Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 141
Filter
1.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 43(1): 101-118, jan./jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354575

ABSTRACT

Achyrocline satureioides is popularly known for its richness in phenolic compounds and medicinal properties (anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and hepatoprotective). The present study aimed at broadening the knowledge about the pharmacological potential exerted by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. satureioides. These extracts were characterized by HPLC and tested for their modulatory action on phospholipases A2 and proteases of snake venoms. In addition, they were tested on the activities of digestive enzymes. Snake venoms were used as tools since they have enzymes with high functional and structural homology to human enzymes. The results demonstrate that the extracts of A. satureioides act as enzymatic inhibitors or potentiators, interfering in processes related to the hemostasis, such as coagulation and thrombus dissolution. In addition, the anti-genotoxic activity and inhibitions exerted on digestive enzymes suggests their potential use in the prevention and/or treatment of several pathologies. New studies could provide information on how the compounds present in the extracts and the different enzymes interact.


A Achyrocline satureioides é popularmente conhecida por sua riqueza em compostos fenólicos e por suas propriedades medicinais (anti-inflamatória, analgésica e hepatoprotetora). No presente estudo, com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre o potencial farmacológico exercido por esses extratos, os extratos aquoso e etanólico de A. satureioides foram caracterizados por HPLC e testados quanto à sua ação modulatória sobre as fosfolipases A2 e proteases de peçonhas de serpentes. Além disso, também foram testados em atividades de enzimas digestivas. As peçonhas de serpentes foram usadas como ferramentas por apresentarem enzimas com alta homologia funcional e estrutural às humanas. Os resultados demonstram que os extratos de A. satureioides atuam como inibidores ou potencializadores enzimáticos, interferindo em processos relacionados à hemostasia, como coagulação e dissolução do trombo. Além do mais, destacam seu potencial antigenotóxico e as inibições exercidas sobre as enzimas digestivas direcionando seu potencial de uso na prevenção e/ou tratamento de diversas patologias. Novos estudos poderão fornecer informações sobre os mecanismos de interação entre os compostos presentes nos extratos e as diferentes enzimas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Snakes , Blood Coagulation , Achyrocline , Digestion , Enzymes , Dissolution , Phospholipases A2 , Hemostasis , Analgesics , Inflammation
2.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210040, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365074

ABSTRACT

Background: Naja atra is a venomous snake species medically relevant in China. In the current study, we evaluated the composition and toxicological profile of venom collected from farm-raised N. atra. Methods: Venom was collected from third-generation captive bred N. atra on a snake farm in Hunan Province, China. The venom was analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, hemolytic activity, median lethal dose, serum biochemical and histopathological parameters were accessed. Results: N. atra venom proteome was dominated by phospholipase A2 (46.5%) and three-finger toxins (41.4 %), and a set of common low relative abundance proteins, including cysteine-rich secretory proteins (4.7%), NGF-beta (2.4%), snake venom metalloproteinase (1.5%), glutathione peroxidase (0.6%), vespryn (0.3%), and 5ʹ-nucleotidases (0.2%) were also found. Furthermore, the venom exhibited direct hemolytic activity, neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, and high lethal potency in mice, with a subcutaneous median lethal dose of 1.02 mg/kg. Histopathological analysis and serum biochemical tests revealed that venom caused acute hepatic, pulmonary and renal injury in mice. Conclusion: This study revealed the composition and toxicity of venom collected from farm-raised N. atra, thereby providing a reference for the analysis of venom samples collected from captive-born venomous snakes in the future.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Snake Venoms/toxicity , Phospholipases A2 , Naja naja , Myotoxicity , Nucleotidases
3.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20210005, 2021. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351019

ABSTRACT

Background: In the present study, we have tested whether specimens of the medically relevant scorpion Tityus pachyurus, collected from two climatically and ecologically different regions, differ in the biological activities of the venom. Methods: Scorpions were collected in Tolima and Huila, Colombia. Chemical profiles of the crude venom were obtained from 80 scorpions for each region, using SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC. Assays for phospholipase A2, direct and indirect hemolytic, proteolytic, neuromuscular, antibacterial, and insecticidal activities were carried out. Results: The electrophoretic profiles of venom from the two regions showed similar bands of 6-14 kDa, 36-45 kDa, 65 kDa and 97 kDa. However, bands between 36 kDa and 65 kDa were observed with more intensity in venoms from Tolima, and a 95 kDa band occurred only in venoms from Huila. The chromatographic profile of the venoms showed differences in the intensity of some peaks, which could be associated with changes in the abundance of some components between both populations. Phospholipase A2 and hemolytic activities were not observable, whereas both venoms showed proteolytic activity towards casein. Insecticidal activity of the venoms from both regions showed significant variation in potency, the bactericidal activity was variable and low for both venoms. Moreover, no differences were observed in the neuromuscular activity assay. Conclusion: Our results reveal some variation in the activity of the venom between both populations, which could be explained by the ecological adaptations like differences in feeding, altitude and/or diverse predator exposure. However more in-depth studies are necessary to determine the drivers behind the differences in venom composition and activities.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Scorpions , Biological Products , Phospholipases A2 , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Anti-Bacterial Agents
4.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 68(3): 453-462, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1143735

