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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882167

ABSTRACT

@#This descriptive cross-sectional study presents the health-seeking behaviors among older adults in Central Aurora, Philippines. Using a survey questionnaire, 179 older adults from 4 municipalities were interviewed. Participants were mostly 60-64-year-old married females, living with spouse, children, and grandchildren, with an average monthly income of 1001-5000 pesos, working as farmers, were self-employed, were Roman Catholics, and with an elementary level of education. The health-seeking behaviors were described in terms of physical, emotional, mental, social, and spiritual dimensions, with the spiritual dimension garnering the highest average mean of 4.01 (scale of 1 or never to 5 or always), and physical and mental dimensions the lowest average means of 3.58 and 3.31, respectively. These results attest to the Filipino value for the spiritual realm as an important dimension of health seeking behaviors and the physical and the mental dimensions of lesser concern. Recommendations include creating a wellness program to enhance health-seeking behaviors in all dimensions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Spouses , Catholicism , Farmers , Cities , Philippines , Marriage , Health Behavior , Family , Health Promotion , Surveys and Questionnaires , Educational Status
2.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 173-182, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876872

ABSTRACT

@# Objectives: To describe the clinical profile and factors associated with mortality among the first 200 patients confirmed to have COVID-19 infection admitted in the University of the Philippines – Philippine General Hospital (UP-PGH) Methodology: We conducted a retrospective review of adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted in PGH, a designated COVID-19 referral center. Demographic, clinical data, and clinical outcomes were extracted from medical records. Frequencies and distributions of various clinical characteristics were described, and factors associated with mortality were investigated. Results: Of the 200 patients in our cohort, majority were male (55.5%), and more than half (58%) were over 60 years old. Underlying co-morbid illnesses (67.5%) included hypertension (49.5%), diabetes mellitus (26.5%), and cardiovascular disease (20.5%). Most frequent presenting symptoms were cough (69.0%), fever (58.5%), or shortness of breath (53.0%). Most patients presented with mild (n=41, 20.5%) to moderate illness (n=99, 49.5%) and only 60 were considered severely (n=32, 16.0%) or critically ill (n=28, 14.0%). Many (61%) received empiric antibiotics, while 44.5% received either repurposed drugs or investigational therapies for COVID-19. Bacterial co-infection was documented in 11%, with Klebsiella pneumoniae commonly isolated. In-hospital mortality was 17.5%, which was highest for critical COVID-19 (71.4%). Mortality was observed to be higher among patients age 60 and above, those requiring oxygen, ventilatory support and ICU admission, and among those who developed acute kidney injury, acute stroke, sepsis, and nosocomial pneumonia. Conclusion: Our study confirms that COVID-19 affects males, older individuals and those with underlying co-morbid conditions. Empiric antimicrobial treatment was given for majority of patients, despite documentation of bacterial infection in only 11%. K. pneumoniae was commonly isolated, reflecting local epidemiology. Mortality rate during this early period of the pandemic was high and comparable to other institutions. Factors associated with mortality were related to critical COVID-19 and are similar to other studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Philippines
3.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 164-172, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876871

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction. The University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital (UP-PGH) began its operations as a COVID-19 referral center on March 30, 2020. Local studies reporting characteristics of patients in the intensive care units (ICUs) are lacking. Objectives. 1) To describe the baseline characteristics and outcomes of the initial cohort of COVID-19 patients in the medical ICU. 2) To report the initial situation and strategies in the ICU during the first two months of being a COVID-19 referral center. Methods. We conducted a review of records of all patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the medical ICU of UP-PGH between April 1 to May 31, 2020. Patient demographics, comorbidities, APACHE-II score, signs and symptoms, laboratory and radiologic results, respiratory and vasopressor support, and outcomes were collected. Results. Out of 35 patients with confirmed COVID-19, majority were above 60 years old (63%). Hypertension was the most frequent comorbidity (77%). Fever was the most common symptom (51%). The mean duration of symptoms prior admission was 9 ± 7 days. Anemia and leukocytosis with neutrophilia was common. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP) were elevated in most patients. Majority of patients (66%) had moderate level of hypoxemia on admission. Bilateral pneumonia on chest radiograph was found in 34 patients. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine were the most commonly used drugs. A total of 24 patients (69%) required invasive mechanical ventilation while 15 (43%) needed pressor support. Twenty-two expired (63%) while thirteen (37%) patients were discharged from the medical ICU. Conclusion. The clinical characteristics in our set of patients are consistent with other studies on critically ill patients. Mortality in the medical ICU was high.


