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1.
Rev. ADM ; 79(1): 54-58, ene.-feb. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362610

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hiperplasia gingival es una condición benigna caracterizada por el aumento de volumen de la encía. Algunos fármacos, factores genéticos, aparatología y placa dentobacteriana son factores que pueden inducir esta condición. Objetivo: Devolver la anatomía a la encía brindando una mejor estética y permitiendo una óptima higiene oral. Material y métodos: Paciente masculino de 20 años de edad con antecedentes de fenitoína presenta aumento de volumen en la encía. Resultados: Se obtuvieron resultados estéticos y funcionales satisfactorios con el tratamiento quirúrgico y el uso de membrana de celulosa oxidada. Conclusión: En el manejo de la hiperplasia gingival es importante el enfoque no quirúrgico como control de placa dentobacteriana y medidas de higiene del mismo paciente (AU)


Introduction: Gingival hyperplasia is a benign condition characterized for the grown on the gingival volume. Some drugs, genetic, orthodontic and dental plaque are some factors that can induce this condition. Objective: To return the gingival anatomy, providing a better aesthetic allowing also good oral hygiene. Material and methods: A male 20 years of age with medical history of phenytoin display grown on the gingival volume. Results: Aesthetic and functional results were achieved with the surgical treatment and the oxidized cellulose membrane. Conclusion: In the gingival hyperplasia management is important de non-surgical approach, as dental plaque control and oral hygiene of the patient (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Cellulose, Oxidized , Gingival Hypertrophy/chemically induced , Gingivectomy , Esthetics, Dental , Membranes, Artificial , Mexico
2.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 21-25, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178296

ABSTRACT

El síndrome DRESS es una reacción adversa dermatológica que puede presentarse debido a diversos medicamentos, y constituye uno de los diagnósticos más importantes por encima del síndrome de Stevens-Johnson. Se trata de un caso relacionado con una reacción adversa de muy baja frecuencia, que está documentada en la literatura científica, a varios medicamentos, entre ellos la fenitoína. Por lo mencionado, la publicación de estos casos resulta escasa y limitada. Las principales preocupaciones del paciente relacionadas con su cuadro clínico radicaban en el gran compromiso cutáneo que lo llevó a hospitalización, dolor e incomodidad, por el cual recurrió al manejo tópico generalizado con vaselina. Los hallazgos clínicos relevantes fueron: eosinofilia severa, ulceraciones cutáneas, hepatitis química y fiebre. Con los hallazgos del cuadro clínico y la evaluación de la escala RegiSCAR se hace el diagnóstico de síndrome DRESS inducido por fenitoína. Se suspende la fenitoína, se inicia levetiracetam y se administran corticosteroides y acetaminofén con evolución favorable. (AU)


DRESS syndrome is a dermatological adverse reaction can occur due to various medications, being one of the most important diagnoses above Steven-Johnson syndrome. This is a case related to a very low frequency adverse reaction that is documented in the scientific literature to several medicines among those, the phenytoin. Therefore, the publication of these cases is scarce and limited. The main concerns of the patients related to their clinical picture were due to the great cutaneous compromise that lead to hospitalization, pain and discomfort for which they resorted to generalized topical management with vaseline (petrolatum). Relevant clinical findings were severe eosinophilia, skin ulcerations, chemical hepatitis and fever. With clinical picture findings and evaluation of the RegiSCAR scale, the diagnosis of Phenytoin-induced DRESS syndrome is made. Phenytoin is discontinued, levetiracetam is started and corticosteroids and acetaminophen are administrated with favorable evolution. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/diagnosis , Petrolatum/therapeutic use , Phenytoin/administration & dosage , Albendazole/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Eosinophilia/etiology , Exanthema/diagnosis , Levetiracetam/administration & dosage , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam (LEV) versus phenytoin (PHT) as second-line drugs for the treatment of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) in children.@*METHODS@#English and Chinese electronic databases were searched for the randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and safety of LEV and PHT as second-line drugs for the treatment of childhood CSE. RevMan 5.3 software was used for data analysis.@*RESULTS@#Seven studies with 1 434 children were included. The Meta analysis showed that compared with the PHT group, the LEV group achieved a significantly higher control rate of CSE (@*CONCLUSIONS@#LEV has a better clinical effect than PHT in the treatment of children with CSE and does not increase the incidence rate of adverse events.


