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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The industrial revolution has resulted in increased synthesis and the introduction of a variety of compounds into the environment and their potentially hazardous effects have been observed in the biota. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting effects of chronic exposure to the low concentrations of bisphenol S (BPS) in male rats.@*METHODS@#Weaning male Sprague-Dawley rats (22 days old) were either exposed to water containing 0.1% ethanol for control or different concentrations of BPS (0.5, 5, and 50 μg/L) in drinking water for 48 weeks in the chronic exposure study. After completion of the experimental period, animals were dissected and different parameters (hormone concentrations, histology of testis and epididymis, oxidative stress and level of antioxidant enzymes in the testis, daily sperm production (DSP), and sperm parameters) were determined.@*RESULTS@#Results of the present study showed a significant alteration in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and relative reproductive organ weights. Oxidative stress in the testis was significantly elevated while sperm motility, daily sperm production, and the number of sperm in epididymis were reduced. Plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations were reduced and estradiol levels were high in the 50 μg/L-exposed group. Histological observations involved a significant reduction in the epithelial height of the testis along with disrupted spermatogenesis, an empty lumen of the seminiferous tubules, and the caput region of the epididymis.@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggest that exposure to 5 and 50 μg/L of BPS for the chronic duration started from an early age can induce structural changes in testicular tissue architecture and endocrine alterations in the male reproductive system which may lead to infertility in males.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Infertility, Male/physiopathology , Male , Phenols/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sulfones/toxicity , Testis/physiopathology , Toxicity Tests, Chronic
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 437-447, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153362

ABSTRACT

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in the production of polycarbonate, a polymer commonly found in plastics, epoxy resins and thermal papers. The presence of BPA in food, water, air and dust has been of great concern in recent years not only due to environmental and ecological issues but also because of its supposed risk to public health related to its mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. In this study we evaluated the toxicity of bisphenol A in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) and determined the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of this chemical. BPA was used at concentrations ranging from 1 µM to 100 µM in E3 medium/0.5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) from previously prepared stock solutions in 100% DMSO. Controls included embryos exposed only to E3 medium or supplemented with 0.5% DMSO. Camptothecin (CPT), a known inhibitor of cell proliferation was used as positive control at a concentration of 0.001 µM in E3 medium/0.5% DMSO. Adults zebrafish were placed for breeding a day before the experimental set up, then, viable embryos were collected and selected for use. Experiments were carried out in triplicates, according to specifications from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). One embryo/well (25 embryos per concentration) was distributed in 96 well microplates in presence or absence of the chemicals. The plates were kept in BOD incubators with a controlled temperature of 28.5 ºC and with photoperiod of 14 h light:10 h dark. After 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h exposure, the exposed embryos were evaluated according to the following parameters: mortality, coagulation, rate of heartbeat, hatching and presence of morphological abnormalities. Photography was obtained by photomicroscopy. Apoptosis was evaluated by DNA ladder assay. DNA was extracted by phenol:chloroform method and analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA fragments were visualized after ethidium bromide staining in ultraviolet transilluminator. The LC50 determined for BPA was 70 µM after 24 hours, 72 µM after 48 hours, 47 µM after 72 hours and 31 µM after 96 hours exposure. BPA induced morphological and physiological alterations such as yolk sac and pericardial edema, hatching delay or inhibition, spine deformation, decreasing in heartbeat rate and mortality. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that BPA induced marked malformations in zebrafish embryos at concentrations above 25 µM corroborating the current concerns related to the widespread presence of BPA in the air, food and water used by humans as well as in the bodily fluids and tissues.


