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1.
Ciencia Tecnología y Salud ; 8(2): 184-201, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1353111

ABSTRACT

El fósforo (P) es un elemento esencial en la producción agrícola, pero debido a su compleja dinámica en el suelo, solo una pequeña cantidad es aprovechable para las plantas, ya que la mayoría del P se encuentra en formas insolubles, especialmente, en suelos Andisoles de origen volcánico. Los microorganismos con capacidad solubilizadora de fósforo (MSF) son una alternativa para transformar el P a formas solubles y aprovechables por las plantas; además de brindar múltiples beneficios ambientales. Este trabajo identificó y evaluó in vitro, aislados nativos de Pseudomonas fluorescens Mingula, obtenidos de regiones guatemaltecas con suelos Andisoles que limitan la producción agrícola por la alta fijación de P. Se realizaron cultivos in vitro de la bacteria en medio National Botanical Research Instituteís phosphate growth (NBRIP), con fosfato tricálcico Ca3(PO4)2 como fuente de P insoluble y se midió el índice de solubilización de fósforo (ISF). Un total de 35 aislados de P. fluorescensfueron identificados y confirmados por PCR específico. El análisis de relaciones genéticas con el marcador AFLP, mostró dos grupos: el grupo A incluyó a los aislados con ISF mayores a 1.75, mientras el grupo B incluyó a aquellos con ISF menor a 1.75. La comparación de ISF entre los aislados y departamentos, demostró diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p < .001), con el aislado Pf_33 como más eficiente. Debido al potencial de solubilización de los aislados nativos del grupo genético A (ISF > 1.75), estos se recomiendan para futuras investigaciones que determinen su respuesta a condiciones de campo y estrategias para el desarrollo de biofertilizantes.


Phosphorus (P) is an essential element in agricultural production, but due to its complex dynamics in the soil, only a tiny amount is usable by plants. This is because most P is in insoluble forms, especially in volcanic Andisol soils. Microorganisms with phosphorus solubilizing capacity (MSF) are an alternative for transforming P into soluble forms usable by plants and providing multiple environmental benefits. This research identified and evaluated in vitro native isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens Mingula, obtained from Guatemalan regions with Andisol soils that limit agricultural production due to high P fixation. In vitro cultures of the bacteria were grown on the National Botanical Research Instituteís phosphate medium (NBRIP), with tricalcium phosphate Ca3(PO4)2 as a source of insoluble P, and We measured the phosphorus solubilization index (PSI). We identified and confirmed a total of 35 isolates of P. fluorescens by specific PCR. Using the AFLP marker, genetic relationship analysis showed two groups: group A included isolates with PSI greater than 1.75, while group B included those with FSI less than 1.75. Comparing of PSI between isolates and departments showed statistically significant dif-ferences (p < 0.001), respectively, with the Pf_33 isolate as the most efficient. Because of the high solubilization potential of the native isolates of genetic group A (FSI > 1.75), We recommend future research to determine their response to field conditions and strategies for biofertilizer development.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus/analysis , Solubility , Pseudomonas fluorescens , Soil Quality , Crops, Agricultural/growth & development , Culture Techniques/methods
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190520, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142513

ABSTRACT

Abstract Conservation agriculture practices can contribute to changes in soil nutrient dynamics over time. This experiment evaluated the changes in total stocks and distribution of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur concentrations in soil, during 60 months, in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) due to anticipated fertilization of sources and doses phosphates applied in soil surface. The experiment was conducted over a period of five years, under Typic Dystrudept, using a randomized block design, in an incomplete factorial scheme (3×3+1), with four replications. Treatments consisted of three sources of P [triple superphosphate (TSP), rock phosphate - Arad (RP) and magnesium thermophosphate (MTP)], along with four doses of P (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 P2O5 total). Samples of soil were collected in 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm layers at 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after beggining of experiment where the following chemical attributes were evaluated: (i) total organic carbon (TOC); (ii) total nitrogen Kjeldahl (TNK); (iii) available P by ion exchange resin method (P-IER); and (iv) available S-SO4 2-. The ICLS conditions provided increased total stocks and concentrations of TOC, TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- over time. The applications of different phosphates had no influence on soil TOC concentrations during the five years of experimentation. The concentrations of TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- showed an increase in different layers of soil, with the application of sources and doses of P. The P fertilization practice that was anticipated can consist of an efficient management of soil fertility, using properly managed conservation systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Phosphates/administration & dosage , Soil/chemistry , Agricultural Cultivation , Soil Analysis , Fertilizers , Animal Husbandry , Phosphorus/analysis , Sulfur/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
3.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(2): 155-169, 2020. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1348112

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio sobre la composición y abundancia del fitoplancton en el lago de Amatitlán, y el efecto de la calidad de agua sobre su biodiversidad. Para ello, se colectaron muestras de agua en cuatro puntos específicos del lago, en la superficie del agua y a profundidades de 5, 10 y 20 m, de manera mensual durante el 2017. Se midieron parámetros fisicoquímicos in situ como temperatura y pH. Igualmente, se identificaron y contabilizaron cianobacterias y microalgas. El índice de estado trófico (IETP) catalogó al lago como eutrófico e hipertrófico (IETP = 63.80-88.18). Se reportan 34 géneros de fitoplancton distribuidos en 30 familias, 17 órdenes y 10 clases. Los indicadores biológicos, tales como, floraciones algales de Microcystis (38.41%), baja diversidad de diatomeas (Nitzschia, Aulacoseira y Cyclotella), presencia de microalgas Nitzschia y Scenedesmusresistentes a procesos de eutrofización, y alta concentración de coliformes fecales, de hasta 24,000 NMP/100 ml, evidenciaron la baja calidad de agua que se presenta en el lago de Amatitlán. En época seca se encontró más diversidad de microalgas debido a la mayor incidencia de radiación solar, el poco recambio de agua y la acumulación de materia orgánica. Aunque esto varía con los cambios en la concentración de nitrógeno total (NT) y fosforo total (PT), que potencian la proliferación de cianobacterias tóxicas. La biodiversidad del lago fue baja debido al estado hipereutrófico en que se encuentra. Se recomienda poner en funcionamiento plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales para evitar que esta problemática continúe.


