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1.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 94-103, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970719

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of Liangge Powder against sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) . Methods: From April to December 2021, the key components of Liangge Powder and its targets against sepsis-induced ALI were analyzed by network pharmacology, and to enrich for relevant signaling pathways. A total of 90 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated group, sepsis-induced ALI model group (model group), Liangge Powder low, medium and high dose group, ten rats in the sham-operated group and 20 rats in each of the remaining four groups. Sepsis-induced ALI model was established by cecal ligation and puncture. Sham-operated group: gavage with 2 ml saline and no surgical treatment. Model group: surgery was performed and 2 ml saline was gavaged. Liangge Powder low, medium and high dose groups: surgery and gavage of Liangge Powder 3.9, 7.8 and 15.6 g/kg, respectively. To measure the wet/dry mass ratio of rats lung tissue and evaluate the permeability of alveolar capillary barrier. Lung tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphological analysis. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) -6 and IL-1β in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relative protein expression levels of p-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p-protein kinase B (AKT), and p-ertracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) were detected via Western blot analysis. Results: Network pharmacology analysis indicated that 177 active compounds of Liangge Powder were selected. A total of 88 potential targets of Liangge Powder on sepsis-induced ALI were identified. 354 GO terms of Liangge Powder on sepsis-induced ALI and 108 pathways were identified using GO and KEGG analysis. PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was recognized to play an important role for Liangge Powder against sepsis-induced ALI. Compared with the sham-operated group, the lung tissue wet/dry weight ratio of rats in the model group (6.35±0.95) was increased (P<0.001). HE staining showed the destruction of normal structure of lung tissue. The levels of IL-6 [ (392.36±66.83) pg/ml], IL-1β [ (137.11±26.83) pg/ml] and TNF-α [ (238.34±59.36) pg/ml] were increased in the BALF (P<0.001, =0.001, <0.001), and the expression levels of p-PI3K, p-AKT and p-ERK1/2 proteins (1.04±0.15, 0.51±0.04, 2.31±0.41) were increased in lung tissue (P=0.002, 0.003, 0.005). The lung histopathological changes were reduced in each dose group of Liangge Powder compared with the model group. Compared with the model group, the wet/dry weight ratio of lung tissue (4.29±1.26) was reduced in the Liangge Powder medium dose group (P=0.019). TNF-α level [ (147.85±39.05) pg/ml] was reduced (P=0.022), and the relative protein expression levels of p-PI3K (0.37±0.18) and p-ERK1/2 (1.36±0.07) were reduced (P=0.008, 0.017). The wet/dry weight ratio of lung tissue (4.16±0.66) was reduced in the high-dose group (P=0.003). Levels of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α[ (187.98±53.28) pg/ml, (92.45±25.39) pg/ml, (129.77±55.94) pg/ml] were reduced (P=0.001, 0.027, 0.018), and relative protein expression levels of p-PI3K, p-AKT and p-ERK1/2 (0.65±0.05, 0.31±0.08, 1.30±0.12) were reduced (P=0.013, 0.018, 0.015) . Conclusion: Liangge Powder has therapeutic effects in rats with sepsis-induced ALI, and the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT pathway activation in lung tissue.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Powders , Animal Experimentation , Interleukin-6 , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Network Pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy
2.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 516-525, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981894

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of viral myocarditis serum exosomal miR-320 on apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and its mechanism. Methods The model of viral myocarditis mice was established by intraperitoneal injection of Coxsackie virus B3. Serum exosomes were extracted by serum exosome extraction kit and co-cultured with cardiomyocytes. The uptake of exosomes by cardiomyocytes was detected by laser confocal microscopy. Cardiomyocytes were transfected with miR-320 inhibitor or mimic, and the expression level of miR-320 was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Flow cytometry was used to detect cardiomyocyte apoptosis rate, and the expression levels of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) and Bcl2-related X protein (BAX) were tested by Western blot analysis. The prediction of miR-320 target genes and GO and KEGG enrichment analysis were tested by online database. The relationship between miR-320 and its target gene phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1(Pik3r1) was examined by luciferase reporter gene. The effect of miR-320 on AKT/mTOR pathway protein was detected by Western blot analysis. Results Viral myocarditis serum exosomes promoted cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and increased the level of BAX while the level of Bcl2 was decreased. miR-320 was significantly up-regulated in myocardial tissue of viral myocarditis mice, and both pri-miR-320 and mature of miR-320 were up-regulated greatly in cardiomyocytes. The level of miR-320 in cardiomyocytes treated with viral myocarditis serum exosomes was significantly up-regulated, while transfection of miR-320 inhibitor counteracted miR-320 overexpression and reduced apoptosis rate caused by exosomes. Pik3r1 is the target gene of miR-320, and its overexpression reversed cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by miR-320 up-regulation. The overexpression of miR-320 inhibited AKT/mTOR pathway activation. Conclusion Viral myocarditis serum exosome-derived miR-320 promotes apoptosis of mouse cardiomyocytes by inhibiting AKT/mTOR pathway by targeting Pik3r1.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Myocytes, Cardiac , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Myocarditis/pathology , Exosomes/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis/genetics
3.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 137-145, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971340