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Snakes of the genus Micrurus have fossorial habits, passive temperament and scarce production of powerful venom with neurotoxic characteristics that block the synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction. Objective: To present an overview of the neurotoxicity of the Micrurus snake venom, and its functional characterization by ex vivo analysis methods. Materials and methods: A literature review was conducted in MedLine and ScienceDirect using specific terms and their combinations. Search strategy: type of studies: articles on the neurotoxicity of Micrurus snake venom and techniques to determine its neurotoxic activity by in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo models; publication period: articles published until June 2018; publication language: English and Spanish. Results: Out of 88 studies identified in the initial search, 28 were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria (based on reading their titles and abstracts). 8 additional articles (books and reports) were included, since, according to the authors' opinion, they complemented the information reported by the selected studies. The studies included in the review (n=68) were original research papers (n=44), review articles (n = 16), and book chapters, reports, guides and online consultations (n=8). Conclusions: Studies performed using ex vivo muscle and nerve preparations to evaluate the effect of neurotoxins provide a good model for the characterization of the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic effect of the venom produced by snakes of the genus Micrurus.


Resumen Introducción. Las serpientes del género Micrurus son animales de hábitos fosoriales, de temperamento pasivo y escasa producción de un potente veneno con características neurotóxicas que bloquean la transmisión sináptica en la placa neuromuscular. Objetivo. Presentar un panorama general de la neurotoxicidad del veneno de las serpientes Micrurus y su caracterización funcional mediante métodos de análisis ex vivo. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura en MedLine y ScienceDirect usando términos específicos y sus combinaciones. Estrategia de búsqueda: tipo de estudios: artículos sobre la neurotoxicidad del veneno de serpientes Micrurus y técnicas para determinar su actividad neurotóxica mediante modelos in vitro, in vivo y ex vivo; periodo de publicación: sin límite inicial a junio de 2018; idiomas: inglés y español. Resultados. De los 88 estudios identificados en la búsqueda inicial, se excluyeron 28 por no cumplir los criterios de inclusión (basándose en la lectura de títulos y resúmenes); además, se incluyeron 8 documentos adicionales (libros e informes), que, a criterio de los autores, complementaban la información reportada por las referencias seleccionadas. Los estudios incluidos en la revisión (n=68) correspondieron a las siguientes tipologías: investigaciones originales (n=44), artículos de revisión (n=16) y capítulos de libros, informes, guías y consultas en internet (n=8). Conclusiones. Los estudios que describen el uso de preparaciones ex vivo de músculo y nervio para evaluar el efecto de neurotoxinas ofrecen un buen modelo para la caracterización del efecto presináptico y postsináptico del veneno producido por las serpientes Micrurus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Elapidae , Coral Snakes , Neuromuscular Junction , Phospholipases A2
5.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200076, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143214

ABSTRACT

Snake venom phospholipases A2 (svPLA2) are biologically active toxins, capable of triggering and modulating a wide range of biological functions. Among the svPLA2s, crotoxin (CTX) has been in the spotlight of bioprospecting research due to its role in modulating immune response and hemostasis. In the present study, novel anticoagulant mechanisms of CTX, and the modulation of inflammation-induced coagulation were investigated. Methods: CTX anticoagulant activity was evaluated using platelet poor plasma (PPP) and whole blood (WB), and also using isolated coagulation factors and complexes. The toxin modulation of procoagulant and pro-inflammatory effects was evaluated using the expression of tissue factor (TF) and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and in WB. Results: The results showed that CTX impaired clot formation in both PPP and WB, and was responsible for the inhibition of both intrinsic (TF/factor VIIa) and extrinsic (factor IXa/factor VIIIa) tenase complexes, but not for factor Xa and thrombin alone. In addition, the PLA2 mitigated the prothrombinase complex by modulating the coagulation phospholipid role in the complex. In regards to the inflammation-coagulation cross talk, the toxin was capable of reducing the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, and was followed by decreased levels of TF and procoagulant activity from LPS-treated PBMC either isolated or in WB. Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study recognize the toxin as a novel medicinal candidate to be applied in inflammatory diseases with coagulation disorders.(AU)


Subject(s)
Phospholipids , Snake Venoms , Crotoxin , Phospholipases A2 , Anticoagulants , Biological Products , Lipopolysaccharides
6.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200016, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135158

