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1.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 520-531, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940955

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects and mechanism of negative pressure microenvironment on the neogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods: The experimental research methods were adopted. The third to the fifth passage of HUVECs in the logarithmic growth stage were used for the subsequent experiments. Three batches of cells were taken, with each batch of cells being divided into normal control group and negative pressure treatment alone group (both routinely cultured for 24 h), and 17-allylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17-AAG) alone group and 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group (both cultured with 17-AAG for 24 h). In addition, the intermittent negative pressure suction, with the negative pressure value of -5.33 kPa (suction for 30 s, pause for 10 s) was continuously applied for 8 h on cells in the two negative pressure treatment groups using an automatic three-dimensional cell gradient negative pressure loading device designed and developed by ourselves. After the treatment of the first batch of cells, the cell proliferation level was detected by cell counting kit 8 method at 0 (immediately), 24, 48, and 72 h of culture, with the number of samples being 6. After the treatment of the second batch of cells, the scratch experiment was performed. At 12 h after scratching, the cell migration was observed under an inverted phase contrast microscope and the cell migration rate was calculated, with the number of samples being 3. After the treatment of the third batch of cells, the tubule formation experiment was conducted. After 6 h of culture, the tubulogenesis was observed under an inverted phase contrast microscope and the total tubule length and the number of branch nodes of cells were calculated, with the number of samples being 3. The cells were taken and divided into normal control group, negative pressure treatment alone group, and 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group. The cells were treated the same as in the previous corresponding group. After the treatment, Western blotting was used to detect the protein expressions of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), caveolin 1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and eNOS phosphorylation site 1177 in the cells, and the eNOS phosphorylation site 1177/eNOS ratio was calculated, with the number of samples being 3; co-immunoprecipitation (co-precipitating HSP90 and caveolin 1, caveolin 1 and eNOS) and Western blotting were used to detect the protein expressions of caveolin 1 and eNOS in the cells, with the number of samples being 3; the protein co-localization of HSP90 and caveolin 1 and that of caveolin 1 and eNOS in the cells was assessed by immunofluorescence double staining. The molecular docking prediction of caveolin 1 and eNOS was processed by HADDOCK 2.4 protein-protein docking program. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for factorial design, one-way analysis of variance, and least significant difference method. Results: Compared with that in normal control group, the cell proliferation level in 17-AAG alone group was significantly decreased at culture hour of 24, 48, and 72 after the treatment (P<0.01), while the cell proliferation level in negative pressure treatment alone group was significantly increased at culture hour of 24, 48, and 72 after the treatment (P<0.01). Compared with that in 17-AAG alone group, the cell proliferation level in 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group was significantly increased at culture hour of 48 and 72 after the treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with that in negative pressure treatment alone group, the cell proliferation level in 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group was significantly decreased at culture hour of 24, 48, and 72 after the treatment (P<0.01). At 12 h after scratching, compared with (39.9±2.7)% in normal control group, the cell migration rate in 17-AAG alone group was significantly decreased ((10.7±2.7)%, P<0.01), while the cell migration rate in negative pressure treatment alone group was significantly increased ((61.9±2.4)%, P<0.01). Compared with those in 17-AAG alone group, the cell migration rate in 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group was significantly increased ((37.7±3.7)%, P<0.01). Compared with that in negative pressure treatment alone group, the cell migration rate in 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group was significantly decreased (P<0.01). At culture hour of 6 after the treatment, compared with those in normal control group, the total length of the tube formed by the cells in 17-AAG alone group was significantly shortened (P<0.05) and the number of branch nodes was significantly reduced (P<0.05), while the total length of the tube formed by the cells in negative pressure treatment alone group was significantly prolonged (P<0.01) and the number of branch nodes was dramatically increased (P<0.01). Compared with that in 17-AAG alone group, the number of branch nodes of the tube formed by the cells was significantly increased in 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group (P<0.05). Compared with those in negative pressure treatment alone group, the total length of the tube formed by the cells in 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group was significantly shortened (P<0.01) and the number of branch nodes was significantly reduced (P<0.01). Western blotting detection showed that after treatment, the overall comparison of eNOS and caveolin 1 protein expressions among the three groups of cells showed no statistically significant differences (P>0.05). The expression of HSP90 protein and the eNOS phosphorylation site 1177/eNOS ratio in the cells of negative pressure treatment alone group were significantly increased (P<0.01) compared with those in normal control group. Compared with those in negative pressure treatment alone group, the HSP90 protein expression and the eNOS phosphorylation site 1177/eNOS ratio in the cells of 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group were significantly decreased (P<0.01). Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting detection after the treatment showed that compared with those in normal control group, the expression of caveolin 1 protein in the cells of negative pressure treatment alone group was significantly increased (P<0.01), while the protein expression of eNOS was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Compared with those in negative pressure treatment alone group, the expression of caveolin 1 protein in the cells of 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group was significantly decreased (P<0.01), while the protein expression of eNOS was significantly increased (P<0.01). After the treatment, compared with those in normal control group, the co-localization of HSP90 and caveolin 1 protein in the cells of negative pressure treatment alone group was significantly increased, while the co-localization of caveolin 1 and eNOS protein was significantly decreased. Compared with those in negative pressure treatment alone group, the co-localization of HSP90 and caveolin 1 protein in the cells of 17-AAG+negative pressure treatment group was significantly decreased, while the co-localization of caveolin 1 and eNOS protein was significantly increased. Molecular docking prediction suggested that caveolin 1 interacted strongly with eNOS and inhibited the 1177 site phosphorylation of eNOS. Conclusions: The negative pressure microenvironment may inhibit the binding of caveolin 1 to eNOS by promoting the binding of HSP90 to caveolin 1 in HUVECs, so as to relieve the inhibition of 1177 site phosphorylation of eNOS by caveolin 1, thereby promoting the proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis of HUVECs, and ultimately promoting the neogenesis of HUVECs.