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the anti-angiogenic activity of Kunxian Capsule (KX) extract and explore the underlying molecular mechanism using zebrafish.@*METHODS@#The KX extract was prepared with 5.0 g in 100 mL of 40% methanol followed by ultrasonication and freeze drying. Freeze dried KX extract of 10.00 mg was used as test stock solution. Triptolide and icariin, the key bioactive compounds of KX were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The transgenic zebrafish Tg(flk1:GFP) embryos were dechorionated at 20-h post fertilization (hpf) and treated with PTK 787, and 3.5, 7, 14 and 21 µg/mL of KX extract, respectively. After 24-h post exposure (hpe), mortality and malformation (%), intersegmental vessels (ISV) formation, and mRNA expression level of angiogenic pathway genes including phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) were determined. Further, the embryos at 72 hpf were treated with KX extract to observe the development of sub-intestinal vein (SIV) after 24 hpe.@*RESULTS@#The chromatographic analysis of test stock solution of KX extract showed that triptolide and icariin was found as 0.089 mg/g and 48.74 mg/g, respectively, which met the requirements of the national drug standards. In zebrafish larvae experiment, KX extract significantly inhibited the ISV (P<0.01) and SIV formation (P<0.05). Besides, the mRNA expression analysis showed that KX extract could significantly suppress the expressions of PI3K and AKT, thereby inhibiting the mRNA levels of ERKs and MAPK. Moreover, the downstream signaling cascade affected the expression of VEGF and its receptors (VEGFR and VEGFR-2). FGF-2, a strong angiogenic factor, was also down-regulated by KX treatment in zebrafish larvae.@*CONCLUSION@#KX extract exhibited anti-angiogenic effects in zebrafish embryos by regulating PI3K/AKT-MAPK-VEGF pathway and showed promising potential for RA treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Zebrafish
4.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 432-441, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the influence of electroacupuncture (EA) on ghrelin and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (PI3K/Akt/eNOS) signaling pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).@*METHODS@#Eight Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as the healthy blood pressure (BP) control (normal group), and 32 SHRs were randomized into model group, EA group, EA plus ghrelin group (EA + G group), and EA plus PF04628935 group (a potent ghrelin receptor blocker; EA + P group) using a random number table. Rats in the normal group and model group did not receive treatment, but were immobilized for 20 min per day, 5 times a week, for 4 continuous weeks. SHRs in the EA group, EA + G group and EA + P group were immobilized and given EA treatment in 20 min sessions, 5 times per week, for 4 weeks. Additionally, 1 h before EA, SHRs in the EA + G group and EA + P group were intraperitoneally injected with ghrelin or PF04628935, respectively, for 4 weeks. The tail-cuff method was used to measure BP. After the 4-week intervention, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and pathological morphology of the abdominal aorta was observed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the levels of ghrelin, nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) in the serum. Isolated thoracic aortic ring experiment was performed to evaluate vasorelaxation. Western blot was used to measure the expression of PI3K, Akt, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and eNOS proteins in the abdominal aorta. Further, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was conducted to measure the relative levels of mRNA expression for PI3K, Akt and eNOS in the abdominal aorta.@*RESULTS@#EA significantly reduced the systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) (P < 0.05). HE staining showed that EA improved the morphology of the vascular endothelium to some extent. Results of ELISA indicated that higher concentrations of ghrelin and NO, and lower concentrations of ET-1 and TXA2 were presented in the EA group (P < 0.05). The isolated thoracic aortic ring experiment demonstrated that the vasodilation capacity of the thoracic aorta increased in the EA group. Results of Western blot and qRT-PCR showed that EA increased the abundance of PI3K, p-Akt/Akt and eNOS proteins, as well as expression levels of PI3K, Akt and eNOS mRNAs (P < 0.05). In the EA + G group, SBP and DBP decreased (P < 0.05), ghrelin concentrations increased (P < 0.05), and the concentrations of ET-1 and TXA2 decreased (P < 0.05), relative to the EA group. In addition, the levels of PI3K and eNOS proteins, the p-Akt/Akt ratio, and the expression of PI3K, Akt and eNOS mRNAs increased significantly in the EA + G group (P < 0.05), while PF04628935 reversed these effects.@*CONCLUSION@#EA effectively reduced BP and protected the vascular endothelium, and these effects may be linked to promoting the release of ghrelin and activation of the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Electroacupuncture , Ghrelin/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/pharmacology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Signal Transduction
5.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 673-692, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939499

