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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 919-923, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124877

ABSTRACT

Letrozole (Letro) is a drug commonly used for breast cancer treatment since it can decrease estrogen level. In experimental animal, the Letro has been used to induce the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) model. Tyrosine phosphorylation (TyrPho) is an essential process in various biological functions both normal and abnormal conditions especially reproduction. Although some side effects of Letro are reported, the alterations of TyrPho responsible for liver and kidney functions have never been demonstrated. In this study, the blood serum, liver, and kidney of control and PCOS rats induced with Letro (orally, 1 mg/ KgBW) for consecutive 21 days were used to determine the serum biochemical components and to investigate the TyrPho expression using western blot analysis. Histopathology of such tissues was observed by Masson's trichrome staining. The results showed that Letro did not affect histological structures but significantly increased the serum levels of urea nitrogen, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, ALT, AST, and alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, the TyrPho protein expressions of 32 and 27 kDas in liver and of 55 and 43 kDas in kidney were increased while of a kidney 26 kDa was decreased as compared to those of control. In conclusion, this recent study indicated that the changes of TyrPho proteins in liver and kidney induced with Letro associated with their functions by alteration of serum biochemical levels.


El letrozol (Letro) es un medicamento utilizado comúnmente para el tratamiento del cáncer de mama, debido a que puede disminuir el nivel de estrógeno. En animales de experimentación, el Letro se ha utilizado para inducir el modelo de síndrome de ovario poliquístico (PCOS). La fosforilación de tirosina (TyrPho) es un proceso esencial en diversas funciones biológicas, tanto en condiciones normales como anormales, especialmente en la reproducción. A pesar de informes que indican algunos efectos secundarios de Letro, no se han demostrado las alteraciones de TyrPho responsables de las funciones hepáticas y renales. En este estudio, el suero sanguíneo, el hígado y el riñón control y las ratas PCOS inducidas con Letro (por vía oral, 1 mg / KgBW) durante 21 días consecutivos se usaron para determinar los componentes bioquímicos del suero y para investigar la expresión de TyrPho usando análisis de transferencia Western. La histopatología de los tejidos se observó mediante la tinción tricrómica de Masson. Los resultados mostraron que Letro no afectó las estructuras histológicas, pero aumentó significativamente los niveles séricos de urea, colesterol, triglicéridos, HDL, LDL, ALT, AST y fosfatasa alcalina. Además, las expresiones de la proteína TyrPho de 32 y 27 kDas en el hígado y de 55 y 43 kDas en el riñón aumentaron mientras que en un riñón disminuyeron 26 kDa en comparación con el control. En conclusión, este estudio indicó que los cambios de las proteínas TyrPho en el hígado y los riñones inducidos con Letro se asociaron con sus funciones mediante la alteración de los niveles bioquímicos en suero.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/chemically induced , Letrozole/adverse effects , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Phosphorylation/physiology , Tyrosine/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190357, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Viruses can modulate intracellular signalling pathways to complete their infectious cycle. Among these, the PI3K/Akt pathway allows prolonged survival of infected cells that favours viral replication. GSK3β, a protein kinase downstream of PI3K/Akt, gets inactivated upon activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, and its association with viral infections has been recently established. In this study, the role of GSK3β during Dengue virus-2 (DENV-2) infection was investigated. METHODS GSK3β participation in the DENV-2 replication process was evaluated with pharmacological and genetic inhibition during early [0-12 h post-infection (hpi)], late (12-24 hpi), and 24 hpi in Huh7 and Vero cells. We assessed the viral and cellular processes by calculating the viral titre in the supernatants, In-Cell Western, western blotting and fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS Phosphorylation of GSK3β-Ser9 was observed at the early stages of infection; neither did treatment with small molecule inhibitors nor pre-treatment prior to viral infection of GSK3β reduce viral titres of the supernatant at these time points. However, a decrease in viral titres was observed in cells infected and treated with the inhibitors much later during viral infection. Consistently, the infected cells at this stage displayed plasma membrane damage. Nonetheless, these effects were not elicited with the use of genetic inhibitors of GSK3β. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that GSK3β participates at the late stages of the DENV replication cycle, where viral activation may promote apoptosis and release of viral particles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Virus Replication/physiology , Dengue Virus/enzymology , Glycogen Synthase Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycogen Synthase Kinases/physiology , Phosphorylation/physiology , Signal Transduction , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/physiology , Aedes/cytology , Cell Line, Tumor , Microscopy, Fluorescence
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(3): 228-236, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838702

