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1.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e200, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341236

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Vasopressors are essential in the management of various types of shock. Objective To establish the trend of vasopressors use in the intensive care units (ICU) in a population of patients affiliated with the Colombian Health System, 2010-2017. Methods Observational trial using a population database of patients hospitalized in eleven ICUs in various cities in Colombia. The drugs dispensed to hospitalized patients over 18 years old, from January 2010 until December 2017 were considered. A review and analysis of the vasopressors dispensed per month was conducted, taking into account sociodemographic and pharmacological variables (vasopressor used and daily doses defined per 100/beds/day (DBD). Results 81,348 dispensations of vasopressors, equivalent to 26,414 treatments in 19,186 patients receiving care in 11 hospitals from 7 cities were reviewed. The mean age of patients was 66.3±18.1 years and 52.6 % were males. Of the total number of treatments recorded, 17,658 (66.8 %) were with just one vasopressor. Norepinephrine was the most frequently prescribed drug (75.9 % of the prescriptions dispensed; 60.5 DBD), followed by adrenaline (26.6 %; 41.6 DBD), dopamine (19.4%), dobutamine (16.0 %), vasopressin (8.5 %) and phenylephrine (0.9 %). The use of norepinephrine increased from 2010 to 2017 (+6.19 DBD), whilst the use of other drugs decreased, particularly the use of adrenaline (-60.6 DBD) and dopamine (-10.8 DBD). Conclusions Norepinephrine is the most widely used vasopressor showing a growing trend in terms of its use during the study period, which is supported by evidence in favor of its effectiveness and safety in patients with shock.


Resumen Introducción Los fármacos vasopresores son fundamentales en el manejo de los diferentes tipos de choque. Objetivo Determinar la tendencia de utilización de fármacos vasopresores en unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) en una población de pacientes afiliados al Sistema de Salud de Colombia, 2010-2017. Métodos Estudio observacional, a partir de una base de datos poblacional con pacientes hospitalizados en once UCI de diferentes ciudades de Colombia. Se obtuvieron las dispensaciones de pacientes mayores de 18 años hospitalizados desde enero de 2010 hasta diciembre de 2017. Se hizo revisión y análisis de la dispensación mensual de vasopresores. Se consideraron variables sociodemográficas y farmacológicas (medicamento vasopresor usado y dosis diarias definidas por 100 camas/día [DCD]). Resultados Se revisaron 81.348 dispensaciones de vasopresores, equivalentes a 26.414 terapias en 19.186 pacientes atendidos en 11 hospitales de 7 ciudades, cuya edad promedio fue 66,3±18,1 años y el 52,6 % eran hombres. Del total de terapias registradas, 17.658 (66,8 %) fueron con un solo vasopresor. La norepinefrina fue el más comúnmente prescrito (75,9 % de las dispensaciones; 60,5 DCD), seguido por adrenalina (26,6 %; 41,6 DCD), dopamina (19,4 %), dobutamina (16,0 %), vasopresina (8,5 %) y fenilefrina (0,9 %). El uso de norepinefrina se incrementó de 2010 a 2017 (+6,19 DCD), mientras que el de otros fármacos disminuyó, especialmente adrenalina (-60,6 DCD) y dopamina (-10,8 DCD). Conclusiones La norepinefrina es el fármaco vasopresor más utilizado y el que ha demostrado una tendencia de uso incremental durante el periodo de estudio, lo cual está respaldado por evidencia a favor de su efectividad y seguridad en pacientes con choque.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Shock , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Vasopressins , Intensive Care Units , Phenylephrine , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Dopamine , Epinephrine , Norepinephrine , Dobutamine , Drug Utilization , Dosage , Prescriptions
2.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1064, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341453

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar la seguridad ocular y sistémica de una combinación de lidocaína 2 por ciento y fenilefrina 1 por ciento administrada por vía intracameral para provocar midriasis intraoperatoria en la cirugía de catarata. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de serie de casos en 70 ojos de igual número de pacientes sometidos a facoemulsificación con implante de lente intraocular. El grupo midriasis intraoperatoria en la cirugía lo conformaron 35 pacientes dilatados con una inyección intracameral de lidocaína y fenilefrina antes de la cirugía, mientras otros 35 ojos se dilataron de manera tradicional, con un colirio midriático previo. Para la seguridad ocular se evaluaron múltiples parámetros del examen oftalmológico pre- y posoperatorio. Resultados: La presión intraocular, el espesor corneal central, la densidad celular del endotelio corneal y el edema corneal posoperatorio como hallazgo del segmento anterior se comportaron de manera similar en ambos grupos de estudio. Se reportó una complicación transoperatoria en el grupo de manera tradicional y un caso con edema quístico macular posoperatorio en el grupo midriasis intraoperatoria en la cirugía que no representaron diferencias significativas. Conclusión: La inyección de lidocaína más fenilefrina intracameral es una opción segura tanto ocular como sistémica para provocar midriasis durante la facoemulsificación(AU)


