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2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253696, 2024. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355862

ABSTRACT

Abstract Transplanting time and genotype contribute to improving crop yield and quality of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of foliar applied of triacontanol (TRIA) and eggplant genotypes 25919, Nirala, 28389 and Pak-10927,transplanted on 1 March,15 March, and 1 April on exposure to high air temperature conditions. The experiment was performed according to Randomized Complete Block Design and the data was analyzed by using Tuckey,s test . The TRIA was applied at 10µM at flowering stage; distilled water was used as the control. Rate of photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and effects on antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) were evaluated. The 10µM TRIA increased photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency and yield was improved in all genotypes transplanted at the different dates. Foliar application of 10µM TRIA increased antioxidative enzyme activities (SOD, POD & CAT) and improved physiological as well as biochemical attributes of eggplant genotypes exposed to high heat conditions. Highest activity of dismutase enzyme 5.41mg/1g FW was recorded in Nirala genotype in second transplantation. Whereas, lowest was noted in PAK-10927 (2.30mg/g FW). Maximum fruit yield was found in accession 25919 (1.725kg per plant) at 1st transplantation with Triacontanol, whereas accession PAK-10927 gave the lowest yield (0.285 kg per plant) at control treatment on 3rd transplantation. Genotype, transplanting date and application of TRIA improved growth, yield and quality attributes under of heat stress in eggplant.


Resumo O tempo de transplante e o genótipo contribuem para melhorar a produtividade e a qualidade da cultura da berinjela (Solanum melongena L.). Um experimento de campo foi conduzido para investigar o impacto da aplicação foliar de triacontanol (TRIA) e genótipos de berinjela 25919, Nirala, 28389 e Pak-10927, transplantados em 1 de março, 15 de março e 1 de abril de exposição a condições de alta temperatura do ar. O experimento foi realizado de acordo com o Randomized Complete Block Design e os dados foram analisados pelo teste de Tuckey. O TRIA foi aplicado a 10 µM na fase de floração; água destilada foi utilizada como controle. Taxa de fotossíntese e transpiração, condutância estomática, eficiência do uso da água e efeitos sobre as enzimas antioxidantes (superóxido dismutase, catalase e peroxidase) foram avaliados. O TRIA 10 µM aumentou a taxa de fotossíntese e a eficiência do uso da água e o rendimento foi melhorado em todos os genótipos transplantados nas diferentes datas. A aplicação foliar de TRIA 10µM aumentou as atividades das enzimas antioxidantes (SOD, POD e CAT) e melhorou os atributos fisiológicos e bioquímicos de genótipos de berinjela expostos a condições de alto calor. A atividade mais elevada da enzima dismutase 5,41mg / 1g FW foi registrada no genótipo Nirala no segundo transplante. Considerando que o mais baixo foi observado em PAK-10927 (2,30 mg / g FW). A produtividade máxima de frutos foi encontrada no acesso 25919 (1,725 ​​kg por planta) no 1º transplante com Triacontanol, enquanto o acesso PAK-10927 deu a menor produção (0,285 kg por planta) no tratamento de controle no 3º transplante. Genótipo, data de transplante e aplicação de TRIA, melhoramento do crescimento, rendimento e atributos de qualidade sob estresse térmico em berinjela.


Subject(s)
Solanum melongena/genetics , Solanum melongena/metabolism , Photosynthesis , Heat-Shock Response , Fatty Alcohols , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252735, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Growth of plants is severely reduced due to water stress by affecting photosynthesis including photosystem II (PSII) activity and electron transport. This study emphasised on comparative and priority targeted changes in PSII activity due to progressive drought in seven populations of Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) collected from Cholistan Desert and non-Cholistan regions. Tillers of equal growth of seven populations of P. antidotale grown in plastic pots filled with soil were subjected progressive drought by withholding water irrigation for three weeks. Progressive drought reduced the soil moisture content, leaf relative water content, photosynthetic pigments and fresh and dry biomass of shoots in all seven populations. Populations from Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had higher growth than those of other populations. Cholistani populations especially in Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had greater ability of osmotic adjustment as reflected by osmotic potential and greater accumulation of total soluble proteins. Maximum H2O2 under water stress was observed in populations from Muzaffargarh and Khanewal but these were intermediate in MDA content. Under water stress, populations from Muzaffargarh and Dingarh Fort had greater K+ accumulation in their leaves. During progressive drought, non-Cholistani populations showed complete leaf rolling after 23 days of drought, and these populations could not withstand with more water stress condition while Cholistani populations tolerated more water stress condition for 31 days. Moreover, progressive drought caused PSII damages after 19 days and it became severe after 23 days in non-Cholistani populations of P. antidotale than in Cholistani populations.


Resumo O crescimento das plantas é severamente reduzido devido ao estresse hídrico, afetando a fotossíntese, incluindo a atividade do fotossistema II (PSII) e o transporte de elétrons. Este estudo enfatizou as mudanças comparativas e prioritárias na atividade do PSII devido à seca progressiva em sete populações de Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) coletadas no Deserto do Cholistão e regiões fora do Cholistão. Perfilhos de igual crescimento de sete populações de P. antidotale cultivadas em vasos de plástico cheios de solo foram submetidos à seca progressiva, retendo a irrigação com água por três semanas. A seca progressiva reduziu o teor de umidade do solo, teor de água relativo nas folhas, pigmentos fotossintéticos e biomassa fresca e seca dos brotos em todas as sete populações. Populações de Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali tiveram maior crescimento do que as de outras populações. As populações de Cholistani, especialmente em Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali, apresentaram maior capacidade de ajuste osmótico, refletido pelo potencial osmótico e maior acúmulo de proteínas solúveis totais. H2O2 máximo sob estresse hídrico foi observado em populações de Muzaffargarh e Khanewal, mas estas foram intermediárias no conteúdo de MDA. Sob estresse hídrico, as populações de Muzaffargarh e Dingarh Fort tiveram maior acúmulo de K+ em suas folhas. Durante a seca progressiva, as populações não cholistanesas mostraram rolagem completa das folhas após 23 dias de seca, e essas populações não conseguiram suportar mais condições de estresse hídrico, enquanto as populações cholistani toleraram mais condições de estresse hídrico por 31 dias. Além disso, a seca progressiva causou danos ao PSII após 19 dias e tornou-se severa após 23 dias em populações não cholistanesas de P. antidotale do que em populações cholistanesas.