Subject(s)
Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Child , Humans , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Status Epilepticus/drug therapy
4.
Rev. ADM ; 77(6): 316-320, nov.-dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151346

ABSTRACT

Se entiende por agrandamiento gingival el incremento en masa y volumen del tejido gingival. Se considera una condición benigna de la cavidad oral, por lo general de manejo rutinario, que logra regularse con medidas simples de control del biofilm microbiano. El agrandamiento gingival puede ser producido por diversas condiciones clínicas, hereditarias, deficiente higiene oral o fármacos. La epilepsia afecta a 1% de la población mundial y requiere el uso de fármacos antiepilépticos o anticonvulsivantes para lograr su control, dentro de éstos la fenitoína actúa como un bloqueador selectivo de los canales de sodio sensibles al voltaje y constituye uno de los fármacos más empleados por su capacidad en el control de crisis focales y generalizadas. La fenitoína se ha relacionado con los agrandamientos gingivales como uno de sus efectos adversos, los cuales se incluyen dentro de las enfermedades por fármaco inducidas en la cavidad oral. El objetivo de este artículo es brindar la información necesaria sobre el manejo correcto de pacientes con agrandamiento gingival producido por fenitoínas y a la vez poder conocer las consecuencias de estos fármacos en la cavidad oral (AU)


Gingival enlargement means the increase in mass and volumen of the gingival tissue. It is considered a benign condition of the oral cavity, usually of routine management, wich can be regulated with simple measures of biofilm control. The gingival enlargement can be produced by diverse clinical conditions, hereditary deficient oral higiene or drugs. Epilepsy affects 1% of the world population and requires the use of antiepileptic or anticonvulsant drugs to achieve its control, within these phenytoin acts as selective blocker or voltage ­ sensitive sodium channels and is one of the most used grugs for its ability to control focal and generalized crises. Phenytoin has been linked to gingival enlargement as one of its adverse effects which is included within the drug diseases induced in the oral cavity. The objective of this article is to provide the necessary information on the correct managment of patients with gingival enlargemen produced by phenytoins and at the same time to know the consequences of these drugs in the oral cavity (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Gingival Overgrowth/chemically induced , Gingival Hyperplasia/chemically induced , Schools, Dental , Electrosurgery/methods , Gingival Hyperplasia/surgery , Gingivectomy/methods , Membranes, Artificial , Mexico , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 34-38, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102292

ABSTRACT

Las mujeres han sido tratadas por décadas con testosterona intentando aliviar una gran variedad de síntomas con riesgos y beneficios inciertos. En la mayoría de los países, la testosterona se prescribe "off-label", de modo que las mujeres están utilizando compuestos y dosis ideadas para tratamientos en hombres. En este sentido, varias sociedades médicas de distintos continentes adoptaron recientemente por consenso una toma de posición sobre los beneficios y potenciales riesgos de la terapia con testosterona en la mujer, explorar las áreas de incertidumbre e identificar prácticas de prescripción con potencial de causar daño. Las recomendaciones con respecto a los beneficios y riesgos de la terapia con testosterona se basan en los resultados de ensayos clínicos controlados con placebo de al menos 12 semanas de duración. A continuación se comentan las recomendaciones. (AU)


There are currently no clear established indications for testosterone replacement therapy for women. Nonetheless, clinicians have been treating women with testosterone to alleviate a variety of symptoms for decades with uncertainty regarding its benefits and risks. In most countries, testosterone therapy is prescribed off-label, which means that women are using testosterone formulations or compounds approved for men with a modified dose for women. Due to these issues, there was a need for a global Consensus Position Statement on testosterone therapy for women based on the available evidence from placebo randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This Position Statement was developed to inform health care professionals about the benefits and potential risks of testosterone therapy intended for women. The aim of the Consensus was to provide clear guidance as to which women might benefit from testosterone therapy; to identify symptoms, signs, and certain conditions for which the evidence does not support the prescription of testosterone; to explore areas of uncertainty, and to identify any prescribing practices that have the potential to cause harm. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Postmenopause/drug effects , Appetite Depressants/adverse effects , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Placebos/administration & dosage , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Tamoxifen/adverse effects , Testosterone/administration & dosage , Testosterone/analysis , Testosterone/adverse effects , Testosterone/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Agents/adverse effects , Indomethacin/adverse effects , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/adverse effects , Postmenopause/physiology , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic , Cholinergic Antagonists/adverse effects , Contraceptives, Oral/adverse effects , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/etiology , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/therapy , Danazol/adverse effects , Consensus , Aromatase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Off-Label Use , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Amphetamines/adverse effects , Histamine Antagonists/adverse effects , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Androgens/physiology , Ketoconazole/adverse effects , Narcotics/adverse effects
6.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 20(4): 102-104, 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097209