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Physical exercise is an important tool for the improvement of endothelial function. Objective: To assess the effects of acute dynamic resistance exercise on the endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Ten minutes after exercise, the aorta was removed to evaluate the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS1177) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and to generate concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (ACh) and to phenylephrine (PHE). The PHE protocol was also performed with damaged endothelium and before and after NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and indomethacin administration. The maximal response (Emax) and the sensitivity (EC50) to these drugs were evaluated. Results: ACh-induced relaxation increased in the aortic rings of exercised (Ex) rats (Emax= -80 ± 4.6%, p < 0.05) when compared to those of controls (Ct) (Emax = -50 ± 6.8%). The Emax to PHE was decreased following exercise conditions (95 ± 7.9%, p < 0.05) when compared to control conditions (120 ± 4.2%). This response was abolished after L-NAME administration or endothelial damage. In the presence of indomethacin, the aortic rings' reactivity to PHE was decreased in both groups (EC50= Ex -5.9 ± 0.14 vs. Ct -6.6 ± 0.33 log µM, p < 0.05 / Emax = Ex 9.5 ± 2.9 vs. Ct 17 ± 6.2%, p < 0.05). Exercise did not alter the expression of eNOS and iNOS, but increased the level of p-eNOS. Conclusion: A single resistance exercise session improves endothelial function in hypertensive rats. This response seems to be mediated by increased NO production through eNOS activation.


Resumo Fundamento: O exercício físico é uma importante ferramenta para o aprimoramento da função endotelial. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do exercício dinâmico resistido agudo na função endotelial de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). Métodos: Após 10 minutos de exercício, a aorta foi removida para avaliação da expressão de óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS), óxido nítrico sintase endotelial fosforilada (p-eNOS1177) e óxido nítrico sintase endotelial induzível (iNOS), e para a construção de curvas concentração-resposta de acetilcolina (ACT) e fenilefrina (FEN). O protocolo FEN foi também realizado com lesão endotelial e antes e depois da administração de N-nitro-L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME) e indometacina. A resposta máxima (Emax) e a sensibilidade (EC50) a esses fármacos foram avaliadas. Resultados: Houve aumento do relaxamento induzido por ACT nos anéis aórticos dos ratos exercitados (Ex) (Emax = -80 ± 4,6%; p < 0,05) quando comparado àquele dos controles (Ct) (Emax = -50 ± 6,8%). A Emax à FEN diminuiu após exercício (95 ± 7,9%; p < 0,05) quando comparada àquela dos controles (120 ± 4,2%). Tal resposta foi abolida após administração de L-NAME ou lesão endotelial. Na presença de indometacina, a reatividade dos anéis aórticos à FEN diminuiu nos dois grupos (EC50= Ex -5,9 ± 0,14 vs. Ct -6,6 ± 0,33 log µM; p < 0,05/ Emax = Ex 9,5 ± 2,9 vs. Ct 17 ± 6,2%; p < 0,05). O exercício não alterou a expressão de eNOS e de iNOS, mas aumentou o nível de p-eNOS. Conclusão: Uma única sessão de exercício resistido melhora a função endotelial em ratos hipertensos. Essa resposta parece ser mediada por elevação da produção de NO através de ativação de eNOS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/physiopathology , Aorta, Thoracic/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Aorta, Thoracic/chemistry , Phenylephrine , Phosphorylation/physiology , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/chemistry , Acetylcholine , Prostaglandins/metabolism , Blotting, Western , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Exercise Test , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6733, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888967

ABSTRACT

Myostatin is a novel negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Myostatin expression is also found in heart in a much less extent, but it can be upregulated in pathological conditions, such as heart failure. Myostatin may be involved in inhibiting protein synthesis and/or increasing protein degradation in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Herein, we used cell cultures and isolated muscles from rats to determine protein degradation and synthesis. Muscles incubated with myostatin exhibited an increase in proteolysis with an increase of Atrogin-1, MuRF1 and LC3 genes. Extensor digitorum longus muscles and C2C12 myotubes exhibited a reduction in protein turnover. Cardiomyocytes showed an increase in proteolysis by activating autophagy and the ubiquitin proteasome system, and a decrease in protein synthesis by decreasing P70S6K. The effect of myostatin on protein metabolism is related to fiber type composition, which may be associated to the extent of atrophy mediated effect of myostatin on muscle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/drug effects , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myostatin/pharmacology , Muscle Proteins/drug effects , Muscle Proteins/metabolism , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Phosphorylation/physiology , Time Factors , Tyrosine/drug effects , Tyrosine/metabolism , Gene Expression , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Proteolysis/drug effects
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(10): 826-833, 10/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722174