Subject(s)
Philippines , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Intensive Care Units
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886627

ABSTRACT

@#AIMS: Practice guidelines on diabetes in the Philippines have recommendations for screening using risk factors with thresholds based on international data. This paper investigated whether there is a basis to support these screening recommendations using data from the 8 th Philippine National Nutrition Survey (NNS). METHODOLOGY: This is a cross-sectional analytic study of data from the results of the 8 th Philippine NNS that was conducted across the country from June 2013 to April 2014. Crude odds ratios were obtained for each variable to determine their association with diabetes, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the independent association of demographic and clinical characteristics with diabetes. RESULTS: These variables were found to be significantly associated with diabetes and impaired fasting glucose: male gender; age > 40 years; hypertension with BP > 140/90 mm Hg; triglyceride levels > 150 mg/dL; overweight with BMI > 23 kg/m2 ; and abdominal obesity with waist circumference ≥ 90 cm in male and ≥ 80 cm in female adults. CONCLUSION: The risk factors associated with diabetes mellitus among adult Filipinos are similar to other countries but the development of diabetes is associated with relatively younger age, and lower BMI and waist circumference.


Subject(s)
Risk Factors , Philippines
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886556

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND: Gender-based violence originates when societal gender-based expectations and the reality are not consistent. One such example is: there has been a recent rise in women's education in the Philippines, yet the prevalence of traditional female role expectations in the context of the heavily Catholic Filipino society remains unchanged. OBJECTIVES: In this paper, the relationship between women's education and their risk of gender-based violence (GBV) is examined and compared with the relationship between the education of their partners and the women's risk of experiencing GBV. METHODOLOGY: Our sample included women living in the Philippines surveyed by the Demographic Health Survey in 2017. We used multivariate logistic regression on the respondents' and the partner's education level, with respondent's risk of experiencing GBV. RESULTS: We found that there was a slight but statistically significant decreased risk of GBV experience with increased years of education of both the female respondents and their male partners. For all female respondents, there was a 3.7% decrease in the risk of GBV per additional year of their own education. For those with partners, there was a 2.3% decrease in the risk of GBV per additional year of their partner's education. CONCLUSION: We found that the education of male partners is as much of a factor as the women's own education in her likelihood of experiencing violence. From this, we established that partner selection based on their education levels may act as a protective factor for an individual's likelihood of experiencing GBV. Policy initiatives should address increasing male awareness of safe behavior and violence against women, especially while traditional gender roles are still predominant in the Filipino society.


Subject(s)
Female , Philippines , Violence , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886554

ABSTRACT

@#Medical educators are restricted by the current pandemic in teaching community medicine. Although medical schools suspended the exposure of their students to real community settings, many community medicine educators advocate that learning in community medicine could be sustained during the pandemic as initially experienced in several medical schools in the Philippines. To maximize learning, it is essential to highlight interactivity as an important process in students' learning in whatever mode of delivery. This commentary focuses on the various forms of interactivities in teaching community medicine: student-t o-student, student-to-community, and student-to-teacher. It is suggested that the interactivity between the student and the teacher should be emphasized to address the potential limitations of the other forms.