A study was carried out on the composition and abundance of phytoplankton in Amatitlán lake, and the effect of water quality on its biodiversity. For this, water samples were collected at four specific points in the lake, on the water surface and at depths of 5, 10 and 20 m, in a monthly way during 2017. Physicochemical parameters were measured in situ such as temperature and pH. Likewise, cyanobacteria and microalgae were identified and accounted. The trophic state index (IETP) cataloged the lake as eutrophic and hypertrophic (IETP = 63.80-88.18). 34 genera of phytoplankton distributed in 30 families, 17 orders and 10 classes are reported. Biological indicators, such as Microcystis algal blooms (38.41%), low diatom diversity (Nitzschia, Aulacoseira and Cyclotella), presence of Nitzschia and Scenedesmus microalgae resistant to eutrophication processes, and high concentration of fecal coliforms, up to 24,000 NMP/100 ml, evidenced the low quality of water that occurs in lake Amatitlán. In the dry season, more microalgae diversity was found due to the higher incidence of solar radiation, little water change and the accumulation of organic matter. Even though this varies with changes in the concentration of total nitrogen (NT) and total phosphorus (PT), which enhance the proliferation of toxic cyanobacteria. The lake's biodiversity was low due to its hypereutrophic state. We recommend to put this wastewater treatment plants into operation to prevent this problem to continue.


Subject(s)
Phytoplankton/growth & development , Water Quality , Lakes/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis , Biodiversity , Microcystis/growth & development , Coliforms , Eutrophication , Microalgae , Waste Water/toxicity , Nitrogen/analysis
4.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(1): 129-136, 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121037

ABSTRACT

El impacto antrópico cercano al lago de Amatitlán ha generado niveles altos de eutrofización que conllevan cambios en la dinámica del ecosistema. Uno de ellos es la proliferación de cianobacterias del género Microcystis que pueden llegar a ser perjudiciales para la fauna y flora de lugar e incluso para los seres humanos. Se presenta el caso de cultivo de un consorcio de fitoplancton, tomado directamente del lago y llevado al laboratorio en condiciones controladas, para medir su consumo y aporte de nitrógeno y fósforo, además de los cambios en los factores fisicoquímicos y la biomasa. Se observó la presencia de diatomeas del genero Nitszchia y cianobacterias como Dolichospermum, con una marcada dominancia de Microcystis sp. Se analizó el porcentaje de cambio en la concentración de nutrientes. Los resultados indican que hubo un aumento en las concentraciones de amonio, nitrato y nitrógeno inorgánico disuelto, mientras que disminuyó el nitrógeno total, el fósforo total y los ortofosfatos. Esto indica que hay aporte de nitrógeno inorgánico, consumo de fósforo y nitrógeno orgánico. El fósforo parece ser el nutriente limitante, ya que, al consumirse en un 90 % la biomasa empieza a decrecer.


The anthropic impact near lake Amatitlán has generated high levels of eutrophication that lead to changes in ecosystem dynamics. One of them is the proliferation of cyanobacteria of the genus Microcystis that can be harmful to the fauna and flora of the place and even to humans. The case of cultivation of a phytoplankton consortium, taken directly from the lake and taken to the laboratory under controlled conditions, to measure its consumption and contribution of nitrogen and phosphorus, in addition to changes in physicochemical factors and biomass is presented. The presence of diatoms of the genus Nitszchia and cyanobacteria such as Dolichospermum was detected, with a marked dominance of Microcystis sp. The percentage change in nutrient concentration was analyzed. The results indicated that there was an increase in the amounts of dissolved inorganic ammonium, nitrate and nitrogen, while total nitrogen, total phosphorus and orthophosphates decreased. This indicates that there is contribution of inorganic nitrogen, consumption of phosphorus and organic nitrogen. Phosphorus seems to be the limiting nutrient, since, when consumed by 90 %, biomass begins to decrease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lakes/analysis , Cyanobacteria , Microcystis , Phosphorus/analysis , Phytoplankton , Eutrophication , Nitrogen/analysis
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190537, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142508

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main destination of manure is the application to croplands near livestock farms as nutrient source to enhance crop production. The aim of this study was to define the dairy liquid manure (DLM) dose, complementary to the mineral fertilizer, for higher crops yield, in rotation black oat-maize-wheat-soybean, and to identify the soil chemical variables improved by the manure that most affect the yield, in long-term. The experiment was conducted from 2006 to 2015, in no-tillage system, at Paraná State, Brazil. The soil was a Latossolo Bruno Distrófico típico, clayey texture. The treatments consisted by doses of DLM (0, 60, 120 and 180 m3 ha-1 year-1), complementary to the mineral fertilizer (applied in the same amount for all DLM doses). Crops yield and soil chemical variables were evaluated at six depths (0-10; 10-20; 20-30; 30-40; 40-50 and 50-60 cm). The DLM application increased the yield of all crops, but not in all harvests. The DLM even applied at soil surface improved the soil chemical variables in deep layers, resulting in high positive correlation between yield and exchange bases, P, Zn and Mn contents, and high negative correlation with Ca/Mg ratio and potential acidity at depth 0-10 cm. The DLM dose, complementary to the mineral fertilization, that provided higher soybean and wheat yield was about 130 m3 ha-1 year-1, while for maize this dose was equal to or greater than 180 m3 ha-1 year-1. This effect was not attributed to a single chemical variable but the improvement of all chemical variables evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Soil/chemistry , Fertilizers , Crop Production/methods , Manure , Phosphorus/analysis , Soybeans , Triticum , Carbon/analysis , Avena , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays , Farms , Minerals/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190063, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142506