Subject(s)
Panicum , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Desiccation , Droughts , Hydrogen Peroxide
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257739, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355883

ABSTRACT

Abstract Under salt stress conditions, plant growth is reduced due to osmotic, nutritional and oxidative imbalance. However, salicylic acid acts in the mitigation of this abiotic stress by promoting an increase in growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis of osmoregulators and antioxidant enzymes. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid doses on the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings under salt stress. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, where the treatments were distributed in randomized blocks using a central composite matrix Box with five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (CEw) (0.50; 1.08; 2.50; 3.92 and 4.50 dS m-1), associated with five doses of salicylic acid (SA) (0.00; 0.22; 0.75; 1.28 and 1.50 mM), with four repetitions and each plot composed of three plants. At 40 days after sowing, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, electrolyte leakage, relative water content, and total dry mass were determined. ECw and SA application influenced the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings. Increasing the ECw reduced growth in the absence of SA. Membrane damage with the use of SA remained stable up to 3.9 dS m-1 of ECw. The relative water content independent of the CEw increased with 1.0 mM of SA. The use of SA at the concentration of 1.0 mM mitigated the deleterious effect of salinity on seedling growth up to 2.50 dS m-1 of ECw.


Resumo Em condições de estresse salino, o crescimento das plantas é reduzido, em virtude, do desequilíbrio osmótico, nutricional e oxidativo. Contudo, o ácido salicílico atua na mitigação desse estresse abiótico por promover incremento no crescimento, fotossíntese, metabolismo do nitrogênio, síntese de osmorreguladores e enzimas antioxidantes. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de doses de ácido salicílico sobre o crescimento e alterações fisiológicas de mudas de berinjela sob estresse salino. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso utilizando uma matriz composta central Box com cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa) (0,50; 1,08; 2,50; 3,92 e 4,50 dS m-1), associada a cinco doses de ácido salicílico (AS) (0,00; 0,22; 0,75; 1,28 e 1,50 mM), com quatro repetições e cada parcela composta por três plantas. Aos 40 dias após a semeadura, foram determinados a altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, área foliar, vazamento de eletrólito, teor relativo de água e massa seca total. A CEa e a aplicação de AS influenciaram no crescimento e nas alterações fisiológicas das mudas de berinjela. O aumento da CEa reduziu o crescimento na ausência de AS. O dano de membrana com o uso de AS manteve-se estável até 3,9 dS m-1 de CEa. O conteúdo relativo de água independentemente da CEa aumentou com 1 mM de SA. O uso de AS na concentração de 1 mM mitigou o efeito deletério da salinidade no crescimento das mudas até 2,50 dS m-1 de CEa.


Subject(s)
Salicylic Acid/pharmacology , Solanum melongena/metabolism , Photosynthesis , Stress, Physiological , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Seedlings , Salinity , Salt Tolerance , Antioxidants/metabolism
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252364, 2024. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355885

ABSTRACT

Abstract Understanding morphological and physiological changes under different light conditions in native fruit species in juveniles' stage is important, as it indicate the appropriate environment to achieve vigorous saplings. We aimed to verify growth and morphophysiological changes under shade gradient in feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret) to achieve good quality saplings adequate to improve cultivation in orchards. The saplings were grown for twenty-one-month under four shading treatments (0%, 30%, 50%, and 80%). Growth, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf anatomy parameters were evaluated. Saplings under full sun and 30% shade had higher height and diameter growth and dry mass accumulation due to higher photosynthesis rate. As main acclimatization mechanisms in feijoa saplings under 80% shade were developed larger leaf area, reduced leaf blade thickness, and enhanced quantum yield of photosystem II. Even so, the net CO2 assimilation and the electron transport rate was lower and, consequently, there was a restriction on the growth and dry mass in saplings under deep shade. Therefore, to obtain higher quality feijoa saplings, we recommend that it be carried out in full sun or up to 30% shade, to maximize the sapling vigor in nurseries and, later, this light environment can also be used in orchards for favor growth and fruit production.


Resumo A verificação de mudanças morfológicas e fisiológicas sob diferentes condições luminosas em espécies frutíferas nativas em estágio juvenil é importante, uma vez que indicam o ambiente adequado para a formação de mudas com alto vigor. Objetivou-se verificar o crescimento e as alterações morfofisiológicas sob gradiente de sombreamento em mudas de feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret) para obter mudas de boa qualidade, adequadas para fomentar os plantios da espécie em pomares. As mudas foram cultivadas por vinte e um meses sob quatro tratamentos de sombreamento (0%, 30%, 50% e 80%). Foram avaliados parâmetros de crescimento, pigmentos fotossintéticos, trocas gasosas, fluorescência da clorofila e anatomia foliar. Mudas a pleno sol e 30% de sombra apresentaram maior crescimento em altura, diâmetro e acúmulo de massa seca, devido à maior taxa de fotossíntese. Como principais mecanismos de aclimatação sob 80% de sombra, as mudas desenvolveram maior área foliar, redução da espessura do limbo foliar e aumento do rendimento quântico do fotossistema II. Mesmo assim, a assimilação líquida de CO2 e a taxa de transporte de elétrons foram menores e, consequentemente, houve restrição ao crescimento e acúmulo de massa seca das mudas no maior nível de sombreamento. Portanto, para a obtenção de mudas de feijoa de maior qualidade, recomendamos que seja realizada a pleno sol ou até 30% de sombra, para maximizar o vigor das mudas em viveiros e, posteriormente, este ambiente de luz também pode ser utilizado em pomares para favorecer o crescimento e a produção de frutos.


