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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 324-338, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343496

ABSTRACT

In this present study, we investigated the influence of various extraction methods including maceration, sonication, infusion, decoction, and microwave extraction, on the chemical and biological potential of phytochemicals extracted from three medicinal plants (Ageratum conyzoides, Plantago majorand Arctium lappa L). The results were subsequently analyzed by variance analysis. Our results suggested that sonication is the most effective extraction method among the five methods tested herein, for the extraction of phytochemicals that have a high antioxidant potential and high phenolic content. The three plants employed for this study had a high concentration of flavonoids and phenolics which was compatible with the chemosystematics of the species. All the samples possessed a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of less than 6. Interestingly, a maximum reaction time of approximately 20 min was noted for the complexation of AlCl3 with the flavonoids present in the phytochemical extract during analyses of the kinetic parameters. We finally identified that the Ageratum conyzoides extract, prepared by sonication, possessed a significant pharmacological potential against hepatocarcinoma tumour cells, whose result can guide further studies for its therapeutic efficacy.


En el presente estudio, investigamos la influencia de varios métodos de extracción, incluyendo maceración, sonicación, infusión, decocción y extracción por microondas, sobre el potencial químico y biológico de los fitoquímicos extraídos de tres plantas medicinales (Ageratum conyzoides, Plantago majory Arctium lappa L). Los resultados se analizaron posteriormente mediante análisis de varianza. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la sonicación es el método de extracción más eficaz entre los cinco métodos aquí probados, para la extracción de fitoquímicos que tienen un alto potencial antioxidante y un alto contenido fenólico. Las tres plantas empleadas para este estudio tenían una alta concentración de flavonoides y fenólicos que era compatible con la quimiosistemática de las especies. Todas las muestras poseían un factor de protección solar (SPF) menor a 6. Curiosamente, se observó un tiempo máximo de reacción de aproximadamente 20 min para la complejación de AlCl3con los flavonoides presentes en el extracto fitoquímico durante los análisis de los parámetros cinéticos. Finalmente, identificamos que el extracto de Ageratum conyzoides, elaborado por sonicación, posee un importante potencial farmacológico frente a las células tumorales del hepatocarcinoma, cuyo resultado puede orientar nuevos estudios sobre su eficacia terapéutica.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plantago/chemistry , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Cell Survival , Analysis of Variance , Ageratum/chemistry , Arctium/chemistry
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 347-358, jul. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008172

ABSTRACT

Manilkara zapota (Sapotaceae), commonly known as Sapodilla, is widely known for its delicious fruit. Various parts of this plant are also used in folk medicine to treat a number of conditions including fever, pain, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhage and ulcers. Scientific studies have demonstrated analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, anti-hypercholesteremic, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities in several parts of the plant. Phytochemical studies have revealed the presence of phenolic compounds including protocatechuic acid quercitrin, myricitrin, catechin, gallic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, etc. as main constituents of the plant. Several fatty acids, carotenoids, triterpenes, sterols, hydrocarbons and phenylethanoid compounds have also been isolated from M. zapota. The present review is a comprehensive description focused on pharmacological activities and phytochemical constituents of M. zapota.


Manilkara zapota (Sapotaceae), comúnmente conocida como Sapodilla, es ampliamente conocida por su delicioso fruto. Variadas partes de esta planta se usan en medicina popular para tratar una serie de afecciones, como fiebre, dolor, diarrea, disentería, hemorragia y úlceras. Estudios científicos han demostrado actividad analgésica, antiinflamatoria, antioxidante, citotóxica, antimicrobiana, antidiarreica, antihipercolesterolémica, antihiperglucémica y hepatoprotectora en diferentes partes de la planta. Los estudios fitoquímicos han revelado la presencia de compuestos fenólicos que incluyen ácido protocatechúico, quercitrina, miricitrina, catequina, ácido galico, ácido vanílico, ácido cafeico, ácido sirínico, ácido cumárico, ácido fúnico y ácido ferúlico como componentes principales de la planta. Varios ácidos grasos, carotenoides, triterpenos, esteroles, hidrocarburos y compuestos feniletanoides también han sido aislados de M. zapota. La presente revisión es una descripción exhaustiva centrada en las actividades farmacológicas y los constituyentes fitoquímicos de M. zapota.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Manilkara/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/pharmacology , Saponins/isolation & purification , Saponins/pharmacology , Sterols/isolation & purification , Sterols/pharmacology , Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Carotenoids/isolation & purification , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Sapotaceae/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Medicine, Traditional
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 656-661, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951809