ABSTRACT

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway (PAM pathway) plays an important role in the development of breast cancer and are closely associated with the resistance to endocrine therapy in advanced breast cancer. Therefore, anti-cancer treatment targeting key molecules in this signaling pathway has become research hot-spot in recent years. Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors bring significant clinical benefit to patients with advanced breast cancer, especially to those with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2-negative advanced breast cancer. Alpelisib, a PI3K inhibitor, and everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, have been approved by Food and Drug Administration. Based on their high efficacy and relatively good safety profile, expanded indication of everolimus in breast cancer have been approved by National Medical Products Administration. Alpelisib is expected to be approved in China in the near future. The members of the consensus expert panel reached this consensus to comprehensively define the role of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in breast cancer, efficacy and clinical applications of PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors, management of adverse reactions, and PIK3CA mutation detection, in order to promote the understanding of PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors for Chinese oncologists, improve clinical decision-making, and prolong the survival of target patient population.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Consensus , Everolimus/therapeutic use , MTOR Inhibitors , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Sirolimus/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
6.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 718-723, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936368

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the therapeutic mechanism of tanshinone IIA in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in rats.@*METHODS@#A total of 100 male SD rats were randomized into 5 groups (n=20), and except for those in the control group with saline injection, all the rats were injected with monocrotaline (MCT) on the back of the neck to establish models of pulmonary hypertension. Two weeks after the injection, the rat models received intraperitoneal injections of tanshinone IIA (10 mg/kg), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (1 mg/kg), both tanshinone IIA and PI3K inhibitor, or saline (model group) on a daily basis. After 2 weeks of treatment, HE staining and α-SMA immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate the morphology of the pulmonary vessels of the rats. The phosphorylation levels of PI3K, protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the lung tissue were determined with Western blotting; the levels of eNOS and NO were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).@*RESULTS@#The results of HE staining and α-SMA immunofluorescence staining showed that tanshinone IIA effectively inhibited MCT-induced pulmonary artery intimamedia thickening and muscularization of the pulmonary arterioles (P < 0.01). The results of Western blotting showed that treatment with tanshinone IIA significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of PI3K, Akt and eNOS proteins in the lung tissue of PAH rats; ELISA results showed that the levels of eNOS and NO were significantly decreased in the rat models after tanshinone IIA treatment (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Treatment with tanshinone IIA can improve MCT-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats through the PI3K/Akt-eNOS signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Abietanes , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Monocrotaline/toxicity , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/therapeutic use , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Pulmonary Artery , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction
7.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 163-172, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929221

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Moxibustion, a common therapy in traditional Chinese medicine, has potential benefits for treating decreased ovarian reserve (DOR). The present study investigates the protective effect of moxibustion in a rat model of DOR and explores the possible mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Sixty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, DOR, moxibustion (MOX), and hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The DOR rat model was established by intragastric administration of 50 mg/kg Tripterygium glycoside suspension (TGS), once daily for 14 days. MOX and HRT treatments were given from the day TGS administration was initiated. The ovarian reserve function was evaluated by monitoring the estrus cycle, morphological changes in ovaries, levels of serum estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), pregnancy rate and embryo numbers. Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end-labeling staining was used to identify ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis, while the protein and mRNA expressions of Bax, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT) in ovarian tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the DOR group, MOX improved the disordered estrous cycle, promoted follicular growth, reduced the number of atresia follicles, increased the concentrations of serum E2 and AMH, and decreased serum FSH and LH concentrations. More importantly, the pregnancy rate and embryo numbers in DOR rats were both upregulated in the MOX treatment group, compared to the untreated DOR model. Further, we found that the MOX group had reduced apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells, increased Bcl-2 expression and reduced expression of Bax. Furthermore, the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was triggered by the moxibustion treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion improved ovarian function and suppressed apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells in a rat model of DOR induced by TGS, and the mechanism may involve the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Luteinizing Hormone , Moxibustion , Ovarian Reserve , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/genetics
8.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 418-427, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888773