Bisfenol A (BPA) é um monômero utilizado na produção de policarbonato, um polímero comumente encontrado em plásticos, resinas epóxi e papéis térmicos. A presença de BPA em alimentos, água, ar e poeira tem sido motivo de grande preocupação nos últimos anos, não só devido a questões ambientais e ecológicas, mas também ao suposto risco para a saúde pública relacionado ao seu potencial mutagênico e carcinogênico. Neste estudo avaliamos a toxicidade do bisfenol A em embriões de peixe-zebra (Danio rerio) e determinamos a concentração letal 50% (LC50) deste composto químico. O BPA foi usado na faixa de concentração entre 1 µM e 100µM em meio E3/0,5% de dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO), preparado a partir de soluções estoques em 100% DMSO. Os controles negativos incluíram embriões expostos apenas ao meio E3 ou suplementado com 0,5% DMSO. Camptotecina (CPT), um conhecido inibidor da proliferação celular, foi usado como controle positivo a uma concentração de 0,001 µM em meio E3/0,5% DMSO. Peixes-zebra adultos foram colocados para reprodução um dia antes da montagem experimental, em seguida, embriões viáveis foram coletados e selecionados para uso. Os experimentos foram realizados em triplicata, de acordo com as especificações da Organização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico (OCDE). Um embrião/ poço (25 embriões por concentração) foi distribuído em microplacas de 96 poços na presença ou ausência dos compostos químicos. As placas foram mantidas em incubadoras BOD com temperatura controlada de 28,5 ºC e com fotoperíodo de 14h claro:10h escuro. Após 24h, 48h, 72h e 96h, os embriões expostos foram avaliados de acordo com os seguintes parâmetros: mortalidade, presença de coagulação, taxa do batimento cardíaco, eclosão e presença de anormalidades morfológicas. Fotografias foram obtidas por fotomicroscopia. A apoptose foi avaliada pelo ensaio de DNA ladder. O DNA foi extraído pelo método fenol:clorofórmio e analisado por eletroforese em gel de agarose a 2%. Fragmentos de DNA foram visualizadas após coloração com brometo de etídio em um transiluminador ultravioleta. A LC50 determinada para o BPA foi 70 µM após 24 horas, 72 µM após 48 horas, 47 µM após 72 horas e 31 µM após exposição por 96 horas. O BPA induziu alterações morfológicas e fisiológicas como edema de saco vitelino e edema pericárdico, atraso no tempo ou inibição da eclosão, deformação da coluna vertebral, diminuição da taxa de batimentos cardíacos e mortalidade. Em conclusão, este estudo demonstrou que o BPA induziu grande número de malformações em embriões de peixe-zebra em concentrações acima de 25 µM, corroborando as preocupações atuais relacionadas a presença generalizada do BPA no ar, alimento e água usados pelos seres humanos bem como nos fluidos e tecidos corporais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Plastics/adverse effects , Plastics/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Zebrafish/embryology , Phenols/toxicity , Benzhydryl Compounds , Embryonic Development/physiology , Embryo, Nonmammalian
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1786-1796, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134512

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical widely used to make polycarbonate plastics for packaging and epoxy resins. This study sought to examine how selenium (Se) affects BPA toxicity in terms of albino rats' histological structure, antioxidant enzymes and reproductive organs (seminiferous tubules). Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: Group 1: Control; Group 2: Orally administered BPA; Group 3: Orally administered sodium selenite; Group 4: Treated daily with BPA followed by selenium (Se). All experiment done for 4 weeks. BPA exposure caused changes in the testicular histological structure, which consists apoptosis, and led to changes in several biochemical markers: Malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. However, these BPA side effects may be ameliorated in rats treated with BPA-plus-Se. These protective effects of Se may attributable to its ability to remove potentially damaging oxidizing agents in living organisms. The results may confirm that Se countered the oxidant effects and increased the BPA-induced stress response in rats. So, Se promotes the healthy growth and development of mammals by protecting them from oxidative stress. As human are greatly exposed to BPA and it can accumulate in tissues, there is concern about human reproductive functions particularly for occupational workers exposed usually to greater levels of BPA. Thus, the use of BPA in multiple industries must be restricted and the inaccurate usage of plastic containers should be avoided to decrease the health hazards. Administration of Se may protect against the adverse effects of BPA on reproductive functions and structures.