Objective: Evaluate the ocular and systemic safety of a combination of 2 percent lidocaine and 1 percent phenylephrine administered intracamerally to achieve intraoperative mydriasis in cataract surgery. Methods: A prospective study was conducted of a case series of 70 patients (70 eyes) who underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. The intraoperative mydriasis group was composed of 35 patients dilated with an intracameral injection of lidocaine and phenylephrine before surgery, whereas another 35 eyes were dilated by the conventional method, with mydriatic eye drops. Ocular safety evaluation was based on the analysis of a wide variety of pre- and postoperative ophthalmological examination parameters. Results: Intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, corneal endothelial cell density and postoperative corneal edema as an anterior segment finding, behaved in a similar manner in both study groups. An intraoperative complication was reported in the conventional method group and a case with postoperative cystoid macular edema in the intraoperative mydriasis group group, neither of them exhibiting significant differences. Conclusion: Intracameral lidocaine plus phenylephrine injection is a safe ocular and systemic option to achieve mydriasis during phacoemulsification(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenylephrine/therapeutic use , Cataract Extraction/methods , Mydriasis/drug therapy , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 792-799, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Norepinephrine infusion decreases hypotension after spinal anesthesia during cesarean section. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of norepinephrine infusion and ephedrine bolus against post-spinal hypotension in parturients.@*METHODS@#In this double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial, parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section were randomly allocated to receive norepinephrine infusion (0.05 μg·kg-1·min-1) just before spinal anesthesia continuing for 30 min or ephedrine bolus (0.15 mg/kg) just before spinal anesthesia. A rescue bolus (5 μg norepinephrine for the norepinephrine group, and 5 mg ephedrine for the ephedrine group) was administered whenever hypotension occurred. Our primary outcome was the incidence of hypotension within 30 min of spinal anesthesia administration. Secondary outcomes included maternal and neonatal outcomes 30 min after spinal block, and neonatal cerebral oxygenation 10 min after birth.@*RESULTS@#In total, 190 patients were enrolled; of these patients, 177 were included in the final analysis. Fewer patients suffered hypotension in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (29.5% vs. 44.9%, odds ratio [OR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28-0.95, P = 0.034). Moreover, the tachycardia frequency was lower in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.11-0.44, P < 0.001), and patients suffered less nausea and vomiting (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.11-0.70, P = 0.004). There was no difference in Apgar scores and umbilical arterial blood gas analysis between the two groups. However, neonatal cerebral regional saturations were significantly higher after birth in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (mean difference: 2.0%, 95% CI: 0.55%-3.45%, P = 0.008).@*CONCLUSION@#In patients undergoing elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia, norepinephrine infusion compared to ephedrine bolus resulted in less hypotension and tachycardia, and exhibited potential neonatal benefits.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02542748; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT02542748.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Hypotension/prevention & control , Infant, Newborn , Phenylephrine , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 500-507, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143955

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Limited data are present on safety and efficiency of epinephrine for the prophylaxis and treatment of spinal-hypotension. This study was conducted to compare the effect of epinephrine with norepinephrine and phenylephrine on the treatment of spinal-hypotension and ephedrine requirement during cesarean delivery. Methods: One hundred and sixty parturients with uncomplicated pregnancies undergoing elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were recruited. They were allocated randomly to receive norepinephrine 5 µg.mL−1 (n = 40), epinephrine 5 µg.mL−1 (n = 40), phenylephrine 100 µg.mL−1 (n = 40) or 0.9% saline infusions (n = 40) immediately after induction of spinal anesthesia. Whenever systolic blood pressure drops to less than 80% of baseline, 5 mg of intravenous ephedrine was administered as rescue vasopressor. The incidence of hypotension, total number of hypotension episodes, the number of patients requiring ephedrine, the mean amount of ephedrine consumption and side effects were recorded. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in incidence of maternal hypotension between groups. The number of patients requiring ephedrine was significantly greater in group saline than in group phenylephrine (p< 0.001). However, it was similar between phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine groups. The mean ephedrine consumption was significantly higher in group saline than in norepinephrine, epinephrine, phenylephrine groups (p= 0.001). Conclusion: There is no statistically significant difference in incidence of hypotension and ephedrine consumption during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery with the use of epinephrine when compared to norepinephrine or phenylephrine. Epinephrine can be considered an alternative agent for management of spinal hypotension.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Existem dados limitados sobre segurança e eficiência da epinefrina na profilaxia e tratamento da hipotensão arterial associada à raquianestesia. O presente estudo foi realizado para comparar o efeito da epinefrina com norepinefrina e fenilefrina no tratamento da hipotensão após raquianestesia e necessidade de efedrina durante o parto cesáreo. Método: Foram recrutadas 160 parturientes com gestações não complicadas, submetidas a cesariana eletiva sob raquianestesia. Elas foram alocadas aleatoriamente para receber norepinefrina 5 µg.mL-1 (n = 40), epinefrina 5 µg.mL-1 (n = 40), fenilefrina 100 µg.mL-1 (n = 40) ou infusão de solução fisiológica NaCl a 0,9% (n = 40) imediatamente após a indução da raquianestesia. Sempre que houvesse redução da pressão arterial sistólica para valor inferior a 80% da linha de base, 5 mg de efedrina iv eram administrados como vasopressor de resgate. A incidência de hipotensão, o número total de episódios de hipotensão, o número de pacientes que necessitaram de efedrina, o consumo médio de efedrina e os efeitos colaterais foram registrados. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na incidência de hipotensão materna entre os grupos. O número de pacientes que necessitaram de efedrina foi significantemente maior no grupo solução fisiológica do que no grupo fenilefrina (p< 0,001). No entanto, foi semelhante entre os grupos fenilefrina, norepinefrina e epinefrina. O consumo médio de efedrina foi significantemente maior no grupo solução fisiológica do que nos grupos norepinefrina, epinefrina e fenilefrina (p = 0,001). Conclusão: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na incidência de hipotensão e consumo de efedrina durante raquianestesia para parto cesáreo com uso de epinefrina quando comparada à norepinefrina ou fenilefrina. A epinefrina pode ser considerada como agente alternativo para o tratamento da hipotensão após raquianestesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Phenylephrine/administration & dosage , Norepinephrine/administration & dosage , Ephedrine/administration & dosage , Hypotension/prevention & control , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/methods , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Hypotension/etiology , Hypotension/epidemiology , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods
5.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(2): e818, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139072