ABSTRACT

O-GlcNAcylation is a modification that alters the function of numerous proteins. We hypothesized that augmented O-GlcNAcylation levels enhance myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and reduce myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, leading to increased vascular contractile responsiveness. The vascular responses were measured by isometric force displacement. Thoracic aorta and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from rats were incubated with vehicle or with PugNAc, which increases O-GlcNAcylation. In addition, we determined whether proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation. PugNAc enhanced phenylephrine (PE) responses in rat aortas (maximal effect, 14.2±2 vs 7.9±1 mN for vehicle, n=7). Treatment with an MLCP inhibitor (calyculin A) augmented vascular responses to PE (13.4±2 mN) and abolished the differences in PE-response between the groups. The effect of PugNAc was not observed when vessels were preincubated with ML-9, an MLCK inhibitor (7.3±2 vs 7.5±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). Furthermore, our data showed that differences in the PE-induced contractile response between the groups were abolished by the activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AICAR; 6.1±2 vs 7.4±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). PugNAc increased phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT-1) and protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17), which are involved in RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated inhibition of myosin phosphatase activity. PugNAc incubation produced a time-dependent increase in vascular phosphorylation of myosin light chain and decreased phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, which decreased the affinity of MLCK for Ca2+/calmodulin. Our data suggest that proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation, favoring vascular contraction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/physiology , Myosin Light Chains/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/physiology , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Aorta, Thoracic , Acetylglucosamine/analogs & derivatives , Acetylglucosamine/pharmacology , Acylation/drug effects , Acylation/physiology , Aminoimidazole Carboxamide/analogs & derivatives , Aminoimidazole Carboxamide/pharmacology , Azepines/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/metabolism , Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase/metabolism , Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase/metabolism , Oxazoles/pharmacology , Oximes/pharmacology , Phenylcarbamates/pharmacology , Phenylephrine/agonists , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Phosphorylation/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Ribonucleotides/pharmacology , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases/antagonists & inhibitors
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 12(1): 82-89, Jan-Mar/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705807

ABSTRACT

Objective : To investigate the effects of different intensities of acute exercise on insulin sensitivity and protein kinase B/Akt activity in skeletal muscle of obese mice. Methods : Swiss mice were randomly divided into four groups, and fed either a standard diet (control group) or high fat diet (obese sedentary group and obese exercise group 1 and 2) for 12 weeks. Two different exercise protocols were used: swimming for 1 hour with or without an overload of 5% body weight. The insulin tolerance test was performed to estimate whole-body sensitivity. Western blot technique was used to determine protein levels of protein kinase B/Akt and phosphorylation by protein Kinase B/Akt in mice skeletal muscle. Results : A single bout of exercise inhibited the high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. There was increase in phosphorylation by protein kinase B/Akt serine, improve in insulin signaling and reduce of fasting glucose in mice that swam for 1 hour without overload and mice that swan for 1 hour with overload of 5%. However, no significant differences were seen between exercised groups. Conclusion : Regardless of intensity, aerobic exercise was able to improve insulin sensitivity and phosphorylation by protein kinase B/Ak, and proved to be a good form of treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. .


