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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17836, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132033


This study was carried out in order to compare the relative bioavailability of two different formulations containing 400 mg of acetaminophen + 4 mg of phenylephrine hydrochloride + 4 mg of chlorpheniramine maleate, Test formulation (Cimegripe®) and Reference formulation (Resfenol®) in 84 healthy volunteers of both sexes under fasting conditions. The study was conducted in a single dose, randomized, open-label, crossover 3-way and partially replicated. The tolerability was evaluated by the monitoring of adverse events and vital signs, results of clinical and laboratory tests. Plasma concentrations were quantified by validated bioanalytical methods using the ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, T1/2 and Kel pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from these obtained concentrations. The 90% confidence intervals were constructed for the ratio reference/test from the geometric average of the Cmax and AUC parameters which were comprised between 80% and 125%. Only the Cmax parameter of the phenylephrine was applied the scaled average bioequivalence due to the intraindividual coefficient of variation > 30% obtained, thus extending the acceptance limits of the interval. It can be concluded that the two formulations were bioequivalent in terms of rate and absorption extent and thus interchangeable

Humans , Male , Female , Phenylephrine/analysis , Capsules/classification , Biological Availability , Chlorpheniramine/analysis , Acetaminophen/analysis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Single Dose , Fasting/adverse effects , Cross-Over Studies , Environmental Monitoring , Absorption/drug effects , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Healthy Volunteers/classification
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18075, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039056


The present study was designed to investigate the effect of early and late administration of phenylephrine during ischemia against regional ischemia-reperfusion injuries in an isolated rat heart model. All animals were randomly divided into experimental groups: (I) IR (Ischemic/ reperfusion): the hearts underwent 35 min of regional ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion; (II) 5HD-IR-0: the hearts were perfused for 5 min with 5HD (5-hydroxydecanoate, specific mKATP channel blocker, 100 µM) at the onset of regional ischemia; (III) 5HD-IR-20: the hearts were perfused for 5 min with 5HD 20 min after regional ischemia; (IV) PE-IR-10: the hearts were perfused for 5 min with phenylephrine 10 min after regional ischemia; (V) PE-IR-30: the hearts were perfused for 5 min with phenylephrine (100 µM) 30 min after regional ischemia; (VI) PE-5HD-IR-10 group: the hearts were perfused for 5 min with 5HD at the onset of regional ischemia after which phenylephrine was administrated as in group IV; and (VII) PE-5HD-IR-30: the hearts were perfused for 5 min with 5HD 20 min after the ischemia and then phenylephrine was administrated as in group V. The hemodynamic parameters were recorded throughout the experiment. Ischemia-induced arrhythmias, myocardial infarct size (IS), creatin kinase-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB), plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and coronary blood flow (CBF) were measured in all animals. Perfusion of phenylephrine 30 min after the regional ischemia curtailed the myocardial infarct size, reduced CK-MB, and improved cardiac function and CBF. Administration of 5HD 30 min after the ischemia abolished cardioprotective effects of phenylephrine in the late phase. These results suggest the involvement of mKATP in the mechanism of phenylephrine-induced late preconditioning.

Animals , Male , Rats , Phenylephrine/analysis , Phenylephrine/adverse effects , Ischemia/drug therapy , Reperfusion
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(2): 160-167, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-758002


AbstractBackground:Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases.Objective:To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats.Methods:Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP).Results:Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H.Conclusion:One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.