Subject(s)
Caveolin 1/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phosphorylation
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 110-116, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927586

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is one of the strongest risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, cerebral stroke, and kidney failure. Lifestyle and nutrition are important factors that modulate blood pressure. Hypertension can be controlled by increasing physical activity, decreasing alcohol and sodium intake, and stopping tobacco smoking. Chronic kidney disease patients often have increased blood pressure, which indicates that kidney is one of the major organs responsible for blood pressure homeostasis. The decrease of renal sodium reabsorption and increase of diuresis induced by high potassium intake is critical for the blood pressure reduction. The beneficial effect of a high potassium diet on hypertension could be explained by decreased salt reabsorption by sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). In DCT cells, NCC activity is controlled by with-no-lysine kinases (WNKs) and its down-stream target kinases, Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1). The kinase activity of WNKs is inhibited by intracellular chloride ([Cl-]i) and WNK4 is known to be the major WNK positively regulating NCC. Based on our previous studies, high potassium intake reduces the basolateral potassium conductance, decreases the negativity of DCT basolateral membrane (depolarization), and increases [Cl-]i. High [Cl-]i inhibits WNK4-SPAK/OSR1 pathway, and thereby decreases NCC phosphorylation. In this review, we discuss the role of DCT in the blood pressure regulation by dietary potassium intake, which is the mechanism that has been best dissected so far.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Diet , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney Tubules, Distal/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Potassium/pharmacology , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 3/metabolism
3.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210047, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375811

ABSTRACT

Accidents with venomous animals are a public health issue worldwide. Among the species involved in these accidents are scorpions, spiders, bees, wasps, and other members of the phylum Arthropoda. The knowledge of the function of proteins present in these venoms is important to guide diagnosis, therapeutics, besides being a source of a large variety of biotechnological active molecules. Although our understanding about the characteristics and function of arthropod venoms has been evolving in the last decades, a major aspect crucial for the function of these proteins remains poorly studied, the posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Comprehension of such modifications can contribute to better understanding the basis of envenomation, leading to improvements in the specificities of potential therapeutic toxins. Therefore, in this review, we bring to light protein/toxin PTMs in arthropod venoms by accessing the information present in the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database, including experimental and putative inferences. Then, we concentrate our discussion on the current knowledge on protein phosphorylation and glycosylation, highlighting the potential functionality of these modifications in arthropod venom. We also briefly describe general approaches to study "PTM-functional-venomics", herein referred to the integration of PTM-venomics with a functional investigation of PTM impact on venom biology. Furthermore, we discuss the bottlenecks in toxinology studies covering PTM investigation. In conclusion, through the mining of PTMs in arthropod venoms, we observed a large gap in this field that limits our understanding on the biology of these venoms, affecting the diagnosis and therapeutics development. Hence, we encourage community efforts to draw attention to a better understanding of PTM in arthropod venom toxins.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthropod Venoms/toxicity , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Phosphorylation , Scorpions , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Spiders , Wasps , Bees , Glycosylation
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 108-117, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285219

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento As células progenitoras endoteliais (CPEs) desempenham um papel importante na manutenção da função endotelial. A síndrome metabólica (SM) está associada à disfunção das CPEs. Embora o exercício físico tenha um impacto benéfico na atividade das CPEs, seu mecanismo ainda não está completamente esclarecido. Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo é investigar os efeitos do exercício físico nas funções das CPEs e os mecanismos subjacentes em pacientes com SM. Métodos Os voluntários com SM foram divididos em grupo exercício (n=15) e grupo controle (n=15). Antes e após 8 semanas de treinamento físico, as CPEs foram isoladas do sangue periférico. Foram feitos o ensaio de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC), o ensaio de formação de tubos, a expressão proteica do óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS), da fosfatidilinositol-3-quinase (PI3-K) e da proteína quinase B (AKT). Considerou-se um valor de probabilidade <0,05 para indicar significância estatística. Resultados Após 8 semanas, o número de UFCs aumentou significativamente no grupo exercício em comparação com o grupo controle (p<0,05). Além disso, observamos uma diminuição significativa do modelo de avaliação da homeostase da resistência à insulina (HOMA-IR), endotelina-1, proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade e dos níveis de homocisteína no grupo exercício. A intervenção com exercícios também pode aumentar a capacidade de formação de tubos de CPEs e aumentar o nível de fosforilação de eNOS, PI3-K e AKT. Conclusão O exercício físico aprimorou as funções das CPEs. O mecanismo pode estar relacionado ao exercício, ativando a via PI3-K/AKT/eNOS.


Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in maintaining endothelial function. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with EPC dysfunction. Although physical exercise has a beneficial impact on EPC activity, its mechanism is not completely clear yet. Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of physical exercise on the functions of EPCs and the underlying mechanisms in patients with MetS. Methods Volunteers with MetS were divided into exercise group (n=15) and control group (n=15). Before and after 8 weeks exercise training, EPCs were isolated from peripheral blood. Colony forming unit (CFU) assay, tube-formation assay, the protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-K) and protein kinase B (AKT) were determined. A probability value <0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results After 8 weeks, the number of CFUs was significantly increased in the exercise group compared to the control group (p<0.05). In addition, we observed a significant decrease of homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), endothelin-1, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and homocysteine levels in the exercise group. Exercise intervention could also enhance tube-formation capacity of EPCs and increase phosphorylation level of eNOS, PI3-K and AKT. Conclusion Physical exercise enhanced the functions of EPCs. The mechanism may be related to exercise, activating the PI3-K/AKT/eNOS pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/therapy , Endothelial Progenitor Cells , Phosphorylation , Exercise , Cells, Cultured , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Nitric Oxide
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922756

ABSTRACT

Physalin B (PB), one of the major active steroidal constituents of Solanaceae Physalis plants, has a wide variety of biological activities. We found that PB significantly down-regulated β-amyloid (Aβ) secretion in N2a/APPsw cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the changes in key enzymes involved in β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism and other APP metabolites by treating N2a/APPsw cells with PB at different concentrations. The results indicated that PB reduced Aβ secretion, which was caused by down-regulation of β-secretase (BACE1) expression, as indicated at both the protein and mRNA levels. Further research revealed that PB regulated BACE1 expression by inducing the activation of forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) and inhibiting the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). In addition, the effect of PB on BACE1 expression and Aβ secretion was reversed by treatment with FoxO1 siRNA and STAT3 antagonist S3I-201. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that PB can effectively down-regulate the expression of BACE1 to reduce Aβsecretion by activating the expression of FoxO1 and inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Forkhead Box Protein O1/genetics , Humans , Phosphorylation , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Secosteroids
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 100-111, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878546

ABSTRACT

The enrichment of tyrosine phosphorylation sites plays an important role in the study of tyrosine phosphoproteomics and the commonly used enrichment methods are antibody affinity enrichment and SH2 superbinder enrichment. In addition, in order to achieve large-scale identification of tyrosine phosphorylation sites, biological mass spectrometry and bioinformatics have been applied in tyrosine phosphoproteomics. In-depth coverage research of tyrosine phosphoproteomics, revealing the dysregulated kinases in cancer process, may help us understanding the occurrence and development process of cancer. According to literature reports, three quarters of the oncogenes are tyrosine kinase genes. Therefore, tyrosine kinase inhibitors have received more and more attention as anticancer drugs. The application of tyrosine phosphoproteomics technology can identify tyrosine kinases related to cancer and other major diseases, so as to help finding tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In short, tyrosine phosphoproteomics technology can be applied in biomedical fields such as tyrosine kinase identification, tyrosine kinase inhibitor research, and tyrosine phosphorylation signal pathway research.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Mass Spectrometry , Phosphorylation , Proteomics , Tyrosine/metabolism
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922250

ABSTRACT

To investigate the mechanism of rapamycin in promoting asthmatic regulatory T cell differentiation . Asthma model was prepared by sensitization and challenge of ovalbumin in mice. Spleen CD4CD25 T cells were sorted from the asthmatic mice and normal mice by ultrahigh speed flow cytometer, and divided into three groups. Transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-2, or combined with rapamycin (final concentration of 500 nmol/L) were given in the model group or the rapamycin group. The levels of Treg cells and CD4CD25 T cells were detected by flow cytometry. The phosphorylation level of downstream proteins of S6 and Akt in the mTORC1/2 signaling pathway were examined by Western blotting. Compared with the model group, the differentiation level of Treg cells in the rapamycin group was significantly increased, the proliferation level of CD4CD25 T cells was decreased, and the phosphorylations of the mTORC1/2 substrates, S6 protein and Akt were decreased (all <0.05). Rapamycin can promote the differentiation and function of Treg cells via inhibition of the mTORC1/2 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Cell Differentiation , Mice , Phosphorylation , Signal Transduction , Sirolimus/pharmacology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4201-4214, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921499