Objetivo : Investigar os efeitos do exercício físico agudo com diferentes intensidades sobre a sensibilidade à insulina e a atividade da proteína quinase B/Akt no músculo esquelético de camundongos obesos. Métodos : Foram utilizados camundongos Swiss, divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos, que receberam dieta padrão (grupo controle) ou dieta hiperlipídica (grupos obeso sedentário e grupos obesos exercitados 1 e 2), por período de 12 semanas. Dois diferentes protocolos de exercício foram utilizados: natação durante 1 hora com ou sem sobrecarga de 5% da massa corporal. O teste de tolerância à insulina foi realizado para estimar a sensibilidade à insulina. E os níveis protéicos da proteína quinase B/Akt e de sua fosforilação foram determinados no músculo esquelético dos camundongos, através da técnica de Western blot. Resultados : Uma sessão de exercício físico foi capaz de inibir a resistência à insulina em decorrência de uma dieta hiperlipídica. Foi possível demonstrar um aumento na fosforilação da proteína quinase B/Akt, melhora da sinalização da insulina e redução da glicemia de jejum nos camundongos que realizaram 1 hora de natação sem sobrecarga adicional e nos camundongos que realizaram 1 hora de natação com sobrecarga adicional de 5% de sua massa corporal. Entretanto, não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos que realizaram o exercício em diferentes intensidades. Conclusão : Independente da intensidade, o exercício físico aeróbio conseguiu aumentar a sensibilidade à insulina e a fosforilação da proteína quinase B/Akt, revelando ser uma boa forma de tratamento e prevenção do diabetes tipo 2. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diet, High-Fat , /prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Insulin/blood , Mice, Obese , Obesity/physiopathology , Phosphorylation/physiology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/analysis , Random Allocation , Time Factors
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(5): 554-562, ago. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680770

ABSTRACT

Interfering with cellular signal transduction pathways is a common strategy used by many viruses to create a propitious intracellular environment for an efficient replication. Our group has been studying cellular signalling pathways activated by the orthopoxviruses Vaccinia (VACV) and Cowpox (CPXV) and their significance to viral replication. In the present study our aim was to investigate whether the GTPase Rac1 was an upstream signal that led to the activation of MEK/ERK1/2, JNK1/2 or Akt pathways upon VACV or CPXV' infections. Therefore, we generated stable murine fibroblasts exhibiting negative dominance to Rac1-N17 to evaluate viral growth and the phosphorylation status of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and Akt. Our results demonstrated that VACV replication, but not CPXV, was affected in dominant-negative (DN) Rac1-N17 cell lines in which viral yield was reduced in about 10-fold. Viral late gene expression, but not early, was also reduced. Furthermore, our data showed that Akt phosphorylation was diminished upon VACV infection in DN Rac1-N17 cells, suggesting that Rac1 participates in the phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway leading to the activation of Akt. In conclusion, our results indicate that while Rac1 indeed plays a role in VACV biology, perhaps another GTPase may be involved in CPXV replication.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cowpox virus/physiology , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Vaccinia virus/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , rac1 GTP-Binding Protein/physiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Phosphorylation/physiology , Vero Cells , rac1 GTP-Binding Protein/metabolism
8.
Acta cient. Soc. Venez. Bioanalistas Esp ; 16(1): 22-27, 2013. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733454

ABSTRACT

La fosforilación de la glucosa en los mamíferos, es catalizada por una familia de isoenzimas (hexoquinasas I-IV; HQ) de diferente Km para el azúcar. En los hepatocitos y células b-pancreáticas se encuentra la glucoquinasa (GQ; HQ IV) de Km elevado (12-20 mM). Hemos observado que GQ está presente en el intestino delgado y podría contribuir a la producción de lactato durante la absorción del azúcar. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto de la dieta (ratarina R; 60% de glucosa G; sacarosa S; almidón A; caseína C), suministrada ad libitum, sobre las actividades de HQ y GQ en homogenatos de hígado y mucosa intestinal de rata. El suministro de glucosa (5%) en el agua de beber (SG) también fue evaluado en las dietas con R y G. Las actividades de HQ (Glucosa 1 mM) y la capacidad fosforilativa total (CFT: Glucosa = 100 mM) se determinaron enzimáticamente. GQ se estimó por diferencia. En el grupo control (R) y en S, A y C, la GQ hepática fue un 85% de la CFT, mientras que en G, GSG y RSG un 66%. La HQ intestinal alcanzó en los grupos R, GSG, A y C un 87% y en RSG un 30% de la CFT. La GQ en G, S, aumentó, pero una menor magnitud. La presencia de GQ en el intestino delgado y su expresión diferencial de acuerdo a la dieta, abren la posibilidad de que dicho órgano contribuya al metabolismo inicial de la glucosa procedente de la dieta y provea al hígado de un precursor (lactato) muy eficaz para sus procesos anabólicos.