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Exercise, as a common non-drug intervention, is one of several lifestyle choices known to reduce the risk of cancer. Mitochondrial division has been reported to play a key role in the occurrence and transformation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study investigated whether exercise could regulate the occurrence and development of HCC through mitosis.@*METHODS@#Bioinformatics technology was used to analyze the expression level of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), a key protein of mitochondrial division. The effects of DRP1 and DRP1 inhibitor (mdivi-1) on the proliferation and migration of liver cancer cells BEL-7402 were observed using cell counting kit-8, plate colony formation, transwell cell migration, and scratch experiments. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the expression of DRP1 and its downstream phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway. A treadmill exercise intervention was tested in a nude mouse human liver cancer subcutaneous tumor model expressing different levels of DRP1. The size and weight of subcutaneous tumors in mice were detected before and after exercise.@*RESULTS@#The expression of DRP1 in liver cancer tissues was significantly upregulated compared with normal liver tissues (P < 0.001). The proliferation rate and the migration of BEL-7402 cells in the DRP1 over-expression group were higher than that in the control group. The mdivi-1 group showed an inhibitory effect on the proliferation and migration of BEL-7402 cells at 50 μmol/L. Aerobic exercise was able to inhibit the expression of DRP1 and decrease the size and weight of subcutaneous tumors. Moreover, the expression of phosphorylated PI3K (p-PI3K) and phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) decreased in the exercise group. However, exercise could not change p-PI3K and p-AKT levels after knocking down DRP1 or using mdivi-1 on subcutaneous tumor.@*CONCLUSION@#Aerobic exercise can suppress the development of tumors partially by regulating DRP1 through PI3K/AKT pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Down-Regulation , Dynamins , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 699-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878065

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Autophagy of alveolar macrophages is a crucial process in ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are multipotent cells with the potential for repairing injured sites and regulating autophagy. This study was to investigate the influence of BM-MSCs on autophagy of macrophages in the oxygen-glucose deprivation/restoration (OGD/R) microenvironment and to explore the potential mechanism.@*METHODS@#We established a co-culture system of macrophages (RAW264.7) with BM-MSCs under OGD/R conditions in vitro. RAW264.7 cells were transfected with recombinant adenovirus (Ad-mCherry-GFP-LC3B) and autophagic status of RAW264.7 cells was observed under a fluorescence microscope. Autophagy-related proteins light chain 3 (LC3)-I, LC3-II, and p62 in RAW264.7 cells were detected by Western blotting. We used microarray expression analysis to identify the differently expressed genes between OGD/R treated macrophages and macrophages co-culture with BM-MSCs. We investigated the gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which is downstream of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#The ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I of OGD/R treated RAW264.7 cells was increased (1.27 ± 0.20 vs. 0.44 ± 0.08, t = 6.67, P  < 0.05), while the expression of p62 was decreased (0.77 ± 0.04 vs. 0.95 ± 0.10, t = 2.90, P  < 0.05), and PI3K (0.40 ± 0.06 vs. 0.63 ± 0.10, t = 3.42, P  < 0.05) and p-Akt/Akt ratio was also decreased (0.39 ± 0.02 vs. 0.58 ± 0.03, t = 9.13, P  < 0.05). BM-MSCs reduced the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio of OGD/R treated RAW264.7 cells (0.68 ± 0.14 vs. 1.27 ± 0.20, t = 4.12, P  < 0.05), up-regulated p62 expression (1.10 ± 0.20 vs. 0.77 ± 0.04, t = 2.80, P  < 0.05), and up-regulated PI3K (0.54 ± 0.05 vs. 0.40 ± 0.06, t = 3.11, P  < 0.05) and p-Akt/Akt ratios (0.52 ± 0.05 vs. 0.39 ± 0.02, t = 9.13, P  < 0.05). A whole-genome microarray assay screened the differentially expressed gene HO-1, which is downstream of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and the alteration of HO-1 mRNA and protein expression was consistent with the data on PI3K/Akt pathway.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our results suggest the existence of the PI3K/Akt/HO-1 signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells under OGD/R circumstances in vitro, revealing the mechanism underlying BM-MSC-mediated regulation of autophagy and enriching the understanding of potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of ALI.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autophagy , Bone Marrow , Glucose , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Oxygen , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(9): e9693, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132556

