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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(5): e00195421, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374833

ABSTRACT

As crises sanitárias fazem surgir "pecados" e deformidades morais da sociedade que, embora evidentes quando despontam, pareciam antes dormentes à percepção coletiva. Por meio da metáfora dos sete pecados capitais, o texto analisa o fenômeno das fake news nas mídias sociais e no cenário da pandemia da COVID-19. A luxúria do sensacionalismo, que é viciosa pela sedução e exploração de vulnerabilidades ligadas ao medo da morte; a gula, por conteúdos de confirmação que disseminam inverdades no empenho de converter versões em fatos; a catequese do negacionismo gerando o ódio em ambientes epistêmicos restritivos; a ganância das novas tecnologias da economia da atenção pelo engajamento como nova commodity; a competição pelos holofotes da visibilidade midiática e ganhos derivados que incitam a soberba e a inveja dos pesquisadores que confundem o senso público com as fake researches - o que, em ciclo, nutrirão o sensacionalismo, gula, ódios e as ganâncias do capitalismo da atenção. Por fim, a preguiça é retratada como o vício capital dos que optam pela inação comunicativa. No conforto das bolhas renunciam ao diálogo por aversão ao dissenso, acomodando-se em posições de conforto epistêmico. Em síntese, o fenômeno das fake news na pandemia da COVID-19 é aqui retratado como a confluência de diversos vícios que se materializam como desinformação, na vacuidade comunicativa dos momentos nos quais somos obrigados a nos dirigir uns aos outros para partilhar nossas visões do mundo.


Las crisis sanitarias sacan a la luz "pecados" y deformidades morales de la sociedad que, aunque son evidentes cuando emergen, antes parecían latentes a la percepción colectiva. A través de la metáfora de los siete pecados capitales, el texto analiza el fenómeno de las fake news en las redes sociales y en el escenario de la pandemia del COVID-19. La lujuria del sensacionalismo que se ensaña con la seducción y la explotación de las vulnerabilidades ligadas al miedo a la muerte; la gula por los contenidos de confirmación que difunden las falsedades en el afán de convertir las versiones en hechos; el catecismo del negacionismo que genera el odio en entornos epistémicos restrictivos; la avaricia de las nuevas tecnologías de la economía de la atención por el compromiso como nueva commodity; la competencia por los focos de la visibilidad mediática y las ganancias derivadas que incitan a la soberbia, y la envidia de los investigadores que confunden el sentido público con falsas investigaciones -que, en ciclo, alimentarán el sensacionalismo, la gula, el odio y la avaricia del capitalismo de la atención. Por último, la pereza se presenta como el vicio capital de quienes optan por la inacción comunicativa. En la comodidad de sus burbujas renuncian al diálogo por aversión al disenso, instalándose en posiciones de comodidad epistémica. En resumen, el fenómeno de las fake news en la pandemia del COVID-19 se retrata aquí como la confluencia de varios vicios que se materializan como desinformación en la vacuidad comunicativa de momentos en los que nos vemos obligados a dirigirnos unos a otros para compartir nuestras visiones del mundo.


Health crises spawn "sins" and moral deformities in society that are evident when they emerge but had seemed to be dormant to collective awareness before. Through the metaphor of the seven capital sins, the article analyzes the phenomenon of fake news in the social media and in the scenario of the COVID-19 pandemic: the lust of sensationalism through the seduction and exploitation of vulnerabilities associated with fear of death; gluttony for confirmatory contents that spread untruths in the attempt to turn versions into facts; the catechism of denialism, fueling wrath or hate in restrictive epistemic environments; the greed of new technologies in the attention economy through engagement as a new commodity; competition for the spotlights of media visibility and derived gains that incite pride and envy in researchers that confuse public meaning with fake research, in a cycle that feeds sensationalism, gluttony, hate, and greed in attention capitalism. Finally, sloth is portrayed as the capital sin of opting for communicative inaction. In the comfort of bubbles, people renounce dialogue out of aversion to dissent, settling for positions of epistemic comfort. In short, the fake news phenomenon in the COVID-19 pandemic is portrayed here as the convergence of various vices that materialize as misinformation, in the communicative vacuity of the moments in which we are obliged to address each other to share our worldviews.


Subject(s)
Humans , Metaphor , COVID-19 , Phobic Disorders , Brazil , Pandemics , Disinformation
2.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(5): 477-483, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345469

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyze the body sway response in specific phobia (SP) patients and healthy controls while viewing neutral, phobic, and disgusting images. Methods: The participants' heart rate (HR) and skin conductance were also recorded during the procedure. Nineteen patients with arachnophobia and 19 healthy volunteers matched by age, gender, and years of education underwent a postural control test on a stabilometric platform. Results: The platform recorded increased body sway in the SP group when exposed to spider images (SPI). The SP group presented increases in most parameters (SD, velocity, frequency, area, p ≤ 0.05) when viewing pictures of the SPI category. Psychometric measures of subjective anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI) and physiological states (HR; skin conductance responses; spontaneous fluctuations in skin conductance) showed increased anxiety (p ≤ 0.05) in the SP group compared to healthy volunteers. High anxiety levels were observed throughout the assessment, including the task of exposure to SPI (p ≤ 0.05). No significant effect or correlation was found between skin conductance and body sway measures (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of the postural control test suggest the occurrence of a defensive escape response in SP, in agreement with previous evidence.