ABSTRACT

South American rattlesnakes are represented in Brazil by a single species, Crotalus durissus, which has public health importance due to the severity of its envenomation and to its wide geographical distribution. The species is subdivided into several subspecies, but the current classification is controversial. In Brazil, the venoms of C. d. terrificus and C. d. collilineatus are used for hyperimmunization of horses for antivenom production, even though the distinction of these two subspecies are mostly by their geographical distribution. In this context, we described a comparative compositional and functional characterization of individual C. d. collilineatus and C. d. terrificus venoms from three Brazilian states. Methods: We compared the compositional patterns of C. d. terrificus and C. d. collilineatus individual venoms by 1-DE and RP-HPLC. For functional analyzes, the enzymatic activities of PLA2, LAAO, and coagulant activity were evaluated. Finally, the immunorecognition of venom toxins by the crotalic antivenom produced at Butantan Institute was evaluated using Western blotting. Results: The protein profile of individual venoms from C. d. collilineatus and C. d. terrificus showed a comparable overall composition, despite some intraspecific variation, especially regarding crotamine and LAAO. Interestingly, HPLC analysis showed a geographic pattern concerning PLA2. In addition, a remarkable intraspecific variation was also observed in PLA2, LAAO and coagulant activities. The immunorecognition pattern of individual venoms from C. d. collilineatus and C. d. terrificus by crotalic antivenom produced at Butantan Institute was similar. Conclusions: The results highlighted the individual variability among the venoms of C. durissus ssp. specimens. Importantly, our data point to a geographical variation of C. durissus ssp. venom profile, regardless of the subspecies, as evidenced by PLA2 isoforms complexity, which may explain the increase in venom neurotoxicity from Northeastern through Southern Brazil reported for the species.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Crotalus , Elapid Venoms , Phospholipases A2 , Geographic Locations
7.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135146

ABSTRACT

Variability in snake venoms is a well-studied phenomenon. However, sex-based variation of Bothrops atrox snake venom using siblings is poorly investigated. Bothrops atrox is responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents in the Brazilian Amazon region. Differences in the venom composition of Bothrops genus have been linked to several factors such as ontogeny, geographical distribution, prey preferences and sex. Thus, in the current study, venom samples of Bothrops atrox male and female siblings were analyzed in order to compare their biochemical and biological characteristics. Methods: Venoms were collected from five females and four males born from a snake captured from the wild in São Bento (Maranhão, Brazil), and kept in the Laboratory of Herpetology of Butantan Intitute. The venoms were analyzed individually and as a pool of each gender. The assays consisted in protein quantification, 1-DE, mass spectrometry, proteolytic, phospholipase A2, L-amino acid oxidase activities, minimum coagulant dose upon plasma, minimum hemorrhagic dose and lethal dose 50%. Results: Electrophoretic profiles of male's and female's venom pools were quite similar, with minor sex-based variation. Male venom showed higher LAAO, PLA2 and hemorrhagic activities, while female venom showed higher coagulant activity. On the other hand, the proteolytic activities did not show statistical differences between pools, although some individual variations were observed. Meanwhile, proteomic profile revealed 112 different protein compounds; of which 105 were common proteins of female's and male's venom pools and seven were unique to females. Despite individual variations, lethality of both pools showed similar values. Conclusion: Although differences between female and male venoms were observed, our results show that individual variations are significant even between siblings, highlighting that biological activities of venoms and its composition are influenced by other factors beyond gender.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Snake Bites , Snake Venoms , Mass Spectrometry , Bothrops , L-Amino Acid Oxidase , Phospholipases A2 , Biological Products
8.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190078, 2020. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1091025

ABSTRACT

Argenteohyla siemersi (red-spotted Argentina frog) is a casque-headed tree frog species belonging to the Hylidae family. This species has a complex combination of anti-predator defense mechanisms that include a highly lethal skin secretion. However, biochemical composition and biological effects of this secretion have not yet been studied. Methods: The A. siemersi skin secretion samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry and chromatographic analysis (MALDI-TOF/MS, RP-HPLC and GC-MS). Proteins were also studied by SDS-PAGE. Among the biological activities evaluated, several enzymatic activities (hemolytic, phospholipase A2, clotting, proteolytic and amidolytic) were assessed. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity (cytolysis and fluorescence staining) was evaluated on myoblasts of the C2C12 cell line. Results: The MALDI-TOF/MS analysis identified polypeptides and proteins in the aqueous solution of A. siemersi skin secretion. SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of proteins with molecular masses from 15 to 55 kDa. Steroids, but no alkaloids or peptides (less than 5 KDa), were detected using mass spectrometry. Skin secretion revealed the presence of lipids in methanolic extract, as analyzed by CG-MS. This secretion showed hemolytic and phospholipase A2 activities, but was devoid of amidolytic, proteolytic or clotting activities. Moreover, dose-dependent cytotoxicity in cultured C2C12 myoblasts of the skin secretion was demonstrated. Morphological analysis, quantification of lactate dehydrogenase release and fluorescence staining indicated that the cell death triggered by this secretion involved necrosis. Conclusions: Results presented herein evidence the biochemical composition and biological effects of A. siemersi skin secretion and contribute to the knowledge on the defense mechanisms of casque-headed frogs.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Anura , Peptides , Mass Spectrometry , Biological Products , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Phospholipases A2 , Biochemical Reactions/classification , Cytotoxins
9.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190044, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1091017