ABSTRACT

Protein kinase CK2 is a common, evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitous protein kinase. In recent years, increasing evidences have shown that CK2 has a variety of phosphorylated protein substrates, which play important roles in growth, development and various diseases. Therefore, CK2 may participate in these physiological processes by regulating the phosphorylation of these substrates. This article briefly reviewed the structural characteristics of protein kinase CK2 and its physiological functions in growth, development, immunity, formation of tumor and other diseases, in order to provide knowledge basis for further research on the regulatory mechanism of CK2 and potential applications of its inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Casein Kinase II/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Proteins
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on the regulation of the proliferation of condylar chondrocytes and provide a preliminary discussion on the role of phosphorylate-mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) in this regulatory process.@*METHODS@#Condylar chondrocytes were isolated from 6-week-old female rats for primary culture. Drug treatment with different concentrations of E2 and/or rapamycin (RAPA) was carried out on second-generation cells. Cell Counting Kit 8 was used to measure the cell viability of condylar chondrocytes after culture for 24, 48, or 72 h, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to detect the relative gene expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), collagen type Ⅱ (COLⅡ), autophagy-related gene 6 (Beclin-1), and autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG-5). Western blot was employed to determine the relative protein expression of ERα, ERβ, Beclin-1, lipid-modified light chain 3B (LC3-Ⅱ), and p-mTOR.@*RESULTS@#E2 could significantly promote the proliferation of chondrocytes cultured @*CONCLUSIONS@#At a concentration of 10


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Cell Proliferation , Chondrocytes , Estradiol , Estrogen Receptor alpha/metabolism , Estrogen Receptor beta , Female , Phosphorylation , Rats
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1129-1135, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888528

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of CDK1 interference regulation of PLK1, Aurora B and TRF1 on the proliferation of leukemia cells.@*METHODS@#The human myelogenous leukemia cell line HL-60 was selected as the research object, and the effect of TRF1 expression and its changes on cell proliferation and cycle was investigated by regulating intracellular CDK1 expression. The objects were divided into 5 groups, including control group, shRNA-NC group, CDK1-shRNA group, pcDNA group and pcDNA-CDK1 group. RT-PCR was used to detect the CDK1 expression of cells in each group; colony formation was used to detect the proliferation of the cells. Western blot was used to detect the expression of CDK1, PLK1, Aurora B, TRF1, and cyclin p53, p27, cyclinA.@*RESULTS@#The phosphorylation level of PLK1, Aurora B and the expression of TRF1 in the CDK1-shRNA group were significantly down-regulated as compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the cells in CDK1-shRNA group showed lower clone formation rate, the increasing of cycle-associated proteins p53 and p27 and the decreasing of cyclinA expression (P<0.05). It was shown that interfered CDK1 expression could inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells and prolong the time that they enter mitosis, thereby extending the cell cycle. Compared with the control group, the overexpressed CDK1 in the pcDNA-CDK1 group made the phosphorylation level of PLK1, Aurora B, and TRF1 expression increase significantly (P<0.05), also the colony formation rate (P<0.05). The cycle-related proteins p53 and p27 was down-regulated, while cyclinA expression was up-regulate significantly (P<0.05). The results indicted that overexpressed CDK1 could stimulate adverse reactions, thereby promoting the proliferation of HL-60 cells and shortening the cell cycle.@*CONCLUSION@#Knocking out CDK1 can inhibit the phosphorylation of PLK1 and Aurora B and negatively regulate TRF1, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of leukemia cells.


Subject(s)
CDC2 Protein Kinase , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Leukemia , Mitosis , Phosphorylation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2334-2341, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887800

ABSTRACT

Tyrosine phosphorylation is one of the important protein phosphorylations in eukaryotes responsible for a variety of biological processes including cell signaling transduction, cell migration, and apoptosis. In the study of phosphoproteomics, due to the low stoichiometry of tyrosine phosphorylation (pTyr) proteins and sometimes limited initial sample, traditional phosphoproteomics enrichment technology is inefficient for the enrichment of pTyr peptides. Here, we review the substantial progress in tyrosine phosphoproteomics by preparation of limited amount sample and the newly introduced SH2 superbinder.