ABSTRACT

Abstract System fertilization is characterized by partial or total fertilizer application at the predecessor crop; and it can be a viable practice to soybean crop. This study aimed to determine the fertilizer management and fertilizer levels for black oat-soybean cropping system, in high fertility soils and no-tillage system. The field trial was conducted in a bifactorial scheme, consisting of six environments, by combination of locations (Bom Sucesso do Sul - Paraná, Itapejara d'Oeste - Paraná) and fertilization management (all fertilization in black oat; splitting with 50% in black oat and 50% in soybean, all fertilization in soybean), and four fertilizer levels (0, 100, 200 and 300%) defined according to soil analysis and production expected. The evaluated traits were dry mass production, N, P and K nutrient accumulation of straw, dry mass remaining of black oat crop; and plant height, number of pods per plant, thousand grain weight, grain yield for soybean crop. Higher black oat dry mass production was observed at higher fertilization level. The fertilizer anticipation in black oat crop had better performance. Phosphorus and potassium accumulation increased linearly with fertilizer level increase. For N, the highest accumulated value occurred at the 200%, decreasing at the 300% of fertilizer level. The soybean crop had no influence in grain yield considering fertilization management, anticipation or splitting, and fertilizer levels. Thus, the system fertilization can be a viable practice, and favor black oat dry mass production and soybean development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soybeans/growth & development , Soil Analysis , Avena/growth & development , Fertilizers , Phosphorus/analysis , Potassium/analysis , Crop Production/methods , Nitrogen/analysis
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190536, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142500

ABSTRACT

Abstract Swine manure is applied in agricultural fields as a source of nutrients for plant growth, however, excessive application over the years can promote soil phosphorus (P) accumulation. The objective of this study was to establish the environmental soil P threshold based on the degree of P saturation (DPS), as well, to evaluate the soil P storage capacity. The experiment was carried out in an Oxisol (sandy clay loam texture), under no-tillage and crop rotation. Treatments consisted of four annual doses of liquid swine manure (0, 100, 200, and 300 m3 ha-1 year-1), and three doses of mineral fertilizer (0, 50, and 100% of the crop nutrients requirement), in a randomized block with split-plot design (four replications). Soil P content was analyzed by PMehlich-1, PCaCl2, water-soluble P (WSP) and total P. The application of swine manure and mineral fertilizer increased soil P contents mainly at 0-10 cm depth. The DPS corresponding to the change point was 14.9% at depth 0-10 and 8.6% at depth 0-20 cm with WSP and 18.7% at 0-10 cm and 8.9% at 0-20 cm depth with PCaCl2. The lowest change point value was DPS 8.6% which corresponds to 43 mg kg-1 of PMehlich-1, so, in practical terms, we suggest this value as the environmental soil P threshold. The soil P storage capacity indicated negative values with the higher doses of swine manure and mineral fertilizer which increases the vulnerability of P loss by surface and subsurface hydrological transfer pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phosphorus/analysis , Soil/chemistry , Fertilizers/analysis , Manure/analysis , Potassium/analysis , Swine , Crop Rotation , Models, Theoretical , Nitrogen/analysis
8.
Rev. nefrol. diál. traspl ; 38(3): 179-186, sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006881

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El trastorno del metabolismo óseo y mineral constituye una grave complicación de la IRC. Respecto al fósforo, las nuevas Guías KDIGO sugieren disminuirla hiperfosfatemia, sin recomendar un valor determinado. Sin embargo, en Argentina se continúa utilizando como indicador de calidad dialítica (IndCalDial) un valor de fósforo igual o inferior a 5 mg.dl. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar si un valor fijo de fosfatemia es válido como IndCalDial. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio multicéntrico, de corte transversal. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 18 años, con más de 90 días en hemodiálisis crónica. Se tabularon datos demográficos y de laboratorio. Según el reactivo empleado en la determinación de fósforo, en 4 centros el límite superior de referencia fue 4.5 mg.dl (Grupo F4.5) y en tres 5.6 mg.dl (Grupo F5.6). RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 334 pacientes. Edad, sexo, porcentaje con FAV, diabéticos, tiempo en diálisis, Kt/V, Hemoglobina y Albúmina, resultaron semejantes a los del Registro Nacional de Diálisis. La mediana de fosfatemia fue 5.2 mg.dl, (rango: 2.3 a 10.6). Los pacientes hiperfosfatémicos fueron más jóvenes y presentaron mejores niveles de Albúmina. De considerarse como IndCalDial: Fósforo menor a 5 mg.dl, 21 pacientes del Grupo F4.5 (n=154) con fosfatemia entre 4.5 y 5.0 mg.dl no recibirían tratamiento, mientras que en el Grupo F5.6 (n=180), 32 pacientes con fosfatemia entre 5.1 y 5.6 mg.dl deberían recibir tratamiento, a pesar de presentar normofosfatemia. CONCLUSIONES: Debería estandarizarse la determinación de fosfatemia, previo a utilizar un valor fijo como IndCalDial


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Dialysis , Hyperphosphatemia , Phosphorus/analysis , Phosphorus/metabolism , Quality Indicators, Health Care
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(2): 892-907, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977353