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de una combinación de lidocaína 2 por ciento y fenilefrina 1 por ciento administrada intracameralmente para provocar midriasis intraoperatoria en la cirugía de catarata. Métodos: Realizamos un estudio prospectivo, comparativo, de serie de casos en 70 ojos de igual número de pacientes quienes fueron sometidos a cirugía de catarata mediante facoemulsificación con implante de lente intraocular, en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" entre septiembre del año 2017 y febrero de 2018. 35 pacientes fueron dilatados con una combinación de fenilefrina y lidocaína inyectada en la cámara anterior justo antes de la cirugía (grupo midriáticos intracamerales) y otros 35 ojos se dilataron con un colirio midriático como se realiza cotidianamente y de manera tradicional (grupo midriáticos tópicos). La eficacia se evaluó mediante la medición del diámetro pupilar (pupilometría) realizada con un compás quirúrgico en diferentes momentos de la cirugía en ambos grupos de estudio. Los resultados de ambos grupos se compararon entre sí. Resultados: En ambos grupos de pacientes se lograron diámetros pupilares superiores a los 7 mm justo antes de la capsulorrexis, aunque fueron ligeramente mayor en el grupo midriáticos tópicos (8,17 vs. 7,55 mm). En las mediciones posteriores todas las pupilometrías del grupo midriáticos intracamerales fueron superiores y se mantuvieron por encima de los 7 mm, mientras las del grupo midriáticos tópicos sufrieron una reducción paulatina hasta el final de la cirugía (5,68 mm). Conclusiones: La combinación de lidocaína más fenilefrina aplicada de manera intracameral es efectiva para provocar una midriasis adecuada y mantenida durante la cirugía de catarata(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate the efficacy of the combination 2 percent lidocaine / 1 percent phenylephrine administered intracamerally to achieve intraoperative mydriasis in cataract surgery. Methods: A prospective comparative study was conducted of a case series of 70 patients (70 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery by phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation at Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from September 2017 to February 2018. Of the total eyes, 35 were dilated with a combination of phenylephrine and lidocaine injected into the anterior chamber just before surgery (MIC group), whereas the remaining 35 were dilated with mydriatic eye drops in the habitual traditional manner (MT group). Efficacy was evaluated in the two study groups measuring the pupil diameter (pupilometry) with a surgical compass at several moments during the surgery. The results for each group were compared. Results: In both groups patients achieved pupil diameters above 7 mm just before capsulorhexis, though values were slightly higher in the MT group (8.17 vs. 7.55 mm). Later measurement showed that in the MIC group all pupilometries were higher, remaining above 7 mm, whereas in the MT group they underwent gradual reduction until the end of surgery (5.68 mm). Conclusions: The combination of lidocaine and phenylephrine administered intracamerally is effective to achieve appropriate, sustained mydriasis during cataract surgery(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenylephrine/therapeutic use , Cataract Extraction/methods , Phacoemulsification/methods , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/adverse effects , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Comparative Study , Prospective Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(5): 1033-1042, Sept.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040068

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cinnamomum cassia (Cinnamon) is a well-known traditional medicine with therapeutic benefits for centuries. We evaluated the effects of cinnamon essential oil (CEO) and its main component cinnamaldehyde (CA) on human corpus cavernosum (HCC) and rat CC. The essential oil of cinnamon was analyzed for the confirmation of the oil profile. HCC specimens from patients undergoing penile prosthesis surgery (age 48-69 years) were utilized for functional studies. In addition, erectile responses in anesthetized control and diabetic rats were evaluated in vivo after intracavernosal injection of CEO and CA, and rat CC strips were placed in organ baths. After precontraction with phenylephrine (10µM), relaxant responses to CEO and CA were investigated. CA (96.9%) was found as the major component. The maximum relaxation responses to CEO and CA were 96.4±3.5% and 96.0±5.0% in HCC and 97.5±5.5% and 96.8±4.8% in rat CC, respectively. There was no difference between control and diabetic rats in relaxation responses to CEO and CA. The relaxant responses obtained with essential oil and CA were not attenuated in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor (sGS) in CC. In vivo, erectile responses in diabetic rats were lower than in control rats, which was restored after intracavernosal injection of CEO and CA. CEO and CA improved erectile function and relaxation of isolated strips of rat CC and HCC by a NO/cGMP-independent mechanism. Further investigations are warranted to fully elucidate the restorative effects of CEO and CA on diabetic erectile dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Aged , Penis/drug effects , Acrolein/analogs & derivatives , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/chemistry , Muscle Relaxation/drug effects , Penis/physiopathology , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Acrolein/pharmacology , Penile Erection/drug effects , Penile Erection/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sildenafil Citrate/pharmacology , Erectile Dysfunction/physiopathology , Erectile Dysfunction/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Muscle Relaxation/physiology
7.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 207-216, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002224