Subject(s)
Cell Movement , Peptides , Phosphorylation , Technology , Tyrosine/metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887717

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the molecular mechanism of high phosphorylation levels of cofilin-1 (p-CFL-1) associated with paclitaxel resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells.@*Methods@#Cells displaying varying levels of p-CFL-1 and CFL-1 were created by plasmid transfection and shRNA interference. Cell inhibition rate indicating paclitaxel efficacy was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry and protein levels were detected by western blotting. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression levels of phosphokinases and phosphatases of CFL-1. Survival analysis evaluated the correlation between the prognosis of EOC patients and the levels of p-CFL-1 and slingshot-1 (SSH-1).@*Results@#High levels of p-CFL-1 were observed in EOC cells that survived treatment with high doses of paclitaxel. SKOV3 cell mutants with upregulated p-CFL-1 showed impaired paclitaxel efficacy, as well as decreased apoptosis rates and pro-survival patterns of apoptosis-specific protein expression. Cytoplasmic accumulation of p-CFL-1 inhibited paclitaxel-induced mitochondrial apoptosis. SSH-1 silencing mediated CFL-1 phosphorylation in paclitaxel-resistant SKOV3 cells. Clinically, the high level of p-CFL-1 and the low level of SSH-1 in EOC tissues were closely related to chemotherapy resistance and poor prognosis in EOC patients.@*Conclusion@#The SSH-1/p-CFL-1 signaling pathway mediates paclitaxel resistance by apoptosis inhibition in EOC and is expected to be a potential prognostic predictor.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/therapeutic use , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cofilin 1/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Female , Humans , Ovarian Neoplasms/metabolism , Paclitaxel/therapeutic use , Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/metabolism , Phosphorylation
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2054-2065, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The Nuclear Dbf2-related (NDR1) kinase is a member of the NDR/LATS family, which was a supplementary of Hippo pathway. However, whether NDR1 could inhibit glioblastoma (GBM) growth by phosphorylating Yes-associated protein (YAP) remains unknown. Meanwhile, the role of NDR1 in GBM was not clear. This study aimed to investigate the role of NDR1-YAP pathway in GBM.@*METHODS@#Bioinformation analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed to identify the expression of NDR1 in GBM. The effect of NDR1 on cell proliferation and cell cycle was analyzed utilizing CCK-8, clone formation, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, respectively. In addition, the xenograft tumor model was established as well. Protein interaction was examined by Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence to observe co-localization.@*RESULTS@#Bioinformation analysis and IHC of our patients' tumor tissues showed that expression of NDR1 in tumor tissue was relatively lower than that in normal tissues and was positively related to a lower survival rate. NDR1 could markedly reduce the proliferation and colony formation of U87 and U251. Furthermore, the results of flow cytometry showed that NDR1 led to cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Tumor growth was also inhibited in xenograft nude mouse models in NDR1-overexpression group. Western blotting and immunofluorescence showed that NDR1 could integrate with and phosphorylate YAP at S127 site. Meanwhile, NDR1 could mediate apoptosis process.@*CONCLUSION@#In summary, our findings point out that NDR1 functions as a tumor suppressor in GBM. NDR1 is identified as a novel regulator of YAP, which gives us an in-depth comprehension of the Hippo signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Glioblastoma , Humans , Mice , Phosphorylation , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879959

ABSTRACT

: To assess the () recombinant gingivalis gingipain R2 (rRgpB)-induced Ca mobilization in human gingival fibroblast (HGF) mediated by protease-activated receptor (PAR) and its downstream signal transduction pathways. : Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of PAR in HGF. The proliferation of HGF was measured by CCK-8. The dynamic changes of intracellular Ca concentration in HGF induced by rRgpB and the blocking effect of PAR-1 antagonist were observed by laser confocal microscopy. Western blot was performed to determine the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and p65 in HGF. : PAR-1 and PAR-3 were expressed in HGF, and the rRgpB could promote the proliferation of HGF. rRgpB caused a transient increase in [Ca], which could be completely suppressed by vorapaxar, a PAR-1 antagonist. The phosphorylation levels of JNK, ERK1/2 and p65 were significantly up-regulated after the induction of rRgpB for and (all <0.05), which was completely inhibited by vorapaxar. However, the phosphorylation level of p38 MAPK had no significant change after rRgpB stimulation. : rRgpB causes an increase in [Ca] in HGF mediated by PAR-1. JNK, ERK1/2 and nuclear factor-κB may be involved in intracellular signal transduction after PAR-1 activation.


Subject(s)
Fibroblasts , Humans , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Phosphorylation , Signal Transduction , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 919-923, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124877

ABSTRACT

Letrozole (Letro) is a drug commonly used for breast cancer treatment since it can decrease estrogen level. In experimental animal, the Letro has been used to induce the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) model. Tyrosine phosphorylation (TyrPho) is an essential process in various biological functions both normal and abnormal conditions especially reproduction. Although some side effects of Letro are reported, the alterations of TyrPho responsible for liver and kidney functions have never been demonstrated. In this study, the blood serum, liver, and kidney of control and PCOS rats induced with Letro (orally, 1 mg/ KgBW) for consecutive 21 days were used to determine the serum biochemical components and to investigate the TyrPho expression using western blot analysis. Histopathology of such tissues was observed by Masson's trichrome staining. The results showed that Letro did not affect histological structures but significantly increased the serum levels of urea nitrogen, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, ALT, AST, and alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, the TyrPho protein expressions of 32 and 27 kDas in liver and of 55 and 43 kDas in kidney were increased while of a kidney 26 kDa was decreased as compared to those of control. In conclusion, this recent study indicated that the changes of TyrPho proteins in liver and kidney induced with Letro associated with their functions by alteration of serum biochemical levels.