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae , Feijoa , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Acclimatization , Light
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244718, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278533

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the functioning of the photosystem II and quality of C. xanthocarpa seedlings cultivated under intermittent water deficit and shading levels and the influence of shading on recovery potential after suspension of the stress conditions. The seedlings were subjected to three levels of shading (0, 30, and 70%), six periods of evaluation (start: 0 days; 1st and 2nd photosynthesis zero: 1st and 2nd P0; 1st and 2nd recovery: 1stand 2nd REC; and END), and two forms of irrigation (control: periodically irrigated to maintain 70% substrate water retention capacity, and intermittent irrigation: suspension of irrigation). The plants subjected to intermittent irrigation conditions at 0% shading showed a reduction in water potential (Ψw) and potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and maximum efficiency of the photochemical process (Fv/F0) and an increase in basal quantum production of the non-photochemical processes (F0/Fm). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in the leaves than in the roots. The C. xanthocarpa is a species sensitive to water deficit but presents strategies to adapt to an environment under temporary water restriction, which are more temporary are most efficient under shading. The seedlings with water deficit at all levels of shading exhibited higher protective antioxidant activity and lower quality at 0% shading. The shading minimizes prevents permanent damage to the photosystem II and after the re-irrigation, the evaluated characteristics showed recovery with respect to the control group, except POD and SOD activities in the leaves.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade de enzimas antioxidantes, o funcionamento do fotossistema II e a qualidade de mudas de C. xanthocarpa cultivadas sob déficit hídrico intermitente e níveis de sombreamento e a influência do sombreamento sobre o potencial de recuperação após suspensão das condições de estresse. As mudas foram submetidas a três níveis de sombreamento (0, 30 e 70%), seis períodos de avaliação (início: 0 dias; 1ª e 2ª fotossíntese zero: 1ª e 2ª P0; 1ª e 2ª recuperação: 1ª e 2ª REC; e final), e duas formas de irrigação (controle: periodicamente irrigado para manter 70% da capacidade de retenção de água do substrato, e irrigação intermitente: suspensão da irrigação). As plantas submetidas às condições de irrigação intermitente a 0% de sombreamento apresentaram redução do potencial hídrico (Ψw) e eficiência quântica potencial do fotossistema II (Fv/Fm) e máxima eficiência do processo fotoquímico (Fv/F0) e aumento da produção quantica basal dos processos não fotoquímicos (F0/Fm). A atividade da superóxido dismutase (SOD) foi maior nas folhas do que nas raízes. C. xanthocarpa é uma espécie sensível ao déficit hídrico, mas apresenta estratégias para se adaptar a um ambiente com restrição hídrica temporária, sendo mais eficientes sob sombreamento. As mudas com déficit hídrico em todos os níveis de sombreamento exibiram maior atividade antioxidante protetora e menor qualidade no sombreamento 0%. O sombreamento minimiza danos permanentes ao fotossistema II e após a re-irrigação, as características avaliadas apresentaram recuperação em relação ao grupo controle, exceto atividades de POD e SOD nas folhas.


Subject(s)
Water , Seedlings , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Antioxidants
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246451, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339402

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dipteryx alata Vogel is a tree species widely found in Cerrado, settling preferentially in well drained soils. Studies related to ecophysiology of D. alata may contribute to the decision making about using seedlings of this species in projects aimed at the recovery of degraded areas where seasonal flooding happens. This study aimed to assess the effects of flooding on photosynthetic and antioxidant metabolism and quality of D. alata seedlings cultivated or not under flooding during four assessment periods (0, 20, 40, and 60 days), followed by 100 days after the end of each assessment period (0+100, 20+100, 40+100, and 60+100 days), allowing verifying the potential for post-flooding recovery. Flooded plants showed lower photosynthetic efficiency than non-flooded plants, regardless of the periods of exposure. However, this efficiency was recovered in the post-flooding, with values similar to that of the non-flooded seedlings. Moreover, the damage to FV/FM was evidenced by an increase in the period of exposure to flooding, but recovery was also observed at this stage of the photosynthetic metabolism. Seedling quality decreased under flooding, not varying between periods of exposure, but remained lower although the increase observed in the post-flooding period, with no recovery after flooding. The occurrence of hypertrophied lenticels associated with physiological changes and an efficient antioxidant enzyme system might have contributed to the survival and recovery of these seedlings. Thus, this species is sensitive to flooding stress but capable of adjusting and recovering metabolic characteristics at 100 days after the suspension of the water stress, but with no recovery in seedling quality. Thus, we suggested plasticity under the cultivation condition and determined that the time of 100 days is not enough for the complete resumption of growth.


Resumo Dipteryx alata Vogel é uma arbórea de ampla ocorrência no Cerrado, se estabelecendo preferencialmente em solos bem drenados. Estudos referentes à ecofisiologia de D. alata em podem contribuir para a tomada de decisão sobre o uso de mudas dessa espécie em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas sujeitas a alagamento temporário. Objetivamos com essa pesquisa avaliar os efeitos do alagamento no metabolismo fotossintético e antioxidante, além da qualidade de mudas dessa espécie, cultivadas ou não sob alagamento durante quatro períodos de avaliação (0, 20, 40 e 60 dias) seguidos de 100 dias após o término de cada período (0+100, 20+100, 40+100, 60+100 dias), possibilitando verificar o potencial de recuperação pós-alagamento. Observamos que as plantas alagadas apresentaram menor eficiência fotossintética e danos em FV/FM entretanto houve recuperação dessas características no pós alagamento. A qualidade das mudas reduziu sob alagamento não variando entre os períodos de exposição e embora tenha aumentado no pós-alagamento manteve-se menor não se recuperando. A ocorrência de lenticelas hipertrofiadas associadas a alterações fisiológicas e um eficiente sistema enzimático antioxidante devem ter contribuído para a sobrevivência e recuperação metabólica dessas mudas. Diante disso, sugerimos que a espécie é sensível ao estresse por alagamento, mas capaz de se ajustar e recuperar as características metabólicas 100 dias após a suspensão deste estresse hídrico, no entanto a qualidade da mudas não apresentou recuperação, assim, sugerimos plasticidade diante da condição de cultivo e ressaltamos que o tempo de 100 dias não é suficiente para a completa retomada do crescimento.


Subject(s)
Seedlings , Dipteryx , Photosynthesis , Floods , Antioxidants
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244331, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249255

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on gas exchange and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of Ormosia arborea (Vell.) Harms seedlings under water deficit and its influence on the recovery potential of the seedlings. The experiment was conducted using four treatments, being daily irrigation or water restriction without and with 10 μM ABA. Seedlings under water deficit + ABA showed greater adjustment to drought, and when re-irrigated, they restored photosynthetic metabolism and water potential. ABA minimizes the reduction in the photosynthetic metabolism and water potential of the leaf, however, it does not increase the antioxidant activity of the O. arborea seedlings under water deficit. These results suggest that this species exhibits plasticity, which enables it to survive also in environments subjected to temporary water deficit regardless of the supplementation of ABA. We suggest that other doses of ABA be researched to expand the beneficial effect of ABA on this species.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ácido abscísico (ABA) nas trocas gasosas e na atividade de enzimas antioxidantes de mudas de Ormosia arborea (Vell.) Harms sob deficiência hídrica e sua influência no potencial de recuperação das mudas. O experimento foi conduzido com quatro tratamentos, sendo eles irrigação diária ou restrição hídrica sem e com 10 μM ABA. As mudas sob déficit hídrico + ABA apresentaram maior ajuste à seca e ao serem re-irrigadas restabeleceram o metabolismo fotossintético e o potencial hídrico. O ABA minimizou a redução do metabolismo fotossintético e do potencial da água na folha, porém, não aumentou a atividade antioxidante de mudas de O. arborea sob déficit hídrico. Esses resultados sugerem que esta espécie apresenta plasticidade fisiológica, o que lhe permite sobreviver em ambientes sujeitos a déficit hídrico temporário, independente da suplementação de ABA. Sugerimos que outras doses de ABA sejam avaliadas para ampliar os efeitos benéficos do ABA sobre esta espécie.


Subject(s)
Water , Abscisic Acid , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Droughts , Antioxidants
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190580, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285547

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Azospirillum brasilense stimulates root growth in maize under water deficit. Maize inoculated with A. brasilense shows greater photosynthesis under drought conditions. Under water deficit, maize plants inoculated with A. brasilense showed greater water use efficiency (WUE).


Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the gas exchange, root morphology and nutrient concentration in maize plants inoculated with A. brasilense under two water conditions. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse, one under irrigation and the other under water deficit. The treatments consisted of four A. brasilense inoculants (control (without inoculation), Az1 (CMS 7 + 26), Az2 (CMS 11 + 26) and Az3 (CMS 26 +42). At the V6 plant stage, water stress was imposed on maize plants for 15 days. The phytotechnical characteristics, gas exchange, root morphology, root dry matter and macronutrient analysis were evaluated after 15 days of water deficit imposition. The water deficit caused a reduction in the development of maize plants. The presence of A. brasilense Az1 under the same condition yielded higher photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, water use efficiency, and greater soil exploration with increased length, surface area and root volume of plants. Inoculation by A. brasilense increased root system volume by an average of 40 and 47% under irrigation and water deficit, respectively, when compared to non-inoculated plants. The inoculant Az1 attenuated the deleterious effects caused by drought and yielded the best growth of the root system, resulting in the tolerance of maize plants to water deficit.


Subject(s)
Photosynthesis , Water Consumption (Environmental Health) , Zea mays , Efficient Water Use/methods
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1229-1236, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878626

ABSTRACT

Lactate is an important industrial chemical and widely used in various industries. In recent years, with the increasing demand for polylactic acid (PLA), the demand for lactate raw materials is also increasing. The contradiction between the high cost and the market demand caused by the heterotrophic production of lactate attracts researchers to seek other favorable solutions. The production of lactate from photosynthetic carbon fixation by cyanobacteria is a potential new raw material supply strategy. Based on the photosynthetic autotrophic cell factory, it can directly produce high optical purity lactate from carbon dioxide on a single platform driven by solar energy. The raw materials are cheap and easy to obtain, the process is simple and controllable, the products are clear and easy to separate, and the double effects of energy saving and emission reduction and production of high value-added products are achieved at the same time, which has important research and application value. This paper reviews the development history of cyanobacteria carbon sequestration to produce lactate, summarizes its research progress and encounters technical difficulties from the aspects of metabolic basis, metabolic engineering strategy, metabolic kinetics analysis and technical application, and prospects the future of this technology.


Subject(s)
Carbon Cycle , Carbon Dioxide , Cyanobacteria/genetics , Lactic Acid , Metabolic Engineering , Photosynthesis
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 625-634, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878587

ABSTRACT

Microcystis aeruginosa, a type of algal bloom microalgae, is widely distributed in water, causing serious deteriorated effects on humans and the ecological environment. As a biocontrol microorganism, Bacillus subtilis can synthesize various bioactive substances through non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, to inhibit the growth of M. aeruginosa. Thus, it is imperative to investigate the non-ribosomal peptide (NRP) metabolites of B. subtilis fmb60. Three NRP metabolites from B. subtilis fmb60 including bacillibactin, surfactin and fengycin were extracted and identified by genome mining technology. The growth inhibition of M. aeruginosa was studied by adding various concentrations of NRP metabolites. The half-effect concentration value (EC50.4 d) of M. aeruginosa was 26.5 mg/L after incubation for 4 days. With the increasing concentration, the inhibitory effects of NRP metabolites of B. subtilis fmb60 on M. aeruginosa was enhanced significantly. Compared with the control group, with the addition of 50 mg/L NRP metabolites to the M. aeruginosa, the content of Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo and Yield parameter after cultured for 4 days were decreased by 2.8%, 1.7% and 2.0%, respectively. Those findings indicate that the NRP metabolites of B. subtilis fmb60 can significantly inhibit the photosynthesis and metabolism of M. aeruginosa, which provides a theoretical foundation for the development of biological algae inhibitor of B. subtilis.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis , Humans , Microcystis , Peptides , Photosynthesis
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 631-640, July-Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132427

ABSTRACT

Abstract It is a fact that the regions that cultivate the most maize crop do not have fully adequate technologies to measure productivity losses caused by irregularities in water availability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological characteristics of maize hybrids tolerant (DKB 390) and sensitive (BRS 1030) to drought, at V5 growth stage and under water restriction, in order to understand the mechanisms involved in the induction of tolerance to drought by chitosan in contrasting maize genotypes. Plants were cultivated in pots at a greenhouse, and chitosan 100 ppm was applied by leaf spraying. The water restriction was imposed for 10 days and then leaf gaseous exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. The tolerant hybrid (DKB 390) showed higher photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, carboxylation efficiency, electron transport rate, and non-photochemical quenching when chitosan was used. Plants from tolerant genotype treated with chitosan were more tolerant to water stress because there were more responsive to the biopolymer.


Resumo As regiões que cultivam milho como cultura principal ainda não possuem tecnologias adequadas para mensurar as perdas na produtividade decorrentes na disponibilidade irregular de água. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar as características fisiológicas de híbridos de milho tolerante (DKB 390) e sensível (BRS1030) à seca, no estádio de crescimento V5 e sob restrição hídrica, para compreender os mecanismos envolvidos na indução de tolerância à seca pela quitosana em genótipos contrastantes. As plantas foram cultivadas vasos na casa de vegetação e a quitosana 100 ppm foi aplicada por pulverização foliar. A restrição hídrica durou 10 dias e foram avaliadas as trocas gasosas e a fluorescência da clorofila. O híbrido tolerante (DKB 390) apresentou maior fotossíntese, condutância estomática, eficiência de carboxilação, taxa de transporte de elétrons e quenching não fotoquímico quando aplicada a quitosana. As plantas do genótipo tolerante tratadas com quitosana foram mais tolerantes ao déficit hídrico porque foram mais responsivas ao biopolímero.


Subject(s)
Zea mays , Chitosan , Photosynthesis , Stress, Physiological , Water , Plant Leaves , Droughts
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 702-712, 01-05-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146497

ABSTRACT

The aluminum in high levels in the soil affects the emergence, growth, and development of various species. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the emergence and physiological behavior of four provenances of Jatropha curcas subjected to different levels of aluminum. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design, with four levels of aluminum in the soil (8.2, 16.5, 24.0 mmolc·dm-3 and control) and four provenances of J. curcas seeds (P1 = Dourados-MS, P2 = Montes Claros-MG, P3 = Alta Floresta-MT, and P4 = Petrolina-PE); the effects of aluminum toxicity were investigated in 25, 50, 75, and 100 days after emergence. The levels of aluminum in the soil were collected from the initial soil correction, which featured an aluminum level of 24.0 mmolc dm-3. The seedling emergence was not affected by treatment with aluminum; however, the height and leaf area of P1, P2, and P3 were reduced with increasing levels of aluminum. The emergence and vigor of J. curcas seeds were not influenced by the differences in the origins of the seeds or by the aluminum levels evaluated. Gas exchanges were affected negatively by aluminum and the responses of the chlorophyll a fluorescence indicate harmful effect in the photosynthetic apparatus. The seeds of origin P4 (Petrolina-PE) has increased tolerance to stress conditions.


O alumínio em níveis elevados no solo afeta a emergência, o crescimento e o desenvolvimento de diversas espécies. Diante disso, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a emergência e o comportamento fisiológico de quatro procedências de Jatropha curcas submetidas a diferentes níveis de alumínio. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro níveis de alumínio no solo (8,2; 16,5 e 24,0 mmolc dm-3 e o controle) e quatro procedências de sementes de J. curcas (P1 = Dourados-MS P2 = Montes Claros-MG, P3 = Alta Floresta-MT e P4 = Petrolina-PE), e os efeitos da toxicidade do alumínio foram investigados aos 25, 50, 75 e 100 dias após a emergência. A emergência das plântulas não foi afetada pelo tratamento com alumínio; no entanto, a altura e a área foliar de P1, P2 e P3 foram reduzidas com níveis crescentes de alumínio. A emergência e o vigor das plântulas das procedências não foram afetados pelos níveis de alumínio avaliados. A taxa fotossintética, taxa de transpiração e condutância estomática também foram reduzidas quando as plantas foram cultivadas em solo contendo altas níveis de alumínio. As plantas P4 foram menos sensíveis aos níveis crescentes de alumínio.