ABSTRACT

Si bien los niveles bajos de vitamina D se han asociado con varios resultados de interés en salud, aún resulta motivo de controversia qué significa un nivel bajo, cual es la utilidad de su suplementación y cuales son sus potenciales efectos adversos. En ese contexto, se realizó en el Servicio de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria del Hospital Italiano un taller de discusión denominado "Actividad ECCO" (Evidencia Científica en la Clínica Cotidiana) en la que fueron presentados los resulta-dos de estudios identificados que hubieran comparado el uso de vitamina D (con o sin suplementación de calcio) ver-sus placebo, con el objetivo de discutir cuál es la evidencia actual para el rastreo de deficiencia de vitamina D y para, eventualmente, recomendar o no su suplementación. Este artículo resume la evidencia identificada y las conclusiones consensuadas en dicha actividad. (AU)


Although low levels of vitamin D have been associated with several health outcomes, it is controversial what a low level means, the usefulness of its supplementation and its potential adverse effects. In this context, a workshop called "ECCO Activity" (Scientific Evidence in the Daily Clinic) was held in the Family and Community Medicine Division of Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, where the results of identified studies that compared the use of vitamin D (with or without calcium supplementation) versus placebo, with the aim of discussing what is the current evidence for screening of vitamin D deficiency and to, eventually, recommend or not its supplementation. This article summarizes the identified evidence and the agreed conclusions in that activity. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Avitaminosis/diagnosis , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency/complications , Phenobarbital/adverse effects , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Sunscreening Agents/adverse effects , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Biomarkers , Gastric Bypass/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Celiac Disease/complications , Calcium/administration & dosage , Calcium/therapeutic use , Risk , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects , Hepatic Insufficiency/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications
7.
Rev. Soc. Odontol. La Plata ; 26(52): 22-29, jun. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-795819

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo describiremos un Agrandamiento Gingival producido por Fenitoína, un fármaco anticonvulsivante, frecuentemente indicado en distintos casos de Epilepsia. El caso clínico muestra a un joven paciente que después de ser operado de un Tumor Cerebral (Ependinoma) presentó convulsiones que hicieron necesaria la indicación de esta droga. Como consecuencia de ella, se generó un importante Agrandamiento Gingival y fue derivado por el Medico Neurólogo tratante a nuestra Cátedra de Periodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de La Plata (FOUNLP). Se describe el tratamiento quirúrgico efectuado y los controles en el tiempo a un año y tres años...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Gingivectomy/methods , Gingival Hyperplasia/chemically induced , Argentina , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Schools, Dental , Follow-Up Studies , Gingivoplasty/methods , Brain Neoplasms/complications , Postoperative Care , Oral Surgical Procedures/methods
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(5): 577-583, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-751702

ABSTRACT

Background: DRESS Syndrome (Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is an uncommon disease caused by drugs. It is characterized by a polymorphic disseminated eruption with fever and multiple organ dysfunction. Aim: To report the etiology, characteristics, treatment, prognosis, and follow up of patients with DRESS Syndrome admitted to a clinical hospital. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of patients admitted for drug reactions, selecting those patients complying with clinical criteria for DRESS Syndrome. Drugs used during three months prior to the onset of symptoms were evaluated as possible causes of the disease. Results: Nine patients aged 16 to 68 years (six males) complied with the clinical criteria for the disease. The causative medications were carbamazepine in three patients, phenytoin in three, antituberculous drugs in two and amoxicillin in one. All were treated with systemic steroids with a complete clinical resolution. Conclusions: DRESS syndrome is usually underdiagnosed and has a good response to systemic steroids.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/drug therapy , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Carbamazepine/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/etiology , Eosinophilia/complications , Exanthema/complications , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159440