Subject(s)
Schools, Medical , Community Medicine , Pandemics , Philippines , Education, Medical , Learning , Students
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886550

ABSTRACT

@#The Philippines has been the leading country in Southeast Asia in terms of infections (both in terms of total and active cases) brought forth by the SARS-COV-2 virus, known as the COVID-19 pandemic. We highlight the historical underpinnings of pandemic responses that are related to the Philippines, both globally and locally. We also present some counterfactuals in an economic recession that the pandemic caused. Arguing for fast-track rehabilitation and improvement of digital infrastructure, this development is essential in promoting e-commerce, quality education through remote learning, and the quality of health data generation and analysis. As the world is reminded of the Balmis expedition while the world still grapples to obtain a cure for the pandemic, we look at these tenets of the “new normal” to address issues of social justice in the Philippine setting.


Subject(s)
Expeditions , Philippines , COVID-19 , Socioeconomic Factors , Pandemics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886511

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak broadly affected not only the physical but also the psychological wellbeing of the people. However, few studies have been conducted concerning its psychological impact specifically on employees from the academe. OBJECTIVES: To determine the psychological responses and coping styles of employees of the School of Health Sciences at the University of the Philippines - Manila during the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, this study sought to determine the association between participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and their psychological responses, and between participants’ psychological responses and their coping styles used. METHODS: We employed a cross-sectional design and self-selection or volunteer sampling to recruit 46 academics and support staff employed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were collected in April 2020. Psychological responses were determined with the 10-item Kessler’s Psychological Distress Scale. Coping styles were assessed with the short-form Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Likelihood ratio chi-square tests and Spearman rho tests were conducted to test the hypotheses. Statistical significance was determined at p < .05. RESULTS: The majority of participants reported low levels of psychological distress in the early stage of the pandemic (n=44; 95.65%). We found a statistically significant relationship between psychological responses and coping styles characterized by rumination (rs = 0.454; P = 0.002) and catastrophizing (rs = 0.408; P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed the significance of psychological responses during the COVID-19 pandemic and demonstrated a specific association with coping styles characterized by rumination and catastrophizing but are unsuitably less adaptive. Hence, the application of less adaptive techniques when psychologically distressed from the pandemic need to be corrected or modified.


Subject(s)
Philippines , COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Universities
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886264

ABSTRACT

@#OBJECTIVE: To identify the glaucoma clinical practice patterns among the members of the Philippine Glaucoma Society (PGS) from 2015 to 2016 using an online survey. METHODS: An online link was sent to each consenting PGS member which directed them to two poll sites. These sites asked questions about demographics and their preferred clinical practice patterns. Frequency and percent distributions were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: There was a high response rate from PGS members at 97% (42 out of 43 members). More than half of respondents (51%, n=22) defined glaucoma as glaucomatous optic neuropathy with an evident visual field loss. IOP was routinely measured by 90% (n=38) of the respondents with majority preferring to use the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) (98%, n=41). Gonioscopy was done on all new patients by all PGS members but only 62% did regular gonioscopy on follow-up consultations. Most of the respondents relied on the 90D lens (88%) to assess the optic nerve. Visual field examination (VFE) was routinely requested by all respondents. Pachymetry and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) were used sparingly at only 43% and 12% respectively. Appositional angle closure was addressed by performing laser iridotomy with majority of the respondents preferring a site that is covered by the upper eyelid (57%). Prostaglandin analogues were the top choice as first-line monotherapy for eyes with open-angle glaucoma. Majority of the respondents (55%) opted to do laser trabeculoplasty (LTP) as an adjunct to medical therapy. Mitomycin-C was the preferred intraoperative antimetabolite for trabeculectomy by 98% (n=41). Ahmed (71%, n=30) was the more favored glaucoma drainage device (GDD) by our respondents over Baerveldt (19%, n=8). CONCLUSION: This survey showed majority of the glaucoma practices of PGS members appear to adhere to the current clinical practice guidelines.