El letrozol (Letro) es un medicamento utilizado comúnmente para el tratamiento del cáncer de mama, debido a que puede disminuir el nivel de estrógeno. En animales de experimentación, el Letro se ha utilizado para inducir el modelo de síndrome de ovario poliquístico (PCOS). La fosforilación de tirosina (TyrPho) es un proceso esencial en diversas funciones biológicas, tanto en condiciones normales como anormales, especialmente en la reproducción. A pesar de informes que indican algunos efectos secundarios de Letro, no se han demostrado las alteraciones de TyrPho responsables de las funciones hepáticas y renales. En este estudio, el suero sanguíneo, el hígado y el riñón control y las ratas PCOS inducidas con Letro (por vía oral, 1 mg / KgBW) durante 21 días consecutivos se usaron para determinar los componentes bioquímicos del suero y para investigar la expresión de TyrPho usando análisis de transferencia Western. La histopatología de los tejidos se observó mediante la tinción tricrómica de Masson. Los resultados mostraron que Letro no afectó las estructuras histológicas, pero aumentó significativamente los niveles séricos de urea, colesterol, triglicéridos, HDL, LDL, ALT, AST y fosfatasa alcalina. Además, las expresiones de la proteína TyrPho de 32 y 27 kDas en el hígado y de 55 y 43 kDas en el riñón aumentaron mientras que en un riñón disminuyeron 26 kDa en comparación con el control. En conclusión, este estudio indicó que los cambios de las proteínas TyrPho en el hígado y los riñones inducidos con Letro se asociaron con sus funciones mediante la alteración de los niveles bioquímicos en suero.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/chemically induced , Letrozole/adverse effects , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Phosphorylation/physiology , Tyrosine/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
16.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 133 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292693

ABSTRACT

A regulação da fosforilação/desfosforilação das proteínas é o eixo central de muitas cascatas de sinalização. A fosfatase DUSP3, constituída apenas por um único domínio catalítico, desempenha papéis fundamentais na proliferação e senescência celular. Nas células HeLa, submetidas ao estresse genotóxico, o DUSP3 interage fisicamente com as proteínas HNRNPC, mas o efeito dessa função molecular ainda é desconhecido. Aqui demostramos que a ausência de DUPS3 mantem a proteína HNRNPC1/C2 num estado hiperfosforilado. Para entender melhor o envolvimento da interação DUSP3-HNRNPC nas funções biológicas da HNRNPC1/C2, foram estudadas células de fibroblasto deficientes de DUSP3. Foi analisado o efeito da deficiência de DUSP3 na biogênese dos ribossomos através do ensaio de perfil de polirribossomos e quantificação dos rRNAs com RT-qPCR. Os resultados mostraram que a deficiência de DUSP3 não afeta a maturação das subunidades ribossômicas, mas teria um impacto na transcrição dos pré-rRNAs e no acumulo das espécies 47S/45S. A expressado de genes contendo sequencias IRES foi analisado através do RT-qPCR e sua tradução ao longo do ciclo e em condições de estresse. Da expressão, não existe nenhuma diferença nos níveis de transcrição dos genes c-myc e xiap nas células normais e deficientes de DUSP3 em condições basais. Embora a síntese destas proteínas é maior nas células deficientes, mantendo um nível maior de tradução ao longo de todo o ciclo. Sob condições de estresse, esta duas proteínas sempre mantem uma maior expressão nas células Knockdown para DUSP3. Neste trabalho também foi estabelecido a presença de DUSP3 nos complexos da subunidade 40S, através do analise das frações obtidas do ensaio de polirribossomos e interação in vitro (Co-IP). A presença de DUSP3 nas subunidades 40S, os monossomas 80S e polissomos poderia ser através da interação direta com proteínas que possuem um domínio RRM e seria dependente dos complexos formados pelas proteínas e seus RNAs alvos. Aqui mostramos a interação in vitro de DUSP3 com a proteína PABP (com quatro domínios RRM), proteína que tem um papel importante na manutenção da taxa global de tradução, esta interação é enfraquecida na ausência de RNAs. A deficiência de DUSP3 também teria um impacto na interação das proteínas HNRNPC1/C2 e P53 in vitro. A ausência de DUSP3 diminui a interação HNRNPC-P53 através da hiperfosforilação da proteina HNRNPC1/C2. A perda desta interação, aumentaria os níveis da proteína P53 na célula deficiente de DUSP3 e poderia gerar parada no ciclo celular. Através de ensaios de imunofluorescência, se observo uma maior taxa de transcrição global na célula deficiente de DUSP3. Por fim, aqui demostramos que a interação direta de DUSP3 e HNRNPC1/C2 vai permitir a regulação das funções biológicas desta proteína, e a ausência de DUSP3 vai ter efeitos pleiotrópicos na homeostase da célula