ABSTRACT

Gingival enlargement is frequently observed in patients taking certain drugs such as anticonvulsants, immune suppressants, and calcium channel blockers. The effects of these drugs are not only directed at the primary target tissues, but also on secondary target tissues, such as gingival connective tissue, causing clinical, and histopathological aberrations. These aberrations can adversely affect speech, mastication, tooth eruption, and esthetics. Disfiguring gingival overgrowth triggered by these medications often impairs the nutrition and provides access to oral infection, caries, and periodontal disease. The present case report describes the treatment of a patient with a phenytoin induced gingival enlargement.


Subject(s)
Adult , Esthetics, Dental , Humans , Gingival Hyperplasia/chemically induced , Gingival Hyperplasia/epidemiology , Gingival Hyperplasia/surgery , Gingival Overgrowth/chemically induced , Gingival Overgrowth/epidemiology , Gingival Overgrowth/surgery , Male , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Postoperative Care
10.
Braz. dent. j ; 26(1): 39-43, Jan-Feb/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-735840

ABSTRACT

Phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth (PIGO) is a common complication of the continuous use of medications. This paper presents a case of PIGO hindering oral function and compromising oral hygiene and aesthetics, which was treated with a combination of nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapies. A 39-year-old male patient was referred for dental treatment with several complaints, especially upper and lower gingival overgrowth that hindered speech and swallowing. Generalized deep probing pockets and bone loss were detected. Diagnosis of gingival overgrowth associated with phenytoin and chronic periodontitis was established. The treatment plan consisted of conservative therapy with education on oral health, motivation and meticulous oral hygiene instruction in combination with scaling and root planing. During the revaluation period, a marked reduction in the clinical parameters was noted, particularly probing pocket depth reduction. Surgical therapy for removal of gingival overgrowth was also performed to achieve pocket reduction. Supportive periodontal therapy was proposed and the patient is currently under follow-up for 4 years. Management of PIGO may be obtained by the use of periodontal procedures combined with good oral hygiene and periodontal supportive care.


O crescimento gengival induzido pela fenitoína é uma complicação comum do uso contínuo da medicacão. Este artigo apresenta um caso de crescimento gengival excessivo que dificultava a função oral e comprometia a higiene oral e a estética, o qual foi tratado com uma combinação de terapias periodontais não-cirúrgicas e cirúrgicas. Paciente masculino de 39 anos de idade foi encaminhado para tratamento odontológico com várias queixas, especialmente do crescimento gengival superior e inferior que prejudicava a fala e deglutição. Profundidades de sondagens severas generalizadas e perda óssea foram detectadas. Diagnóstico de crescimento gengival induzido pela fenitoína e periodontite crônica foi estabelecido. O plano de tratamento consistiu de terapia conservadora com educação, motivação e meticulosa instrução de higiene oral em associação com raspagem e alisamento corono-radicular. Durante o período de reavaliação, uma acentuada redução nos parâmentros clínicos foi observada, principalmente uma redução das profundidades de sondagem. Terapia cirúrgica para remoção do excesso de tecido gengival também foi realizada para conseguir redução das bolsas. Terapia periodontal de suporte foi proposta e o paciente está atualmente sob acompanhamento por um período de 4 anos. O manejo do crescimento gengival induzido pela fenitoína pode ser obtido pelo uso de procedimentos periodontais combinados com uma boa higiene oral e cuidados periodontais de suporte.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Chronic Periodontitis/chemically induced , Gingival Overgrowth/chemically induced , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Chronic Periodontitis/therapy , Esthetics, Dental , Gingival Overgrowth/surgery , Oral Hygiene
12.
West Indian med. j ; 62(7): 589-592, Sept. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045709

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are uncommon acute dermatologic disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency, aetiology and outcome of cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis admitted to the dermatology ward at the University Hospital of the West Indies. METHODS: This was a retrospective study looking at all patients who were admitted with a diagnosis of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis overlap syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis over a nine-year period. RESULTS: The results showed almost equal numbers of males and females. The drugs most commonly implicated were phenytoin and cotrimoxazole. The most common complications were hepatic impairment and ophthalmic complications. CONCLUSION: Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality of patients on the dermatology ward although mortality was low compared to other studies.