RESUMEN: El bisfenol A (BPA) es un químico industrial ampliamente utilizado para fabricar plásticos de policarbonato para envases y resinas epoxi. Este estudio examinó el efecto de selenio (Se) en la toxicidad del BPA en términos de la estructura histológica, enzimas antioxidantes y los órganos reproductivos (túbulos seminíferos) de ratas albinas. Se dividieron veinticuatro ratas macho adultas en cuatro grupos experimentales: Grupo 1: control; Grupo 2: BPA administrado por vía oral; Grupo 3: BPA administrado por vía oral para; Grupo 4: tratado diariamente con BPA seguido de selenio (Se). El experimento se realizó durante cuatro semanas y se observó que la exposición al BPA provocó cambios en la estructura histológica testicular, incluyendo apoptosis, y alteraciones en varios marcadores bioquímicos:malondialdehído, catalasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión peroxidasa. Sin embargo, estos efectos secundarios del BPA pueden mejorar en ratas tratadas con BPA-plus-Se. Estos efectos protectores del Se pueden ser atribuidos a la capacidad de eliminar agentes oxidantes potencialmente dañinos en organismos vivos. Los resultados indicaron que se contrarrestaron los efectos oxidantes y aumentó la respuesta al estrés inducido por BPA en ratas, y favorece el crecimiento y desarrollo en los mamíferos al protegerlos del estrés oxidativo. Debido a la exposición al BPA en el ser humano, se puede acumular en los tejidos, por lo que existe una preocupación por el daño a las funciones reproductivas en particular de los trabajadores que generalmente están expuestos a niveles más altos de BPA. Por lo tanto, se debe restringir el uso de BPA en las industrias y evitar el uso incorrecto de envases de plástico para así disminuir los riesgos para la salud. La administración correcta de Se puede proteger contra los efectos adversos del BPA en las funciones y estructuras reproductivas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Phenols/toxicity , Selenium/pharmacology , Testis/drug effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Testis/pathology , Benzhydryl Compounds/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers , Catalase/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects
4.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 692-697, sep.-oct. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127333

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA), found in plastics and epoxy resins, is one of the most studied chemicals. BPA is regarded as an endocrine disruptor and has been related to adverse health effects in humans. However, some regulatory agencies around the world have concluded that BPA is safe at current human exposure levels. As the scientific community attempts to settle the debate on BPA's health effects, regulatory agencies have been put into a challenging public health policy situation. The United States has implemented no regulatory actions due to safety concerns, while Europe has used the precautionary principle to guide its regulation in the face of scientific uncertainty. In this paper, we explore the debate surrounding BPA regulation and the possibility for countries to introduce guidelines, using Mexico as an example. Policy change determinants analysis suggest that countries can and should impose regulations on BPA.


Resumen: El bisfenol A (BPA), presente en plásticos y resinas epoxi, es uno de los químicos más estudiados. Se considera un disruptor endocrino y se ha relacionado con efectos adversos para la salud humana. Algunas agencias regulatorias en el mundo han concluido que el BPA es seguro a los niveles de exposición humana actuales. Mientas la comunidad científica intenta resolver el debate sobre dichos efectos, las agencias regulatorias enfrentan una difícil situación de política pública. Los Estados Unidos de América no han implementado acciones reglamentarias por razones precautorias, mientras que Europa ha utilizado el principio precautorio para guiar su regulación ante la incertidumbre científica. En este documento exploramos el debate que rodea la regulación del BPA y la posibilidad de que los países introduzcan directrices, usando a México como ejemplo. El análisis de los determinantes del cambio de políticas sugiere que los países pueden y deben regular el BPA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenols/toxicity , Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Legislation, Drug , Public Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , United States , Europe , Mexico
5.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 27(1): 19-29, mayo 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010979

ABSTRACT

Se evaluó la importancia del consumo diario de agua por ingesta en la evaluación de riesgo a la salud humana (ERS) de contaminantes presentes en agua subterránea de pozos domiciliarios en la ciudad de Azul, Argentina. El riesgo probabilístico acumulativo se calculó en base al modelo de la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de Estados Unidos (USEPA) para cuatro grupos de edad (5, 10, 15 años y adultos). Los resultados fueron comparados mediante la aplicación de un consumo diario de agua por ingesta estimado utilizado con frecuencia en la literatura frente a una cantidad ingerida local. De las seis variables usadas (Concentración de la sustancia peligrosa en el agua; Ingesta diaria de agua (I); Frecuencia de exposición; Duración de la exposición; Peso corporal del individuo expuesto; Factor de corrección para el tiempo promedio de exposición crónica), la Ifue la variable más influyente en el va­lor del riesgo presentando diferencias significativas entre los resultados derivados de ambos tipos de I. La diferencia más alta fue en los 5 años de edad, grupo que presentó un riesgo acumulado asociado con I local 98% más bajo respecto del riesgo calculado utilizando I basada en la literatura. La selección de la I tuvo un impacto significativo en los resultados del riesgo, lo que sugiere una cuidadosa elección de las variables de entrada al modelo de la evaluación del riesgo para evitar subestimaciones o sobreestimaciones.