Glucose phosphorylation in mammals, is catalyzed by a family of isoenzymes (hexokinases I- IV; HQ) of different Km for the sugar. In hepatocytes and pancreatic b- cells are glucokinase (GQ ; HQ IV) of high Km (12-20 mM). We observed that GQ is present in the small intestine and may contribute to the production of lactate during the absorption of sugar. In this work, the effect of diet (ratarina R, G 60% glucose, sucrose S; starch A; casein C) provided ad libitum , on the activities of HQ and GQ in liver homogenates of rat intestinal mucosa . The supply of glucose (5%) in the drinking water ( SG ) was also evaluated in the diets with R and G. HQ activities (Glucose 1 mM) and phosphorylating full capacity ( CFT : Glucose = 100 mM ) were determined enzymatically . GQ was estimated by difference. In the control group (R) and S, A and C, the GQ liver was about 85% of CFT, whereas G, GSG and RSG 66%. The intestinal HQ reached in the R groups, GSG, A and C by 87% and 30% RSG the CFT. The GQ in G, S , increased , but a lower magnitude. the presence of glucokinase in the small intestine and its differential expression according to diet, open the possibility that this structure contributes to initial metabolism of glucose and provide to the liver a precursor (lactate) very effective for their anabolic processes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Phosphorylation/physiology , Glucose/analysis , Glucose/chemistry , Isoenzymes/analysis , Isoenzymes/antagonists & inhibitors , Isoenzymes/blood , Dietary Sucrose/analysis , Dietary Sucrose/chemistry , Dietary Sucrose/blood , Blood Chemical Analysis , Dietary Carbohydrates , Hematology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174317

ABSTRACT

Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton associated protein 2 (CKAP2), has been recently shown to be involved in the assembly and maintenance of mitotic spindle and also plays an essential role in maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation during mitosis. We have previously reported that TMAP is phosphorylated at multiple residues specifically during mitosis, and characterized the mechanism and functional importance of phosphorylation at one of the mitosis-specific phosphorylation residues (i.e., Thr-622). However, the phosphorylation events at the remaining mitotic phosphorylation sites of TMAP have not been fully characterized in detail. Here, we report on generation and characterization of phosphorylated Thr-578- and phosphorylated Thr-596-specific antibodies. Using the antibodies, we show that phosphorylation of TMAP at Thr-578 and Thr-596 indeed occurs specifically during mitosis. Immunofluorescent staining using the antibodies shows that these residues become phosphorylated starting at prophase and then become rapidly dephosphorylated soon after initiation of anaphase. Subtle differences in the kinetics of phosphorylation between Thr-578 and Thr-596 imply that they may be under different mechanisms of phosphorylation during mitosis. Unlike the phosphorylation-deficient mutant form for Thr-622, the mutant in which both Thr-578 and Thr-596 had been mutated to alanines did not induce significant delay in progression of mitosis. These results show that the majority of mitosis-specific phosphorylation of TMAP is limited to pre-anaphase stages and suggest that the multiple phosphorylation may not act in concert but serve diverse functions.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Substitution , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Kinetics , Mitosis/physiology , Mutation , Mutation, Missense , Phosphorylation/physiology
10.
Biol. Res ; 41(3): 239-252, 2008. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-511914

ABSTRACT

HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is characterized by axonal degeneration of the corticospinal tracts. The specific requirements for transport of proteins and organelles to the distal part of the long axon are crucial in the corticospinal tracts. Microtubule dysfunction could beinvolved in this disease, configuring an axonal transport disease. We measured tubulin and its posttranslational modified forms (acetylated and tyrosinated) in CSF of patients and controls, as well as tau and its phosphorylated forms. There were no significant differences in the contents of tubulin and acetyl-tubulinbetween patients and controls; tyrosyl-tubulin was not detected. In HAM/TSP, tau levels were significantly reduced, while the ratio of pT181/total tau was higher in patients than in controls, this being completely different from what is reported in other neurodegenerative diseases. Phosphorylation at T181 was also confirmed by Mass Spectrometry analysis. Western Blotting with monospecific polyclonal antibodies against pS199, pT205, pT231, pS262, pS356, pS396, pS404 and pS422 did not show differences in phosphorylation in these residues between patients and controls. Treating human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, a well-known in vitro neurite retraction model, with culture supernatant of MT-2 cells (HTLV-I infected cell line that secretes theviral Tax protein) we observed neurite retraction and an increase in tau phosphorylation at T181. A disruptionof normal phosphorylation of tau protein in T181 could result in its dysfunction, contributing to axonal damage.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/cerebrospinal fluid , Tubulin/cerebrospinal fluid , tau Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid , Case-Control Studies , Cell Line, Tumor , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoblotting , Mass Spectrometry , Neurites/pathology , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Phosphorylation/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors
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