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Endogenous phospholipase A2 inhibitors from snake blood (sbPLIs) have been isolated from several species around the world, with the primary function of self-protection against the action of toxic phospholipases A2. In American snakes, sbPLIs were solely described in pit vipers, in which the natural protection role is justified. In this study, we described a sbPLI in Boa constrictor (popularly known as jiboia), a non-venomous snake species from America. Methods: PLA2 inhibitory activity was tested in the blood plasma of B. constrictor using C. d. terrificus venom as the enzyme source. Antibodies developed against CNF, a sbγPLI from Crotalus durissus terrificus, were used to investigate the presence of homologues in the blood plasma of B. constrictor. A CNF-like molecule with a PLA2 inhibitory activity was purified by column chromatography. The encoding gene for the inhibitor was cloned from B. constrictor liver tissue. The DNA fragment was cloned, purified and sequenced. The deduced primary sequence of interest was aligned with known sbγPLIs from the literature. Results: The blood plasma of B. constrictor displayed PLA2 inhibitory activity. A CNF-like molecule (named BcNF) was identified and purified from the blood plasma of B. constrictor. Basic properties such as molecular mass, composing amino acids, and pI were comparable, but BcNF displayed reduced specific activity in PLA2 inhibition. BcNF showed highest identity scores (ISs) with sbγPLIs from pit vipers from Latin America (90-100%), followed by gamma inhibitors from Asian viperid (80-90%). ISs below 70% were obtained for BcNF and non-venomous species from Asia. Conclusion: A functional sbγPLI (BcNF) was described in the blood plasma of B. constrictor. BcNF displayed higher primary identity with sbγPLIs from Viperidae than to sbγPLIs from non-venomous species from Asia. The physiological role played by sbγPLIs in non-venomous snake species remains to be understood. Further investigation is needed.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Snakes , Viperidae , Elapid Venoms , Phospholipases A2 , Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors
10.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190048, 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056677

ABSTRACT

The Eastern Russell's viper, Daboia siamensis, is a WHO Category 1 medically important venomous snake. It has a wide but disjunct distribution in Southeast Asia. The specific antivenom, D. siamensis Monovalent Antivenom (DsMAV-Thailand) is produced in Thailand but not available in Indonesia, where a heterologous trivalent antivenom, Serum Anti Bisa Ular (SABU), is used instead. This study aimed to investigate the geographical venom variation of D. siamensis from Thailand (Ds-Thailand) and Indonesia (Ds-Indonesia), and the immunorecognition of the venom proteins by antivenoms. Methods: The venom proteins were decomplexed with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by in-solution tryptic digestion, nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and protein identification. The efficacies of DsMAV-Thailand and SABU in binding the various venom fractions were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay optimized for immunorecognition profiling. Results: The two most abundant protein families in Ds-Thailand venom are phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (KSPI). Those abundant in Ds-Indonesia venom are PLA2 and serine protease. KSPI and vascular endothelial growth factor were detected in Ds-Thailand venom, whereas L-amino acid oxidase and disintegrin were present in Ds-Indonesia venom. Common proteins shared between the two included snaclecs, serine proteases, metalloproteinases, phosphodiesterases, 5'nucleotidases and nerve growth factors at varying abundances. DsMAV-Thailand exhibited strong immunorecognition of the major protein fractions in both venoms, but low immunoreactivity toward the low molecular weight proteins e.g. KSPI and disintegrins. On the other hand, SABU was virtually ineffective in binding all fractionated venom proteins. Conclusion: D. siamensis venoms from Thailand and Indonesia varied geographically in the protein subtypes and abundances. The venoms, nevertheless, shared conserved antigenicity that allowed effective immunorecognition by DsMAV-Thailand but not by SABU, consistent with the neutralization efficacy of the antivenoms. A specific, appropriate antivenom is needed in Indonesia to treat Russell's viper envenomation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Antivenins , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Russell's Viper , Proteomics , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Phospholipases A2
11.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190041, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056676

ABSTRACT

Here, we described the presence of a neurotoxin with phospholipase A2 activity isolated from Micrurus lemniscatus venom (Mlx-8) with affinity for muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Methods: The purification, molecular mass determination, partial amino acid sequencing, phospholipase A2 activity determination, inhibition of the binding of the selective muscarinic ligand [3H]QNB and inhibition of the total [3H]inositol phosphate accumulation in rat hippocampus of the Mlx-8 were determined. Results: Thirty-one fractions were collected from HPLC chromatography, and the Mlx-8 toxin was used in this work. The molecular mass of Mlx-8 is 13.628 Da. Edman degradation yielded the following sequence: NLYQFKNMIQCTNTRSWL-DFADYG-CYCGRGGSGT. The Mlx-8 had phospholipase A2 enzymatic activity. The pKi values were determined for Mlx-8 toxin and the M1 selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine in hippocampus membranes via [3H]QNB competition binding assays. The pKi values obtained from the analysis of Mlx-8 and pirenzepine displacement curves were 7.32 ± 0.15, n = 4 and 5.84 ± 0.18, n = 4, respectively. These results indicate that Mlx-8 has affinity for mAChRs. There was no effect on the inhibition ability of the [3H]QNB binding in hippocampus membranes when 1 µM Mlx-8 was incubated with 200 µM DEDA, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2. This suggests that the inhibition of the phospholipase A2 activity of the venom did not alter its ability to bind to displace [3H]QNB binding. In addition, the Mlx-8 toxin caused a blockade of 43.31 ± 8.86%, n = 3 and 97.42 ± 2.02%, n = 3 for 0.1 and 1 µM Mlx-8, respectively, on the total [3H]inositol phosphate content induced by 10 µM carbachol. This suggests that Mlx-8 inhibits the intracellular signaling pathway linked to activation of mAChRs in hippocampus. Conclusion: The results of the present work show, for the first time, that muscarinic receptors are also affected by the Mlx-8 toxin, a muscarinic ligand with phospholipase A2 characteristics, obtained from the venom of the Elapidae snake Micrurus lemniscatus, since this toxin was able to compete with muscarinic ligand [3H]QNB in hippocampus of rats. In addition, Mlx-8 also blocked the accumulation of total [3H]inositol phosphate induced by muscarinic agonist carbachol. Thus, Mlx-8 may be a new pharmacological tool for examining muscarinic cholinergic function.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Snakes , Elapid Venoms/adverse effects , Phospholipases A2 , Inositol Phosphates , Acetylcholine , Receptors, Muscarinic/analysis , Sequence Analysis, Protein
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18467, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249175