Subject(s)
Phobic Disorders , Spiders , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Heart Rate
3.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(10): 1461-1465, Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351427

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate the participants with the COVID-19 scale in order to see the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on people, which has affected the whole world along with our country, to be able to take the necessary precautions for the current pandemic and similar pandemics and to minimize the negative aspects globally. METHODS: A total of 1010 people who aged 18 and older (between the ages of 18-76) were included in the research. Besides from the personal information of people who aged 18 and older such as a city of residence, age, gender, profession, education, the number of people who live in the same house, their chronic illnesses, marital status, and the existence of a child, a 20-question phobia of COVID-19 scale was carried out. The results were 95% reliable, and their significance was evaluated to be on p<0.05 level. RESULT: The COVID-19 Phobia Scale point for women was 54.97±14.44 while it was 51.28±14.06 for men, and between the two groups, there is a high level of significant difference (p<0.05) statistically, COVID-19 Phobia Scale point of people who have chronic illnesses is 56.51±15.84, meanwhile, the point of people who have no chronic illnesses was found to be 52.96±13.99, and it was detected that this difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Besides the COVID-19 pandemic affecting the whole society, we see that the women population and people who have chronic illnesses are going through much more fear and anxiety.


Subject(s)
Phobic Disorders , COVID-19 , Fear , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Middle Aged
5.
Femina ; 49(2): 121-128, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224070

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Traçar um perfil epidemiológico do medo do parto em gestantes em Santos, correlacionando as variáveis idade, escolaridade, estado civil, paridade, perdas gestacionais prévias e intercorrências gestacionais. Métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado em programa pré-natal de risco habitual em cinco Unidades Básicas de Saúde de Santos, com coleta de dados entre novembro de 2019 e fevereiro de 2020. Critérios de inclusão: idade gestacional maior ou igual a 28 semanas, maiores de 18 anos, preferência por parto vaginal, alfabetizadas em português. A amostra foi de 67 participantes, que responderam ao Questionário sobre o Medo Percebido do Parto (QMPP), versão portuguesa do Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire versão A, e a uma ficha com dados sociodemográficos. Resultados: A pontuação média no QMPP foi 79,3. Observou-se uma prevalência de 31,4% de gestantes com escore maior ou igual a 85, que compreende medo do parto intenso e tocofobia. A pontuação no QMPP apresentou correlação fraca positiva com idade. Conclusão: A prevalência de medo do parto no presente estudo se assemelhou àquela observada em metanálises internacionais. Este estudo pode embasar tanto futuras pesquisas sobre medo do parto no Brasil como projetos públicos para diagnóstico e tratamento dessa condição nas gestantes brasileiras.(AU)


Objective: To obtain an epidemiologic profile of the pregnancies affected by fear of childbirth in Santos, correlating variables such as: age, schooling, marriage status, parity, previous gestational losses, and pregnancy complications. Methods: Transversal study located in five polyclinics in Santos, in habitual risk prenatal program. The data was collected between November 2019 and February 2020. Inclusion criteria: gestational age equal or greater than 28 weeks, women older than 18 years, wish for vaginal birth, alphabetized in Portuguese. The final sample was 67 participants, which completed the Questionário sobre o Medo Percebido do Parto, Portuguese version of Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire version A, and a sheet with sociodemographic data. Results: The average score on QMPP was 79,3. It was found a prevalence of 31,4% of pregnant women with scores equal or greater than 85, which comprehends intense fear of childbirth and tocophobia. The QMPP score presented a weak positive correlation with age. Conclusion: The prevalence of fear of childbirth obtained in this study resembles the results of international metanalysis. This study can base future research about fear of childbirth in Brazil, as well as public projects to diagnose and treat this condition in Brazilian women.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Anxiety/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Parturition/psychology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Humanizing Delivery , Patient Health Questionnaire
6.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(3): e162, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288310

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction: As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, the adoption of technology remains one of the defining factors of human progress. Nomophobia (NO MObile PHOne PhoBIA) represents a mental condition caused by the fear of being detached from mobile phone connectivity. Such condition is directly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Moreover, nomophobia can lead to structural brain damage. Objective: The present study aims to assess the effect of nomophobia on medical students at a private institution and its association with depression, anxiety, stress and academic performance. Method: This is a cross-sectional observational study carried out in medical students at Centro Universitário Christus. Nomophobia was measured using the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q). The NMP-Q has 20 questions, which are asked on a 7-point Likert scale. This scale has been validated for the Brazilian Portuguese language. Depression, anxiety and stress were measured by the DASS-21, a simplified version of the DASS instrument. The DASS-21 questionnaire was also validated for the Brazilian Portuguese language. Academic performance was measured through API, the product of a complex mathematical operation that results in the student's average grade in the semester and functions as a reference index for pedagogical follow-up in the assessed institution. In addition, the device use habits were assessed. Descriptive results were presented, and bivariate analyses of association and correlation were performed. This study was approved by the research ethics committee. Result: A sample of 292 students was assessed. Virtually all students (99.7%) had some degree of nomophobia, and 64.5% had a moderate or severe level of nomophobia. More than 50% of the students had higher than mild degrees of stress, and 19.5% and 11.2% of the students had severe or very severe levels of anxiety and depression, respectively. When analyzing the correlation of NMP-Q with DASS-21 scores, it was observed that increases in NMP-Q lead to increases in the overall DASS score (p < 0.001), and that worse results in DASS-21 are associated with worse API. Conclusion: Our study suggests that nomophobia is likely to increase anxiety, stress and depression and, as a result, leads to a decrease in academic performance.