Subject(s)
Philippines , Glaucoma , Tetrahymenina , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882174

ABSTRACT

@#The practice of safe and effective nursing care is what a Bachelor of Science in Nursing graduate can provide based on the established competencies of the curriculum. However, they need to be on the list of registered nurses before entry into practice. This study analyzed the academic and licensure examination performances of Bachelor of Science in Nursing graduates in a state college to ascertain relationships and predictors of the licensure examination as the basis for future planning. Descriptive-retrospective design was utilized where 208 graduates who took their licensure examination from 2013 to 2017 were conveniently chosen. Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 22.0 was used where Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and Simple Regression Analysis were employed. The academic and nurse licensure performances of graduates were found lower than the ideal and are opposite in terms of skewness and kurtosis. Moreover, a strong positive relationship was noted between the graduates' performances in their academics and licensure examinations. 5 from 21 nursing courses are significant predictors with strong unique contributions to the nurse licensure examination at which 2 from the 5 were found common in all parts of the examination. Thus, it is vital to always look into predictors as basis in the modification of institutional policy on curriculum implementation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Philippines , Licensure, Nursing , Academic Performance
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881506

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND: Quality systematic reviews (SRs) are essential in the practice of evidence-based dermatology. We assessed the methodologic quality of SRs in dermatology from the Philippines. METHODS: We searched databases (MEDLINE, CDSR, PROSPERO, HERDIN; from inception until June 30, 2019), and secondary sources. We included SRs, authored by Filipino primary authors, which included clinical trials on any intervention for the treatment or prevention of a dermatologic disease or for maintenance of healthy skin, hair or nails. Two reviewers independently extracted data and appraised the methodological quality of each included SR using the AMSTAR 2. The 16-item AMSTAR 2 has 7 critical items and 9 non-critical items. The number of critical items mainly determine the overall confidence in the results of the review. Descriptive analysis using means and standard deviation for continuous data, and frequency and percentage distribution for categorical data were employed. RESULTS: Twenty SRs were included in this review, and were mostly published in the 2010s. Majority of SRs had three authors, who belonged to a single institution, with at least one dermatologist. The most common topic was infections and both oral and topical interventions were used. Majority had 5 included studies in the SRs, with a median number of 425 participants. The median number of critical flaws in the included SRs was 4.5, and non-critical flaws, 5. Overall confidence was critically low in majority (19/20 ) of included reviews, with only one review rated as low. CONCLUSION: The methodologic quality of the dermatology SRs from the Philippines based on the AMSTAR 2 tool was poor with a rating of critically low in majority. There is a need to improve quality of conduct and reporting through dissemination of the reporting guidelines such as the PRISMA


Subject(s)
Humans , Nails , Philippines , Dermatologists , Dermatology , Data Management , Data Collection , Publications , Maintenance , Reference Standards
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Health policies in the Philippines have evolved in response to increasing health demands of older adults. However, there is a lack of research on equity among the ageing population in low-middle income countries. The objective of this study was to identify the trends in National Health Insurance Program (NHIP) coverage and healthcare utilization among older adults in the Philippines for the period from 2003 to 2017, during which NHIP expansion policies were implemented, focusing on reductions in socio-economic inequalities.@*METHODS@#A literature search of policies for older adults and an analysis of four Philippine National Demographic and Health Surveys (2003, 2008, 2013, and 2017) with data from 25,217 older adults who were 60 years or older were performed. The major outcome variables were NHIP coverage, self-reported illness, outpatient healthcare utilization, and inpatient healthcare utilization. Inequalities in NHIP coverage and healthcare utilization according to wealth were evaluated by calculating the concentration index for individual years, followed by a regression-based decomposition analysis.@*RESULTS@#NHIP coverage among older adults increased from 9.4 (2003) to 87.6% (2017). Although inequalities according to wealth quintile were observed in all four surveys (all P < 0.001), the concentration index declined from 0.3000 (2003) to 0.0247 (2017), showing reduced inequalities in NHIP coverage over time as observed for self-reported illness and healthcare utilization. NHIP coverage expansion for older adults in 2014 enabled equal opportunity for access to healthcare.@*CONCLUSION@#The passage of mandatory NHIP coverage for older Filipino adults in 2014 was followed by a reduction in inequality in NHIP coverage and healthcare utilization according to wealth.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Male , Middle Aged , National Health Programs , Philippines , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 620-632, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877360