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hamelia patens, is a plant traditionally used to treat a variety of conditions among the Huastec people of Mexico. The objective of this study is to characterize the phenolic content and critically examine the antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts H. patens, obtained by maceration, Soxhlet and percolation, using ethanol as 70% solvent. Phenolic compounds are characterized by liquid chromatography, coupled to a High Resolution Mass Spectrometry, and the antimicrobial activity was studied from the inhibitory effect of each extract for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi, and by the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration, the percentage of activity and the Index of Bacterial Susceptibility of each extract. The phenolic compound identified in different concentrations in the three extracts was epicatechin. The extracts obtained by the three methods had antimicrobial activity, however, there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) between the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of the extracts obtained by maceration, percolation and Soxhlet. The results of this study contribute to the body of knowledge on the use of extracts in controlling microorganisms with natural antimicrobials.


Subject(s)
Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/pharmacokinetics , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacokinetics , Hamelia/chemistry , Chemical Fractionation/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenols/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Mexico , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 296-302, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889227

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the antimicrobial potential of the crude extract and fractions of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., popularly known as Santa-Maria herb, against microorganisms of clinical interest by the microdilution technique, and also to show the chromatographic profile of the phenolic compounds in the species. The Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of cardiotonic, anthraquinone, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. The analysis by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of rutin in the crude extract (12.5 ± 0.20 mg/g), ethyl acetate (16.5 ± 0.37 mg/g) and n-butanol (8.85 ± 0.11 mg/g), whereas quercetin and chrysin were quantified in chloroform fraction (1.95 ± 0.04 and 1.04 ± 0.01 mg/g), respectively. The most promising results were obtained with the ethyl acetate fraction, which inhibited a greater number of microorganisms and presented the lowest values of MIC against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 0.42 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 34.37 mg/mL), Paenibacillus apiarus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL) and Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL). Considering mycobacterial inhibition, the best results were obtained by chloroform fraction against M. tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, and M. avium (MIC ranging from 156.25 to 625 µg/mL). This study proves, in part, that the popular use of C. ambrosioides L. can be an effective and sustainable alternative for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by various infectious agents.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Chenopodium ambrosioides/chemistry , Phenols/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e6069, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889062

ABSTRACT

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has high economic value and in recent years, its production has increased; however, part of the fruit is wasted. Usually, inedible parts such as peel and seeds are discarded during processing and consumption. Extracts of melon residues were prepared and their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds were found in hydroethanolic, hydromethanolic, and aqueous extracts, especially for melon peel (1.016 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). Flavonoids total content found for melon peel aqueous extract was 262 µg of catechin equivalent (CA)/100 g. In all extracts of melon peel significant amounts of gallic acid, catechin, and eugenol were found. For total antioxidant capacity, reported as ascorbic acid equivalent, the hydroethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts in peels and hydromethanolic in seeds were 89, 74, and 83 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of melon showed iron and copper ions chelating activity at different concentrations, especially melon peel aqueous extract, reaching values of 61% for iron and 84% for copper. The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%). To assess the antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma, MTT assay was performed. The proliferation was inhibited by 20-85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results suggest that melon residues extracts display a high antioxidant activity in in vitro assays and have effective biological activity against the growth of human tumor cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cucurbitaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Tannins/isolation & purification , Tannins/pharmacology
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2805-2815, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886850