Resumo: Introdução: À medida que o mundo se torna cada vez mais interconectado, a adoção de tecnologia continua sendo um dos fatores definidores do progresso humano. A nomofobia representa uma condição mental causada pelo medo de ficar sem celular. Tal condição está diretamente associada à depressão, à ansiedade e ao estresse. Ainda, a nomofobia pode levar a danos cerebrais estruturais. Objetivo: O presente estudo visa conhecer o efeito da nomofobia nos estudantes de Medicina de uma faculdade privada e sua associação com depressão, ansiedade, estresse e rendimento acadêmico. Método: Trata-se de um estudo observacional de corte transversal, do qual participaram estudantes do curso de Medicina do Centro Universitário Christus. O distúrbio foi mensurado por meio do Questionário sobre Nomofobia (NMP-Q). Esse instrumento tem 20 questões, todas baseadas na escala do tipo Likert de 7 pontos, a qual foi validada para o português brasileiro. A depressão, a ansiedade e o estresse foram mensurados pelo instrumento DASS-21, uma versão simplificada da DASS. Validou-se também o questionário DASS-21 para o português brasileiro. O rendimento acadêmico foi mensurado por meio do IRA, fruto de uma complexa operação matemática que resulta em uma nota média do aluno no semestre e funciona como um índice de referência para o acompanhamento pedagógico na faculdade estudada. Além disso, estudaram-se os hábitos de uso do dispositivo. Apresentaram-se os resultados descritivos, e realizaram-se análises bivariadas de associação e correlação. Esse estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultado: Obteve-se uma amostra de 292 estudantes. Praticamente todos os alunos (99,7%) apresentaram algum grau de nomofobia, e 64,5% demonstraram nível moderado ou grave de nomofobia. Mais de 50% dos estudantes apresentaram graus superiores ao nível leve de estresse, e 19,5% e 11,2% dos estudantes manifestaram ansiedade e depressão graves ou muito graves, respectivamente. Quando se analisou a correlação dos escores no NMP-Q com os escores da DASS-21, observou-se que aumentos nessa pontuação levam à elevação do escore geral da DASS (p < 0,001) e que piores resultados na DASS-21 estão associados ao pior IRA. Conclusão: Nosso estudo sugere que a nomofobia pode provavelmente aumentar a ansiedade, o estresse e a depressão, e, como consequência, levar uma baixa do rendimento acadêmico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Students, Medical/psychology , Smartphone , Anxiety/psychology , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/psychology , Educational Measurement
7.
Salud bienestar colect ; 4(2): 29-43, may.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254504

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la nomofobia es el miedo irracional de no estar en contacto constante con el teléfono celular. La tecnología ha ocasionado un cambio colosal en la forma de relacionarse socialmente, esta a su vez afecta en el comportamiento sexual de los jóvenes debido a la exposición regular que tienen al internet. El sexting es una de las actividades más frecuentes practicadas por los jóvenes adultos, consiste en enviar fotos o contenido sexual a otro teléfono celular, el problema que se genera al enviar material con este contenido es que se puede viralizar fácilmente en la internet. El Objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar el nivel de nomofobia y el comportamiento sexual que persiste en los estudiantes de la carrera de Enfermería de la Facultad de Salud y Servicios Sociales de la UNEMI. MATERIAL y METODOS: la investigación fue descriptiva, cuantitativa, de corte transversal. Se obtuvo una muestra de 283 estudiantes de 1ero a 8vo semestre, realizando una encuesta virtual que cuenta con 29 preguntas, estas se dividen en 5 categorías para comprobar el porcentaje de: Síntomas -Adicción, Uso-Social, Rasgos-Frikis, Nomofobia y la Escala total de Adicción. RESULTADOS: el porcentaje general varía dependiendo de las respuestas el 36.15% tiene un grado de adicción bajo y el 26.27% de los estudiantes cuentan con un nivel de adicción media-alta. CONCLUSION: la nomofobia afecta en gran parte a los jóvenes por el uso excesivo que le dan a las Redes Sociales, así como también la utilización de diversas aplicaciones y por llevar una vida sexual activa, estos son los factores que con la tecnología atribuyen a la dependencia al teléfono celular. La prevalencia de estudiantes con nomofobia está presente en 1ero y 2do semestre, ellos cuentan con mayor disponibilidad de tiempo libre.