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction. A demographic shift towards population aging is evident worldwide. This presents challenges particularly to low-income and middle-income countries like the Philippines. Understanding perceptions of aging, resilience, vulnerability, and gender identity will help prepare the health care system and social services in addressing the needs of the Filipino older population. Objective. To describe gender identity, perceptions of active aging, successful aging, resilience, and vulnerability among faculty and staff (working, retired) in an academic community in the Philippines. Methods. Survey and focus group discussions were conducted among working and retired faculty and staff aged 55 years old and above. Results, Analysis, and Discussion. Almost all respondents had the same gender identity as their biological sex. There were differences in the respondents’ perceptions of active aging and successful aging and in their sources of strength and worries. Compared with retired respondents more working respondents believed that active aging meant being strong and physically active or being involved in sports. Female respondents thought that being socially active in their community and church was indicative of active aging. In contrast, male respondents equated being physically healthy with active aging. More working respondents and females (than retired and male respondents) thought that successful aging meant participating in community-based activities. In terms of vulnerability, differences were noted in the respondents’ sources of strength and worries. In general, retired respondents and female respondents said they got their strength from their grandchildren and from their religion. In contrast, working respondents and male respondents relied on their families for strength. It was also noteworthy that more retired respondents did not have any old agerelated worries compared with working respondents. Female respondents worried about their families while male respondents worried about death. Subjective nuances of being an older working or a retired employee in an academic community surfaced in the FGDs. The importance of context was evident in shaping the informants’ perceptions of active aging and frailty, and in their sources of worries and happiness. Overall, this paper adds to the body of knowledge about aging in the Philippines by studying a group of older Filipinos in an academic community. It showed that particular aspects of Filipino culture such as gender roles, religion, and close family ties permeate one’s life until he or she reaches old age. The results can help academic communities in policy formulation and program development to ensure that their older employees — throughout their life course — can adequately address vulnerability and resiliency needs to achieve active and successful aging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Frailty , Gender Identity , Philippines , Aging
14.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 604-611, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877357

ABSTRACT

@#Objective. The study aims to determine the factors associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome among patients who have undergone tuberculosis treatment. Methods. An analytic cross-sectional study was employed through secondary data analysis of administrative data collected by the National Tuberculosis Control Program from October 2015 to September 2016. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, factors associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome were determined. Results. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that belonging to age groups 25 to 34 (aOR=0.73; 95%CI 0.54-0.99) or 35 to 44 (aOR=0.75; 95%CI 0.56-0.99), being male (aOR=1.30; 95%CI 1.03-1.64), doing crafts and related trades work (aOR=0.66; 95%CI 0.46-0.94), living in either a 4th class city (aOR=0.46; 95%CI 0.26-0.82), 1st class municipality (aOR=0.75; 95%CI 0.57-0.98), 4th class municipality (aOR=0.59; 95%CI 0.38-0.93), having a positive sputum smear result (aOR=1.60; 95%CI 1.29-2.00), having rifampicin-resistant/ multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (aOR=9.32; 95%CI 7.28-11.93), being a treatment after lost to follow-up case (aOR=1.84; 95%CI 1.37-2.47) or a case with previously unknown treatment outcome (aOR=1.42; 95%CI 1.00-2.01) were significant correlates of unsuccessful treatment outcome. Conclusion. The study found that age, sex, occupation, residence, sputum smear results, drug resistance, and history of previous treatment were associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome.


Subject(s)
Philippines , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Treatment Outcome , Regression Analysis
15.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 546-550, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877349