inglêsProtein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation regulation is a central axis of many signaling cascades. DUSP3 phosphatase, consisting only of a single catalytic domain, plays key roles in cell proliferation and senescence. In HeLa cells subjected to genotoxic stress, DUSP3 physically interacts with HNRNPC proteins, but the effect of this molecular function is still unknown. Here we demonstrate that the absence of DUPS3 keeps the HNRNPC1/C2 proteins in a hyperphosphorylated state. To better understand the involvement of DUSP3- HNRNPC interaction on the biological functions of HNRNPC1/C2, DUSP3 deficient fibroblast cells were studied. The effect of DUSP3 deficiency on ribosome biogenesis was analyzed by polyribosome profile assay and RT-qPCR for rRNA quantification. The results showed that DUSP3 deficiency does not affect ribosomal subunit maturation, but would have an impact on transcription of pre-rRNAs and accumulation of 47S / 45S species. The expression of genes containing IRES sequences was analyzed by RT-qPCR and their translation throughout the cycle and under stress conditions. From expression, there is no difference in transcriptional levels of c-myc and xiap genes in normal and DUSP3 deficient cells under basal conditions. Although, the synthesis of these proteins is higher in deficient cells and these maintain a higher level of translation throughout the cell cycle. Under stress conditions, these two proteins always maintain higher expression in Knockdown cells for DUSP3. In this work, the presence of DUSP3 in the 40S ribosomal subunit complexes was also established by analyzing the fractions obtained from the polyribosome assay and in vitro interaction (CoIP). The presence of DUSP3 in the 40S subunits, 80S monosomes and polysomes could be through direct interaction with proteins that have an RRM domain and would be dependent on the complexes formed by the proteins and their target RNAs. Here we show the in vitro interaction of DUSP3 with PABP protein (with four RRM domains), a protein that plays an important role in maintaining the overall translation rate, this interaction is weakened in the absence of RNAs. DUSP3 deficiency would also have an impact on the interaction of HNRNPC1/C2 and P53 proteins in vitro. The absence of DUSP3 decreases HNRNPC-P53 interaction through hyperphosphorylation of the HNRNPC1/C2 proteins. Loss of this interaction would increase P53 protein levels in the DUSP3 deficient cell and could lead to cell cycle arrest. Through immunofluorescence assays, a higher overall transcription rate is observed in the DUSP3 deficient cell. Finally, we demonstrate that the direct interaction of DUSP3 and HNRNPC1/C2 will allow the regulation of the biological functions of this protein, and the absence of DUSP3 will have pleiotropic effects on cell homeostasis


Subject(s)
DNA Damage , Cell Cycle , Cells , Genes, myc , Origin of Life , Maintenance , Phosphorylation , Polyribosomes , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Fibroblasts , Homeostasis
17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e006, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055522

ABSTRACT

Abstract Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could be induced into ameloblast-like cells by ameloblasts serum-free conditioned medium (ASF-CM), and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) might be essential during the regulation of this process. The present study investigates the signal transduction that regulates the ameloblastic differentiation of iPS cells induced by ASF-CM. Mouse iPS cells were characterized and then cultured for 14 days in epithelial cell medium (control) or ASF-CM. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR-II) siRNA, inhibitor of Smad1/5 phosphorylation activated by activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptors, and inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation were used to treat the iPS cells in combination with ASF-CM. Real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescent staining were used to evaluate the expressions of ameloblast markers ameloblastin, enamelin, and cytokeratin-14. BMPR-II gene and protein levels increased markedly in ASF-CM-treated iPS cells compared with the controls, while the mRNA levels of Bmpr-Ia and Bmpr-Ib were similar between the ASF-CM and control groups. ASF-CM stimulation significantly increased the gene and protein expression of ameloblastin, enamelin and cytokeratin-14, and phosphorylated SMAD1/5, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 MAPK compared with the controls. Knockdown of BMPR-II and inhibition of Smad1/5 phosphorylation both could significantly reverse the increased expression of ameloblastin, enamelin, and cytokeratin-14 induced by ASF-CM, while neither inhibition of p38 nor ERK1/2 phosphorylation had significant reversing effects. We conclude that smad1/5 signaling transduction, activated by ALK receptors, regulates the ameloblastic differentiation of iPS cells induced by ameloblast-conditioned medium.


