.44 +/- 2.30, 230.71 +/- 1.78, 252.19 +/- 2.32 and 94.07 +/- 2.25 respectively

Urease/antagonists & inhibitors , alpha-Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Methanol/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , 1-Butanol/chemistry
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (3): 623-628
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142627


Wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina, a critically endangered and endemic plant of Kashmir and North West Frontier Provinces of Pakistan were screened for the amount of bioactive principles and in particular antimalarial compound artemesinin. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of terpenes, alkaloids, phenolics, tannins [polyphenolics], cardiac glycosides and steroids in wild [aerial, inflorescence] and tissue culture regenerants [in vitro grown plant, callus and green house acclimatized plants]. HPLC of Artemisia amygdalina revealed the presence of artemesinin in petroleum ether extracts of wild aerial part, tissue culture raised plant and green house acclimatized plants. Acetonitrile and water in 70:30 ratios at flow rate of 1ml/min was standardised as mobile phase. Retention time for standard chromatogram was 6.7. Wild inflorescences and callus does not produce artemesinin. This is the first report of phytochemical screening and artemesinin estimation of wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina

Biological Factors/chemistry , Cardiac Glycosides/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Steroids/chemistry , Tannins/chemistry , Terpenes/chemistry , Tissue Culture Techniques/methods , Alkaloids/chemistry , Antimalarials
SJA-Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia. 2013; 7 (3): 322-326
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-130459


Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic with dual mechanism of action, combining mu-opioid receptor agonism with noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in the same molecule. It has an improved side effect profile when compared to opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The dual mechanism of action makes Tapentadol a useful analgesic to treat acute, chronic, and neuropathic pain

Phenols/pharmacokinetics , Phenols/administration & dosage , Phenols/chemistry , Analgesics