We evaluated the importance of the daily consumption of water by ingestion on health risk assessment (HRA) from pollutants present in shallow groundwater from residential wells in the city of Azul, Argentina. The probabilistic cumulative risk was calculated based on the model of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for four age groups (5, 10, 15 years and adults). The results were compared by applying a daily consumption of water by estimated intake frequently used in the literature against a local ingested amount. From the six variables used (Concentration of the hazardous substance in water, Daily water intake (I), Frequency of exposure, Duration of exposure, Body weight of the exposed individual, Correction factor for the average time of chronic exposure), I was the most influential variable in the value of risk, presenting significant differences between the results de­rived from both types of I. The highest difference was in the 5 years of age, a group that presented an accumulated risk associated with local I 98% lower regarding the risk calculated using I based on the literature. The selection of I had a significant impact on risk outcomes, suggesting a careful choice of input variables to the risk assessment model to avoid underestimation or overestimation.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Drinking Water/analysis , Risk Assessment/methods , Drinking , Water Wells , Phenols/toxicity , Argentina/epidemiology , Arsenic/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 373-382, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886653

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cardanol is a constituent of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid that presents larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. The isolation of cardanol is somewhat troublesome, however, in this work we describe an efficient and inexpensive method to obtain it as a pure material. The compound was used as starting material to make chemical transformation leading to saturated cardanol, epoxides and, halohydrins. These derivatives were tested for toxicity against Aedes aegypti larvae. The results showed that iodohydrins are very promising compounds for making commercial products to combat the vector mosquito larvae presenting a LC50 of 0.0023 ppm after 72 h of exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phenols/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/toxicity , Phenols/chemistry , Time Factors , Insecticides/chemical synthesis , Insecticides/toxicity , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(12): e5647, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828176

ABSTRACT

The current study aimed to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol (NP) on delivery outcome of pregnant rats and subsequent inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats. The pregnant rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (corn oil) and NP exposure group. Thirty-four pregnant rats were administered NP or corn oil by gavage from the sixth day of pregnancy to 21 days postpartum, with blood samples collected at 12 and 21 days of pregnancy and 60 days after delivery. The NP concentration was measured by HPLC, with chemiluminescence used for detection of estrogen and progesterone levels. Maternal delivery parameters were also observed. Liver and blood of the newborn rats were collected and subjected to automatic biochemical detection of liver function and blood lipid analyzer (immunoturbidimetry), and ultrastructural observation of the hepatic microstructure, with the TNF-α and IL-1β hepatic tissue levels evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the control group, the pregnant and postpartum serum NP and estradiol levels of the mother rats in the NP group were significantly increased, together with lowered progesterone level, increased number of threatened abortion and dystocia, and fewer newborn rats and lower litter weight. Serum and hepatic NP levels of the newborn rats measured 60 days after birth were significantly higher than those of the control group, as well as lower testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels. When observed under electron microscope, the hepatocyte nuclei of the control group were large and round, with evenly distributed chromatin. The chromatin of hepatocytes in the NP group presented deep staining of the nuclei, significant lipid decrease in the cytoplasm, and the majority of cells bonded with lysate. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that there was almost no TNF-α or IL-1β expression in the hepatocytes of the control group, while the number of TNF-α-, PCNA-, and IL-1β-positive cells in the NP group was increased, with higher integral optical density than the control group. Compared to the control group, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein in the newborn rats of the NP group were significantly increased. There was no significant difference in the serum level of high-density lipoprotein or cholesterol between the groups. Perinatal exposure to NP can interfere with the in vivo estrogen and progesterone levels of pregnant rats, resulting in threatened abortion, dystocia and other adverse delivery outcomes. High liver and serum NP levels of the newborn rats led to alteration of liver tissue structure and function. The NP-induced hepatotoxicity is probably mediated by inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1α.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Phenols/toxicity , Animals, Newborn , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-1/analysis , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/chemically induced , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202334