ABSTRACT

Curcuma longa has biological effects. Its cardiovascular activities are yet to be scientifically studied. Objectives: To investigate the vasorelaxant effects of the aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (AECL). Methods: Aortic annuli of normotensive rats, with or without endothelium, were set up in a data storage system with nutrient solution in recipients, with scientifically recommended temperature, aeration and tension. Over contraction by Phenylephrine, the AECL (1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 µg/mL) was incubated before and after incubation with atropine or L-name or indomethacin. An AECL concentration-response curve was also built over contractions caused by elevation of extracellular K+. Data were significant when p < 0.05, with GraphPad Prism 6.0 software resolutions. Results: The AECL induced 100% vasorelaxation also in the endothelium-free annuli. The part of the endothelium-dependent effect had EC50 = 4.32 ± 0.05 µg/mL. With inhibition of NO production, the EC50 increased to 126.50 ± 2.35 µg/mL; after inhibition of prostacyclin production, to 124.6 ± 0.05 µg/mL; and after muscarinic blockade, to 437.10 ± 0.2 µg/mL. Opening of K+ channels (relaxation of 56.98%) and VOCC blockade (relaxation of 31.56%) were evident. Conclusion: AECL induced significant vasorelaxation, being more significant in the presence of endothelium. The muscarinic pathway seems to be the main one involved in this effect, followed by the NO production and prostacyclin pathways. The activity in K+ channels by AECL was more significant than its VOCC blockade. The use of other models and tools to study action mechanisms will be important and elucidating


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aorta , Phenylephrine , Curcuma/adverse effects , Rats , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiotonic Agents , Statistical Analysis , Analysis of Variance , Receptors, Muscarinic , Models, Animal , Crocus , Hypertension , Antioxidants
8.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(1): e691, ene.-mar. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093679

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Durante la cirugía de catarata, la inducción de la dilatación de la pupila (midriasis) y el mantenimiento de un grado adecuado de esta a lo largo de toda la operación son elementos críticos para la eliminación y el reemplazo exitoso del cristalino. Una pupila pequeña o un cierre pupilar durante la cirugía hacen que esta sea un desafío desde el punto de vista técnico y aumente el riesgo de complicaciones transquirúrgicas, por lo que una midriasis adecuada y mantenida ha permanecido hasta nuestros días como un pilar fundamental para maximizar la seguridad y los resultados refractivos de la cirugía de catarata moderna. Esta midriasis se consigue habitualmente con la aplicación previa de colirios anticolinérgicos y simpaticomiméticos, con los cuales el tiempo de espera para la dilatación pupilar es frecuentemente más largo que el procedimiento quirúrgico; tienen una significativa absorción sistémica que pueden aumentar el riesgo de efectos secundarios cardiovasculares, y el efecto midriático tiende a desaparecer durante la cirugía. Con el objetivo de acceder a la información actualizada sobre los fármacos midriáticos más usados de modo intracameral, sus dosis y formas de aplicación durante la cirugía de catarata, se realiza el presente trabajo de revisión(AU)


ABSTRACT In cataract surgery, induction and maintenance of an adequate degree of pupil dilation (mydriasis) throughout the operation are critical elements for the successful removal and replacement of the crystalline lens. A small pupil or pupil closure during surgery pose a technical challenge and increase the risk of intraoperative complications. This is the reason why adequate, maintained mydriasis has remained to this day a fundamental pillar to maximize both safety and satisfactory refractive results in modern cataract surgery. Mydriasis is normally achieved with the previous application of anticholinergic and sympathomimetic eye drops, for which the waiting time for pupil dilation is often longer than the surgical procedure, they have significant systemic absorption which may increase the risk of cardiovascular side effects, and the mydriatic effect tends to vanish during surgery. A bibliographic review was conducted with the purpose of accessing updated information about the most commonly used intracameral mydriatic drugs, their doses and modes of application during cataract surgery(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenylephrine/administration & dosage , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Mydriatics/therapeutic use
9.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(2): 111-118, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989391