ABSTRACT

@#Objective. To describe the clinical profile of Filipino pediatric SLE patients as determined using the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) classification criteria. Methods. We checked which among the SLICC criteria were fulfilled by Filipino pediatric SLE patients when we examined them and their case records, as part of a nationwide genetic study on SLE conducted from October 2015 to March 2017. Results. Ninety-seven (out of 321) who were diagnosed to have SLE before 19 years of age were evaluated.The mean age of the population at the time of evaluation was 19.8 ± 6.9 years. Females comprised 94% of our population. Mean age of onset was 14.4 ± 2.7 years, while the mean age of diagnosis was at 14.5 ± 2.6 years. Acute cutaneous rash was found in 87%; oral ulcers 65%; renal disorder 63%; non-scarring alopecia 61%; arthritis 58%; chronic cutaneous rash 36%; leukopenia 35%; hemolytic anemia 34%; serositis 25%; thrombocytopenia 23%, and neurologic disorder 8%. Anti-nuclear antibody was present in 85%; low complement 32%; anti-dsDNA 28%; direct Coombs’ 16%; antiphospholipid antibody 3%; and anti-Smith antibody 1%. Kidney biopsy was performed in only 14% (14/97) of patients, of whom 27% had class III histopathologic characteristic. Conclusions. Filipino pediatric SLE patients typically present with mucocutaneous, renal, and musculoskeletal involvement. Cardiopulmonary and neurologic manifestations are found to be less common among them. Finally, renal biopsy is not commonly performed among these patients.


Subject(s)
Child , Philippines , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
16.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 525-530, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877290

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction. We analyzed the concentrations of the trace elements [chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cesium (Cs), lead (Pb), thorium (Th), and uranium (U)] in commercial bottled water consumed in the town of Angono, Rizal province, Luzon island, Philippines to evaluate the health risks of the trace elements in drinking water. There are some arguments that water resources available in the Philippines are heavily polluted by various materials, inparticular heavy metal elements. Method. The concentrations of seven trace elements in commercial bottled water produced and consumed in the Philippines were analyzed using a solution nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SN−ICP−MS). Result. The concentrations of the trace elements except for Cs, which does not yet have a WHO guideline value, in the locally produced bottled water were below the WHO guideline values. The Cs concentrations (<0.6 μg/L) of the bottled water of the Philippines were generally similar to those of the bottled water produced and consumed in other countries such as Japan, China, and Indonesia. Conclusion. The concentrations of trace elements in bottled water consumed in Angono, Philippines can be regarded as being at safe levels, as well as those of daily life water (i.e. tap, well, and spring water) consumed in the said town.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Trace Elements , Philippines
17.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 517-524, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877289

ABSTRACT

@#Background. Community pharmacists play a central role in the management of minor ailments and their clinical knowledge is vital in improving treatment outcomes of these ailments. The provision of minor ailment service in developed countries has been successful yet the practice in the Philippines has not been documented. Objectives. The aim of this study was to document the involvement of community pharmacists in the management of minor ailments, the practices, and the perceived challenges in the provision of pharmacy service. Methods. This was an exploratory descriptive study. Using qualitative research technique, a guided interview questionnaire was employed for data gathering. The practices employed and perceived challenges encountered by pharmacists were interpreted using conventional content analysis. Results. Colds, cough, skin allergy, diarrhea were the four most common ailments managed by community pharmacists. Pharmacists had underdeveloped roles in consultation. Community pharmacists were knowledgeable on the causes of the minor ailments and the medications dispensed were compliant with approved product indications. The absence of institutional guidelines (66%), lack of ailment-specific training (100%), insufficient clinical skills (76.7%), and a dominant patient self-selection behavior for OTC medicines (73.3%) were perceived as challenges in the provision of minor ailment services. Conclusion. Community pharmacists managed common ailments with non-prescription medicines however consultation roles were found to be underdeveloped.


Subject(s)
Pharmacists , Nonprescription Drugs , Philippines
18.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 479-484, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877203