ABSTRACT

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. C-type lectin domain family 3 member B (CLEC3B) is a C-type lectin superfamily member and is reported to promote tissue remodeling. The serum levels of CLEC3B are downregulated in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, the molecular mechanisms of CLEC3B in IHD is not well-characterized. Therefore, we overexpressed CLEC3B and silenced CLEC3B in H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes for the first time. We then constructed a model of IHD in vitro through culturing H9c2 cardiomyocytes in serum-free medium under oxygen-deficit conditions. Then, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, and western blot assays were performed to investigate cell viability, apoptosis, and expression levels of CLEC3B, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated PI3K (p-PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and cleaved-caspase 3. We observed that the mRNA expression of CLEC3B was decreased in hypoxic H9c2 cardiomyocytes (P<0.05). Overexpression of CLEC3B increased cell viability (P<0.01), inhibited cell apoptosis (P<0.05), upregulated the levels of p-PI3K/PI3K and p-Akt/Akt (P<0.01 or P<0.05), and downregulated expression of cleaved-caspase 3 (P<0.001) in hypoxic H9c2 cardiomyocytes while silencing of CLEC3B caused the opposite results. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway reversed the protective effect of CLEC3B on hypoxic H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Our study demonstrated that CLEC3B alleviated the injury of hypoxic H9c2 cardiomyocytes via the PI3K/Akt pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Apoptosis/physiology , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Hypoxia
11.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 265-278, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764076

ABSTRACT

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM MSCs) can differentiate into multi-lineage tissues. However, obtaining BM MSCs by aspiration is difficult and can be painful; therefore peripheral blood (PB) MSCs might provide an easier alternative for clinical applications. Here, we show that circulating PB MSCs proliferate as efficiently as BM MSCs in the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) and that differentiation potential into osteoblast in vitro and in vivo. Both BM MSCs and PB MSCs developed into new bone when subcutaneously transplanted into immune-compromised mice using hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate as a carrier. Furthermore, LY294002 and Wortmannin blocked mesenchymal stem cell attachment in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in MSC attachment. Our data showed that the growth of PB MSCs could be regulated by interaction with the ECM and that these cells could differentiate into osteoblasts, suggesting their potential for clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bone Marrow , Extracellular Matrix , In Vitro Techniques , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteoblasts , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositols
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 471-485, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775426

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a chronic and severe neurological disorder that has negative effects on the autonomous activities of patients. Functionally, Trem2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2) is an immunoglobulin receptor that affects neurological and psychiatric genetic diseases. Based on this rationale, we aimed to assess the potential role of Trem2 integration with the PI3K/Akt pathway in epilepsy. We used microarray-based gene expression profiling to identify epilepsy-related differentially-expressed genes. In a mouse hippocampal neuron model of epilepsy, neurons were treated with low-Mg extracellular fluid, and the protein and mRNA expression of Trem2 were determined. Using a gain-of-function approach with Trem2, neuronal apoptosis and its related factors were assessed by flow cytometry, RT-qPCR, and Western blot analysis. In a pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in the hippocampus were determined, and the protein expression of Trem2 was measured. In addition, the regulatory effect of Trem2 on the PI3K/Akt pathway was analyzed by inhibiting this pathway in both the cell and mouse models of epilepsy. Trem2 was found to occupy a core position and was correlated with epilepsy. Trem2 was decreased in the hippocampus of epileptic mice and epileptic hippocampal neurons. Of crucial importance, overexpression of Trem2 activated the PI3K/Akt pathway to inhibit neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway through over-expression of Trem2 alleviated oxidative stress, as shown by the increased expression of SOD and GSH-Px and the decreased expression of MDA and 8-OHdG. The current study defines the potential role of Trem2 in inhibiting the development of epilepsy, indicating that Trem2 up-regulation alleviates hippocampal neuronal injury and oxidative stress, and inhibits neuronal apoptosis in epilepsy by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Apoptosis , Cells, Cultured , Epilepsy , Metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins , Metabolism , Mice, Inbred ICR , Neurons , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Up-Regulation
13.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 38(1): 1-8, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894029