INTRODUCTION: nomophobia is the irrational fear of not being in constant contact with the cell phone. Technology has caused a colossal change in the way of relating socially, this in turn affects the sexual behavior of young people due to regular exposure to the internet. Sexting is one of the most frequent activities practiced by young adults, it consists of sending photos or sexual content to another cell phone, the problem generated by sending material with this content is that it can be easily viralized on the internet. The objective of the present investigation was to analyze the level of nomophobia and the sexual behavior that persists in the students of the Nursing degree of the Faculty of Health and Social Services of UNEMI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: the research was descriptive, quantitative, cross-sectional.A sample of 283 students from 1st to 8th semester was obtained, conducting a virtual survey that has 29 questions, these are divided into 5 categories to check the percentage of: Symptoms -Addition, Use-Social, Traits-Geeks, Nomophobia and Total Addiction Scale. RESULTS: the general percentage varies depending on the answers, 36.15% have a low level of addiction and 26.27% of the students have a medium-high addiction scale. CONCLUSIONS: nomophobia affects young people in large part due to the excessive use they give to Social Networks, as well as the use of various applications and for leading an active sexual life, these are the factors that with technology they attribute to dependence on cell phone. The prevalence of students with nomophobia is present in 1st and 2nd semester, they have greater availability of free time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Phobic Disorders , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Smartphone , Cell Phone Use , Students, Nursing , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Ecuador/epidemiology , Fear , Text Messaging , Internet Addiction Disorder
8.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 8(1): 1-6, 20200101. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123731

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Adaptar transculturalmente o Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) e validá-lo em português. Métodos: Foi realizado estudo transversal quantitativo de validação de instrumento. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Centro Universitário Christus - Unichristus, com acadêmicos do primeiro semestre do curso de Medicina. As etapas de tradução e de adaptação cultural do instrumento foram realizadas de acordo com o modelo de Beaton. A confiabilidade e a precisão do instrumento foram avaliadas com 40 estudantes. No que se refere à análise da estrutura fatorial do NMP-Q, foi testado um modelo de quatro fatores, de acordo com o indicado na versão original. Resultados: A validação foi constatada com base na equivalência semântica, idiomática, cultural e conceitual após o parecer final de duas especialistas na área. Na matriz de componente rotativa do tipo Varimax com Normalização de Kaiser, os quatro fatores esperados apresentaram cargas mínimas de 0,4. O Alfa de Cronbach para o questionário geral foi de 0,952 (IC 95% 0,923-0,972), e, para os fatores individuais, foi maior que 0,7 (exceto um). Conclusões: Verificamos que a versão brasileira do instrumento (NMP-Q-BR) apresenta excelente validação. A validação do NMP-Q-BR em português proporciona a possibilidade de ampliação dos estudos sobre Nomofobia no país, justificada pela necessidade de aprofundamento das pesquisas na área.


Objective: To cross-culturally adapt the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) and validate it in Portuguese. Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative study of instrument validation was performed. The research was developed at the Centro Universitário Christus - Unichristus, with academics from the first semester of the medical course. The stages of translation and cultural adaptation of the instrument were performed according to the Beaton model. The instrument's reliability and accuracy were assessed with forty students. Regarding the analysis of the factorial structure of the NMP-Q, a 4-factor model was tested, according to what was indicated in the original version. Results: The validation was found based on semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual equivalence after the final opinion of two experts in the field. In the rotary component matrix of the Varimax type with Kaiser Normalization, the four expected factors presented minimum loads of 0.4. The Cronbach Alpha for the general questionnaire was 0.952 (95% CI 0.923-0.972), and for the individual factors it was greater than 0.7 (except one). Conclusions: We found that the Brazilian version of the instrument (NMP-Q-BR) has excellent validation. The validation of the NMP-Q-BR in Portuguese provides the possibility of expanding the studies on Nomophobia in the country, justified by the need for further research in the area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Phobic Disorders/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Smartphone , Cell Phone Use , Translations , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cell Phone , Data Accuracy
9.
Psicol. rev. (Belo Horizonte) ; 25(3): 1152-1170, set.-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340513

ABSTRACT

Este artigo propõe uma discussão em torno da abordagem psicanalítica do sintoma fóbico em contraposição à forma como a fobia é abordada pela Psiquiatria, mais especificamente no DSM-V, e as implicações dessas abordagens para a clínica com crianças. Mesmo não tendo conduzido a análise de crianças, Freud lança as bases para tal prática, ao reconhecer que as experiências infantis geram angústia, inclusive neuroses. Em Psicanálise, privilegia-se a escuta do sujeito, ainda que em tenra idade, algo ilustrado com destreza pelo caso do Pequeno Hans. Por outro lado, a noção psiquiátrica de transtorno barra a participação do sujeito na elaboração daquilo que lhe é mais singular, seu sofrimento. Dessa forma, a discussão aqui proposta busca pensar as consequências, para a clínica com crianças, de se tratar a fobia como um transtorno do qual o sujeito precisa se ver livre, recusando o valor de verdade do sintoma.


This paper discusses the psychoanalytical approach of the phobic symptom, in comparison to the way phobia is approached by psychiatry, more specifically in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–V (DSM-V, and the effects these approaches have on the clinic for children. Even though Freud did not carry out the analysis of children, he set the basis for this practice by stating that childhood experiences can be the source of anguish and even neurosis. In psychoanalysis, listening to the subject is paramount, even in early childhood; that is what the case of "Little Hans" illustrates. On the other hand, the psychiatric notion of disorder prevents the subject from taking part in the process of dealing with his own suffering. The present discussion seeks, therefore, to reflect upon the consequences, for the clinic with children, of treating the symptom of phobia as a disorder from which the subject needs to be set free, denying its value of truth.