OBJETIVO: El síndrome de Stevens-Johnson (SSJ) y la necrólisis epidérmica tóxica (NET) son trastornos dermatológicos agudos poco frecuentes. El propósito de este estudio fue examinar la frecuencia, la etiología y el resultado de casos de síndrome Stevens-Johnson y necrólisis epidérmica tóxica ingresados en la sala de dermatología del Hospital Universitario de West Indies. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo con todos los pacientes que fueron ingresados con diagnóstico de síndrome de Stevens-Johnson, síndrome de solapamiento entre el síndrome de Stevens-Johnson y NET, y necrólisis epidérmica tóxica, por un período de nueve años. RESULTADOS: Los resultados mostraron casi igual número de varones y hembras. Los fármacos más comúnmente implicados fueron la fenitoína y el cotrimoxazol. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron deterioro hepático y complicaciones oftálmicas. CONCLUSIÓN: El síndrome Stevens-Johnson y la necrólisis epidérmica tóxica contribuyen significativamente a la morbilidad y mortalidad de los pacientes en la Sala de Dermatología, aunque la mortalidad fue baja en comparación con otros estudios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/epidemiology , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/etiology , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Jamaica/epidemiology , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects
13.
s.l; s.n; [2013].
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-834041

ABSTRACT

El mecanismo de acción de levetiracetam no es todavía totalmente conocido. Estudios in vitro, han demostrado la unión de levetiracetam con alta afinidad a la proteína 2A de la vesícula presináptica (SV2A), proteína que parece estar involucrada en la fusión de las vesículas y la exocitosis de neurotransmisores. Otros mecanismos son la inhibición de la modulación negativa del GABA asociada a Zn2+, las corrientes de Ca2+ de tipo N dependientes de voltaje y la liberación de GABA. Se definieron las siguientes preguntas PICO, con el fin de desarrollar la búsqueda bibliográfica que nos permita evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de la droga que se pretende incorporar: En pacientes con epilepsia el levetiracetam en monoterapia es más efectivo que la monoterapia con acido valproico, carbamazepina, lamotrigina, fenobarbital o fenitoína? En pacientes con epilepsia el levetiracetam en monoterapia es más seguro que la monoterapia con acido valproico, carbamazepina, lamotrigina, fenobarbital o fenitoína? En niños con epilepsia el levetiracetam en monoterapia es menos costoso que la monoterapia con acido valproico, carbamazepina, lamotrigina, fenobarbital o fenitoína? De esta forma se realizó la búsqueda bibliográfica por dos investigadores en forma independiente a través de las bases de datos Cochrane, Medline y google académico. Basados en los puntos de eficacia, seguridad y análisis de costos, dado que el levetiracetam no demostró ser más eficaz ni más seguro ni menos costoso, se recomienda su no inclusión en el formulario terapéutico hasta tanto no se cuente con evidencia sólida que demuestre lo contrario. En casos de excepción podría considerarse su uso para \r\npacientes refractarios a múltiples DAEs incluidas en el formularios terapéutico provincial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenobarbital/adverse effects , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Carbamazepine/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics
14.
Rev. Fundac. Juan Jose Carraro ; 17(36): 14-19, sept.-oct. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-684946