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: Determine immunohistochemical expression of Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), Cycloxygenase-2 (COX2) and one proliferation marker (Ki67) in colorectal polyps and correlate with clinical and pathological data in search of carcinogenic pathways. Methods: The reports of 297 polyps diagnosed through endoscopy were reviewed for parameters including age, gender, prior colorectal cancer, the presence of multiple polyps, and polyps' location, appearance and size. Was conducted a microscopic morphometric computerized analysis of immunohistochemical expression using, the selected antibodies and correlated with clinical and pathological variables. Results: The tissue immunohistochemical expression was higher in right colon polyps for the proliferation marker and Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (p ≤ 0.0001 and 0.057 respectively). Cycloxygenase-2 and Phosphatase and tensin homolog demonstrated higher tissue immunoexpression in pedunculated polyps (p = 0.009 and 0.002 respectively). Cycloxygenase-2 exhibited higher immunoexpression in larger polyps (p = 0.005). Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, Cycloxygenase-2, Phosphatase and tensin homolog and the proliferation marker exhibited higher immunoexpression in high-grade dysplastic polyps (p = 0.031, 0.013, 0.044 and <0.001 respectively). Phosphatase and tensin homolog labeling was higher in polyps with high-grade dysplasia and lower in some of serrated lesions (p = 0.044). Conclusions: The greater expression of the proliferation marker and Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase in the right colon may be related to right-sided colorectal carcinogenesis. The proliferation marker, Cycloxygenase-2 and Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase results can be associated with progression of polyps to colorectal cancer. The higher Phosphatase and tensin homolog expression suggests its attempt to control the cell cycle.


RESUMO Objetivos: Determinar a expressão imuno-histoquímica de Fosfatase homóloga a tensina (PTEN), Fosfatidilinositol-3-cinase (PI3K), Ciclooxigenase-2 (COX2) e um marcador de proliferação (Ki67) em pólipos colorretais e correlacionar com dados clínicos e patológicos buscando sua correspondência na carcinogênese. Métodos: Revisados 297 pólipos diagnosticados através de endoscopia quanto a idade, gênero, história de câncer colorretal, número, localização, aparência e tamanho dos pólipos. Realizadas as avaliações morfométricas computadorizadas das expressões imuno-histoquímicas dos marcadores selecionados, que foram correlacionadas com variáveis clínicas e patológicas. Resultados: A expressão do marcador de proliferação e da Fosfatidilinositol-3-cinase foi maior nos pólipos do cólon direito (p = <0,0001 e 0.057 respectivamente). Ciclooxigenase-2 e Fosfatase homóloga a tensina demonstraram maior imunoexpressão em pólipos pediculados (p = 0,009 e 0,002, respectivamente). Ciclooxigenase-2 expressou mais em pólipos maiores (p = 0,005). Fosfatidilinositol-3-cinase, Ciclooxigenase-2, Fosfatase homóloga a tensina e o marcador de proliferação expressaram mais em pólipos com displasia de alto grau (p = 0,031, 0,013, 0,044 e <0,001, respectivamente). Fosfatase homóloga a tensina marcou mais pólipos com displasia de alto grau que lesões serrilhadas (p = 0,044). Conclusões: A maior expressão do marcador de proliferação e Fosfatidilinositol-3-cinase à direita pode estar relacionada à carcinogênese do lado direito do cólon. Os resultados do marcador de proliferação, Ciclooxigenase-2 e Fosfatidilinositol-3-cinase podem ser associados à progressão dos pólipos para câncer. A expressão aumentada de Fosfatase homóloga a tensina sugere tentativa de controle do ciclo celular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonic Polyps/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/immunology , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/immunology , Cyclooxygenase 2/immunology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/immunology
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1849-1856, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773966