Subject(s)
Phobic Disorders , Child , Anxiety , Child Behavior Disorders
10.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39(3,n.esp): 146-160, dez. 2019-maio 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1097232

ABSTRACT

A homofobia se constitui por meio de crimes, demonizações, patologizações, violências físicas e psicológicas, muitas vezes ocasionando o extermínio de pessoas lésbicas, gays, bissexuais, travestis, transexuais e intersexuais no mundo contemporâneo, sem que as pessoas que comentem esses atos sejam punidas. Esta violência é constituída pelo sistema hierárquico heteronormativo, heterocêntrico e heterodeterminado contra a visibilidade dos gêneros e das sexualidades não hegemônicas. Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar a matriz do conceito de homofobia e as diversas formas de manifestação da violência contra gêneros e sexualidades. Os autores partem da definição do conceito de "fobia" na psiquiatria, Psicologia e Psicanálise, para então analisar o conceito de homofobia e suas vicissitudes. Discutem que o termo homofobia não explicita as diversas manifestações de agressões contra a população LGBTI+ ao analisar marcadores históricos e sociais, e sugerem o termo "violências fóbicas em gêneros e sexualidades" para explicitar a precariedade da vida e a vulnerabilidade da população LGBTI+...(AU)


Homophobia consists of crimes, demonization, pathologization, physical and psychological violence, often leading to the extermination of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transvestite, transsexual and intersex people in the contemporary world, without persons who commit acts being punished. This violence is constituted by the heteronormative, heterocentric and heterodetermined hierarchical system against the visibility of the genres and non-hegemonic sexualities. This article aims to analyze the matrix of the concept of homophobia and the various forms of manifestations of violence against genders and sexualities. The authors start from the definition of "phobia" in psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis, to analyze the homophobia and its vicissitudes. We argue that the term homophobia does not spell out the various manifestations of aggression against the LGBTI+ population by discussing historical and social markers and suggest the term "phobic violence in genders and sexuality" to explain the precariousness of life and vulnerability of the LGBTI + population...(AU)


La homofobia se constituye a través de crímenes, demonizaciones, patologizaciones, violencia física y psicológica, que a menudo causa el exterminio de personas lesbianas, gays, bisexuales, travestis, transexuales e intersexuales en el mundo contemporáneo, sin que quienes comenten estos actos sean castigados. Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la matriz del concepto de homofobia y las diversas formas de manifestación de violencia contra género y sexualidad. Los autores comienzan desde la definición del concepto de "fobia" en psiquiatría, psicología y psicoanálisis, para luego analizar el concepto de homofobia y sus vicisitudes. Argumentan que el término homofobia no explicita las diversas manifestaciones de agresión contra la población LGBTI+ al analizar los marcadores históricos y sociales, y sugieren el término "violencia fóbica en género y sexualidad" para explicar la precariedad de la vida y la vulnerabilidad de la población LGBTI+...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychology , Violence , Sexuality , Aggression , Homophobia , Transgender Persons , Gender Performativity , Gender Identity , Phobic Disorders , Psychiatry , Psychoanalysis , Crime , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Intersex Persons
11.
Psychol. av. discip ; 13(1): 101-109, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250591

ABSTRACT

Resumen El creciente interés que ha traído el estudio de las fobias y entre ellas la fobia específica, ha dado lugar al uso diverso de tratamientos, que incluyen la realidad virtual como técnica innovadora. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el impacto de la Realidad Virtual (RV) como tratamiento para la fobia específica a las arañas, a través de una revisión sistemática de investigaciones que hayan sido publicadas en los últimos 10 años (2008 a 2018) en la base de datos Scopus. La revisión sistemática se realizó bajo los lineamientos de la metodología PRISMA. Inicialmente, se identificaron 309 artículos que contaban con los términos de búsqueda en título, resumen y palabras clave, posteriormente, se seleccionaron 109 estudios experimentales ya culminados, se excluyeron otras fobias específicas y otros tipos de tecnologías, siendo seleccionados 10 artículos para análisis a texto completo, incluyendo así solo 5 artículos para la revisión, que usaban la realidad virtual como tratamiento. Acorde a los resultados se encontró evidencia que sugiere que este tipo de intervenciones pueden ser relativamente eficaces para abordar esta problemática, ya que los resultados indican disminución significativa en indicadores clínicos, pero existen también varias limitaciones de orden metodológico. Se espera que esta revisión sistemática promueva investigaciones que usen la realidad virtual como tratamiento para la fobia específica a las arañas, mejorando las limitaciones identificadas en el estudio.


Abstract The growing interest that has brought the study of phobias and among them the specific phobia, has given rise to the diverse use of treatments, which include virtual reality as an innovative technique. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of Virtual Reality (VR) as a treatment for spider-specific phobia, through a systematic review of research that has been published in the last 10 years (2008 to 2018) in the Scopus database. The systematic review was carried out under the guidelines of the PRISMA methodology, which were thus excluded; taking into account the search terms in title, summary and keywords, 309 articles were identified, 109 experimental studies were already completed, other specific phobias and other types of technologies were excluded, 10 articles were selected for full-text analysis, including so only 5 articles for the review, which used virtual reality as a treatment. According to the results, evidence was found that suggests that this type of treatment may be relatively effective in addressing this problem, since the results indicate a significant decrease in clinical indicators, but there are also several methodological limitations. It is expected that this systematic review will promote Research that uses virtual reality as a treatment for spider-specific phobia, improving the limitations identified in the study.