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Morus nigra L. (Moraceae) is a tree known as black mulberry and the leaves are used in folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes, high cholesterol and menopause symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the M. nigra leaves phytochemical profile in different extractions and the hypolipidemic effect of the infusion comparing to the fenofibrate. Morus nigra infusion (MN) showed higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids (83.85 mg/g and 79.96 µg/g, respectively), as well as antioxidant activity (83.85%) than decoction or hydromethanolic extracts. Although, decoction showed the best result for ascorbic acid (4.35 mg/100 g) than hydromethanolic or infusion (2.51 or 2.13 mg/100 g, respectively). The phenolic acids gallic, chlorogenic and caffeic and the flavonoids quercetin, rutin and catechin were found in the M. nigra extracts. Hyperlipidemic rats treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg of MN decreased serum cholesterol, triglycerides and normalized lipoproteins. Furthermore, MN inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain of hyperlipidemic rats. This study provides evidence that M. nigra leaves extracts are rich in polyphenols, mainly chlorogenic acid, which normalized hyperlipidemic disturbance. The results suggest a potential therapeutic effect of the M. nigra leaves infusion on dislipidemic condition and related oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Phenols/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Morus/chemistry , Lipids/blood , Phenols/isolation & purification , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Antioxidants/pharmacology
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1841-1850, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886758

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the composition and antioxidant potential of leaves of a new variety of Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia UEM-13). Stevia leaves of UEM-13 contain rebaudioside A as the main glycoside, while most wild Stevia plants contain stevioside. Furthermore can be multiplied by seed, which reduces the cost of plant culture techniques as other clonal varieties are multiplied by buds, requiring sophisticated and expensive seedling production systems. Ethanol and methanol were used in the extraction to determine the bioactive compounds. The methanolic extract was fractionated sequentially with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and isobutanol, and the highest concentration of phenolic compounds and flavonoids was obtained in the ethyl acetate fraction (524.20 mg galic acid equivalent/g; 380.62 µg quercetin equivalent/g). The glycoside content varied greatly among the fractions (0.5% - 65.3%). Higher antioxidant potential was found in the methanol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction with 93.5% and 97.32%, respectively. In addition to being an excellent source for obtaining of extracts rich in glycoside, this new variety can also be used as raw material for the production of extracts or fractions with a significant amount of antioxidant activity and potential to be used as additives in food.


Subject(s)
Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Stevia/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Stevia/classification , Glycosides/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
8.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 373-382, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886653

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cardanol is a constituent of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid that presents larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. The isolation of cardanol is somewhat troublesome, however, in this work we describe an efficient and inexpensive method to obtain it as a pure material. The compound was used as starting material to make chemical transformation leading to saturated cardanol, epoxides and, halohydrins. These derivatives were tested for toxicity against Aedes aegypti larvae. The results showed that iodohydrins are very promising compounds for making commercial products to combat the vector mosquito larvae presenting a LC50 of 0.0023 ppm after 72 h of exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phenols/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/toxicity , Phenols/chemistry , Time Factors , Insecticides/chemical synthesis , Insecticides/toxicity , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 142-144, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741622

ABSTRACT

Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) (98.8%), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.8%), Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf) (0.3%) and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León) (0.1%). Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most frequently trapped species. This is the first record of its remarkable ability to adapt to urban green areas. The three other species trapped represent new records of geographic distribution for the study region. These results indicate the need to establish measures for reducing both human contact with this vector and the risk of possible sites of infection.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Caesalpinia/chemistry , Food Preservatives/isolation & purification , Fruit/chemistry , Models, Chemical , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Emulsions , Ethanol/chemistry , Food Storage , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Food Preservatives/analysis , Food Preservatives/chemistry , Gallic Acid/analysis , Gallic Acid/chemistry , Gallic Acid/isolation & purification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oxidation-Reduction , Peru , Principal Component Analysis , Phenols/analysis , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Spain , Solvents/chemistry , Ultrasonics/methods , Water/chemistry
10.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(4): 1283-1300, Oct-Dec/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-732517

ABSTRACT

Este estudo investiga as práticas de produção de conhecimento sobre a menopausa no Caism/Unicamp, centro de referência para políticas públicas em saúde da mulher. Foram realizadas observações de consultas ginecológicas, entrevistas com mulheres e médicos e observação de reuniões de apoio psicológico, buscando identificar os discursos que circulam no lugar e o processo de alistamento de diferentes atores para que os conhecimentos ali produzidos alcancem credibilidade e “viajem” além dos limites do hospital-escola, tornando-se “universais”. A análise baseia-se nos “estudos localistas”, alinhados aos estudos sociais de ciência e tecnologia.