ABSTRACT

The processing of grapes for the manufacture of juices and wines, generates large quantities of by-products rich in metabolites with antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing activities. The high homology between human enzymes and snake venoms makes the latter valuable laboratory tools for the study of pathophysiological processes. Proteases and phospholipases A2 act in processes related to hemostasis and inflammatory response. Thus, in this work, dried pomace obtained from grape (Isabel, Niagara, Bordô, BRS Violeta and Blend cultivars) processing were evaluated on phospholipase, proteolytic, hemolytic and thrombolytic activities induced by snakes venoms and the content of phenolic compounds and minerals was evaluated. The dried pomace exerted inhibitory and potentiating actions in all analyzed activities. The enzymatic modulators present in the evaluated dried pomace have potential for therapeutic use, although their broad characterization is still necessary, in order to define adequate amounts and formulations to obtain efficacy and safety in their use.


Subject(s)
Snake Venoms/adverse effects , Wine/classification , Enzymes/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phospholipases A2/analysis , Vitis/classification , Industrial Waste/analysis
13.
Blood Research ; : 253-261, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fluoranthene (FR) is a common environmental pollutant that exists in a complex mixture with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We identified biomarkers for monitoring FR exposure and investigated the rescue effect of FR-induced cellular toxicity via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist activity in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs).METHODS: Morphological changes, viability, and rescue effects of an AHR antagonist (CH223191) were examined in BM-MSCs after exposure to FR. Cytotoxic effects were assayed using the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay. Apoptosis was measured by annexin V and propidium iodide dye-based flowcytometry assay, mitochondrial membrane potential assay, and nuclear DNA fragmentation assay. Molecular signaling pathways of apoptosis and autophagy were investigated using immunoblotting. Proteomics were performed in order to reveal the spectra of cellular damage and identify biomarkers for FR exposure.RESULTS: Exposing BM-MSCs to FR (IC₅₀=50 µM) induced cell death and morphological changes, while the AHR antagonist showed rescue effects. Autophagy was activated and mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased. Proteomic analysis identified 48 deregulated proteins (26 upregulated and 22 downregulated). Among them, annexin A6, pyruvate kinase, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, and phospholipase A2 could be potential biomarkers for FR exposure.CONCLUSION: The exposure of BM-MSCs to FR induced remarkable alterations in cellular biology and the proteome, allowing for identification of novel biomarkers for FR exposure. Furthermore, AHR antagonists might be able to prevent cellular damage due to FR exposure.


Subject(s)
Annexin A5 , Annexin A6 , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Biomarkers , Bone Marrow , Cell Death , DNA Fragmentation , Immunoblotting , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Oxidoreductases , Phospholipases A2 , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Propidium , Proteome , Proteomics , Pyruvate Kinase , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon
14.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 25: e147018, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002495