ABSTRACT

Bisphenol A (BPA) has been reported to possess hepatic toxicity. We investigated the hypothesis that BPA, below the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), can induce hepatic damage and mitochondrial dysfunction by increasing oxidative stress in the liver. Two doses of BPA, 0.05 and 1.2 mg/kg body weight/day, were administered intraperitoneally for 5 days to mice. Both treatments impaired the structure of the hepatic mitochondria, although oxygen consumption rate and expression of the respiratory complex decreased only at the higher dose. The hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a naturally occurring product of lipid peroxidation, increased, while the expression of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) decreased, after BPA treatment. The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) also increased. In HepG2 cells, 10 or 100 nM of BPA also decreased the oxygen consumption rate, ATP production, and the mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, doses of BPA below the NOAEL induce mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver, and this is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and inflammation.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Animals , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Inflammation/chemically induced , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mitochondria/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Phenols/toxicity , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
9.
Biol. Res ; 45(1): 5-14, 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626741

ABSTRACT

Bisphenol A [2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane] (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (NP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and its metabolite mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) are chemicals found in plastics, which act as endocrine disruptors (EDs) in animals, including human. EDs act like hormones in the endocrine system, and disrupt the physiologic function of endogenous hormones. Most people are exposed to different endocrine disruptors and concern has been raised about their true effect on reproductive organs. In the testis, they seem to preferentially attack developing testis during puberty rather than adult organs. However, the lack of information about the molecular mechanism, and the apparently controversial effect observed in different models has hampered the understanding of their effects on mammalian spermatogenesis. In this review, we critically discuss the available information regarding the effect of BPA, NP and DEHP/ MEHP upon mammalian spermatogenesis, a major target of EDs. Germ cell sloughing, disruption of the blood-testis-barrier and germ cell apoptosis are the most common effects reported in the available literature. We propose a model at the molecular level to explain the effects at the cellular level, mainly focused on germ cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects , Air Pollutants, Occupational/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity , Endocrine Disruptors/adverse effects , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Infertility, Male/chemically induced , Phenols/adverse effects , Phenols/toxicity , Plasticizers/toxicity , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Apoptosis/physiology , Germ Cells/drug effects , Plasticizers/adverse effects , Plasticizers/chemistry , Spermatogenesis/physiology , Testis/drug effects
10.
Biol. Res ; 45(1): 15-20, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626742

ABSTRACT

Alkylphenol polyethoxylates is a group of estrogenic compounds. Natural or synthetic types of these compounds react with the endocrine system by binding hormone receptors, resulting in interference with their action, which is why they are called endocrine disrupting chemicals. Among their hydrolytic products are nonylphenols (NP), which are considered pollutants of aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathological alterations on liver tissue of fish exposed to these compounds for long durations, starting from beginning of life and during the period of sexual maturity. Tilapia fish were obtained from Abhur fish farms, reared in the laboratory in special basins, and divided into two groups. The first maternal group was untreated and their larvae were divided into three sub-groups: control; exposed to 15μg/L; and exposed to 30 μg/L. The second maternal group was divided into 2 sub-groups: with larvae exposed to 15μg/L; and with their larvae exposed to 30 μg/L. Larvae and mother exposed to different concentrations of NP (15 and 30 μg/L) showed an increased accumulation of NP in both livers and muscles compared to the control group due to bioaccumulation. Tissue section examinations of the treated group (15 μg NP /L) showed disruption of liver architecture, with lyses, loss of nuclei, necrosis, and fatty infiltration. The changes were more marked in tissues exposed to (30 μg NP /L). Although this pollution was not lethal, its effect may be reflected in vital activities and in the economy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Liver/drug effects , Phenols/toxicity , Seawater/chemistry , Tilapia , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Endocrine System/drug effects , Liver/chemistry , Liver/pathology , Models, Animal , Reproduction/physiology , Saudi Arabia , Sexual Maturation/drug effects , Sexual Maturation/physiology , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 13(6): 8-9, Nov. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-591912