Subject(s)
Phobic Disorders , Spiders , Intervention Studies , Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy , Virtual Reality , Systematic Review , Indicators and Reagents
12.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 32: 9, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1002877

ABSTRACT

Abstract Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by the fear of being judged negatively in social situations. Eye-tracking techniques have been prominent among the methods used in recent decades to investigate emotional processing in SAD. This study offers a systematic review of studies on eye-tracking patterns in individuals with SAD and controls in facial emotion recognition tasks. Thirteen articles were selected from the consulted databases. It was observed that the subjects with SAD exhibited hypervigilance-avoidance in response to emotions, primarily in the case of negative expressions. There was avoidance of conspicuous areas of the face, particularly the eyes, during observations of negative expressions. However, this hypervigilance did not occur if the stimulus was presented in virtual reality. An important limitation of these studies is that they use only static expressions, which can reduce the ecological validity of the results.


Subject(s)
Phobic Disorders/psychology , Emotions , Eye Movements , Facial Expression
13.
Rev. Bras. Psicoter. (Online) ; 21(2): 35-48, ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1222872

ABSTRACT

O Transtorno de Ansiedade Social caracteriza-se por um medo persistente em situações de exposição ou interacção social. Para fins terapêuticos, faz-se importante desenvolver um repertório de habilidades sociais, favorecendo a diminuição dos sintomas. Este estudo tem por objetivo identificar os treinamentos de habilidades sociais em adolescentes com transtorno de ansiedade social, bem como seus resultados através de uma revisao sistemática de artigos. Foram incluídos artigos publicados entre 2006 e 2016 nas bases ScienceDirect, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, LILACS e PsycINFO. O relato e análise dos itens seguiram as recomendações PRISMA. Dos 236 artigos encontrados, cinco foram analisados, considerando as características da amostra, conteúdo da intervenção, resultados e limitações de cada artigo. Os estudos, em sua maioria, realizaram intervençoes baseadas no protocolo SET-C, as quais resultaram na melhora do Transtorno de Ansiedade Social de crianças e adolescentes. No entanto, nenhum dos estudos realizou uma análise específica das habilidades sociais pós tratamento. Salienta-se a necessidades de estudos brasileiros com a temática, bem como se sugere pesquisas direcionadas à investigação específica das contribuições do treinamento de habilidades sociais para o tratamento do Transtorno de Ansiedade Social.(AU)


The Social Anxiety Disorder is characterized by a persistent fear during exposition or social interaction situations. For therapeutic ends, it is important to develop a repertoire of social skills, favoring the symptoms decrease. This study aims to identify the social skills training in adolescents with social anxiety disorder, along with its results, through a systematic review of articles. There were included articles published between 2006 and 2016 in ScienceDirect, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, SciELO, LILACS and PsycINFO databases. The items report and analysis followed PRISMA recommendations. Of the 236 articles found, five were analyzed, considering the sample characteristics, intervention content, results and limitations of each article. The majority of the studies performed interventions based on the SET-C protocol, which resulted in the improvement of the Social Anxiety Disorder of children and adolescents. However, none of the studies performed a specific analysis of post treatment social skills. It is emphasized the need for Brazilian studies about the theme, as well as researches are suggested, directed to the specific investigation of the contributions of social skills training for the treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder.(AU)


El trastorno de ansiedad social se caracteriza por un miedo persistente en situaciones de exposición o interacción social Para fines terapéuticos, es importante desarrollar un repertorio de habilidades sociales, favoreciendo la reducción de los síntomas. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar la capacitación de habilidades en adolescentes con trastorno de ansiedad social, así como sus resultados a través de una revisión sistemática de artículos. Artículos publicados entre 2006 y 2016 en ScienceDirect, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, LILACS y PsycINFO. Los informes y análisis de los ítems siguieron las recomendaciones de PRISMA. De los 236 artículos encontrados, cinco fueron analizados, considerando las características de la muestra, el contenido La intervención, resultados y limitaciones de cada artículo. La mayoría de los estudios realizaron intervenciones. basado en el protocolo SET-C, que resultó en la mejora del trastorno de ansiedad social en niños. y adolescentes Sin embargo, ninguno de los estudios realizó un análisis específico de las habilidades sociales posparto. tratamiento Hacemos hincapié en la necesidad de estudios brasileños sobre el tema, así como la investigación. dirigido a la investigación específica de la formación en habilidades sociales del trastorno de ansiedad social.(AU)


Subject(s)
Phobic Disorders , Child , Adolescent , Phobia, Social
14.
Bio sci (En linea) ; 2(3): 1-10, 2019. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1050347

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio de picaduras de aracnomrofos en la ciudad de Sucre (Chuquisaca). El método comprendió el uso de encuestas semiestructuradas, donde se consultó sobre la percepción que tienen, sintomatologías y conocimiento local sobre métodos de curación. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian que la mayoría tiene fobia hacia los arácnidos. El conocimiento local, permite conocer los diferentes tipos de arañas y escorpiones que residen en los domicilios. Se describe los síntomas que causan debido al efecto de las picadas, además de los métodos convencionales y naturales de curación.