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los manglares son ecosistemas de importante productividad primaria, donde se establece un flujo de energía (nutrientes) con zonas adyacentes y su ambiente acuático, impulsado principalmente por los procesos de degradación. El objetivo del estudio fue estimar el coeficiente de degradación diario (k) de hoja de mangle por medio de bolsas de degradación, en relación con los factores físico químicos del suelo y el aporte de nutrientes (fósforo y nitrógeno) en sedimento del manglar de la Laguna Mecoacán, Golfo de México. El coeficiente de degradación se estimó por medio de bolsas de degradación de hojarasca en seis sitios de monitoreo mensual. Se identificó una rápida degradación durante el primer mes de hasta 51 % en Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn asociado a procesos de lixiviación por condiciones de inundación. La degradación (k) de Rhizophora mangle L. (k= 0.0052 ± 0.0002) (F= 12.2 p<0.05 n= 216) y Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn (k= 0.005 ± 0.0003) (F= 3.7 p= 0.02 n= 108) difieren significativamente de A. germinans (k= 0.009 ± 0.0003) (F= 1.2 p= 0.02 n= 216). En relación al T50 de R. mangle y L. racemosa presentaron mayor tiempo de degradación (133 y 138 días respectivamente) comparado con A. germinans (74 días). Se registró una correlación significativa entre la materia orgánica y la humedad del suelo con la constante de descomposición de A. germinans (r= 0.65 p< 0.05 y r= 0.55 p< 0.05 respectivamente). El más alto contenido de nitrógeno total se dio en Pajaral (2 683 mg.Kg) y presentó alta correlación con el contenido de materia orgánica (r= 0.9 p= 0.03); en relación al fósforo total, el nivel más alto se presentó en Boca (2 031 mg.Kg) correlacionado de forma negativa con el pH (r= -0.61 p< 0.05). En conclusión, las diferencias en la velocidad de degradación de las hojas de mangle dependen de la especie (composición foliar), tiempo de exposición o inmersión en agua (patrón de inundación) y heterogeneidad del sedimento (i.e., textura, pH, contenido de humedad y densidad aparente).


Abstract Mangroves are ecosystems with a high primary productivity that is mainly driven mainly by degradation processes. Energy (nutrients) flows from mangroves toward adjacent zones and the surrounding aquatic environment. The objective of the present study was to estimate the daily degradation coefficient (k) of mangrove leaves in relation to physical-chemical soil factors and in situ nutrient supply (phosphorus and nitrogen) in Mecoacán Lagoon, Gulf of Mexico. Leaf litter degradation bags were placed at six monthly monitoring sites to evaluate degradation and to calculate the corresponding degradation coefficients. A rapid degradation of up to 51 % was observed for Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn during the first month in association with leaching resulting from flood conditions. The degradation of Rhizophora mangle (L.) (k= 0.0052±0.0002) (F= 12.2 p< 0.05 n= 216) and Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn (k= 0.005±0.0003) (F= 3.7 p= 0.2 n= 108), differed significantly from that of A. germinans (k= 0.009 ± 0.0003) (F= 1.2 p= 0.2 n= 216) did not present significant differences. To reach T50 degradation, R. mangle and L. racemosa required more time (133 and 138 days, respectively) than A. germinans (74 days). Organic matter and soil humidity were significantly correlated with the decay constant of A. germinans (r= 0.65 p< 0.05 and r= 0.55 p< 0.05, respectively). Total nitrogen content was highest in the Pajaral site (2 683 mg.kg) and was also highly correlated with organic matter content (r= 0.9 p= 0.003). Total phosphorus content was highest in the Boca site (2 031 mg.kg) and was also negatively correlated with pH (r= -0.61 p= 0.004). In conclusion, differences in the rate of mangrove leaf degradation depend on the involved species (leaf composition), time of exposure or immersion in water (flooding patterns) and sediment heterogeneity (i.e., texture, pH, humidity content and bulk density). Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(2): 892-907. Epub 2018 June 01.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus/analysis , Biodegradation, Environmental , Nutrients/biosynthesis , Wetlands , Organic Matter/analysis , Mexico , Nitrogen/analysis , Leaching Fields/analysis , Percolation/analysis
10.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 357-371, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886906

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provide several ecosystem services, including increase in plant growth and nutrition. The occurrence, richness, and structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities are influenced by human activities, which may affect the functional benefits of these components of the soil biota. In this study, 13 arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolates originating from soils with different land uses in the Alto Solimões-Amazon region were evaluated regarding their effect on growth, nutrition, and cowpea yield in controlled conditions using two soils. Comparisons with reference isolates and a mixture of isolates were also performed. Fungal isolates exhibited a wide variability associated with colonization, sporulation, production of aboveground biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake, and grain yield, indicating high functional diversity within and among fungal species. A generalized effect of isolates in promoting phosphorus uptake, increase in biomass, and cowpea yield was observed in both soils. The isolates of Glomus were the most efficient and are promising isolates for practical inoculation programs. No relationship was found between the origin of fungal isolate (i.e. land use) and their symbiotic performance in cowpea.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Symbiosis/physiology , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae/physiology , Vigna/growth & development , Phosphorus/analysis , Time Factors , Brazil , Plant Roots/microbiology , Biodiversity , Vigna/microbiology , Nitrogen/analysis
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 25-31, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888844

ABSTRACT

Abstract We aimed in this study utilize environmental indicators as a quantitative method to evaluate and discuss the nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) flux by a production stage grow-out (termination) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in fishpond. The TN and TP load, the mass balance, the input of TN and TP via feed and the converted nutrients in fish biomass are the environmental indicators applied in this study. During the production cycle (128 days), the system exported 15,931 g TN and 4,189 g TP that were related to the amount of feed supplied (r Pearson = 0.8825 and r = 0.8523, respectively), corroborated by the feed conversion ratio (1.61:1). The indicators showed that 26% TN and 45% TP were reversed into fish biomass, 62% TN and 40% TP were retained in the fishpond, and 12% TN and 15% TP were exported via effluent. The largest contribution of nutrients generated by the system and exported via effluent was observed in phase III and IV. This result is supported by the feed conversion ratio 2.14 and 2.21:1 obtained at this phase, a fact explained by the amount of feed offered and the fish metabolism. Application of environmental indicators showed to be an efficient tool to quantify flux of TN and TP produced during the grow-out period of Nile tilapia and therefore, guide management practices more sustainable. Concerning the environmental sustainability of the activity the implementation of best management practices such as the better control of the feed amount offered would lead to a smaller loss of TN and TP to the water. Furthermore, the use of better quality feeds would allow greater nutrient assimilation efficiency.