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the earliest and most commonly used anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs and play an important role in high active antiretroviral therapy. However, NRTI drug therapy can cause peripheral neuropathic pain. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of rapamycin on the pain sensitization of model mice by in vivo experiments to explore the effect of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain caused by NRTIs.@*Methods@#Male Kun Ming (KM) mice weighing 20-22 g were divided into control, 2 mg/kg rapamycin, 12 mg/kg stavudine, and CMC-Na groups. Drugs were orally administered to mice for 42 consecutive days. The von Frey filament detection and thermal pain tests were conducted on day 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 after drug administration. After the last behavioral tests, immunohistochemistry and western blotting assay were used for the measurement of mTOR and other biomarkers. Multivariate analysis of variance was used.@*Results@#The beneficial effects of rapamycin on neuropathic pain were attributed to a reduction in mammalian target of rapamycin sensitive complex 1 (mTORC1)-positive cells (70.80 ± 2.41 vs. 112.30 ± 5.66, F = 34.36, P < 0.01) and mTORC1 activity in the mouse spinal cord. Mechanistic studies revealed that Protein Kinase B (Akt)/mTOR signaling pathway blockade with rapamycin prevented the phosphorylation of mTORC1 in stavudine-intoxicated mice (0.72 ± 0.04 vs. 0.86 ± 0.03, F = 4.24, P = 0.045), as well as decreased the expression of phospho-p70S6K (0.47 ± 0.01 vs. 0.68 ± 0.03, F = 6.01, P = 0.022) and phospho-4EBP1 (0.90 ± 0.04 vs. 0.94 ± 0.06, F = 0.28, P = 0.646).@*Conclusions@#Taken together, these results suggest that stavudine elevates the expression and activity of mTORC1 in the spinal cord through activating the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. The data also provide evidence that rapamycin might be useful for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , HIV Infections , Drug Therapy , Neuralgia , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositols , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Sirolimus , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
15.
International Neurourology Journal ; : S156-S164, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717675

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection induces neurodevelopmental disorders, such as cerebral palsy. Exercise activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway that enhances neurogenesis. Wnt ligands are also implicated in the hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a downstream molecule of Akt, and GSK-3β is known to modulate hippocampal neurogenesis negatively. METHODS: Cerebral palsy was made by maternal LPS-injection. On the 5 weeks after birth, treadmill running was applied to the rat pups of the exercise groups, for 30 minutes, 5 times a week during 6 weeks. RESULTS: Treadmill running alleviated short-term memory impairments of the cerebral palsy rat pups. Hippocampal cell proliferation was increased and hippocampal apoptosis was suppressed by treadmill running in the cerebral palsy rat pups. Hippocampal phosphorylated-PI3K/PI3K ratio, phosphorylated-Akt/Akt ratio, and Wnt expression were enhanced by treadmill running in the cerebral palsy rat pups. In contrast, hippocampal phosphorylated-GSK-3β/GSK-3β ratio and β-catenin expression were suppressed by treadmill running in the cerebral palsy rat pups. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that short-term memory improvement due to treadmill running in cerebral palsy occurs via activation of the PI3K-Akt-Wnt pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Cerebral Palsy , Glycogen Synthase , Ligands , Memory, Short-Term , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Neurogenesis , Neuronal Plasticity , Parturition , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphotransferases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Running
16.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e431-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739494

ABSTRACT

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling plays an important role in the regulation of cellular lipid metabolism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, little is known about the role of the regulatory subunits of PI3K in lipid metabolism and NAFLD. In this study, we characterized the functional role of PIK3R3 in fasting-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. In this study, we showed that the overexpression of PIK3R3 promoted hepatic fatty acid oxidation via PIK3R3-induced expression of PPARα, thus improving the fatty liver phenotype in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mice. By contrast, hepatic PIK3R3 knockout in normal mice led to increased hepatic TG levels. Our study also showed that PIK3R3-induced expression of PPARα was dependent on HNF4α. The novel PIK3R3-HNF4α-PPARα signaling axis plays a significant role in hepatic lipid metabolism. As the activation of PIK3R3 decreased hepatosteatosis, PIK3R3 can be considered a promising novel target for developing NAFLD and metabolic syndrome therapies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Diet, High-Fat , Fatty Liver , Lipid Metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Phenotype , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase
17.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 825-833, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812052

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of Garcinia xanthochymus, a perennial medicinal plant native to Yunnan, China, against HO-induced oxidative damage in rat pheochromacytoma PC12 cells. Preincubation of PC12 cells with fruit EtOAc fraction (fruit-EFr., 12.5-50 µmol·L) of G. xanthochymus for 24 h prior to HO exposure markedly improved cell viability and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and heme oxygenase-1 [HO-1]), prevented lactate dehydrogenase release and lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde production, attenuated the decrease of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), and scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS). Fruit-EFr. also reduced BAX and cytochrome C expression and improved BCL-2 expression, thereby decreasing the ratio of BAX to BCL-2. Fruit-EFr. activated the nuclear translocation of NRF2 to increase HO-1 and induced the phosphorylation of AKT. Its cytoprotective effect was abolished by LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K. Taken together, the above findings suggested that fruit-EFr.of G. xanthochymus could enhance cellular antioxidant defense capacity, at least in part, through upregulating HO-1 expression and activating the PI3K/AKT pathway and that it could suppress HO-induced oxidative damage via PI3K/AKT and NRF2/HO-1 signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Antioxidants , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Biological Transport , Cell Survival , Cytochromes c , Metabolism , Fruit , Garcinia , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , PC12 Cells , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Phosphorylation , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Metabolism
18.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 321-326, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194963