ResumoFundamento:A hipertensão é um problema de saúde pública e faz aumentar a incidência das doenças cardiovasculares.Objetivo:Avaliar os efeitos de uma sessão de exercício resistido sobre os mecanismos contráteis e relaxantes do músculo liso vascular em artéria mesentérica de ratos hipertensos induzidos por L-NAME.Métodos:Ratos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos: Controle (C), Hipertenso (H) e Hipertenso Exercitado (HE). A hipertensão foi induzida pela administração de 20 mg/kg de NG-nitro L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME) durante sete dias antes dos protocolos experimentais. O protocolo de exercício resistido consistiu em dez séries de dez repetições e intensidade de 40% de uma repetição máxima. A reatividade do músculo liso vascular foi avaliada através de curvas concentração-resposta para a fenilefrina (FEN), cloreto de potássio (KCl) e nitroprussiato de sódio (NPS).Resultados:Os ratos tratados com L-NAME apresentaram aumento (p < 0,001) da Pressão Arterial Sistólica (PAS), da Pressão Arterial Diastólica (PAD) e da Pressão Arterial Média (PAM) quando comparados ao período inicial da indução. Não foi observada diferença na sensibilidade da FEN entre os grupos H e HE. O exercício resistido agudo reduziu (p < 0,001) a resposta contrátil induzida pelo KCl nas concentrações de 40 e 60 mM do grupo HE quando comparado ao grupo H. Foi observado maior (p < 0,01) sensibilidade do músculo liso ao NPS no grupo HE quando comparado ao grupo H.Conclusão:Uma sessão de exercício resistido reduz as respostas contráteis induzidas pelo KCl, além de aumentar a sensibilidade do músculo liso ao NO em artéria mesentérica de ratos hipertensos.

Animals , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/physiopathology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Body Weight , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Mesenteric Arteries/physiopathology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/physiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitroprusside/analysis , Phenylephrine/analysis , Potassium Chloride/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
DARU-Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy Tehran University of Medical Sciences. 2010; 18 (4): 292-297
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-146341


The linear multivariate calibration models such as principal components regression [PCR] and partial least squares regressions [PLS1 and PLS2] due to the mathematical simplicity and physical or chemical interpretability are sufficient and generally preferred method for analysis of multicomponent drugs. In this study, simultaneous determination of paracetamol, phenylephrine and chlorpheniramine in pharmaceuticals using chemometric methods and UV spectrophotometry is reported as a simple alternative technique. Principal components regression [PCR] and partial least squares regressions [PLS 1 and PLS2] were used for chemometric analyses of data obtained from the spectra of paracetamol, phenylephrine and chlorpheniramine between wavelengths of 200 to 400 nm at several concentrations within their linear ranges. The analytical performance of these chemometric methods were characterized by relative prediction errors and recoveries [%] and compared with each other. PCR, PLS1 and PLS2 were successfully applied to a tablet formulation, with no interference from excipients as indicated by the recovery. However, the PLS1 shows better results due to its flexibility and mathematical principals. The proposed methods are simple and rapid requiring no separation step, and can be easily used as an alternative in the quality control of drugs

Acetaminophen/analysis , Phenylephrine/analysis , Chlorpheniramine/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2005; 4 (3): 147-153
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-70884


In this study, different derivative spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the simultaneous determination of chlorpheniramine maleate [CP], phenylephrine HCl [PE] and phenylpropanolamine HCl [PP] in their ternary mixtures and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Spectra of single component and ternary mixtures of various concentrations and combinations from zero- to fourth-derivation were obtained. Also the spectra of the excipients including lactose, starch, and microcrystalline cellulose were obtained to study the possible interference from matrices. Zero-crossing derivative spectrophotometry based on recording the second-derivative curve for PE at 286.5 nm and fourth-derivative curve for PP at 220 nm were used for determining each component. Third component, CP, was determined by measuring absolute amplitudes at 265.8, 262.2, 269.5, and 273.8 nm in its second derivative spectra. Results showed that the matrices have no interferences. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 1-8 micro g/ml for PE; 5-30 micro g/ml for PP; and 2-8 micro g/ml for CP. The limits of detection were 0.2 micro g/ml for PE, 0.1 micro g/ml for PP, and 0.3 micro g/ml for CP. The mean percentage recoveries obtained for different synthetic mixtures by using this method were 95.3% with coefficient of variation of 4.3% for PE, 101.5% with coefficient of variation of 1.4% for PP, and 99.4% with coefficient of variation of 1.5% for CP. This method has been applied successfully for the determination of PE and PP in its combination with CP in Antihistamine Decongestant tablets with a high percentage of recovery, good accuracy and precision

/administration & dosage , Phenylephrine/administration & dosage , Phenylpropanolamine/administration & dosage , /analysis , Phenylephrine/analysis , Phenylpropanolamine/analysis