Resumo Nós objetivamos neste estudo, utilizar indicadores ambientais como método quantitativo para avaliar e discutir sobre o fluxo de nitrogênio (TN) e fósforo (TP) na etapa final de crescimento (terminação) de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) em viveiro escavado. A carga de TN e TP, o balanço de massa, a entrada de nutrientes via ração e o TN e TP convertido em biomassa de peixe foram os indicadores ambientais utilizados neste estudo. Durante o ciclo produtivo (128 dias), o sistema exportou 15.931 g NT e 4.189 g PT os quais foram relacionadas às quantidades de alimento fornecido (r Pearson = 0,8825 e r = 0,8523, respectivamente), corroborada pela conversão alimentar (1,61:1). Os indicadores evidenciaram que 26% NT e 45% PT foram revertidos em biomassa de peixe, 62% NT e 40% PT ficaram retidos no viveiro e 12% NT e 15% PT foram exportados via efluente. O maior aporte de nutrientes gerado pelo sistema e exportado via efluente foi verificado nas fases III e IV. Este resultado é corroborado pelas taxas de conversão alimentar de 2,14 e 2,21:1 obtida nestas fases, fato explicado pela quantidade de ração ofertada e pelo metabolismo dos peixes. A aplicação dos indicadores ambientais mostrou ser uma ferramenta eficiente para quantificar o fluxo de TN e TP produzidos durante a etapa final de crescimento de tilápia-do-nilo e com isso orientar práticas de manejo mais sustentáveis. Com vistas à sustentabilidade ambiental da atividade, a implantação de boas práticas de manejo tais como o melhor controle da quantidade de alimento ofertado levaria a menor perda de NT e PT para a água. Além disso, o uso de rações de melhor qualidade permitiria maior eficiência de assimilação desses nutrientes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phosphorus/analysis , Phosphorus/metabolism , Cichlids/metabolism , Nitrogen/analysis , Nitrogen/metabolism , Aquaculture , Biomass , Metabolic Flux Analysis
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(11): 3891-3902, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-974747

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo aborda a interface social e ambiental da presença de fósforo nas águas de abastecimento, dimensionando os impactos ocasionados pelo uso de detergentes fosfatados em pó sobre a qualidade e a disponibilidade dos recursos hídricos, no tocante à ocorrência da eutrofização. Com base em dados a respeito da formulação e consumo dos produtos comercializados no Brasil, relata a evolução do assunto e apresenta o retrato da situação atual. Indica que os detergentes brasileiros possuem, hoje, baixa concentração de fósforo, de forma que representam um reduzido risco de impacto sobre o nível trófico das águas. Pontua, entretanto, a necessidade de ajustar o conteúdo da legislação à prática do mercado e de aprimorar as políticas públicas relacionadas com a educação ambiental. Mediante um processo efetivo de comunicação e educação, será possível conscientizar a população acerca do assunto, contribuindo para a manutenção do controle dessa importante fonte de fósforo no meio ambiente e para o aumento da disponibilidade hídrica, por meio da prevenção dos processos de eutrofização.


Abstract This article addresses the social and environmental aspects related to the presence of phosphorus in surface water bodies, assessing the impacts caused by the utilization of powder detergents on the quality and availability of water resources, with particular respect to the occurrence of eutrophication. Based on data concerning the composition and consumption of the products currently sold in Brazil, the evolution of this phenomenon leading to the current situation is reported. Indications are that Brazilian detergents have a low phosphorus content, thus it is possible to infer that these products offer a small risk of impacting the trophic levels of surface waters. There is, however, a need to adjust the content of legislation to market practices, as well as improve public policies related to environmental education. By means of an intensive process of communication and education, awareness about the issue can be raised, keeping this major source of phosphorus in the environment under control and contributing to the increase in the availability of water, through the prevention of eutrophication processes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phosphorus/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Public Health , Detergents/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Brazil , Eutrophication
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 15-24, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974338

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate the effect of bio-organic phosphate either alone or in combination with phosphorus solubilizing bacteria strain (Bacillus MWT-14) on the growth and productivity of two wheat cultivars (Galaxy-2013 and Punjab-2011) along with recommended (150-100 NP kg ha−1) and half dose (75-50 NP kg ha−1) of fertilizers. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and the phosphorous solubilizing bacteria strain at either fertilizer level significantly improved the growth, yield parameters and productivity of both wheat cultivars compared to non-inoculated control treatments. The cultivar Punjab-2011 produced the higher chlorophyll contents, crop growth rate, and the straw yield at half dose of NP fertilizer; while Galaxy-2013, with the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria under recommended NP fertilizer dose. Combined over both NP fertilizer levels, the combined use of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria enhanced the grain yield of cultivar Galaxy-2013 by 54.3% and that of cultivar Punjab-2011 by 83.3%. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria also increased the population of phosphorous solubilizing bacteria, the soil organic matter and phosphorous contents in the soil. In conclusion, the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria offers an eco-friendly option to harvest the better wheat yield with low fertilizer input under arid climate.


Subject(s)
Phosphates/pharmacokinetics , Phosphorus/metabolism , Bacillus/metabolism , Triticum/growth & development , Fertilizers/analysis , Crop Production/methods , Phosphates/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis , Soil Microbiology , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology , Climate
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(3): 469-475, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888793

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Llanquihue lake is included in the called Araucanian or Nord Patagonian lakes located between 38-41° S. These lakes are characterized by their oligo-mesotrophic status due to human intervention which takes to the increase in nutrients inputs from industries and towns. Effects on zooplankton assemblages are observed with marked increase of daphnids abundance. The aim of the present study is to analyze the trophic status and zooplankton relative abundance in different bays of Llanquihue lake. It was found direct associations between chlorophyll a with daphnids percentage, total dissolved nitrogen with reactive soluble phosphorus nitrogen/phosphorus molar radio with cyclopoids percentage, and an inverse relation between daphnids and calanoids percentages. The occurrence of three kinds of microcrustacean assemblages and environmental conditions was evidenced: the first one with high calanoids percentage, low species number and low chlorophyll and nutrients concentration, a second with moderate chlorophyll and nutrients concentration and moderate daphnids percentage; high species number and a third site with high chlorophyll and nutrients concentration, high daphnids percentage and high species number. Daphnids increase under mesotrophic status, agree with similar results observed for southern Argentinean and New Zealand lakes.


Resumo O lago Llanquihue está incluído nos chamados lagos araucana ou Nord Patagônia localizado entre 38-41° S. Estes lagos são caracterizados pela condicao oligo-mesotrofica debido a intervencao humana, com aumento da carga de nutrientes provenientes de industrias y areas urbanas com efeitos sobre as assembleias zooplantonicas sao observadas, com aumento acentuado de dafnideos. O objetivo do presente estudo é analisar o estado trófico a abundancia relative do zooplancton em diferentes compartimentos do lago Llanquihue. Foram encontradas associações diretas entre clorofila a com percentual de dafinídeos, nitrogênio total dissolvido com fósforo solúvel reativo molares razao molar nitrogênio / fósforo com percentual de ciclopóides, e uma relação inversa entre percentuais de dafinídeos e calanóides porcentagens. A ocorrência de três tipos de assembleias de microcrustáceos e as condições ambientais fora: a primeira com alta porcentais de calanóides, baixo número de espécies e baixa clorofila e a nutrientes, uma segunda com concentracoes moderadas de clorofila e nutrientes percentual moderado de daphnideos e alto número de espécies; e uma terceiro local com alta concentração de clorofila e nutrientes, alta abundância dafinídeos e número elevado de espécies. Resultados similares com aumento de dafnideos em condicoes mesotroficas também foram observados para lagos da Argentina e Nova Zelândia do sul.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plankton/isolation & purification , Lakes , Bays , Crustacea , Phosphorus/analysis , Chile , Chlorophyll , Environmental Monitoring , Chlorophyll A , Nitrogen/analysis
15.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 163-174, Jan,-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886642

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) nutrition on arsenic (As) uptake and translocation within the seedlings of rice cultivars. The experiment occurred in three stages: I 5 days of acclimatization (nutritive solution); II 10 days under P (0.0 and 0.09 mM) and As (0.0 and 100 mM) treatments; III 5 days under recovery. The As exposure had significant effect reducing dry weights of shoots or roots, resulted in elevated concentrations of As in shoot tissues. BR-IRGA 409 showed the highest susceptibility to As in biomass production and root system parameters regardless the P level. This cultivar showed contrasting responses of As translocation to shoot tissue dependent on P levels, with the highest As concentration under low P and lowest under normal P levels. P nutrition was most striking on plants recovery for all cultivars under As exposure. Clearer separation of cultivars for phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) occurred at lower shoot P contents, that was, at higher levels of P deficiency stress. IRGA 424 showed higher PUE as compared to the others cultivars. Our results go some way to understanding the role of P nutrition in controlling the effects of As in rice shoots.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus/pharmacology , Arsenic/pharmacokinetics , Oryza/drug effects , Oryza/metabolism , Phosphorus/analysis , Arsenic/analysis , Reference Values , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/metabolism , Time Factors , Biological Transport , Reproducibility of Results , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Roots/metabolism , Hydroponics/methods , Biomass , Fertilizers
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 1021-1028, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828095

ABSTRACT

Abstract The phosphorus and nitrogen discharge via effluent of intensive trout farming system was quantified through the use of environmental indicators. The nutrient loads, the mass balance, the estimated amount of nutrients in feed and the amount of nutrients converted in fish biomass were calculated based on the concentrations of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in the feed and in the water. Of the offered feed, 24.75 kg were available as P and 99.00 kg as N, of these, 9.32 kg P (38%) and 29.12 kg N (25%) were converted into fish biomass and 15.43 kg P (62%) and 69.88 kg N (75%) were exported via effluent. The loads and the mass balance show the excessive discharge of nutrients via effluent, corroborated by the feed conversion ratio (2.12:1) due to the low efficiency of feed utilization, therefore, it is proposed the use of this zootechnical parameter as environmental indicator. In addition, feed management practices are not adequate, highlighting the low frequency of feeding during the day, excessive amount and low quality of feed offered. These results demonstrate the need for adequate feed management and the need for careful monitoring of effluent.


Resumo A descarga de fósforo e nitrogênio via efluente do sistema intensivo de truticultura foi quantificada através da utilização de indicadores ambientais. As cargas de nutrientes, o balanço de massa, a quantidade estimada de nutrientes na ração e a quantidade de nutrientes convertidos em biomassa de peixes foram calculados com base nas concentrações de fósforo (P) e nitrogênio (N) na ração e na água. Da ração oferecida, 24,75 kg estavam disponíveis como P e 99,00 kg como N, destes, 9,32 kg de P (38%) e 29,12 kg de N (25%) foram convertidos em biomassa de peixe e 15,43 kg P (62%) e 69,88 kg N (75%) foram exportados via efluente. As cargas e o balanço de massa mostram a descarga excessiva de nutrientes via efluente, corroborado pela taxa de conversão alimentar (2,12:1), devido à baixa eficiência na utilização da ração, portanto, propõe-se a utilização deste parâmetro zootécnico como indicador ambiental. Além disso, as práticas de manejo alimentar não são adequadas, destacando a baixa frequência de alimentação durante o dia, quantidade excessiva e baixa qualidade da alimentação ofertada. Esses resultados demonstram a necessidade de manejo alimentar adequado e de monitoramento do efluente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phosphorus/analysis , Oncorhynchus mykiss/growth & development , Fisheries , Fresh Water/chemistry , Animal Feed/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Brazil , Biomass
17.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(4): 679-684, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951890

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The non-invasive collection and inexpensive nature of saliva has made it an attractive sample for use for diagnosis and research on several diseases. Storage circumstances may affect salivary component concentrations. The objective was to analyze calcium and phosphate stability in saliva samples stored at different conditions. Saliva of healthy people was stored and analyzed by spectrophotometry under different time and temperature conditions in order to evaluate calcium and phosphate stability. Calcium concentration was measured by Arsenazo III reaction at 600nm and phosphate by an acid-molybdate method at 650nm. Using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (k), we observed very good agreement (k>0.8) for all samples frozen at -20 oC up to 50 days. Thaw/refreezing cycles can compromise phosphate stability even though there is good agreement (0.61<k<0.8). Because of higher variability for refrigerated samples, they are not the best storage method, although calcium and phosphate levels could be considered stable when the samples were stored at 4 oC for 7 days. Our results revealed that under different conditions, calcium and phosphate levels are stable in saliva samples, and that freezing at -20oC is the storage condition of choice, allowing to accumulate a higher number of samples before analysis, making it suitable for routine and research assays.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phosphorus/analysis , Saliva/physiology , Calcium/analysis , Phosphorus/adverse effects , Spectrophotometry/instrumentation , Temperature , Sampling Studies
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(3): 1097-1104, Sept. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828992

ABSTRACT

Mandibular deformity is a condition that affects the jaw bone of adult salmon and has been observed in Norway and Chile, causing weight loss, poor quality of farmed fish and increased mortality. The causes range from high temperatures of the state of eggs, to poor nutrition phosphorus or vitamin C. This work aims to analyze this deformity by histochemical and mineral analysis technique during an episode presented in centers of the Scotia Sea. Jaw and spinal segments of 21 Atlantic salmon in Scotland were used. These samples were classified into three groups: Group 1: Severely deformed. Group 2: Mildly affected. Group 3: Normal controls. Four jaws per group were fixed in 10 % formalin and embedded in Paraplast, sections of 5 microns were performed using a Microm® microtome histochemical technique Von Kossa was used for the detection of calcium deposits, which highlights the calcium osteoid black and red color. For proximate analysis, and in order to obtain and compare levels of calcium, phosphorus, zinc and magnesium in total 9 bone jaws (6 affected with DM and 3 controls) and 9 body sections the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare these values between misshapen salmon and controls. To correlate values, jaw and body segment a Spearman corrrelation was applied. Fish group 1 presented a ventral deviation of the alveolar bone body. In fish group 2 prominence of the visible joint on both sides or unilaterally was observed. Comparing the values of % Ca, % P, % Mg and Zn jaws with DM and healthy ones with Mann Witney method it was found that the values of these minerals vary between salmon and controls affected. There was a significant difference in the percentage of P, which indicates that there is less P in affected fish vertebrae. Spearman correlation noted that the percentages of the minerals studied in dental bone and vertebral segments are uncorrelated. Rather, Von Kossa distribution indicates that Ca/P is not homogeneous in the dental bone, as a result of mineral resorption from the skeleton including the operculum, articular bone and dental towards kype. This paper states that Von Kossa histochemical technique showed significant differences between deformed fish and controls and also showed differences between the various segments of the dental bone. The alveolar bone is a dynamic structure adapted to continuous histological changes may be involved in MD, phosphorus deficient diets, coupled with the initial formation of Kippe.


La deformación mandibular es una patología que afecta al hueso dentario de salmones adultos, se observó en Noruega y en Chile, ocasionando disminución de peso, baja calidad de peces cultivados y aumento de la mortalidad. Las causas varían desde temperaturas elevadas al estado de ovas, hasta alimentación deficitaria en fósforo o vitamina C. Este trabajo tiene como propósito analizar esta deformación mediante una técnica histoquímica y de análisis de minerales durante un episodio presentado en centros de mar de Escocia. Se utilizó la mandíbula y segmento vertebral de 21 salmones del Atlántico de Escocia. Estas muestras se clasificaron en tres grupos Grupo 1: Severamente deformes. Grupo 2: Levemente afectados. Grupo 3: Controles normales. Cuatro mandíbulas por grupo fueron fijadas en formalina al 10 % y se incluyeron en paraplast, se realizaron cortes de 5 µm utilizando un micrótomo Microm®. Se utilizó la técnica histoquímica de Von Kossa para la detección de depósitos de calcio la cual destaca al calcio de color negro y el osteoide de color rojo. Para el análisis químico proximal, y con el propósito de obtener y comparar niveles de calcio, fósforo, zinc y magnesio en los huesos se utilizó un total de 9 mandíbulas (6 afectadas con DM y 3 controles) y sus 9 secciones corporales. Para comparar estos valores entre salmones deformes y controles se utilizó la prueba de Mann-Whitney. Para correlacionar los valores de mandíbula y segmento corporal se hizo una correlación por jerarquías de Spearman. Los peces del grupo 1, presentaron una desviación ventral del cuerpo del hueso dentario. En los peces del grupo 2 se observó la prominencia de la articulación visible en ambos lados o unilateralmente. Al comparar los valores de % Ca, % P, % Mg y Zn de las mandíbulas con DM y sanas con el método de Mann Witney se encontró que los valores de estos minerales no varían entre salmones afectados y controles. Hubo una diferencia significativa en el porcentaje de P, lo cual indica que existe menos P en vértebras de peces afectados. La correlación de Spearman señaló que los porcentajes de los minerales estudiados en huesos dentarios y segmentos vertebrales no están correlacionados. Por el contrario, la técnica Von Kossa mostró que la distribución de Ca/ P no es homogénea en el hueso dental producto de la reabsorción mineral desde el esqueleto incluyendo el opérculo, hueso articular y dental hacia la kype. El presente trabajo establece que la técnica histoquímica de Von Kossa fue la que permitió observar diferencias importantes entre peces deformados y controles, además mostró diferencias entre los distintos segmentos del hueso dentario. El hueso dentario es una estructura dinámica adaptada a continuos cambios histológicos pudiendo estar involucrados en la DM, dietas deficientes de fósforo, sumado a la formación inicial del Kippe.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mandible/abnormalities , Mandible/chemistry , Metals/analysis , Salmon/anatomy & histology , Calcium/analysis , Chile , Magnesium/analysis , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Phosphorus/analysis , Zinc/analysis
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 461-468, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781397

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aquatic plants can use differential allocation (trade-off) of carbon among their structures depending on the nutrition concentration. Given that N and P are limiting in the growth of plants, our questions were: Are the N and P concentrations in S. auriculata related to the biomass allocation to its structures? Is a differential allocation of N and P between floating and submerged leaves? We evaluated the relation between the nutrients and the biomass allocation, and the trade-off among the leaves using the Spearman correlation. Our results showed that N and P concentrations in S. auriculata are related to the biomass allocation to its structures, and that there is no trade-off of these nutrients between “shoot and root”. Thus, we can see the importance of N and P concentration in the biomass of S. auriculata, and why this plant is capable to development in different environments as a weedy.


Resumo Plantas aquáticas podem realizar alocação diferencial (trade-off) de carbono entre as suas estruturas dependo da disponibilidade de nutrientes. Considerando que N e P são limitantes para o crescimento de plantas, nossas perguntas foram: As concentrações de N e P em S. auriculata estão relacionadas com a alocação de biomassa para suas estruturas? Existe alocação diferencial de N e P entre os folíolos aéreos e a “raiz”? Avaliamos a relação entre os nutrientes e a biomassa, e o trade-off entre as folhas utilizando correlação de Spearman. Os resultados encontrados mostram que as concentrações de N e P em S. auriculata estão relacionadas com a alocação de biomassa para as suas estruturas, e que não há um trade-off de N e P entre os folíolos aéreos e a “raiz”. Dessa maneira, é possível observar a importância de N e P no ganho de biomassa de S. auriculata, e porque a espécie é capaz de se desenvolver em diferentes ambientes como uma planta daninha.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus/analysis , Phosphorus/metabolism , Plant Physiological Phenomena , Plant Weeds/physiology , Nitrogen/analysis , Nitrogen/metabolism , Carbon/metabolism , Statistics as Topic , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Biomass , Hydrobiology/methods
20.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 66(1): 34-42, mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1023185

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de realimentación ocurre como consecuencia de la reintroducción de alimentos en pacientes malnutridos. Se realizó estudio de tipo observacional, prospectivo, no experimental y comparativo. Se midieron los niveles de fósforo en niños desnutridos graves y eutróficos al ingreso y al día 7 después de iniciada la alimentación con el objetivo de relacionar los niveles séricos de fósforo con el síndrome de realimentación en niños desnutridos graves atendidos en el Servicio de Emergencia de Pediatría Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo. Venezuela, desde junio 2010 hasta junio 2011. Se incluyeron 60 niños, entre 1 mes y 4 años, de ambos sexos, divididos en 2 grupos: Grupo A n=30 niños desnutridos graves y Grupo B n=30 niños eutróficos. En ambos grupos predominaron los lactantes de 1 a 23 meses con el 86,7% y el 60% respectivamente. Fueron del sexo masculino el 70% y 73% en cada grupo. El fósforo sérico en el grupo A al ingreso fue de 3,17 ± 0,98 mg/dl y a los siete días 2,48 ± 1,01 mg/dl, estadísticamente significativo p = 0,002; sin manifestaciones clínicas. En el grupo B no hubo significancia estadística con p=0,569 al comparar los valores del fósforo sérico al ingreso y al día 7. Tres niños del grupo A murieron. Se observo en el presente estudio que los niños desnutridos graves presentaron disminución del fósforo sérico al ser realimentados. Nuevas líneas de investigación deben hacerse para aumentar los conocimientos actuales sobre ésta condición(AU)


Refeeding syndrome occurs as a result of the reintroduction of food in malnourished patients. Observational, prospective, non experimental and comparative study was performed. Phosphorus levels in severely malnourished children and healthy children was measured at admission and at 7 days after initiation of feeding in order to associate the concentration of serum phosphorus with refeeding syndrome in severely malnourished children hospitalized at the Pediatric Emergency Service University Hospital of Maracaibo, Venezuela, from June 2010 to June 2011. We included 60 children between 1 month and 4 years and both sexes, divided into 2 groups: Group A n = 30 serious malnourished children and Group B (control) n = 30 eutrophic children. In both groups predominated the infants 1 to 23 months with 86.7% and 60% respectively. 70% and 73% were male both group. In Group A, there was statistical significance betwee the serum phosphorus at the beginning (3.17 ± 0.98 mg/dl) and at seven days of hospitalization 2.48 ± 1.01 mg/dl, p = 0.002; without clinical manifestations. In Group B there was no statistical significance with p=0,569 to compare values of serum phosphorus income and day 7. Three children of the group A died. It was observed in this study that serious malnourished children presented the serum phosphorus decreased to be refueled. New lines of research should be expanded in this area to increase current knowledge about this condition(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Phosphorus/analysis , Nutritional Marasmus , Child Nutrition Disorders , Refeeding Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Body Mass Index , Deficiency Diseases , Diet, Food, and Nutrition
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