This study investigates the practices involved in the production of knowledge about menopause at Caism, Unicamp, a reference center for public policies for women’s health. Gynecological appointments and psychological support meetings were observed, and women and doctors were interviewed in order to identify what discourse circulates there and how different actors are brought in to ensure that the knowledge produced attains credibility and “travels” beyond the boundaries of the teaching hospital to become “universal”. The analysis is based on localized studies aligned with social studies of science and technology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , /genetics , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Odorants , Benzoic Acid , Benzoates/isolation & purification , Benzoates/urine , Butyrates/isolation & purification , Butyrates/urine , Chromatography, Gas , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Cresols/isolation & purification , Cresols/urine , Dimethyl Sulfoxide , Discrimination, Psychological , Maze Learning , Mice, Inbred Strains , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/urine , Phenylacetates/isolation & purification , Phenylacetates/urine , Sulfones/isolation & purification , Sulfones/urine , Ultrafiltration
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 709-715, July-Sept. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699803

ABSTRACT

Phenolic compounds of nutraceutical importance viz., catechins (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) were estimated in fresh green tea shoots of Camellia sinensis (L) O Kuntze cultivar. The total polyphenols and total catechins were in the range of 219.90 to 317.81 and 140.83 to 271.39 g/kg, respectively in monthly samples of tea. The values of C, EC, EGC, EGCG and ECG in tea powders as analyzed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were in the range of 1.560 to 3.661, 13.338 to 27.766, 26.515 to 39.597, 62.903 to 102.168 and 18.969 to 39.469 mg/g, respectively. Effect of tea extracts and standard flavanols against five pathogenic bacteria viz., Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC-839), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-741), Bacillus cereus (MTCC-1272), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96) and Escherichia coli (MTCC-443), and eleven indigenous potential bacterial probiotics belonging to genera Enterococcus, Bacillus and Lactobacillus spp. obtained from fermented foods of Western Himalayas, was investigated. EGCG, ECG and EGC exhibited antibacterial activity but, C and EC did not show this activity. Tea extracts having high concentrations of EGCG and ECG were more potent in antibacterial action against bacterial pathogens. Tea extracts and standard flavan-3-ols augmented viability of potential probiotics in an order of EGCG > EGC > ECG > EC > C. Tea extracts and standard flavanols had no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443) but, in combination with probiotic culture supernatants, this activity was seen. The Kangra tea thus, exerts antibacterial effect on bacterial pathogens through EGCG, ECG and EGC constituents while stimulatory effect on growth of indigenous potential probiotics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Camellia sinensis/chemistry , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/pharmacology , Probiotics , Phenols/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Bacteria/growth & development , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/chemistry , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/isolation & purification , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
12.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 25 (3): 535-541
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-144402

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves using response surface methodology [RSM]. A user- defined design was applied to determine the effects of extraction time [min], extraction temperature [C] and ethanol concentration [%], on total phenolic content [TPC] from Moringa oleifera leaves dried by three methods [oven, sunlight and ambient air]. The RSM was used to optimize the extraction conditions for the extraction of TPC of Moringa oleifera leaves. The optimum conditions that maximize the extraction of TPC were extraction time, 60 min; extraction temperature, 90°C and% of methanol, 50% [v/v]. TPC extracted under these conditions were 12.28, 12.65 and 13.14 mg GAE/g DW for samples dried by different methods. Significant difference between drying methods was found [p<0.001]. Pair wise significant difference was found only between oven and ambient air drying methods [p<0.001]