Subject(s)
Soil , Jatropha , Aluminum , Photosynthesis , Soil Analysis , Growth and Development , Control , Toxicity , Chlorophyll A
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 152-160, jan./feb. 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049228

ABSTRACT

The knowledge of gas exchanges in forage plants is essential for a better understanding of the process of forage biomass production in pasture. This study evaluated the gas exchange in massai grass fertilized with increasing levels of nitrogen fertilizer (control - without nitrogen fertilizer; 400; 800 and 1200 kg ha-1year-1) and under rotational grazing by sheep, in a completely randomized design with repeated measures in time. The rest period was approximately 1.5 new leaves per tiller, as determined in the pre-test at the beginning of the experiment, providing interval of 22; 18; 16 and 13 days for the levels 0.0 - control; 400; 800 and 1200 kg ha-1 year-1 nitrogen, respectively. The animals used to lower the sward height to the recommended residual height were sheep (½ Morada Nova x ½ undefined breed), placed in paddocks of 42.3 m2. As the animals grazed, the height of the sward was monitored with a ruler until the canopy reached the recommended residual height of approximately 15 cm, corresponding to the residual LAI of exit of the animals from the paddock at approximately 1.5, as determined in a pre-test to set up the experiment. The variables stomatal conductance, leaf photosynthesis rate, leaf carbon dioxide concentration, photosynthesis/transpiration ratio, chlorophyll relative index and nitrogen sufficiency index revealed a positive linear response to nitrogen fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization level at 1200 kg ha-1year-1 caused an increment of 92.3% in leaf photosynthesis rate in relation to the control. The leaf temperature and photosynthesis/conductance ratio were reduced with increasing nitrogen levels. The leaf transpiration showed a quadratic response with maximum point with increasing nitrogen levels. Nitrogen fertilization favor the gas exchange in massai grass up to the last level tested.


O conhecimento das trocas gasosas em plantas forrageiras é essencial para melhor entendimento de como ocorre o processo de produção de biomassa de forragem na pastagem. Objetivou-se avaliar as trocas gasosas no capim-massai submetido a crescentes doses de nitrogênio (controle - sem nitrogênio; 400; 800 e 1200 kg ha-1 ano-1) e sob lotação rotativa com ovinos, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado com medidas repetidas no tempo. O período de descanso adotado foi de aproximadamente 1,5 novas folhas por perfilho, conforme determinação em pré-ensaio quando do início da instalação do experimento, propiciando um intervalo de 22; 18; 16 e 13 dias para as doses 0,0 ­ controle; 400; 800 e 1200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de nitrogênio, respectivamente. Os animais utilizados para rebaixamento do pasto até a altura residual preconizada foram ovinos (½ Morada Nova x ½ SPRD), alocados em piquetes de 42,3 m2. À medida que os animais pastejavam, a altura do pasto foi monitorada com auxílio de uma régua, até que o dossel atingisse a altura residual preconizada de aproximadamente 15 cm, correspondendo ao IAF residual de saída dos animais do piquete de aproximadamente 1,5, conforme determinação em pré-ensaio para instalação do experimento. As variáveis: condutância estomática, taxa de fotossíntese foliar, concentração interna de CO2, relação fotossíntese/transpiração, índice relativo de clorofila e índice de suficiência de nitrogênio responderam de forma linear crescente ao incremento nas doses de nitrogênio. Verificou-se aumento de 92,3% na taxa de fotossíntese para a dose de N de 1200 kg ha-1 ano-1 em relação à ausência de nitrogênio. A temperatura da folha e a relação fotossíntese/condutância foram reduzidas com o aumento das doses de nitrogênio. A adubação nitrogenada proporcionou resposta quadrática com ponto de máximo sobre a taxa de transpiração foliar. A adubação nitrogenada favorece as trocas gasosas em capim-massai até a última dose estudada.


Subject(s)
Photosynthesis , Sheep , Biomass , Panicum , Nitrogen
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2126-2138, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878472

ABSTRACT

Development of "liquid sunshine" could be a key technology to deal with the issue of fossil fuel depletion. β-caryophyllene is a terpene compound with high energy density and has attracted attention for its potential application as a jet fuel. The high temperature and high light-tolerant photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 (hereafter Synechococcus 2973), whose doubling time is as short as 1.5 h, has great potential for synthesizing β-caryophyllene using sunlight and CO₂. In this study, a production of ~121.22 μg/L β-caryophyllene was achieved at 96 h via a combined strategy of pathway construction, key enzyme optimization and precursor supply enhancement. In addition, a final production of ~212.37 μg/L at 96 h was realized in a high-density cultivation. To our knowledge, this is the highest production reported for β-caryophyllene using cyanobacterial chassis and our study provide important basis for high-density fuel synthesis in cyanobacteria.


Subject(s)
Biofuels/microbiology , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Light , Photosynthesis , Synechococcus/radiation effects
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 652-665, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827003

ABSTRACT

Co-culture systems consisted of photosynthetic microorganisms and others heterotrophic microbes have attracted great attention in recent years. These systems show many advantages when compared with single culture grown under autotrophic conditions, such as less vulnerable to pollution and more stability, thus have been applied to wastewater treatment, soil remediation, biodegradable harmful substances, and production of high value-added products. In order to explore basic theory and further applications, we summarize here recent progresses in artificial co-culture systems of using photosynthetic microorganisms, to provide a current scientific understanding for the rational design of the co-culture system based on photosynthetic microorganisms using synthetic biology.


Subject(s)
Coculture Techniques , Heterotrophic Processes , Microbiological Techniques , Microbiota , Physiology , Photosynthesis , Physiology , Synthetic Biology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880483

ABSTRACT

Protein lysine methylation is a prevalent post-translational modification (PTM) and plays critical roles in all domains of life. However, its extent and function in photosynthetic organisms are still largely unknown. Cyanobacteria are a large group of prokaryotes that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis and are applied extensively in studies of photosynthetic mechanisms and environmental adaptation. Here we integrated propionylation of monomethylated proteins, enrichment of the modified peptides, and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to identify monomethylated proteins in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis). Overall, we identified 376 monomethylation sites in 270 proteins, with numerous monomethylated proteins participating in photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. We subsequently demonstrated that CpcM, a previously identified asparagine methyltransferase in Synechocystis, could catalyze lysine monomethylation of the potential aspartate aminotransferase Sll0480 both in vivo and in vitro and regulate the enzyme activity of Sll0480. The loss of CpcM led to decreases in the maximum quantum yield in primary photosystem II (PSII) and the efficiency of energy transfer during the photosynthetic reaction in Synechocystis. We report the first lysine monomethylome in a photosynthetic organism and present a critical database for functional analyses of monomethylation in cyanobacteria. The large number of monomethylated proteins and the identification of CpcM as the lysine methyltransferase in cyanobacteria suggest that reversible methylation may influence the metabolic process and photosynthesis in both cyanobacteria and plants.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Lysine/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Photosynthesis , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Synechocystis/growth & development
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 691-704, may./jun. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048627

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of seasonal droughts is one of the main factors that limit the sugarcane ratoon cycles, compromising sugarcane field longevity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical responses of sugarcane cultivars to drought stress in ratoon crop. Six cultivars were used: RB72910, RB99382, RB72454, RB92579, RB855536 and RB931011, and three water regimes based on soil available water content(SAWC) and defined as: control, 80 to 100% (SAWC); moderate water stress, 40 to 60% (SAWC), and severewater stress, 0 to 20% (SAWC). Cultivar RB72454 was most sensitive to water deficit. When under stress, this cultivar showed an increased production of hydrogen peroxide, but without concomitant increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase. Oxidative stress led to lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll degradation, resulting in higher photochemical photoinhibition. On the other hand, cultivar RB92579 was the most tolerant to drought, with increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, which led to low lipid peroxidation, maintenance of photosynthetic pigments and photochemical activity. The antioxidant defense system triggered by ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes appears to be a key protection factor to photochemical complexes of chloroplast of sugarcane plants under water stress. The increase in the antioxidant system as well as the maintenance of photosynthetic pigments and cell membranes served as important criteria to indicate cultivars more tolerant to drought stress.


A ocorrência de secas sazonais é um dos principais fatores que limitam a longevidade do canavial. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as respostas bioquímicas de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar em seu segundo ciclo de cultivo a condições de estresse hídrico. Para tanto, foram utilizadas seis cultivares: RB72910, RB99382, RB72454, RB92579, RB855536 e RB931011, e três regimes hídricos, baseado na capacidade de água disponível (CAD) e definidos como: controle, 80 a 100% (CAD); estresse hídrico moderado, 40 a 60% (CAD), e estresse hídrico severo, 0 a 20% (CAD). A cultivar RB72454 se mostrou a mais sensível ao déficit hídrico. Essa cultivar mostrou aumento na produção de peróxido de hidrogênio, mas sem aumento concomitante das enzimas antioxidantes ascorbato peroxidase, catalase e superóxido dismutase. Esse estresse oxidativo levou a peroxidação de lipídeos das membranas e degradação das clorofilas, resultando na diminuição da eficiência fotoquímica do PSII. Por outro lado, a cultivar RB92579 foi a mais tolerante à seca, com aumento de atividade das enzimas antioxidantes, que levou a baixa peroxidação de lipídeos, manutenção dos pigmentos fotossintéticos e da eficiência fotoquímica do PSII. O sistema de defesa antioxidante desencadeado pelas enzimas ascorbato peroxidase, catalase e superóxido dismutase parece ser o fator chave de proteção à fotoinibição de plantas de cana-de-açúcar sob estresse hídrico. O aumento do sistema antioxidante, bem como a manutenção dos pigmentos fotossintéticos e das membranas celulares serviram como critérios importantes para indicar cultivares mais tolerantes ao estresse hídrico.


Subject(s)
Photosynthesis , Chlorophyll , Photooxidation , Dehydration , Saccharum
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 67(1): 94-106, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041897