ABSTRACT

El término agrandamiento gingival por fármacos se refiere a un crecimiento anormal de la encía, secundario al uso de una medicación sistémica. Si bien se reporta una larga lista de medicamentos relacionados, se encontró una fuerte asociación sólo con la Fenitoína , la Nifedipina y la Ciclosporina A. La prevalencia del Agrandamiento Gingival varía ampliamente, sin embargo la prevalencia relacionada con el uso de la Fenitoína es aproximadamente del 50 por ciento. La Nifedipina y la ciclosporina producen cambios en el 25 por ciento de los pacientes tratados. Existe controversia entre la dosis y el riesgo o severidad del Agrandamiento.El grado de Agrandamiento gingival parece estar relacionado con la susceptibilidad del paciente y el grado dehigiene bucal de éste. Después de 1 a 3 meses de iniciada la medicación del fármaco los agrandamientos originadosen la papila interdental, se expande afectando otras áreas de la encía llegando a cubrir en casos extremosuna porción importante de los dientes principalmente en los segmentos anteriores por vestibular. El uso discontinuo de la medicación por el médico de cabecera y más aún la sustitución del fármaco por otroresulta en la regresión y el cese del Agrandamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cyclosporine/adverse effects , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Nifedipine/adverse effects , Gingival Overgrowth/chemically induced , Folic Acid/therapeutic use , Gingival Hyperplasia/chemically induced , Gingival Hypertrophy/chemically induced , Gingival Overgrowth/epidemiology
15.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 50(1): 42-50, mar. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-627280

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The most important chronic toxic adverse effect caused by phenytoin takes place in the cerebellum and may lead to irreversible cerebellar atrophy. Objective: Draw attention to the occurrence of cerebellar atrophy in patients undergoing long-term phenitoyn therapy Emphasize the need for and feasibility of early diagnosis. Update pathogenetic hypotheses. Development: Brief history of Phenytoin since it was first used in the treatment of epileptic seizures; acute, subacute, and chronic adverse effects, with emphasis on cerebellar atrophy. The case presented developed during long-term phenytoin treatment of an epileptic patient. The hypotheses so far raised on pathophysiological mechanisms involved in causing atrophy are described. Complete current review of literature is included and most relevant authors are listed. Conclusions: Cerebellar atrophy following long-term phenytoin therapy takes place in a minor, as yet indeterminate, number of patients; its occurrence, however, must be borne in mind in the case of patients under long-term therapy. CT and MR contributions to early diagnosis are underlined, as well as the current and potential support of new neuroimaging techniques. Recent hypotheses regarding pathophysiological mechanisms involved, direct toxic action, anoxia, and dysafferentation are discussed. The debate on future use of phenytoin as first-line drug is supported.


Introducción: El efecto adverso tóxico crónico más relevante que puede ocasionar la fenitoína es producido sobre el cerebelo pudiendo causar una atrofia cerebelosa irreversible. Objetivo: Llamar la atención sobre la ocurrencia de atrofia cerebelosa en pacientes expuestos a la fenitoína en forma crónica. Resaltar la importancia y posibilidad de efectuar un diagnóstico precoz. Actualizar las hipótesis planteadas en su patogenia. Desarrollo: Breve síntesis histórica de la fenitoína desde su incorporación a la terapéutica de las crisis epilépticas, sus efectos adversos agudos, sub-agudos y crónicos, haciendo énfasis en la atrofia cerebelosa. Se presenta un caso clínico desarrollado durante el tratamiento a largo plazo con fenitoína en una paciente epiléptica. Describimos las hipótesis planteadas hasta ahora sobre los mecanismos fisiopatológicos involucrados en la producción de la atrofia. Se realiza una revisión actualizada y completa de la bibliografía y se citan los autores más pertinentes. Conclusiones: La Atrofia cerebelosa causada por el uso crónico de la fenitoína se produce en un porcentaje bajo de pacientes, aún no determinado; sin embargo, su ocurrencia se debe tener siempre presente en las personas tratadas con fenitoína en forma prolongada. Muy demostrativos de atrofia cerebelosa son algunos exámenes como la TAC y la RNM, cuyos hallazgos pueden preceder a las manifestaciones clínicas, lo que permite realizar un diagnóstico precoz, La aparición de nuevas técnicas neuroradiológicas, como la RNM con tensor de difusión (RNM-DT) prometen contribuir a dilucidar los mecanismos fisiopatológicos involucrados. Se revisan las hipótesis actuales postuladas en la patogenia, como acción toxica directa, anoxia y desaferentación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Atrophy/chemically induced , Cerebellum , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Cerebellum/pathology , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Rev. chil. neurocir ; 36: 61-65, jun. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665173