ABSTRACT

@#Background and Objectives. Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a public health concern in the Philippines. Vulnerable populations in congregate settings such as drug abuse treatment and rehabilitation centers (DATRCs) have higher risks of TB transmission and infection. With the Duterte administration’s intensified campaign against illegal drugs, government-retained DATRCs are filled to capacity. There is an identified need to profile drug users and dependents living in DATRCs. Furthermore, national guidelines for TB management specific to this population is absent. A study was conducted to determine the profile of admitted clients diagnosed with TB, TB prevalence, treatment outcomes and choice of TB diagnostic modalities in six (6) Luzon-based DATRCs from 2013-2015. Methods. All medical records of drug users admitted in this period were reviewed. Information on the total patient census was sought from DATRC heads and used to compute for prevalence. Results. A total of 347 records were obtained. Overall TB prevalence in the study sites was 7,216 per 100,000 population. The typical individual diagnosed with TB in a DATRC was male, with a mean age of 35 years, with at least high school education, and unemployed. Weight loss and fatigue were the most common symptoms reported. The majority (79.83%) completed TB treatment in the DATRCs. Sputum microscopy and chest x-ray were both used for TB diagnosis in 92.80% (322) of the cases. Conclusion. The high burden of TB in Luzon-based, government-retained DATRCs is alarming and underscore the critical need for standards and guidelines in the National Tuberculosis Control Program addressing the unique context of these facilities.


Subject(s)
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers , Prevalence , Philippines , Tuberculosis , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Behavior Therapy
19.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 1-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785464

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the Emergency Department (ED), diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis are challenging with at least 50% of anaphylaxis episodes misdiagnosed when the diagnostic criteria of current guidelines are not used.OBJECTIVE: Objective of our study was to assess anaphylaxis diagnosis and management in patients presenting to the ED.METHODS: Retrospective chart review conducted on patients presenting to The Medical City Hospital ED, the Philippines from 2013–2015 was done. Cases were identified based on International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision coding for either anaphylaxis or other allergic related diagnosis. Cases fitting the definition of anaphylaxis as identified by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease and the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network (NIAID/FAAN) were included. Data collected included demographics, signs and symptoms, triggers and management.RESULTS: A total of 105 cases were evaluated. Incidence of anaphylaxis for the 3-year study period was 0.03%. Of the 105 cases, 35 (33%) were diagnosed as “urticaria” or “hypersensitivity reaction” despite fulfilling the NIAID/FAAN anaphylaxis criteria. There was a significant difference in epinephrine administration between those given the diagnosis of anaphylaxis versus misdiagnosed cases (61 [87%] vs. 12 [34%], χ² = 30.77, p < 0.01); and a significant difference in time interval from arrival at the ED to epinephrine administration, with those diagnosed as anaphylaxis (48%) receiving epinephrine within 10 minutes, versus ≥ 60 minutes for most of the misdiagnosed group (χ² = 52.97, p < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Despite current guidelines, anaphylaxis is still misdiagnosed in the ED. Having an ED diagnosis of anaphylaxis significantly increases the likelihood of epinephrine administration, and at a shorter time interval.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Classification , Clinical Coding , Communicable Diseases , Demography , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epinephrine , Food Hypersensitivity , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Incidence , Philippines , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
20.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 769-779, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876839

ABSTRACT

@#Background. There is an increasing number of distressed Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) due to adverse working conditions and unresolved post-repatriation issues. The enactment of the Republic Act 11036 (Mental Health Act) in 2018 supports the commitment of the State in promoting and protecting the mental health of every Filipino. Methods. A systematic review of literature was conducted to generate evidence-based policy tools for the round table discussion conducted by the UP Manila Health Policy Development Hub, engaging all major stakeholders from all sides of the policy issue. Strengths and challenges of the current government initiatives in the phases of predeployment, deployment, repatriation, and reintegration were discussed to attain consensus policy recommendations. Results. Increased migration led to a cascade of distressed OFWs and their subsequent need for trained mental health professionals. In host countries, challenges in on-site services include (i) limited psychiatry practice as prescribed by law of the host countries, (ii) reciprocity of the host country in allowing more welfare officers, and (iii) budget to support more plantilla items of Assistance to Nationals (ATN) staff. The inter-agency collaboration and legal support for all phases of migration should be holistic and set. Conclusions and Recommendations. From the literature review and policy discussion, consensus recommendations included strengthening pre-deployment preparation, curbing the trafficking of minors, improving psychiatry practice through the Bilateral Labor Agreement, developing psychosocial counseling competencies among front line host country personnel, enhancing telecounselling services and exploring telemedicine, among others.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transients and Migrants , Mental Health , Philippines , Health Policy
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