Subject(s)
Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Temperature
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 10(2): 167-172, mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-686997

ABSTRACT

Sedentary styles of life, along with inadequate nutritional habits, increase the risk to develop degenerative chronic diseases. Searching for possible alternatives of prevention for those risks, it has been investigated about the quality and nutraceutic properties of several agricultural commodities. The phenols are substances with important functions in vegetal organisms; and moreover they have antioxidants properties in the cellular metabolism of humans and animals. In order to quantify the content of three phenolic acids and a stilbene, it was performed analyses, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV/Vis), on metanolic leave extracts of 97 wild grapevines (Vitis spp.) of Puebla, Mexico. Those plants were found growing in their natural environments from 207 to 2175 m. The gallic acid was the most common of the metabolites since it appeared in 96 of the 97 samples, rutin was the second most common substance and it was identified in 80 samples, the caffeic acid appeared in 29 and finally resveratrol only in 14. The leaves of wild grapevines contain diverse antioxidants substances that might have several benefits in the human health; in addition the suitable conservation, maintenance and correct advantage of this plant genus provide environmental services and the balance of ecosystems.


Estilos de vida sedentarios, conjugados con inadecuados hábitos alimenticios, incrementan el riesgo de contraer enfermedades crónicas degenerativas. En la búsqueda de posibles alternativas de prevención, se ha investigado en la calidad y aspectos nutracéuticos de productos agrícolas. Los fenoles son sustancias con importantes funciones en organismos vegetales que, además, poseen propiedades antioxidantes en el metabolismo celular de humanos y animales. Con objeto de cuantificar el contenido de tres ácidos fenólicos y un estilbeno, fueron realizados análisis por cromatografía de líquidos de alta resolución (HPLC-UV/Vis) en extractos metanólicos de hojas provenientes de 97 accesiones de vides silvestres (Vitis spp.) de Puebla, México que crecían en su ambiente natural desde 207 hasta 2175 msnm. El ácido gálico fue el más común de los metabolitos ya que se presentó en 96 de las 97 muestras, el rutín fue la segunda sustancia en común y se identificó en 80 muestras; el ácido caféico se presentó en 29 y finalmente el resveratrol en 14. Las hojas de vides silvestres poseen diversas sustancias antioxidantes que podrían tener múltiples beneficios en la salud humana; además la adecuada conservación, mantenimiento y aprovechamiento de este género provee servicios ambientales y el equilibrio de ecosistemas.


Subject(s)
Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Vitis/chemistry , Gallic Acid/isolation & purification , Caffeic Acids/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Stilbenes/isolation & purification , Mexico , Rutin/isolation & purification
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 59(1): 465-472, mar. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-638080

ABSTRACT

Antioxidant effect and polyphenol content of Syringodium filiforme (Cymodoceaceae). The marine phanerogam Syringodium filiforme, known as "manatee grass", is a common species that grows in coastal areas associated to Thalassia testudinum. With the aim to describe some of its possible chemical characteristics, this study was performed with a sample of 1.2kg, collected in March 2009, in Guanabo beach, Havana, Cuba. The sample was dried (less than 12% humidity) and a total extract prepared; other three extracts were prepared with the use of solvents of increasing polarity. The phytochemical screening and analytical determinations of each fraction were undertaken Total polyphenol content was determined using pyrogallol as reference´s standard; chlorophyll a and b and anthocyanin content were also quantified. Total extract and fractions antioxidant activity were evaluated by using the free radical scavenging activity assay with 1,1- Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl reactive (knowing as DPPH´s method). The phytochemical screening of the different extracts detected the presence of high concentrations of flavonoids, phenols, terpenes, antocyaninns, reducing sugars and alkaloids. The total extract and methanol fraction showed significant free radical scavenging properties, while the petroleum ether fraction showed moderate activity, and the chloroform fraction and the aqueous soluble precipitate (residual salt) obtained didn’t show antioxidant properties against free radicals. The results of this work confirmed the potentialities of this species for biological purposes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1): 465-472. Epub 2011 March 01.