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the efficacy of using a nonste­roidal anti-inflammatory drug preoperatively and of applying the re-dilation technique when necessary to minimize pupil size variation when comparing the degree of mydriasis before femtosecond laser pretreatment with that at the beginning of phacoemulsification. Methods: This retrospective study included patients who underwent cataract surgery using the LenSx (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX). Our routine dilating regimen with flurbiprofen, tropicamide, and phenylephrine was used. The re-dilation technique was applied on eyes that manifested with a pupillary diameter that was smaller than the programmed capsulotomy diameter after laser pretreatment. The technique consists of overcoming pupillary contraction by instilling tropicamide and phenylephrine before phacoemulsification. Pupil size was assessed before femtosecond laser application and at the beginning of phacoemulsification. Results: Seventy-five eyes (70 patients) were included. Nine (12%) eyes underwent the re-dilation technique. There was no significant difference in mean pupillary diameter and mean pupillary area between the two studied surgical time points (p=0.412 and 0.437, respectively). The overall pupillary area constriction was 2.4 mm2. Immediately before opening the wounds for phacoemulsification, none of the eyes presented with a pupillary diameter <5 mm, and 61 (85.3%) eyes had a pupillary diameter >6 mm. Conclusion: Preoperative administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and the re-dilation technique resulted in no significant pupil size variation in eyes that were pretreated with the femtosecond laser, when comparing the measurements made before the laser application and at the beginning of phacoemulsification. This approach can avoid the need to proceed with cataract extraction with a constricted pupil.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia do uso de anti-inflamatório não-esteróide no pré-operatório e aplicação da técnica de re-dilatação quando necessária para minimizar a variação do tamanho pupilar ao comparar o grau de midríase antes do tra­tamento com laser de femtosegundo no início da facoemulsificação. Métodos: Esse estudo retrospectivo incluiu pacientes que foram submetidos à cirurgia de catarata usando o LenSx (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX). Nosso regime de di­latação de rotina com flurbiprofeno, tropicamida e fenilefrina foi usado. A técnica de re-dilatação doi aplicada em olhos que se manifestaram com um diâmetro pupilar menor do que o diâmetro da capsulotomia programado após o pré-tratamento a laser. A técnica consiste em superar a contração pupilar pela instilação de tropicamida e fenilefrina antes da facoemulsificação. O tamanho pupilar foi avaliado antes da aplicação do laser de femtosegundo e no inicio da facoemulsificação. Resultados: Setenta e cinco olhos (70 pacientes) foram incluídos. Nove (12%) olhos foram submetidos à técnica de re-dilatação. Não houve diferença significativa no diâmetro pupilar médio e na área pupilar média entre os dois tempos cirúrgicos estudados (p=0,412 e 0,437, respectivamente). A constrição global da área pupilar foi de 2,4 mm2. Imediatamente antes de abrir as incisões para a facoemulsificação, nenhum dos olhos apresentava diâmetro pupilar <5 mm e 61 (85,3%) olhos apresentavam um diâmetro pupilar >6 mm. Conclusões: O administração pré-operatória de anti-inflamatório não-esteróide e da técnica de re-dilatação resultaram em uma variação significativa do tamanho pupilar em olhos que foram pré-tratados com laser de femtosegundo, comparando as medidas realizadas antes da aplicação do laser e no inicio da facoemulsificação. Essa abordagem pode evitar a necessidade de prosseguir com a extração da catarata com uma pupila contraída.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Miosis/prevention & control , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Flurbiprofen/therapeutic use , Phacoemulsification/methods , Lasers , Mydriatics/therapeutic use , Phenylephrine/therapeutic use , Tropicamide/therapeutic use , Miosis/etiology , Miosis/pathology , Pupil/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Laser Therapy/methods , Intraocular Pressure , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroxyethyl starch (HES), a class of synthetic colloid solutions, has been widely used to treat perioperative hypovolemia. The use of HES, however, is associated with the risk of allergic reactions.CASE: An 83-year-old man was scheduled to undergo an open reduction and internal fixation of a pertrochanteric fracture under spinal anesthesia. He had no history of allergy. Five minutes after HES administration, hypotension, agitation, and skin rash were developed. HES infusion was terminated due to a suspected anaphylactic reaction. The vital signs recovered following administration of phenylephrine, dexamethasone, and hydrocortisone. Serum tryptase and total immunoglobulin E levels were elevated in plasma samples collected following the commencement of the allergic reaction during surgery.CONCLUSIONS: In the present report, the risk of anaphylactic reaction with HES and the laboratory tests needed to support the diagnosis are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Anaphylaxis , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Spinal , Colloids , Dexamethasone , Diagnosis , Dihydroergotamine , Exanthema , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Hypersensitivity , Hypotension , Hypovolemia , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Phenylephrine , Plasma , Starch , Tryptases , Vital Signs
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vasoplegic syndrome is an increasingly recognized disease in perioperative medicine and is characterized by severe hypotension, normal or elevated cardiac output, and decreased systemic vascular resistance. It occurs commonly after cardiopulmonary bypass but may also occur after other types of surgery.CASE: Vasoplegic syndrome developed in our patient during posterior lumbar interbody fusion because of administering nicardipine after phenylephrine. However, the blood pressure did not increase as expected despite simultaneous use of norepinephrine and vasopressin to increase the reduced systemic vascular resistance.CONCLUSIONS: We present a case of vasoplegic syndrome that developed during posterior lumbar interbody fusion and was treated successfully with methylene blue.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Cardiac Output , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Humans , Hypotension , Methylene Blue , Nicardipine , Norepinephrine , Phenylephrine , Vascular Resistance , Vasoplegia , Vasopressins
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maternal hypotension is a common complication during obstetric spinal anesthesia. This study was conducted to investigate the role of autonomic function testing in predicting maternal hypotension during spinal anesthesia induced to conduct Cesarean sections (C-section). METHODS: This study was conducted on 32 parturients undergoing C-section under spinal anesthesia. Sympathetic function tests included measuring diastolic blood pressure changes in response to hand gripping and systolic blood pressure changes response to moving from a supine to a standing position. Sympathetic dysfunction is said to exist when there are abnormal responses to both sympathetic function tests. Parasympathetic function tests included measuring heart rate responses to deep breathing and heart rate responses to moving from a supine to a standing position. Parasympathetic dysfunction is said to exist when there are abnormal responses to both parasympathetic function tests. After the onset of spinal anesthesia, blood pressure was measured every minute until childbirth. RESULTS: Hypotension occurred in 22 of the 32 parturients. There was no correlation between sympathetic dysfunction and hypotension incidence, but 12 of the 12 (100%) of the positive group and 10 of the 20 (50%) of the negative group experiencing parasympathetic dysfunction, respectively, experienced hypotension with a significant difference of P = 0.004. The group experiencing parasympathetic dysfunction had statistically significantly higher phenylephrine requirements were also greater in the parasympathetic dysfunction positive group (P < 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This study's findings suggested that the parasympathetic function tests may be useful methods for predicting the incidence of maternal hypotension during spinal anesthesia induced for C-section.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Spinal , Autonomic Nervous System , Blood Pressure , Cesarean Section , Female , Hand , Hand Strength , Heart Rate , Humans , Hypotension , Incidence , Parasympathetic Nervous System , Parturition , Phenylephrine , Pilot Projects , Posture , Pregnancy , Respiration , Sympathetic Nervous System
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aortocaval compression by the gravid uterus is a known physiological phenomenon that is classically claimed to cause supine hypotension in full-term pregnant women. This study aimed to investigate the effects of fetal position on maternal hemodynamics after spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. METHODS: In total, 71 women with intrauterine pregnancy over 36 weeks of gestation who were scheduled for elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were enrolled in the study. Based on the fetal position, the women were divided into two groups: right position group (group R) and left position group (group L). Occurrence of hypotension, requirement for rescue bolus injections of phenylephrine, and the total amount of infused phenylephrine before delivery were recorded in each group. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of hypotension between the two groups (P = 0.075); however, the amount of phenylephrine required before delivery was significantly greater in group R (P = 0.028). There was a statistically significant decrease in the systolic blood pressure compared with the baseline values in group R, and this change persisted until 15 min after spinal anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference according to fetal position in the number of patients who showed hypotension before delivery after spinal anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Spinal , Blood Pressure , Cesarean Section , Female , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypotension , Phenylephrine , Physiological Phenomena , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Uterus
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New complications associated with sugammadex have been increased since its widespread use. We report a case of an 80-year-old male who experienced profound bradycardia and sustained hypotension after administration of sugammadex. CASE: Following administration of 200 mg sugammadex after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, sudden bradycardia (29 beats/min) developed for 10 seconds and his train-of-four (TOF) ratio remained at 0.2 for 5 min. An additional 200 mg sugammadex was administered and profound bradycardia (21–30 beats/min) and hypotension (60/40 mmHg) developed. Atropine at 0.5 mg was administered, but the effect lasted only 30 s. Profound bradycardia occurred four more times at 30 s intervals, and ephedrine and phenylephrine were injected intermittently to increase the patient's heart rate and blood pressure. The TOF ratio became 0.9 about 10 min after administration of additional sugammadex. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness must be heightened regarding the possibility of sugammadexinduced bradycardia and hypotension, and more attention should be paid to patients with slow recovery times following muscle relaxation, despite the use of sugammadex.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Atropine , Blood Pressure , Bradycardia , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Ephedrine , Heart Rate , Humans , Hypotension , Male , Muscle Relaxation , Neuromuscular Blockade , Phenylephrine , Postoperative Complications
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761796