Subject(s)
Signal Transduction/physiology , Smad1 Protein/physiology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Ameloblasts/cytology , Phosphorylation , Time Factors , Gene Expression , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Culture Media, Serum-Free , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Activin Receptors/analysis , Activin Receptors/physiology , RNA Interference , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/physiology , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II/analysis , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II/physiology , Smad1 Protein/analysis
18.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e006, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089380

ABSTRACT

Abstract Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could be induced into ameloblast-like cells by ameloblasts serum-free conditioned medium (ASF-CM), and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) might be essential during the regulation of this process. The present study investigates the signal transduction that regulates the ameloblastic differentiation of iPS cells induced by ASF-CM. Mouse iPS cells were characterized and then cultured for 14 days in epithelial cell medium (control) or ASF-CM. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR-II) siRNA, inhibitor of Smad1/5 phosphorylation activated by activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptors, and inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation were used to treat the iPS cells in combination with ASF-CM. Real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescent staining were used to evaluate the expressions of ameloblast markers ameloblastin, enamelin, and cytokeratin-14. BMPR-II gene and protein levels increased markedly in ASF-CM-treated iPS cells compared with the controls, while the mRNA levels of Bmpr-Ia and Bmpr-Ib were similar between the ASF-CM and control groups. ASF-CM stimulation significantly increased the gene and protein expression of ameloblastin, enamelin and cytokeratin-14, and phosphorylated SMAD1/5, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 MAPK compared with the controls. Knockdown of BMPR-II and inhibition of Smad1/5 phosphorylation both could significantly reverse the increased expression of ameloblastin, enamelin, and cytokeratin-14 induced by ASF-CM, while neither inhibition of p38 nor ERK1/2 phosphorylation had significant reversing effects. We conclude that smad1/5 signaling transduction, activated by ALK receptors, regulates the ameloblastic differentiation of iPS cells induced by ameloblast-conditioned medium.


Subject(s)
Signal Transduction/physiology , Smad1 Protein/physiology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Ameloblasts/cytology , Phosphorylation , Time Factors , Gene Expression , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Culture Media, Serum-Free , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Activin Receptors/analysis , Activin Receptors/physiology , RNA Interference , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/physiology , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II/analysis , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II/physiology , Smad1 Protein/analysis
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190357, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Viruses can modulate intracellular signalling pathways to complete their infectious cycle. Among these, the PI3K/Akt pathway allows prolonged survival of infected cells that favours viral replication. GSK3β, a protein kinase downstream of PI3K/Akt, gets inactivated upon activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, and its association with viral infections has been recently established. In this study, the role of GSK3β during Dengue virus-2 (DENV-2) infection was investigated. METHODS GSK3β participation in the DENV-2 replication process was evaluated with pharmacological and genetic inhibition during early [0-12 h post-infection (hpi)], late (12-24 hpi), and 24 hpi in Huh7 and Vero cells. We assessed the viral and cellular processes by calculating the viral titre in the supernatants, In-Cell Western, western blotting and fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS Phosphorylation of GSK3β-Ser9 was observed at the early stages of infection; neither did treatment with small molecule inhibitors nor pre-treatment prior to viral infection of GSK3β reduce viral titres of the supernatant at these time points. However, a decrease in viral titres was observed in cells infected and treated with the inhibitors much later during viral infection. Consistently, the infected cells at this stage displayed plasma membrane damage. Nonetheless, these effects were not elicited with the use of genetic inhibitors of GSK3β. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that GSK3β participates at the late stages of the DENV replication cycle, where viral activation may promote apoptosis and release of viral particles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Virus Replication/physiology , Dengue Virus/enzymology , Glycogen Synthase Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycogen Synthase Kinases/physiology , Phosphorylation/physiology , Signal Transduction , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/physiology , Aedes/cytology , Cell Line, Tumor , Microscopy, Fluorescence
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acromegaly is a rare disease primarily caused by growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, and its treatment is costly. Moreover, some patients are unresponsive to treatment. Hence, there are increasing efforts to develop new drugs with improved effectiveness for this disease. BIM23B065 is a novel chimeric molecule that acts on both somatostatin and dopamine receptors. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BIM23B065 compared with those of a somatostatin receptor analog and a dopamine agonist.METHODS: The effects of BIM23B065 on the proliferation, GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) phosphorylation of GH3 cells were investigated with MTS assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting, respectively. The dosage and treatment duration of BIM23B065 were tested in animal models of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. The effect of BIM23B065 (3 mg/kg/day) on changes in IGF-1 levels before and after treatment was further investigated.RESULTS: In vitro, BIM23B065 treatment decreased GH release in the culture media and downregulated ERK 1/2 and CREB phosphorylation to 22% and 26%, respectively. In vivo, IGF-1 expression decreased to 50 % after 4 weeks of treatment with BIM23B065 using an osmotic pump implant. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging results showed that the tumor size decreased significantly following treatment with BIM23B065 for 4 weeks.CONCLUSION: The novel chimeric molecule was effective in decreasing IGF-1 and GH levels and may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for acromegaly.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Blotting, Western , Culture Media , Cyclic AMP , Dopamine Agonists , Dopamine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Growth Hormone , Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Models, Animal , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Pituitary Neoplasms , Rare Diseases , Receptors, Dopamine , Receptors, Somatostatin , Response Elements , Somatostatin
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