We study of pitting Arachnomorph´s was held in the city of Sucre (Chuquisaca). The method realized using semistructured interviews, which were consulted on the perception, symptom and local knowledge of healing methods. The results show that most have phobia of arachnids. Local knowledge, allows to know the different types of spiders and scorpions that live in the homes. They are causing symptoms due to the effect of bites and of natural and using the conventional and natural healing methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Phobic Disorders , Bites and Stings , Surveys and Questionnaires , Methods
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786251

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate differences in clinical characteristics between female panic disorder (PD) patients with abortion history (PD+A) and without abortion history (PD−A).METHODS: We examined data from 341 female patients diagnosed with PD. We divided the patients with PD into PD+A (82 patients) and PD−A (259 patients) to compare demographic and clinical characteristics. The following instruments were applied : stress coping strategies, NEO-neuroticism, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R), the Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ), the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Sheehan Disability Scale.RESULTS: Compared to the PD−A, the PD+A group showed no significant difference in coping strategies. However, significantly higher scores in neuroticism, the ASI-R, the APPQ and the BAI were observed. In terms of health-related disability, the PD+A group did not show significant difference.CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the PD+A group may differ from the PD−A group in trait markers such as neuroticism and anxiety sensitivity, and abortion history may be associated with panic-related symptom severity. Our study suggests that further consideration is needed on such clinical characteristics in PD patients with abortion history.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Anxiety , Depression , Female , Humans , Panic Disorder , Panic , Phobic Disorders
16.
Fisioter. Bras ; 19(4): 577-581, Sept. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280794

ABSTRACT

Há uma tendência ao aumento do envelhecimento populacional no Brasil e no mundo, assim como do Transtorno de Ansiedade Social, que compromete a qualidade de vida dos indiví­duos, tornando-se um fator de risco para processos demenciais e limitação funcional. Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever possí­veis impactos deste transtorno no processo de envelhecimento, buscando saber qual será o futuro dessa população idosa convivendo com as incapacidades caracterí­sticas da idade e possivelmente potencializadas pela fobia social. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, utilizando artigos que envolvem a fobia social e depressão em idosos. A pesquisa de artigos foi realizada em bases de dados da Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde e nos portais indexados como: Bireme, Lilacs, Scielo e Pubmed, compreendendo o perí­odo de agosto de 2002 a março de 2018. Observou-se na literatura que entre as diversas modalidades de psicoterapia, a terapia cognitiva comportamental é o tratamento mais eficaz para a fobia social; por outro lado, a psicodinâmica em grupo apresentou-se como um tratamento viável para indiví­duos que experimentam fobia social generalizada. Acreditamos que novos estudos comprovarão a piora das funções em idosos que sofram de Transtorno de Ansiedade Social. (AU)


There is a trend of progressive aging of population in Brazil and in the world, as well as the Social Anxiety Disorder, which compromises quality of life and becomes a risk factor for dementia processes and collaborates with functional limitation. This study aimed to describe possible impacts of this disorder in the aging process, seeking to know the future of this elderly population living with disabilities characteristics of age and possibly potentiated by social phobia. This study consisted of an integrative review of the literature, using articles that involve social phobia and depression in the elderly. The research of articles was carried out in databases of the Virtual Health Library and in the portals indexed as: Bireme, Lilacs, Scielo, and Pubmed, in the period from August 2002 to March 2018. We observed in literature that among the psychotherapy modalities, the cognitive-behavioral therapy is the most efficient treatment for social phobia; on the other hand the psychodynamic group psychotherapy show signs of being a viable treatment for individuals that experience generalized social phobia. We concluded that new studies will prove the deterioration of elderly functions with Social Anxiety Disorder. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Anxiety Disorders , Phobic Disorders , Aging , Phobia, Social , Physical Therapy Modalities , Impacts of Polution on Health , Depression , Motor Disorders
17.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 40(2): 192-199, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959213

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the reactions of women with driving phobia to a therapeutic program of scheduled virtual reality exposure treatment (VRET) sessions. Methods: The study intervention consisted of a computer game with car-driving scenarios that included several traffic situations. We investigated the participants' sense of presence, subjective distress, and physiological responses during eight virtual-reality exposures. We also evaluated clinical characteristics, driving cognitions, and quality of life in the participants. Results: Thirteen women were selected. Eight were able to complete the protocol. After VRET, there was a decrease in the frequency of distorted thoughts and state anxiety scores, as well as a slight improvement in quality of life. Subjective discomfort scores, heart rate variation, and sense of presence scores confirmed that there was sense of presence in the virtual reality environment. Conclusion: All patients showed some degree of improvement and demonstrated different levels of anxiety in subsequent in vivo driving experiences. Our findings suggest that VRET could be used to facilitate in vivo exposure, because it can induce presence/immersion and reduce anxiety in patients with specific phobia. Furthermore, VRET is not associated with any type of risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Phobic Disorders/therapy , Automobile Driving/psychology , Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy/methods , Anxiety Disorders/classification , Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Phobic Disorders/etiology , Quality of Life , Brazil , Educational Status , Fear , Virtual Reality , Heart Rate
18.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 6(2): 182-188, 02/04/2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-882717