ABSTRACT

Influences of phenol, alpha-naphtol and beta-naphtol, which are toxic chemicals, on citric acid biosynthesis and biomass in the artificial culture setting of Aspergillus niger using batch fermenter are examined in the most favorable fermentation conditions, and a model is proposed. Addition of certain concentrations of phenol, alpha-naphtol and beta-naphtol to the culture increases the citric acid production. According to this model, maximum citric acid concentration is 48.3 g L-1 in a culture that does not contain any toxic chemicals, whereas the maximum concentrations obtained in cultures containing 25 mg L-1 phenol, 25 mg L-1 alpha-naphtol and 15 mg L-1 beta-naphtol are 62.5 g L-1, 78.1 g L-1 and 86.0 g L-1, respectively. Moreover, addition of toxic chemicals to the culture reduces fermentation time by 24 hrs.


Subject(s)
Citric Acid/metabolism , Aspergillus niger , Phenols/pharmacology , Naphthols/pharmacology , Toxic Substances , Culture Media , Fermentation , Phenols/toxicity , Naphthols/toxicity
12.
J Environ Biol ; 2008 Sep; 29(5): 733-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113601

ABSTRACT

In a toxicological context, the cellular effects of a variety of molecular compounds interacting with membranes may be understood in terms of their ability to affect and modulate lipid-membrane physical properties and even slight changes in membrane fluidity may cause aberrant function and pathological processes. Different model systems (mice splenocytes and liposomes) have been used in modelling studies of the physical effects on lipid bilayers underlying the action of membrane active phenolic compounds, considered by EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) as priority pollutants (phenol; 2-chlorophenol; 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; pentachlorophenol; 2-nitrophenol; 2,4-dinitrophenol; 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol). Membrane fluidity was assessed by fluorescence steady-state anisotropy of a fluorescent probe 1,6-diphenil-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). The substituted phenols increased the fluidity of cells and liposome membranes in a concentration dependent manner and the nitro substituted phenols were the most efficient perturbing the biophysical properties of the membrane. A good parallelism has been established between the results obtained with cell models and artificial liposome model systems, implying that liposomes are useful alternative systems in membrane modification studies and can be conveniently used in order to evaluate the potential toxic effect of phenol derivatives that are common environmental pollutants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Fluorescence Polarization , Liposomes , Membrane Fluidity/drug effects , Mice , Phenols/toxicity
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 11(3): 110-121, July 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-531887

ABSTRACT

The toxicity of thirty para-substituted phenols on Tetrahymena pyriformis was modelled using an original methodology that uses the complex structural information of the compounds. Two models were built. The methodology allows atomic properties to be assigned to toxicity based on the selection of pairs of descriptors from the entire family, which is called Molecular Descriptors Family (MDF). One model has two independent structural descriptors and the other has four. The model with four descriptors proved to have high estimated and predictive abilities (over 97 percent of toxicity could be explained by structural information). The partial charge distribution by bonds (molecular topology) and space (molecular geometry) interaction proved to be related with the toxicity of para-substituted phenols on Tetrahymena pyriformis. The predictive ability of the model was tested by using the following methods: the cross-validation leave-one-out and the training versus test experiments. The comparisons among the models were performed using the correlated correlations method. The embedding of the complex information from the structure using MDF methodology can lead to further investigations of the mechanism of chemicals toxicity on Tetrahymena pyriformis.


Subject(s)
Phenols/toxicity , Tetrahymena pyriformis , Tetrahymena pyriformis/chemistry , Models, Molecular , Toxicity
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126341