ABSTRACT

Lachesis muta rhombeata is one of the venomous snakes of medical importance in Brazil whose envenoming is characterized by local and systemic effects which may produce even shock and death. Its venom is mainly comprised of serine and metalloproteinases, phospholipases A2 and bradykinin-potentiating peptides. Based on a previously reported fractionation of L. m. rhombeata venom (LmrV), we decided to perform a subproteome analysis of its major fraction and investigated a novel component present in this venom. Methods: LmrV was fractionated through molecular exclusion chromatography and the main fraction (S5) was submitted to fibrinogenolytic activity assay and fractionated by reversed-phase chromatography. The N-terminal sequences of the subfractions eluted from reversed-phase chromatography were determined by automated Edman degradation. Enzyme activity of LmrSP-4 was evaluated upon chromogenic substrates for thrombin (S-2238), plasma kallikrein (S-2302), plasmin and streptokinase-activated plasminogen (S-2251) and Factor Xa (S-2222) and upon fibrinogen. All assays were carried out in the presence or absence of possible inhibitors. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrate Abz-KLRSSKQ-EDDnp was used to determine the optimal conditions for LmrSP-4 activity. Molecular mass of LmrSP-4 was determined by MALDI-TOF and digested peptides after trypsin and Glu-C treatments were analyzed by high resolution MS/MS using different fragmentation modes. Results: Fraction S5 showed strong proteolytic activity upon fibrinogen. Its fractionation by reversed-phase chromatography gave rise to 6 main fractions (S5C1-S5C6). S5C1-S5C5 fractions correspond to serine proteinases whereas S5C6 represents a C-type lectin. S5C4 (named LmrSP-4) had its N-terminal determined by Edman degradation up to the 53rd amino acid residue and was chosen for characterization studies. LmrSP-4 is a fibrinogenolytic serine proteinase with high activity against S-2302, being inhibited by PMSF and benzamidine, but not by 1,10-phenantroline. In addition, this enzyme exhibited maximum activity within the pH range from neutral to basic and between 40 and 50 °C. About 68% of the LmrSP-4 primary structure was covered, and its molecular mass is 28,190 Da. Conclusions: Novel serine proteinase isoforms and a lectin were identified in LmrV. Additionally, a kallikrein-like serine proteinase that might be useful as molecular tool for investigating bradykinin-involving process was isolated and partially characterized.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plasminogen , Snake Venoms , Lachesis muta , Serine Proteases , Kallikreins , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Phospholipases A2
15.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 24: 40, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-984691

ABSTRACT

A leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) é uma neoplasia mieloproliferativa BCR-ABL1 + marcada por aumento da mieloproliferação e presença de células leucêmicas resistentes à apoptose. A terapia de primeira linha atual para a LMC é a administração de inibidores da tirosina quinase, mesilato de imatinibe, dasatinibe ou nilotinibe. Embora eficaz no tratamento da LMC, alguns pacientes se tornaram resistentes a essa terapia, levando à progressão da doença e à morte. Assim, a descoberta de novos compostos para melhorar a terapia da LMC ainda é um desafio. Aqui, os destinatários se MjTX-I, uma fosfolipase A 2 isolado a partir de Bothrops moojeni de veneno de cobra, afecta a viabilidade de Bcr-Abl de mesilato de imatinib-resistente + linhas celulares. Métodos: Examinamos o efeito citotóxico e pró-apoptótico de MjTX-I em células K562-S e K562-R Bcr-Abl + e na linha de células HEK-293 não tumorais e células mononucleares de sangue periférico, usando o 3- (4, Brometo de 5-dimetiltiazol-2-il) -2,5-difeniltetrazólio e os métodos de solução fluorescente hipotônica, associados à detecção de ativação de caspases 3, 8 e 9 e clivagem de poli (ADP-ribose) polimerase (PARP). Também analisamos o potencial MjTX-I para modular a expressão de genes relacionados à apoptose em células K562-S e K562-R. Resultados: O MjTX-I diminuiu a viabilidade das células K562-S e K562-R em 60 a 65%, sem afetar a viabilidade das células não tumorais, ou seja, exerceu citotoxicidade seletiva para as linhagens celulares Bcr-Abl + . Em linhas de células leucêmicas, a toxina induziu apoptose, caspases 3, 8 e 9 ativadas, PARP clivada, expressão negativa do gene anti-apoptótico BCL-2 e expressão aumentada do gene pró-apoptótico BAD. Conclusão: O efeito antitumoral de MjTX-I está associado ao seu potencial para induzir apoptose e citotoxicidade em linhagens celulares positivas para Bcr-Abl sensíveis e resistentes ao mesilato de imatinibe, indicando que MjTX-I é um candidato promissor a fármaco para atualizar a terapia de LMC.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Snake Venoms , Leukemia, Myeloid/diagnosis , Bothrops , Cytotoxins/analysis , Phospholipases A2/isolation & purification , Neoplasms , Apoptosis
16.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 24: 33, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976022

ABSTRACT

Snake venom phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) have been reported to induce myotoxic, neurotoxic, hemolytic, edematogenic, cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects. This work aimed at the isolation and functional characterization of a PLA2 isolated from Bothrops jararaca venom, named BJ-PLA2-I. Methods and Results: For its purification, three consecutive chromatographic steps were used (Sephacryl S-200, Source 15Q and Mono Q 5/50 GL). BJ-PLA2-I showed acidic characteristics, with pI~4.4 and molecular mass of 14. 2 kDa. Sequencing resulted in 60 amino acid residues that showed high similarity to other Bothrops PLA2s, including 100% identity with BJ-PLA2, an Asp49 PLA2 previously isolated from B. jararaca venom. Being an Asp49 PLA2, BJ-PLA2-I showed high catalytic activity, and also inhibitory effects on the ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Its inflammatory characterization showed that BJ-PLA2-I was able to promote leukocyte migration in mice at different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 µg/mL) and also at different response periods (2, 4 and 24 h), mainly by stimulating neutrophil infiltration. Furthermore, increased levels of total proteins, IL-6, IL-1 ß and PGE2 were observed in the inflammatory exudate induced by BJ-PLA2-I, while nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-10 and LTB4 levels were not significantly altered. This toxin was also evaluated for its cytotoxic potential on normal (PBMC) and tumor cell lines (HL-60 and HepG2). Overall, BJ-PLA2-I (2.5-160 µg/mL) promoted low cytotoxicity, with cell viabilities mostly varying between 70 and 80% and significant values obtained for HL-60 and PBMC only at the highest concentrations of the toxin evaluated. Conclusions: BJ-PLA2-I was characterized as an acidic Asp49 PLA2 that induces acute local inflammation and low cytotoxicity. These results should contribute to elucidate the action mechanisms of snake venom PLA2s.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bothrops , Crotalid Venoms/chemical synthesis , Cytotoxins , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Phospholipases A2/chemical synthesis
17.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894172