La fanerógama marina Syringodium filiforme, conocida comúnmente como "Hierba Manatí", crece en los fondos marinos tropicales asociada con la especie Thalassia testudinum. Este estudio fue realizado con una muestra de S. filiforme (1.2kg peso húmedo) recolectada en la playa de Guanabo en La Habana, Cuba en Marzo 2009. La muestra fue secada hasta humedad inferior al 12% y se realizaron tres extracciones con solventes de polaridad creciente previamente al tamizaje fitoquímico y a las determinaciones analíticas. A partir del extracto total y en las fracciones se detectó la presencia de grupos químicos, fundamentalmente estructuras típicas de los flavonoides, por las absorbancias obtenidas en los espectros ultravioleta-visible. En el tamizaje fitoquímico se corroboró la existencia de altas concentraciones de flavonoides, triterpenos, polifenoles, antocianinas, azúcares reductores y alcaloides en los diferentes extractos obtenidos. El contenido de polifenoles totales de S. filiforme, se cuantificó mediante el uso de pirogalol como patrón de referencia; así como el contenido de clorofilas a y b, y el nivel de antocianinas. La actividad antioxidante se determinó por el método reducción del 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH). El extracto total y la fracción metanólica mostraron elevada actividad antioxidante en correspondencia con la concentración de polifenoles, mientras que la fracción de éter de petróleo mostró actividad moderada y la fracción clorofórmica y el precipitado remanente no muestran actividad antioxidante significativa. Estos resultados predicen las potencialidades de la especie para su uso con fines biológicos.


Subject(s)
Alismatales/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Phenols/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Alismatales/classification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Free Radical Scavengers , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Polyphenols , Phenols/isolation & purification
15.
Egyptian Journal of Chemistry. 2009; 52 (3): 417-423
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-135692

ABSTRACT

Activated carbons derived from corncobs as well as their metal-loaded chars were investigated to find the suitability of their application for the removal of ortho-, meta- and para-nitrophenols besides phenol in single and bi-solute aqueous systems. Three types of activations namely; thermal activation via one step steam pyrolysis at 700°C and two step steam at 850 C as well as chemical activation using H3PO4 impregnation then pyrolysis at 500 C. The non-activated carbon sample, char, was impregnated with calculated amount of each of iron, nickel, copper or calcium nitrates then pyrolysed at 500 C to obtain four metal-loaded carbons. The adsorption capacity of the investigated carbons was carried out via measuring their phenol and/or nitrophenols numbers in single and bisolute systems at 25°C in their aqueous solutions. The results indicate that in bi-solute systems the presence of two solutes decreases the phenolic number of each component than that in the single system, which ascribed to the competition arising between the two solutes on the same number of adsorption sites on the adsorbent surface. It is clear that there are other factors, beside porosity and surface nature, controlling the adsorption process of phenol and/or nitrophenols. The removal capacity of nitrophcnol was found to be affected with the orientation in the nitro-group site and the obtained uptake was ordered 4NP > 3NP > 2NP. The results indicate that in bi-solute systems the presence of two solutes decreases the phenolic number of each component than in the single system, which ascribed to the competition arising between the two solutes on the same number of adsorption sites on the adsorbent surface. Para-nitrophenol measured the highest uptake compared with its other mono-substituted phenols which may be attributed to its ability to form intermolecular hydrogen bonding structure and the absence of steric hindrance which may control the adsorption of the ortho- and meta-nitrophenols. Among the investigated adsorbent, the highest adsorption capacity was exhibited by the one step steam pyrolysis activated carbon sample which refers to its surface nature of highly basic surface and porosity


Subject(s)
Phenols/isolation & purification , Carbon/chemistry
16.
Biol. Res ; 41(2): 151-155, 2008. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-495749