ABSTRACT

The clinical status of patients with malignant intracranial tumors, such as high-grade gliomas, is often aggravated by seizure activity. Phenytoin is typically employed as prophylactic anticonvulsant in this setting. In such patients, severe systemic drug reactions such as erythema multiforme (EM) may occur. However, in a subgroup of patients with brain radiation therapy, EM-like lesions appear to develop in an increased ratio. The acronym ‘EMPACT’ (E: erythema; M: multiform; associated with P: phenytoin; A: and; C: cranial, radiation; T: therapy) has been suggested to best describes this syndrome. In this article, the authors present a case report of a patient treated with phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis, during the post-operative period following resection of a malignant glioma, and who presented a severe cutaneous rash, evolving with serious consequences due to abrupt change of seizure medications. Because of these predictable complications we abandoned our routine institutional protocol which employed phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis for patients in the post-operative period following malignant tumor resection and which expect to be irradiated in the near future. Once both carbamazepine and barbiturates show cross-sensitivity with phenytoin and may interfere with serum levels of chemotherapy drugs, we now advocate, as other worldwide renown neuro-oncological centers, the use of valproate gabapentin, or alternatively, as recent literature guidelines suggests levetiracetam (keppra), for seizure prophylaxis in this select subset of patients.


El estado clínico de los pacientes con tumores malignos intracraneales, como los gliomas de alto grado, es a menudo agravado por la actividad convulsiva. La fenitoína es normalmente empleadaa como anticonvulsivante profiláctico en esto contexto. En estos pacientes, graves reacciones sistémicas, como eritema multiforme (EM) puedem ocurrir. Sin embargo, en un subgrupo de pacientes con terapia de radiación en el cerebro, lesiones de EM, parece que se desarrollan en una proporción mayor. ‘EMPACT’ La sigla (E: eritema, M: multiforme; asociados con P: fenitoína; A: y C: la radiación craneal, T: La terapia) Se ha sugerido que mejor describe este síndrome. En esto artículo, los autores presentan un caso clínico de un paciente tratado con fenitoína para la profilaxia de convulsiones, durante el período post-operatorio después de la resección de un glioma maligno, y que presenta una erupción cutánea grave, que evoluciona con consecuencias graves debido al cambio brusco de medicamentos anticonvulsivos. Debido a estas complicaciones predecibles, que abandonamos nuestro protocolo institucional de rutina que la fenitoína empleadas para la profilaxia de convulsiones en los pacientes en el período post-operatorio después de la resección del tumor maligno y que esperan ser irradiado en un futuro próximo. Una vez que ambos carbamazepina y los barbitúricos mostran sensibilidad cruzada con fenitoína y puede interferir con los niveles séricos de drogas de la quimioterapia, ahora defendemos, como otros centros de renombre mundial neuro-oncológico, el uso de gabapentina valproato, o bien, como orientación la literatura reciente sugiere levetiracetam (keppra), para la profilaxia de las convulsiones en este subgrupo seleccionado de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Erythema Multiforme/etiology , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Glioma/therapy , Cranial Irradiation/adverse effects , Brain Neoplasms/therapy , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Seizures/prevention & control , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Phenytoin/therapeutic use , Glioma/radiotherapy , Brain Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Postoperative Period
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 69(2a): 153-158, Apr. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-583767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: CYP2C9 is a major enzyme in human drug metabolism and the polymorphism observed in the corresponding gene may affect therapeutic outcome during treatment. The distribution of variant CYP2C9 alleles and prevalence of phenytoin adverse reactions were hereby investigated in a population of patients diagnosed with epilepsy. METHOD: Allele-specific PCR analysis was carried out in order to determine frequencies of the two most common variant alleles, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 in genomic DNA isolated from 100 epileptic patients. We also analyzed the frequency of phenytoin adverse reactions among those different genotypes groups. The data was presented as mean±standard deviation. RESULTS: The mean age at enrollment was 39.6±10.3 years (range, 17-72 years) and duration of epilepsy was 26.5±11.9 years (range 3-48 years). The mean age at epilepsy onset was 13.1±12.4 years (range, 1 month-62 years). Frequencies of CYP2C9*1 (84 percent), CYP2C9*2 (9 percent) and CYP2C9*3 (7 percent) were similar to other published reports. Phenytoin adverse reactions were usually mild and occurred in 15 percent patients, without correlation with the CYP2C9 polymorphism (p=0.34). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate an overall similar distribution of the CYP2C9 alleles in a population of patients diagnosed with epilepsy in the South of Brazil, compared to other samples. This sample of phenytoin users showed no drug related adverse reactions and CYP2C9 allele type correlation. The role of CYP2C9 polymorphism influence on phenytoin adverse reaction remains to be determined since some literature evidence and our data found negative results.