ABSTRACT

Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is an important mechanism of resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer. Everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, has been shown to increase the efficacy of endocrine therapy and overcome resistance to endocrine therapies. Clinical studies have suggested that everolimus combined with endocrine therapy prolongs progression-free survival in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients. However, because breast cancer includes a group of highly heterogeneous tumors, patients may have different responses to everolimus. Therefore, finding biomarkers that can predict a patient's positive response or resistance to everolimus is critical. Numerous preclinical studies have shown that PIK3CA/PTEN mutations are predictive of sensitivity to everolimus; however, clinical trials have not confirmed the correlation between mutation status and clinical response. KRAS or BRAF mutations can bypass the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway; therefore, mutations in KRAS or BRAF may lead to resistance to mTOR inhibitors, and preclinical studies have shown that PIK3CA mutant cells which also contain KRAS mutations are resistant to everolimus. However, there are no clinical data in breast cancer patients to support this conclusion. Therefore, large-scale clinical studies are needed to identify biomarkers of efficacy and resistance to everolimus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Everolimus , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Sirolimus
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 854-858, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266898

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Recombinant human-erythropoietin (rh-EPO) has therapeutic efficacy for premature infants with brain damage during the active rehabilitation and anti-inflammation. In the present study, we found that the rh-EPO was related to the promotion of neovascularization. Our aim was to investigate whether rh-EPO augments neovascularization in the neonatal rat model of premature brain damage through the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Postnatal day 5 (PD5), rats underwent permanent ligation of the right common carotid artery and were exposed to hypoxia for 2 h. All the rat pups were randomized into five groups as follows: (1) control group; (2) hypoxia-ischemic (HI) group; (3) HI + LY294002 group; (4) HI + rh-EPO group; and (5) HI + rh-EPO + LY294002 group. The phospho-Akt protein was tested 90 min after the whole operation, and CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also tested 2 days after the whole operation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the hypoxic and ischemic zone of the premature rat brain, the rh-EPO induced CD34+ cells to immigrate to the HI brain zone (P < 0.05) and also upregulated the VEGFR2 protein expression (P < 0.05) and VEGF mRNA level (P < 0.05) through the PI3K/Akt (P < 0.05) signaling pathway when compared with other groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The rh-EPO treatment augments neovascularization responses in the neonatal rat model of premature brain damage through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Besides, the endogenous EPO may exist in the HI zone of rat brain and also has neovascularization function through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Antigens, CD34 , Metabolism , Brain , Metabolism , Pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Erythropoietin , Genetics , Metabolism , Therapeutic Uses , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Recombinant Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Therapeutic Uses , Signal Transduction , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 , Metabolism
20.
International Journal of Oral Biology ; : 117-121, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201473

ABSTRACT

We have previously shown that the specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 (LY29), and its inactive analog LY303511 (LY30), inhibit a monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells; these results suggest the potential of LY30 as an anti-inflammatory drug. In this study, we determined the effects of LY30 on the production of various inflammatory cytokines in human macrophagic THP-1 cells which were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LY30 selectively suppressed the mRNA expression of IL-12 p40, TNF-α, and MCP-1 without affecting the expression of IL-1α, IL-6, and IL-8. Inhibition of the production of IL-12 and TNF-α by LY30 was also demonstrated using ELISA assays. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of the action of LY30, we examined the role played by the mitogen-activated protein kinases and the key transcription factors, AP-1 and NF-κB in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. The results revealed that LY30 inhibited LPS-induced activation of ERK, but not p38 or JNK. Furthermore, the AP-1 DNA binding activity was suppressed by LY30 based upon the dosage, whereas NF-κB DNA binding was not affected. These results suggest that LY30 selectively inhibits cytokine production in the LPS-stimulated macrophagic THP-1 cells by downregulating the activation of ERK and AP-1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemokine CCL2 , Cytokines , DNA , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , RNA, Messenger , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transcription Factors
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