ABSTRACT

Sperm contains a wealth of cell surface receptors and ion channels that are required for most of its basic functions such as motility and acrosome reaction. Conversely, animal venoms are enriched in bioactive compounds that primarily target those ion channels and cell surface receptors. We hypothesized, therefore, that animal venoms should be rich enough in sperm-modulating compounds for a drug discovery program. Our objective was to demonstrate this fact by using a sperm-based phenotypic screening to identify positive modulators from the venom of Walterinnesia aegyptia. Methods Herein, as proof of concept that venoms contain interesting compounds for sperm physiology, we fractionated Walterinnesia aegyptia snake venom by RP-HPLC and screened for bioactive fractions capable of accelerating mouse sperm motility (primary screening). Next, we purified each compound from the positive fraction by cation exchange and identified the bioactive peptide by secondary screening. The peptide sequence was established by Edman sequencing of the reduced/alkylated compound combined to LC-ESI-QTOF MS/MS analyses of reduced/alkylated fragment peptides following trypsin or V8 protease digestion. Results Using this two-step purification protocol combined to cell phenotypic screening, we identified a new toxin of 7329.38 Da (actiflagelin) that activates sperm motility in vitro from OF1 male mice. Actiflagelin is 63 amino acids in length and contains five disulfide bridges along the proposed pattern of disulfide connectivity C1-C5, C2-C3, C4- C6, C7-C8 and C9-C10. Modeling of its structure suggests that it belongs to the family of three finger toxins with a noticeable homology with bucandin, a peptide from Bungarus candidus venom. Conclusions This report demonstrates the feasibility of identifying profertility compounds that may be of therapeutic potential for infertility cases where motility is an issue.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa/chemistry , Elapid Venoms/isolation & purification , Elapid Venoms/therapeutic use , Phospholipases A2 , Acetylcholinesterase , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Chemical Fractionation/methods , Mice
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Several lines of evidence from epidemiologic and laboratory studies have shown that the consumption of Artemisia or green tea extracts (MPGT) is inversely associated with the risk of alcohol-induced damage and other chronic diseases. Supported by previous studies showing that the combined extract of Artemisia and green tea, MPGT, exerted significantly either antioxidative or anti-inflammatory actions against Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases, it was hypothesized that MPGT can offer protection against alcoholic gastritis. METHODS: Ethanol was administered to induce gastric damage in Wistar rats, which had been pretreated with various doses of MPGT, to measure the rescuing action of a MPGT pretreatment against ethanol-induced gastric damage. In addition, the molecular mechanisms for the preventive effects were examined. RESULTS: The MPGT pretreatment (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg) alleviated the ethanol-induced gastric damage, which was evidenced by the significant decrease in calcium-dependent phospholipase A2, MAPKs, and NF-κB levels compared to ethanol alone. Furthermore, the MPGT pretreatment preserved 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase, whereas cyclooxygenase-2 was decreased significantly. All of these biochemical changes led to the significant alleviation of alcohol-associated gastric mucosal damage. Ethanol significantly increased the TUNEL positivity in the stomach, but MPGT decreased the apoptotic index significantly, which was associated with significantly lower pathological scores of ethanol-induced mucosal ulcerations. The significant protective changes observed alcoholic gastritis with MPGT were related to the increased expression of cytoprotective genes, such as heat-shock protein (HSP)27, HSP60, and PDGF. CONCLUSIONS: The efficient anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and regenerative actions of MPGT make it a potential nutrient phytoceutical to rescue the stomach from alcoholic gastritis.


Subject(s)
Alcoholics , Artemisia , Chronic Disease , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Ethanol , Gastritis , Heat-Shock Proteins , Helicobacter , HSP27 Heat-Shock Proteins , Humans , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Oxidoreductases , Phospholipases A2 , Rats, Wistar , Stomach , Stomach Diseases , Tea , Ulcer
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(3): 365-373, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896971