ABSTRACT

Resumen Para los próximos 100 años se pronostica un incremento en la temperatura del planeta de casi 4 °C, lo cual pondrá en riesgo las especies que no logren adaptarse. En esta investigación se determinaron las respuestas morfofisiológicas de F. mexicana y los cambios en la población de bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno atmosférico (BFN) asociadas a sus raíces, debido a dos condiciones ambientales con diferencias medias de temperatura de 5.1 oC: invernadero (temperatura alta, TA) y campo abierto (temperatura baja, TB); y con cuatro tratamientos: sin inocular (T), inoculadas con la cepa ocho (CP8), cepa cuatro (CP4) y con ambas cepas (CP8 + 4). Las BFN fueron aisladas de la rizosfera de F. mexicana y transformadas genéticamente con reporteros, para cuantificar la población al final del experimento. Se midió el peso seco de la parte aérea y la raíz, la tasa de asimilación de CO2 (A), el inicio de la floración, el número de flores y frutos; y la persistencia de las bacterias fijadoras de N atmosférico (BFN). Además, se evaluó la concentración de NO3, NH4, P y materia orgánica (MO) en el sustrato, al inicio y final del experimento. Las plantas sometidas a alta temperatura presentaron mayor peso seco de la parte aérea y fotosíntesis; con una disminución en el peso seco de la raíz, y en el número de flores y frutos. La MO en el sustrato disminuyó, mientras que la disponibilidad de NO3, NH4 y P aumentó. El incremento de temperatura y la mayor presencia de N en el substrato provocaron reducción en la población de BFN. Estos resultados sugieren que temperaturas altas estimulan el crecimiento de F. mexicana y tienen un impacto negativo sobre su reproducción y en las BFN asociadas a sus raíces.(AU)


Abstract The earth could experience a warming of 4 °C in the next one hundred years. This would put at risk the plants that can´t adapt. Fragaria mexicana is an endemic plant of temperate forest of Mexico. The response of this wild strawberry to temperature increasing has not been studied and could play an important role for event of global warming. This study determinate the morphological and physiological responses of F. mexicana and changes in the N2-fixing bacteria (BFN) population on its roots, due to two environmental conditions with differences of temperature 5.1 °C: greenhouse (high temperature, TA) and open land (low temperature, TB); and with four free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria (BFN) treatments: non-inoculated (T), inoculated with strain eight (CP8), strain four (CP4), and strains eight and four mixed (CP8 + 4). BFN were isolated from the rhizosphere of F. mexicana and were genetically transformed with reporters to quantify the population at the end of the experiment. NO3, NH4 and P and organic matter (MO) in the substrate were determined at beginning and finish of the experiment. Shoot and root dry weight, photosynthetic rate, flowering and fructification starting, flowers and fruits number, were measured. Shoot dry weight and photosynthetic rate were lower in TB than TA, decreasing 3.1 g and 0.94 µmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Root dry weight was 3.0 g less in TA compared with TB. Number flowers decrease in 40.89 % and number fruits in 38.11 % on TA than TB. F. mexicana plants start flowering 14 days previously in TB than TA. MO in the substrate decrease in TA, while the concentration of NO3, NH4 and P, increased. Population of BFN was lower in TA. Results obtained indicated that higher temperature promotes the growth of F. mexicana and reduce its reproduction and BNF population associated with its roots.(AU)


Subject(s)
Photosynthesis , Organic Matter , Global Warming , Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria , Mexico
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(1): 67-78, jan./fev. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048561

ABSTRACT

In the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil, water salinity is one of the main abiotic factors limiting crop growth and development. However, given the water scarcity affecting this region, the use of waters with moderate to high salt contents becomes necessary to irrigate crops. Thus, generating technologies that enable the use of saline waters is an essential alternative to the agricultural development of this region. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate photosynthesis, photochemical efficiency and growth of West Indian cherry, as a function of irrigation with saline waters and nitrogen (N) fertilization, in the post-grafting stage. The experiment was carried out in drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions, using a typic eutrophic Regolithic Neosol with sandy loam texture, in the municipality of Campina Grande-PB, Brazil. Treatments consisted of the combination between five levels of electrical conductivity of water ­ ECw (0.8; 1.6; 2.4; 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1) and four N doses ­ ND (50; 75; 100 and 125 g of N plant-1 per year), arranged in a randomized block design, with 3 replicates. Gas exchanges, chlorophyll a fluorescence and growth of West Indian cherry were compromised by saline water irrigation, regardless of N dose. Irrigation with ECw higher than 0.8 dS m-1 caused damages to the photosystem II reaction centers of West Indian cherry. Nitrogen doses did not mitigate the deleterious effects caused by irrigation water salinity on photosynthesis, photochemical efficiency and growth of West Indian cherry.


Na região semiárida do Nordeste brasileiro, a salinidade da água é um dos principais fatores abióticos que restringem o crescimento e o desenvolvimento das culturas. Contudo, diante do quadro de escassez hídrica que afeta esta região, a utilização de águas com teores salinos de moderado a alto, faz-se necessário na irrigação das culturas. Desse modo, a geração de tecnologias que permitam o uso de águassalinas, constitui uma alternativa essencial para o desenvolvimento agrícola desta região. Neste contexto, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a fotossíntese, eficiência fotoquímica e o crescimento da aceroleira, em função da irrigação com águas salinas e adubação nitrogenada, na fase pós-enxertia. O experimento foi conduzido em lisímetros de drenagem sob condições de casa-de-vegetação, utilizando-se um Neossolo Regolítico Eutrófico típico de textura franco-arenosa, no município de Campina Grande-PB. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da combinação entre cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água - CEa (0,8; 1,6; 2,4; 3,2 e 4,0 dS m-1) e quatro doses de nitrogênio ­ DN (50; 75; 100 e 125 g de N planta-1 por ano), distribuído no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 3 repetições. As trocas gasosas, a fluorescência da clorofilaa e o crescimento da aceroleira foram comprometidos pela irrigação com águas salinas, independentemente da adubação com nitrogênio. A irrigação com CEa superior a 0,8 dS m-1 provocou danos nos centros de reação do fotossistema II da aceroleira. As doses de nitrogênio não mitigaram os efeitos deletérios ocasionados pela salinidade da água de irrigação sobre a fotossíntese, eficiência fotoquímica e o crescimento da aceroleira.


Subject(s)
Photochemistry , Photosynthesis , Saline Waters , Malpighiaceae , Agricultural Irrigation , Nitrogen
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