ABSTRACT

Free fatty acid (FFA) intake regulates blood pressure and vascular reactivity but its direct effect on contractility of systemic arteries is not well understood. We investigated the effects of saturated fatty acid (SFA, palmitic acid), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, linoleic acid), and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, oleic acid) on the contractility of isolated mesenteric (MA) and deep femoral arteries (DFA) of Sprague–Dawley rats. Isolated MA and DFA were mounted on a dual wire myograph and phenylephrine (PhE, 1–10 µM) concentration-dependent contraction was obtained with or without FFAs. Incubation with 100 µM of palmitic acid significantly increased PhE-induced contraction in both arteries. In MA, treatment with 100 µM of linoleic acid decreased 1 µM PhE-induced contraction while increasing the response to higher PhE concentrations. In DFA, linoleic acid slightly decreased PhE-induced contraction while 200 µM oleic acid significantly decreased it. In MA, oleic acid reduced contraction at low PhE concentration (1 and 2 µM) while increasing it at 10 µM PhE. Perplexingly, depolarization by 40 mM KCl-induced contraction of MA was commonly enhanced by the three fatty acids. The 40 mM KCl-contraction of DFA was also augmented by linoleic and oleic acids while not affected by palmitic acid. SFA persistently increased alpha-adrenergic contraction of systemic arteries whereas PUFA and MUFA attenuated PhE-induced contraction of skeletal arteries. PUFA and MUFA concentration-dependent dual effects on MA suggest differential mechanisms depending on the types of arteries. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms of the various effects of FFA on systemic arteries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arteries , Blood Pressure , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Femoral Artery , Linoleic Acid , Mesenteric Arteries , Oleic Acid , Oleic Acids , Palmitic Acid , Phenylephrine , Rats , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha , Vasoconstriction
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18075, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039056

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of early and late administration of phenylephrine during ischemia against regional ischemia-reperfusion injuries in an isolated rat heart model. All animals were randomly divided into experimental groups: (I) IR (Ischemic/ reperfusion): the hearts underwent 35 min of regional ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion; (II) 5HD-IR-0: the hearts were perfused for 5 min with 5HD (5-hydroxydecanoate, specific mKATP channel blocker, 100 µM) at the onset of regional ischemia; (III) 5HD-IR-20: the hearts were perfused for 5 min with 5HD 20 min after regional ischemia; (IV) PE-IR-10: the hearts were perfused for 5 min with phenylephrine 10 min after regional ischemia; (V) PE-IR-30: the hearts were perfused for 5 min with phenylephrine (100 µM) 30 min after regional ischemia; (VI) PE-5HD-IR-10 group: the hearts were perfused for 5 min with 5HD at the onset of regional ischemia after which phenylephrine was administrated as in group IV; and (VII) PE-5HD-IR-30: the hearts were perfused for 5 min with 5HD 20 min after the ischemia and then phenylephrine was administrated as in group V. The hemodynamic parameters were recorded throughout the experiment. Ischemia-induced arrhythmias, myocardial infarct size (IS), creatin kinase-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB), plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and coronary blood flow (CBF) were measured in all animals. Perfusion of phenylephrine 30 min after the regional ischemia curtailed the myocardial infarct size, reduced CK-MB, and improved cardiac function and CBF. Administration of 5HD 30 min after the ischemia abolished cardioprotective effects of phenylephrine in the late phase. These results suggest the involvement of mKATP in the mechanism of phenylephrine-induced late preconditioning.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Phenylephrine/analysis , Phenylephrine/adverse effects , Ischemia/drug therapy , Reperfusion
17.
Med. UIS ; 31(2): 33-39, mayo-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002508

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la hipotensión es el evento adverso más incidente cuando se administra anestesia subaracnoidea para cesárea; múltiples estrategias para su prevención y manejo se han propuesto, entre ellas el uso de vasopresores profilácticos con resultados no concluyentes. Objetivo: evaluar la eficacia preventiva del uso de Fenilefrina en la hipotensión arterial inducida por la anestesia subaracnoidea en gestantes llevadas a cesárea. Materiales y Métodos: ensayo clínico controlado, doble ciego, en gestantes, mayores de 18 años, ASA 1 y 2, quienes recibieron anestesia subaracnoidea para cesárea, fueron aleatorizadas a recibir placebo o infusión profiláctica de fenilefrina 40 mcg/min, durante 5 minutos. Resultados: se incluyeron 140 pacientes en el análisis de datos. La incidencia de hipotensión fue mayor en el grupo control que en el intervenido (RA 45,71% vs 32,85%). Sin presentarse diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos (p=0,119). RR de hipotensión en el grupo intervenido fueron menores, independiente del criterio de hipotensión (tensión arterial sistólica, RR 0,72 (IC95% 0,47-1,09); tensión arterial media, RR 0.93 (IC95% 0,64-1,37); TAS o TAM RR 0.86 (IC95% 0,62-1,21)), pero sin diferencias significativas p>0,05. El uso de vasopresores en los pacientes que presentaron este evento se dio en 75.4% (n=52), con RR mayor en el grupo control y diferencias significativas al evaluar los dos grupos. (RR: 1,4 p=0,032). Conclusiones: fenilefrina profiláctica no demostró ser eficaz en disminuir la incidencia de hipotensión; sin embargo, sí se asocia con una disminución significativa en los requerimientos de vasopresores, así como en la incidencia de náuseas y vómito. MÉD.UIS. 2018;31(2):33-9.


Abstract Background: Hypotension is the most common adverse event when subarachnoid anesthesia is administered for cesarean section; multiple strategies for its prevention and management have been proposed, including the use of prophylactic vasopressors with inconclusive results. Objective: To evaluate the preventive efficacy of the use of phenylephrine in hypotension induced by subarachnoid anesthesia in pregnant women taken to caesarean section. Methods: A double-blind, controlled clinical trial in pregnant women, older than 18 years old, ASA 1 and 2, who received a subarachnoid anesthesia for cesarean section, were randomized to receive placebo or prophylactic infusion of phenylephrine 40 mcg / min, for 5 minutes. Results: 140 patients were included in data analysis. Incidence of hypotension was higher in the control group than in the intervention group (AR 45.71% vs 32.85%). There were no significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.119). RR of hypotension in the intervention group were lower, independent of the criterion of hypotension [systolic blood pressure, RR 0.72 (95% CI 0.47-1.09), mean arterial pressure, RR 0.93 (95% CI 0.64-1.37), SBP or MAP 0.86 (RR 0.86) (IC95% 0.62-1.21)], but without significant differences p> 0.05. The use of vasopressors in patients who presented this event occurred in 75.4% (n = 52), with higher RR in the control group and significant differences when evaluating the two groups. (RR 1.4 p = 0.032). Conclusions: Prophylactic phenylephrine did not prove effective in reducing the incidence of hypotension, however, it is associated with a significant decrease in vasopressor requirements, as well as in the incidence of nausea and vomiting. MÉD.UIS. 2018;31(2):33-9.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Phenylephrine , Cesarean Section , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Hypotension , Intraoperative Complications , Anesthesia, Spinal
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Isoflurane, a common anesthetic for cardiac surgery, reduced myocardial contractility in many experimental studies, few studies have determined isoflurane's direct impact on the left ventricular (LV) contractile function during cardiac surgery. We determined whether isoflurane dose-dependently reduces the peak systolic velocity of the lateral mitral annulus in tissue Doppler imaging (S′) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: During isoflurane-supplemented remifentanil-based anesthesia for patients undergoing cardiac surgery with preoperative LV ejection fraction greater than 50% (n = 20), we analyzed the changes of S′ at each isoflurane dose increment (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]: T1, T2, and T3, respectively) with a fixed remifentanil dosage (1.0 μg/min/kg) by using transesophageal echocardiography. RESULTS: Mean S′ values (95% confidence interval [CI]) at T1, T2, and T3 were 10.5 (8.8–12.2), 9.5 (8.3–10.8), and 8.4 (7.3–9.5) cm/s, respectively (P < 0.001 in multivariate analysis of variance test). Their mean differences at T1 vs. T2, T2 vs. T3, and T1 vs. T3 were −1.0 (−1.6, −0.3), −1.1 (−1.7, −0.6), and −2.1 (−3.1, −1.1) cm/s, respectively. Phenylephrine infusion rates were significantly increased (0.26, 0.22, and 0.47 μg/kg/min at T1, T2, and T3, respectively, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Isoflurane increments (1.0–2.0 MAC) dose-dependently reduced LV systolic long-axis performance during cardiac surgeries with a preserved preoperative systolic function.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Heart Function Tests , Heart Valves , Humans , Isoflurane , Multivariate Analysis , Phenylephrine , Thoracic Surgery
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727575

ABSTRACT

α-Iso-cubebene (ICB) is a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignin contained in Schisandra chinensis (SC), a well-known medicinal herb that ameliorates cardiovascular symptoms, but the mechanism responsible for this activity has not been determined. To determine the role played by ICB on the regulation of vascular tone, we investigated the inhibitory effects of ICB on vascular contractile responses by adrenergic α-receptor agonists. In addition, we investigated the role on myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and cytosolic calcium concentration in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In aortic rings isolated from C57BL/6J mice, ICB significantly attenuated the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE) and norepinephrine (NE), whereas ICB had no effects on KCl (60 mM)-induced contraction. In vasculatures precontracted with PE, ICB caused marked relaxation of aortic rings with or without endothelium, suggesting a direct effect on VSMC. In cultured rat VSMC, PE or NE increased MLC phosphorylation and increased cytosolic calcium levels. Both of these effects were significantly suppressed by ICB. In conclusion, our results showed that ICB regulated vascular tone by inhibiting MLC phosphorylation and calcium flux into VSMC, and suggest that ICB has anti-hypertensive properties and therapeutic potential for cardiovascular disorders related to vascular hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta, Thoracic , Calcium , Cytosol , Endothelium , Hypertension , Lignin , Mice , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myosin Light Chains , Myosins , Norepinephrine , Phenylephrine , Phosphorylation , Plants, Medicinal , Rats , Relaxation , Schisandra
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687928

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate whether the methanol extract of Berberis amurensis Rupr. (BAR) augments penile erection using in vitro and in vivo experiments.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The ex vivo study used corpus cavernosum strips prepared from adult male New Zealand White rabbits. In in vivo studies for intracavernous pressure (ICP), blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and increase of peak ICP were continuously monitored during electrical stimulation of Sprague-Dawley rats.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Preconstricted with phenylephrine (PE) in isolated endotheliumintact rabbit corus cavernosum, BAR relaxed penile smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3-α]-quinoxalin-1-one, a soluble guanylyl cclase inhibitor. BAR significantly relaxed penile smooth muscles dose-dependently in ex vivo, and this was inhibited by pretreatment with L-NAME H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3-α]-quinoxalin-1-one. BAR-induced relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA, P<0.01), a nonselective K channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, P<0.01), a voltage-dependent K channel blocker, and charybdotoxin (P<0.01), a large and intermediate conductance Ca sensitive-K channel blocker, respectively. BAR induced an increase in peak ICP, ICP/MAP ratio and area under the curve dose dependently.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>BAR augments penile erection via the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate system and Ca sensitive-K (BK and IK) channels in the corpus cavernosum.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Area Under Curve , Berberis , Chemistry , Blood Pressure , Cyclic GMP , Metabolism , Epoprostenol , Pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Indomethacin , Pharmacology , Male , Models, Biological , Muscle Relaxation , Muscle, Smooth , Physiology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Pharmacology , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Penile Erection , Phenylephrine , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Potassium Channels , Metabolism , Pressure , Rabbits
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