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, which is widely distributed throughout Amazonia, has a neurotoxic venom. It is important to characterize the biological and molecular properties of this venom in order to develop effective antitoxins. METHODS: Toxins from the venom of M. surinamensis were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and their neurotoxic effects in vivo were evaluated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Most proteins in the venom had masses < 14kDa, low phospholipase A2 activity, and no proteolytic activity. The toxins inhibited the coagulation cascade. The venom had neurotoxic effects in mice, with a median lethal dose upon intravenous administration of 700 µg/kg. Immunogenic studies revealed abundant cross-reactivity of antielapidic serum with 14kDa toxins and limited cross-reactivity with toxins < 10kDa. These results indicate that antielapidic serum against M. surinamensis venom has weak potency (0.35mg/ml) in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Elapidae , Elapid Venoms/enzymology , Elapid Venoms/genetics , Elapid Venoms/chemistry , Phospholipases A2/metabolism , Cross Reactions , Electrophoresis , Phospholipases A2/chemistry , Lethal Dose 50 , Mice, Inbred BALB C
20.
Rev. Investig. Salud. Univ. Boyacá ; 4(1): 16-31, 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-910750

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los venenos de serpientes representan una fuente importante de proteínas y péptidos, los cuales exhiben diversas actividades biológicas, tales como antibacterianas, antiparasitarias, antivi-rales, antitumorales, antifúngicas y contra la agregación plaquetaria, entre otras.Las fosfolipasas A2 presentes en los venenos de serpientes son las proteínas más estudiadas en estos modelos. Se ha demostrado que las fosfolipasas A2, activas e inactivas, poseen actividad catalítica contra células tumorales. Objetivo. Aislar, purificar y caracterizar la fosfolipasa A2 del veneno de Crotalus durissus cumanensis para evaluar su actividad antitumoral in vitro. Materiales y métodos. El aislamiento, la purificación y la identificación de la crotoxina B se hizo mediante la cromatografía de exclusión molecular, la cromatografía líquida de alto rendimiento de fase inversa (Reversed Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, RP-HPLC) y la espectrometría de masas. El efecto citotóxico sobre células tumorales (K562) y células normales (células mononucleares de sangre periférica) se determinó utilizando la técnica de MTT. Resultados. La separación y posterior identificación de la crotoxina B del veneno de C. d. cumanensis de Colombia, permitieron evidenciar que esta fosfolipasa A2 posee efecto citotóxico sobre las células mononucleares de sangre periférica con una dosis de 18,23 ± 0,57 µg/ml, mientras que, para las células K562, fue de 2,34 ± 0,199 µg/ml. Conclusiones. Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de utilizar la crotoxina B aislada del veneno de C. d. cumanensis como un posible recurso terapéutico para su aplicación en humanos.


Introduction. Snake venoms are an important source of proteins and peptides, which display various biological activities such as antibacterial, antiparasitic, antiviral, antitumor, antifungal and against platelet aggregation, among others.Phospholipases A2 present in snake venoms are the most studied proteins in these models. Active and inactive A2 phospholipases have been shown to possess catalytic activity against tumor cells. Objective. To isolate, purify and characterize the phospholipase A2 of the venom of Crotalus durissus cumanensis to evaluate its in vitro antitumor activity. Materials and methods. Isolation, purification and identification of crotoxin B was done with Size Exclusion Chromatography, Reversed Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, RP-HPLC, and Mass Spectrometry. The cytotoxic effect on tumor cells (K562) and normal cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) was determined using the MTT technique. Results. The separation and subsequent identification of crotoxin B, found in the venom of C. d. cumanensis from Colombia, showed that this phospholipase A2 has a cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells at a dose of 18.23 ± 0.57 µg / ml, whereas for K562 cells, it was 2.34 ± 0.199 µg/ml Conclusions. The results suggest the use of crotoxin B, isolated from the venom of C. d. cumanensis, as a possible therapeutic resource for human application.


Introdução. Os venenos da serpentes constituem uma importante fonte de proteínas e péptidos, os quais exibem várias actividades biológicas, tais como agentes antibacterianos, antiparasitárias, antivi-rais, antitumorais, antifúngicas e contra a agregação de plaquetas, entre outros. As fosfolipases A2 presentes no veneno da serpentes são as proteínas mais estudadas nestes modelos. Tem sido demostrado que as fosfolipases A2, activas e inactivas, possuem actividade catalítica contra células tumorais. Objetivo. Isolar, purificar e caracterizar a fosfolipase A2 do veneno da Crotalus durissus cumanensis para avaliar a sua actividade anti-umoral in vitro. Materiais e métodos. O isolamento, a purificação e identificação da crotoxina B foi realizada por cromatografia de exclusão molecular, cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência de fase reversa (Reversed Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, RP-HPLC) e espectrometria de massa. O efeito cito-tóxico sobre células tumorais (K562) e células normais (células mononucleares do sangue periférico) foi determinada usando a técnica de MTT. Resultados. A Separação e subsequente identificação da crotoxina B do veneno da C. d. cumanensis da Colômbia, permitiu constatar que esta fosfolipase A2 tem um efeito citotóxico em células mono-nucleares de sangue periférico, com uma dose de 18,23 ± 0,57 µg/ ml, enquanto que para as células K562, foi 2,34 ± 0,199 ug/ml. Conclusões. Os resultados sugerem a possibilidade de utilizar crotoxina B isolada a partir do veneno da C. d. cumanensis como recurso para o potencial uso terapêutico em humanos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Crotalus , Crotoxin , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Phospholipases A2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL