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1.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2007 Jun; 44(3): 183-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-26644

ABSTRACT

The regulatory role of protein kinase C (PKC) in glycogen metabolism in pectin fed rats was investigated. Administration of pectin (5 g/kg body wt/day) from cucumber (Cucumis sativius L.) led to inhibitory effects on PKC activity in the liver of rats. In the brain and pancreas, PKC activity was significantly higher in pectin-treated rats as compared to the control group. Level of blood glucose was significantly lowered and the level of glycogen in the liver was significantly increased in pectin-administered rats. Glycogen synthase activity was enhanced, while glycogen phosphorylase enzyme showed inhibition in pectin-treated rats. Results indicated that pectin administration might have caused an increase in the secretion of the insulin, which, in turn, had a stimulatory effect on the PKC activity in the pancreas. The decreased PKC activity in the liver and increased PKC activity in the brain and pancreas on pectin administration indicated enhanced glycogenesis and reduced glycogenolysis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Cucumis sativus/metabolism , Cytosol/metabolism , Glycogen/metabolism , Glycogen Phosphorylase/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Male , Pectins/metabolism , Phosphorylases/metabolism , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
2.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2000 Mar; 38(3): 249-52
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58958

ABSTRACT

The functions of salivary glands are under the regulation of both sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerve fibers. Further, it has also been demonstrated that chronic administration of a beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (IPR) results in hypertrophy and hyperplasia of submandibular gland [Schneyer C A, Am J Physiol, 203 (1962) 232]. Specific purpose of the present attempt was to look for metabolic responses of submandibular gland of oestrous female rats at very short intervals after 10 min of administration of 5, 10 and 15 micrograms of IPR to females in oestrous condition; pharmacological action and clearance time being only 8 min. The results indicated significant reduction in case of enzymic activities of phosphorylase, total ATPase and Na(+)-K+ ATPase. Cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase and succinate dehydrogenase activities were suppressed only with 5 micrograms dose, but with rising dose levels the effect was not so apparent. Protein content of the gland was reduced slightly by administration of IPR. Hence, it became clear that submandibular gland responds rapidly to IPR administration. Implications of these observations are discussed.


Subject(s)
3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/administration & dosage , Animals , Female , Isoproterenol/administration & dosage , Phosphorylases/metabolism , Rats , Submandibular Gland/drug effects , Succinate Dehydrogenase/metabolism
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 29(3): 283-307, Mar. 1996. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-163836

ABSTRACT

Although alien to man, the ability to endure the freezing of extracellular body fluids during the winter has developed in several species of terrestrially hibernating frogs and turtles as well as in many species of insects and other invertebrates. Wood frogs, for example, can endure freezing for at least 2 weeks with no breathing, no heart beat or blood circulation, and with up to 65 per cent of their total body water as ice. Our studies are providing a comprehensive view of the requirements for natural freezing survival and of the physical and metabolic protection that must be offered for effective cryopreservation of vertebrate organs. Molecular mechanisms of natural freeze tolerance in lower vertebrates include: 1) control over ice crystal growth in plasma by ice nucleating proteins, 2) the accumulation of low molecular weight cryoprotectants to minimize intracellular dehydration and stabilize macromolecular components, and 3) good ischemia tolerance by all organs that may include metabolic arrest mechanisms to reduce organ energy requirements while frozen. Cryomicroscopy of tissue slices and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of whole animals is revealing the natural mode of ice propagation through an organism. MRI has also revealed that thawing is non-uniform; core organs (with high cryoprotectant levels) melt first, facilitating the early resumption of heart beat and blood circulation. Studies of the production and actions of the natural cryoprotectant, glucose, in frogs have shown its importance in maintaining a critical minimum cell volume in frozen organs and new work on the metabolic effects of whole body dehydration in 3 species of frogs has indicated that adaptations supporting freeze tolerance grew out of mechanisms that deal with desiccation resistance in amphibians. Studies of the regulation of cryoprotectant glucose synthesis by wood frog liver have shown the role of protein kinases and of (alpha and beta adrenergic receptors in regulating the glycemic response, and of changes in membrane glucose transporter proteins to facilitate cryoprotectant distribution.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cryopreservation , Extracellular Space/physiology , Liver/ultrastructure , Freezing , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Amphibians/metabolism , Body Temperature/physiology , Phosphorylases/metabolism
4.
Acta physiol. pharmacol. ther. latinoam ; 42(1): 13-26, ene.-mar. 1992. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-113488

ABSTRACT

Se estudiaron en ratas hembras alimentadas normalmente los efectos de la administración intraperitoneal de piroxicam sobre los nivels hepáticos de glucógeno y la actividad de enzimas claves involucradas en el metabolismo de dicho homopolisacárido. El contenido de glucógeno en hígado disminuyó proporcionalmente al tiempo de tratamiento y a la dosis de piroxicam administrado. Dicho efecto persistió vários días después de suspender la administración de piroxicam. La administración de nadolol o de fenobarbital resultó ineficaz para prevenir el efecto depletorio provocado por piroxicam. En las ratas tratadas, la actividad de glucosa-6-fosfatasa, glucógeno fosforilasa y glucógeno sintetasa no cambió respecto a los controles. Tampoco se modificó significativamente la proporción de glucógeno fosforilasa en la forma activa (a), como consecuencia de sucesivas dosis diarias de piroxicam. En cambio, fue demostrada una reducción en la forma activa (I) de la glucógeno sintetasa. Esta reducción fue dependiente del tiempo de tratamiento con piroxicam. Además, la sobrecarga con glucosa resultó ineficiente para restabelecer la actividad del la glucógeno sintetasa y la síntesis de glucógeno en los animales tratados con piroxican. El efecto producido por piroxican sobre el metabolismo de glucógeno plantea la posibilidad de que el hígado llegue a resultar incapaz de mantener la homeostasis de la glucosa. Asimismo, la disminución en los niveles de glucógeno podría ocasionar un bloqueo en el metabolismo de drogas que fueren administradas conjuntamente con piroxicam, ya que la biotransformación de los xenobióticos es un proceso dependiente de las reservas de dicho polisacárido en las células hepáticas


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Liver Glycogen/metabolism , Glucose-6-Phosphatase/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase/metabolism , Phosphorylases/metabolism , Piroxicam/pharmacology , Body Weight , Nadolol/administration & dosage , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Piroxicam/administration & dosage , Rats, Inbred Strains
6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-22314

ABSTRACT

The glycogen content, and its structure and the enzymes involved in glycogenolysis in human foetal organs were studied at different periods of gestation. Of all the tissues studied glycogen content was found to be the highest in cardiac muscle. Very little glycogen was present in the foetal liver at 9-12 wk of gestation, this increased progressively to nearly 2 per cent at 24 wk. Glycogen content of placenta was lower than that of skeletal muscle and liver. The level of glycogen in adipose tissue, placenta and cerebrum was not high enough to play any role in glucose homeostasis of the foetus. Human foetal liver and skeletal muscle glycogen showed the normal branched structure while the liver glycogen was found to be unusually stable. Glycogen phosphorylase activity in the foetal liver and muscle was found to be low, i.e., about a fifth and a fourth of adult liver and muscle activity respectively. The stability of foetal liver glycogen and phosphorolytic activity in the liver and muscle indicate negligible glycogenolysis during foetal development. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity in foetal liver was undetectable below 12 wk of gestation, the activity increasing progressively up to 24 wk.


Subject(s)
Fetus/enzymology , Gestational Age , Glucose-6-Phosphatase/metabolism , Glycogen/analysis , Humans , Phosphorylases/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Tissue Distribution
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 20(6): 837-43, 1987. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-77464

ABSTRACT

An inhibitor of glucose 6-phosphatase, isosteviol, was used in liver perfusion experiments to obtain a rough estimate of the control strength of the enzyme. Isosteviol only inhibited glucose release at high concentrations (1 mM), well above that needed for half-maximal action (70 micrnM). The decrease in glucose release was followed by an increase in the intracellular glucose 6-phosphate concentration. It was concluded that the control strength of glucose-6-phosphatase is relatively low


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Liver/metabolism , Glucosephosphates/antagonists & inhibitors , Glucose/metabolism , Glucosephosphates/metabolism , Perfusion , Phosphorylases/metabolism
9.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 1983 Oct-Dec; 27(4): 289-97
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-107892

ABSTRACT

The standardized programme of electrical stimulation was applied to the control and denervation atrophied muscle of dog, Canis domesticus and the pattern of changes in the carbohydrate metabolism was analysed in the control (C), denervated control (DC), control stimulated (CS) and denervated stimulated (DS) gastrocnemius muscles. The programme of electrical stimulation of the control muscle has elevated glycogenolysis, glycolysis and increased the level of operation of TCA cycle with decreased mobilization of carbohydrates into hexose monophosphate pathway, indicating the setting in of trained condition. Sciatectomy, on the other hand, lowered the level of operation of glycogenolysis and decreased the utilization of carbohydrates through hexose-mono and di-phosphate pathways and TCA cycle. The programme of electrical stimulation applied to the denervated muscle has restored the utilization of carbohydrates through hexose mono and diphosphate pathways and oxidative metabolism indicating the applicability of this programme of electrical stimulation in the treatment of muscular atrophy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Dogs , Electric Stimulation , Glucose/metabolism , Glycogen/metabolism , Glycolysis , Male , Muscle Denervation , Muscle, Smooth/enzymology , Muscular Atrophy/enzymology , Phosphorylases/metabolism , Sciatic Nerve/physiology
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