ABSTRACT

The antioxidant properties oí Acantholippia deserticola, a herb used in traditional northern Chilean medicine was studied using free radical - generating systems. The 50 percent aqueous - ethanol extract oí Acantholippia deserticola protected against non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes of rat, induced by an Fe++ - ascorbate system and measured spectrophotometrically by the TBARS test, and had strong free radical scavenging capacities on stable ABTS and DPPH radicáis. The results shows that the IC50 valué of the 50 percent aqueous - ethanolic extract oí A.deserticola is 18 ± 0.5 μg/mL in DPPH radical - scavenging, 15 ± 0.8 μg/mL in lipid peroxidation , Total Antioxidant Activity (TAA) is 0.95 mM of Trolox per mg/mL of extract. The total phenolics content of extract is 725 ± 12 mg of gallic acid equivalent per g of dried extract. The results indicate that the 50 percent aqueous - ethanol extract oí Acantholippia deserticola clearly has antioxidant properties.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Verbenaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2003 Aug; 41(8): 895-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60125

ABSTRACT

Five host plants [castor, Ricinus communis (Carolus Linnaeus); cotton, Gossypium hirsutm (Carolus Linnaeus); tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum (Philip Miller); mint, Mentha arvensis (Carolus Linnaeus) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea (Carolus Linnaeus)] belonging to different families were used to study the performance of the Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura larvae. Highest consumption of food and dry weight gain was observed in larvae fed on castor. Mint did not support optimum larval growth because of low digestibility and low efficiency of conversion of digested food to body matter. Dry weight gain ranged from 26.64 mg on mint to 86.80 mg in castor. These differences tend to be related to nitrogen and total phenolics content of the leaf tissues; however, the most clear-cut correlation is an inverse one between the host plant preference and the ratio of total phenolics to nitrogen in the leaf tissues. Mid-gut esterase activity in larvae showed an increasing trend with the increase in total phenolics: nitrogen ratio in the test plants and the order of mid-gut esterase activity in larvae was mint > cabbage > cotton > tomato > castor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Esterases/metabolism , Food Preferences , Insect Proteins/metabolism , Larva/enzymology , Nitrogen/isolation & purification , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plants/chemistry , Spodoptera/enzymology
18.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1996 Feb; 34(2): 98-102
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62174

ABSTRACT

Antimutagenic effect of 2 polyphenolic fractions isolated from T. bellerica in TA98 and TA100 strains of S. typhimurium against 2AF, NPD and 4NQNO has been characterized. Both the fractions were significantly effective against S9-dependent 2AF; less effective against NPD and almost not effective against 4NQNO in TA100 strain. Using 13C-NMR spectral analysis, the TB-3 fraction, which was significantly more effective against 2AF compared to TB-4, was found to be a mixture of 3 tannins while TB-4 was non-tannin fraction. Interaction of polyphenols with S9 proteins may be the probable cause of inhibitory effect of these polyphenols, though the possibility of other mechanisms cannot be ruled out.


Subject(s)
Antimutagenic Agents/isolation & purification , Flavonoids , Fruit/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Polymers/isolation & purification , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Species Specificity
19.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 37(2): 324-32, jun. 1987. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-103788

ABSTRACT

La inclusión de harina de habas (Vicia faba) en la dieta de animales de experimentación produce un retardo en el crecimiento, semejante al inducido por la adición de 0.2% de ácido tánico en dietas control de caseína. Tanto los extractos hidroalcohólicos obtenidos a partir de semillas de havas. Asimismo, la presencia de ácido tánico al 0.05, 0.1 y 0.2% en las soluciones de glucosa, disminuye proporcionalmente la absorción de ésta por el intestino. Los resultados en cuestión parecen sugerir que los polifenoles afectan, al menos parcialmente, el valor nutritivo d ela leguminosa (Vivia faba), si bien otros componentes d elas mismas también podrían estar involucrados


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Fabaceae , Growth/drug effects , Nutritive Value/drug effects , Phenols/pharmacology , Polymers/pharmacology , Fabaceae/analysis , Glucose/metabolism , Intestinal Absorption/drug effects , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polymers/isolation & purification , Rats, Inbred Strains , Tannins/isolation & purification
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