ABSTRACT

Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has been shown to cause developmental toxicity and carcinogenic effects. BPA may have physiological activity through estrogen receptor (ER) -alpha and -beta, which are expressed in the central nervous system. We previously found that exposure of BPA to immature mice resulted in behavioral alternation, suggesting that overexposure of BPA could be neurotoxic. In this study, we further investigated the molecular neurotoxic mechanisms of BPA. BPA increased vulnerability (decrease of cell viability and differentiation, and increase of apoptotic cell death) of undifferentiated PC12 cells and cortical neuronal cells isolated from gestation 18 day rat embryos in a concentration-dependent manner (more than 50 micrometer). The ER antagonists, ICI 182,780, and tamoxifen, did not block these effects. The cell vulnerability against BPA was not significantly different in the PC12 cells overexpressing ER-alpha and ER-beta compared with PC12 cells expressing vector alone. In addition, there was no difference observed between BPA and 17-beta estradiol, a well-known agonist of ER receptor in the induction of neurotoxic responses. Further study of the mechanism showed that BPA significantly activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but inhibited anti-apoptotic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation. In addition, ERK-specific inhibitor, PD 98,059, reversed BPA-induced cell death and restored NF-kappaB activity. This study demonstrated that exposure to BPA can cause neuronal cell death which may eventually be related with behavioral alternation in vivo. However, this neurotoxic effect may not be directly mediated through an ER receptor, as an ERK/NF-kappaB pathway may be more closely involved in BPA-induced neuronal toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Estradiol/analogs & derivatives , Estrogens, Non-Steroidal/toxicity , Flavonoids/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Neurons/drug effects , PC12 Cells , Phenols/toxicity , Rats , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Tamoxifen/pharmacology
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Feb; 42(2): 220-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57563

ABSTRACT

In the present study we have investigated if administration of nonylphenol-induced oxidative stress in various subcellular fractions of adult rat testis and the effect of vitamin E on reactive oxygen species mediated nonylphenol toxicity. Male rats were administered orally with nonylphenol at 1, 10 and 100 microg/kg body weight per day for 45 days with and without supplementation of vitamin E (20 mg/kg body weight). In nonylphenol-treated rats the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase decreased significantly while the levels of lipid peroxidation increased significantly in the crude homogenate and in the mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of testis. Co-administration of nonylphenol and vitamin E did not cause changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in various subcellular fractions of rat testis. The results suggest that graded doses of nonylphenol elicit depletion of antioxidant defence system in rat testis, indicating nonylphenol induced oxidative stress in the testis of rats which could be reversed by the administration of vitamin E.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Glutathione Reductase/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Microsomes/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Phenols/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Testis/cytology , Vitamin E/therapeutic use
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159327

ABSTRACT

An accidental spill of phenol (100%) into the Nakdong river with subsequent contamination of the tap water for about two million consumers in Teagu city of Korea occurred in March 1991. A historical cohort study of 6,913 individuals was undertaken to determine association with illness. Population subjects were divided into two groups of exposed and unexposed. Exposed subjects were reported to have significantly more phenol associated symptoms than those in a nearby unexposed area (39.6% vs. 9.4%, p < 0.01). Especially, in the related symptoms, highly significant differences were noted in the number of subjects reporting gastrointestinal illness such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain. During the accident, study subjects who experienced peculiar taste or odor in the tap water were significantly more in the exposed areas (92% vs. 34.3%).


Subject(s)
Accidents , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Phenol , Phenols/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Supply/analysis
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1989 Jan; 27(1): 65-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58764

ABSTRACT

A 30 day exposure of C. punctatus to sublethal levels of phenol, ammonia, mercuric chloride, cadmium chloride and a mixture of the four resulted in an overall activation of guaiacol peroxidase and depression of iodide peroxidase (IPOD) activity and blood T4 titre. Interestingly enough, in case of 15 day ammonia and 1 day mercury exposures, an increase of IPOD activity was accompanied by a decrease in T4 titre. In general, phenol, mercury, cadmium and the mixture of pollutants were found to inhibit LP activity by 56% to 85% while ammonia inhibited lysosomal protease (LP) activity by 70%. Alterations in acid phosphatase (AP) activity indicate changes in the lysosomal membrane characteristics caused by these toxicants. Considering the concomitant alterations in IPOD, T4, LP and AP it is surmised that thyroid function in C. punctatus is influenced by the pollutants by two pathways, one via IPOD pathway affecting T4 synthesis and the other via lysosomal pathway affecting T4 release.


Subject(s)
Ammonia/toxicity , Animals , Cadmium/toxicity , Cadmium Chloride , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Fishes , Mercuric Chloride/toxicity , Peroxidases/physiology , Phenol , Phenols/toxicity , Thyroid Gland/drug effects , Thyroxine/biosynthesis
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