OBJETIVO: A CYP2C9 é uma das principais enzimas do metabolismo de drogas humano e o polimorfismo observado no respectivo gene pode afetar o resultado terapêutico durante o tratamento. Neste trabalho investigamos em uma população de pacientes portadores de epilepsia a distribuição dos alelos variantes do CYP2C9 e a frequência de efeitos adversos da fenitoína tentando estabelecer uma correlação. MÉTODO: Realizamos uma análise através de uma PCR alelo específica para determinar a frequência dos alelos variantes mais comuns, CYP2C9*2 e CYP2C9*3, isolados da amostra de 100 pacientes com epilepsia. Também levantamos a frequência de reações adversas da fenitoína nestes diferentes grupos genotípicos. Os dados são apresentados na forma de média e desvio-padrão. RESULTADOS: A idade média na inclusão foi 39,6±10,3 anos (variando de 17-72 anos) e a duração da epilepsia era 26,5±11,9 anos (variando de 3-48 anos). A idade média dos pacientes no início da epilepsia era 13,1±12,4 anos (variando de 1 mês-62 anos). As frequências do CYP2C9*1 (84 por cento), CYP2C9*2 (9 por cento) e CYP2C9*3 (7 por cento) foram similares a outros estudos publicados. As reações adversas da fenitoína foram frequentemente leves e ocorreram em 15 por cento dos pacientes, sem correlação com o polimorfismo do CYP2C9 (p=0.34). CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados indicam uma distribuição similar dos alelos variantes *2 e *3 nesta população de pacientes com epilepsia comparado a outros estudos. Esta amostra de usuários de fenitoína mostrou não haver correlação entre efeitos colaterais relacionados à droga e o tipo de alelo variante. O papel da influência do polimorfismo do CYP2C9 nos efeitos colaterais da fenitoína precisam ser melhor determinados, já que algumas evidencias da literatura e este trabalho mostraram resultados negativos.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases/genetics , Epilepsy/genetics , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Phenytoin/administration & dosage
20.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 49(2): 171-176, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597571

ABSTRACT

Rash is a common side effect associated with antiepileptic drugs. The rate of a phenytoin rash is 5.9 percent and increases to 25 percent in those with another antiepileptic drug rash. Aplastic anemia is an adquired hematopoietic stem-cell disorder characterized by pancytopenia of the peripheral blood and hypocellular bone marrow. The use of phenytoin is associated with a 3.5 fold increased risk of aplastic anemia. We report a case of a 70-year-old woman who developed two severe adverse reactions simultaneously with phenytoin: a maculopapular pruritic rash with involvement of mucous and an aplastic anemia. Both conditions normalized after phenytoin withdrawal.


El rash es un efecto secundario común asociado al uso de fármacos antiepilépticos. La frecuencia de rash con fenitoína se ha estimado en un 5,9 por ciento y asciende a un 25 por ciento en pacientes que han presentado rash con otro fármaco antiepiléptico. La anemia aplásica es una anomalía adquirida de las células madre hematopoyéticas caracterizada por pancitopenia de la sangre periférica y médula ósea hipocelular. Los pacientes tratados con fenitoína presentan un riesgo 3,5 veces mayor de desarrollar anemia aplásica. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 70 años que desarrolló dos reacciones adversas severas y simultáneas a la fenitoína: un exantema maculopapular pruriginoso con compromiso de mucosas y una anemia aplásica. Ambas condiciones se resolvieron completamente con la suspensión del fármaco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Anemia, Aplastic/complications , Anemia, Aplastic/chemically induced , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Exanthema/complications , Exanthema/chemically induced , Phenytoin/adverse effects
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