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A embora o número de estudos que correlacionam os efeitos da atividade física com aspectos morfofisiológicos cerebrais e com transtornos de ansiedade tenha crescido, existe limitação no campo do treinamento de força (TF) e seu papel de modificador comportamental, assim como sua relação com eventos epigenéticos. Objetivo: realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura em relação aos efeitos do exercício físico e à influência transgeracional das características epigenéticas em quadros de transtornos de ansiedade. Métodos: realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica em Literatura científica nacional e internacional, nas bases eletrônicas: Literatura Latino-Americana em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) e Public Medline (PubMed). Na busca, sem limitação de período de tempo, utilizaram-se as seguintes palavras-chave, em português/inglês: "Ansiedade"; "Ansiedade e exercício físico"; "Treino de força e Transtorno de Ansiedade"; "Transtorno do Pânico"; "Transtorno de Ansiedade Generalizada"; "Epigenética". Resultados: notou-se que, nos quadros de transtornos de ansiedade, os ajustes fisiológicos aos quais o organismo se torna submetido extrapolam o âmbito do sistema nervoso autônomo e atingem o sistema endócrino e imunitário, tornando-se duradouro. A prática de exercício físico e a epigenética demonstraram relevante papel na modificação dos principais sinais e sintomas dessa psicopatologia. Conclusões: os artigos estudados apresentaram tipos de estudo bastante distintos entre si, demonstrando o benefício alcançado pela prática de exercício físico nos quadros de transtorno de ansiedade, mas não possibilitaram delinear que tipos e metodologias são os mais adequados. Ficou evidente a necessidade da correlação entre Treinamento de força e epigenética.


Introduction: Although the number of studies that correlate the effects of physical activity with brain morphophysiological aspects and anxiety disorders have grown in recent years, there is great limitation in the strength training (ST) field and its role as the modifier of such behaviors. Objective: to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the effects of physical exercise and the trans-generational influence of epigenetic characteristics in cases of anxiety disorders. Methods: A bibliographic research held in national and international scientific literature was carried out in the following electronic databases: Latin American Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), Scientific Electronic Library On-line (SciELO) and Public Medline (PubMed). The search, without time limitation, used the following key words: "Anxiety"; "Anxiety and exercise"; "Strength training and Anxiety Disorder"; "Panic Disorder"; "Generalized Anxiety Disorder"; "Epigenetics". Results: In the anxiety disorder frames, some physiological adjustments which the body is subjected to undergo beyond the scope of the autonomic nervous system affecting the endocrine and immune systems, making them durable, were observed. The practice of physical exercises and epigenetics have shown important role in modifying the course of the main signs and symptoms that involves this psychopathology. Conclusions: The study criteria in the articles selected in the present research were quite distinct from each other. It was possible to demonstrate the benefit achieved by physical exercise on anxiety disorder frames, but it was not possible to delineate which types or methods are the best suited. The need for researches in the strength training (ST) field and trans-generational transmission became evident.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Phobic Disorders
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740670

ABSTRACT

Venipuncture is a routine and relatively safe and painless medical procedure, necessary for accurate diagnosis and treatment. However, given that pain related to medical procedures may have adverse effects for children, could venipuncture cause deaths in infants and children? We analyzed our cases of unexpected death after venipuncture and conducted a literature review on them. A vasovagal response to noxious stimuli may explain such a sudden death immediately after venipuncture, commonly presented as needle phobia, breath-holding spell, and reflex anoxic seizure in the literature, despite the fact that the current medical evidence is not enough to prove their casual relationship. In addition, pain prevention and management during medical procedure is incorporated in clinical guidelines for pediatric patients, because painful medical procedures negatively affect child development. Thus, prevention and management of pain related to medical procedure may be helpful to avoid an adverse vasovagal response to noxious stimuli from occurring.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , Child , Child Development , Death, Sudden , Diagnosis , Forensic Pathology , Humans , Infant , Infant Death , Needles , Phlebotomy , Phobic Disorders , Reflex , Seizures
20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1037-1045, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718243

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to identify risk factors for future SI and to predict individual-level risk for future or persistent SI among college students. METHODS: Mental health check-up data collected over 3 years were retrospectively analyzed. Students were categorized as suicidal ideators and non-ideators at baseline. Logistic regression analyses were performed separately for each group, and the predicted probability for each student was calculated. RESULTS: Students likely to exhibit future SI had higher levels of mental health problems, including depression and anxiety, and significant risk factors for future SI included depression, current SI, social phobia, alcohol problems, being female, low self-esteem, and number of close relationships and concerns. Logistic regression models that included current suicide ideators revealed acceptable area under the curve (AUC) values (0.7–0.8) in both the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and precision recall (PR) curves for predicting future SI. Predictive models with current suicide non-ideators revealed an acceptable level of AUCs only for ROC curves. CONCLUSION: Several factors such as low self-esteem and a focus on short-term rather than long-term outcomes may enhance the prediction of future SI. Because a certain range of SI clearly necessitates clinical attention, further studies differentiating significant from other types of SI are necessary.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Area Under Curve , Depression , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Mass Screening , Mental Health , Phobic Disorders , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide
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