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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 72(1): e49359, ene.-dic. 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1559319

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: A recent revision of the generic classification of the Trochilidae based on DNA sequences revealed many inconsistencies with the current generic classification, largely based on plumage characters subject to homoplasy, especially in the Trochilini, the largest tribe. A thorough generic reorganization brought the classification into accord with the phylogeny, but due to lack of genetic data, two species remained unclassified. One of these was the Mangrove Hummingbird, "Amazilia" boucardi, endemic to Costa Rica and included in the IUCN red list of threatened species. Objective: To obtain molecular evidence to clarify the generic relationships of "A." boucardi. Methods: We isolated DNA from tissues of this species and amplified 4 nuclear and 4 mitochondrial fragments and compared these with homologous fragments from 56 species in the Trochilini, constructing phylogenetic trees with maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Results: Our phylogenetic analyses confirmed the placement of boucardi in the Trochilini and definitely excluded it from Amazilia but placed it with high confidence in the genus Chrysuronia Bonaparte, 1850, within which its closest relative is C. coeruleogularis, which also inhabits mangroves. Conclusions: Our genetic data based on nuclear and mitochondrial regions clearly indicate the relationship of A. boucardi and L. coeruleogularis. Moreover, it is also supported by their habitat distribution in the mangroves of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Western Panama. Therefore, we suggested to exclude A. boucardi as "incertae sedis".


Resumen Introducción: Una revisión reciente de la clasificación de la familia Trochilidae con base en secuencias de ADN demostró muchas incongruencias con la clasificación genérica previa, que había sido hecho con base en caracteres del plumaje muy sujetos a homoplasia, especialmente en la tribu más grande, Trochillini. Una reorganización de los géneros logró llevar su clasificación genérica a la concordancia con la filogenia, pero debido a la ausencia de datos genéticos, dos especies permanecieron sin clasificar. Una de estas fue el colibrí de manglar Amazilia boucardi, una especie endémica de Costa Rica, considerada como amenazada en la lista roja de la UICN. Objetivo: Obtener evidencia molecular para esclarecer las relaciones genéricas de A. boucardi. Métodos: Se aisló ADN de tejidos de esta especie y se amplificaron 4 fragmentos de ADN del núcleo y 5 de la mitocondria, y se compararon con fragmentos homólogos de 56 especies en la tribu Trochillini, generando árboles filogenéticos con métodos de máxima verosimilitud y bayesiano. Resultados: Los análisis filogénticos obtenidos confirmaron la ubicación de boucardi en Trochilini y definitivamente la excluyó del género Amazilia, pero la ubicó con un alto grado de confianza en el género Chrysuronia Bonaparte, 1850, dentro los cuales su pariente más cercano es C. coeruleogularis, que también habita manglares. Conclusiones: Nuestros datos genéticos basados en regiones nucleares y mitocondriales indican claramente la relación entre A. boucardi and L. coeruleogularis. Es más, lo anterior se sustenta por su distribución en los manglares de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica y oeste de Panamá. Por lo tanto, sugerimos excluir a A. boucardi como "incertae sedis".


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds/classification , DNA/analysis , Phylogeny , Costa Rica , Genes, Mitochondrial
2.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 2-2, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010715

ABSTRACT

The human oral microbiome harbors one of the most diverse microbial communities in the human body, playing critical roles in oral and systemic health. Recent technological innovations are propelling the characterization and manipulation of oral microbiota. High-throughput sequencing enables comprehensive taxonomic and functional profiling of oral microbiomes. New long-read platforms improve genome assembly from complex samples. Single-cell genomics provides insights into uncultured taxa. Advanced imaging modalities including fluorescence, mass spectrometry, and Raman spectroscopy have enabled the visualization of the spatial organization and interactions of oral microbes with increasing resolution. Fluorescence techniques link phylogenetic identity with localization. Mass spectrometry imaging reveals metabolic niches and activities while Raman spectroscopy generates rapid biomolecular fingerprints for classification. Culturomics facilitates the isolation and cultivation of novel fastidious oral taxa using high-throughput approaches. Ongoing integration of these technologies holds the promise of transforming our understanding of oral microbiome assembly, gene expression, metabolites, microenvironments, virulence mechanisms, and microbe-host interfaces in the context of health and disease. However, significant knowledge gaps persist regarding community origins, developmental trajectories, homeostasis versus dysbiosis triggers, functional biomarkers, and strategies to deliberately reshape the oral microbiome for therapeutic benefit. The convergence of sequencing, imaging, cultureomics, synthetic systems, and biomimetic models will provide unprecedented insights into the oral microbiome and offer opportunities to predict, prevent, diagnose, and treat associated oral diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phylogeny , Biomimetics , Dysbiosis , Homeostasis , Mass Spectrometry
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 280-291, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008095

ABSTRACT

In this study, the chloroplast genome of Camellia insularis Orel & Curry was sequenced using high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that the chloroplast genome of C. insularis was 156 882 bp in length with a typical tetrad structure, encoding 132 genes, including 88 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Codon preference analysis revealed that the highest number of codons coded for leucine, with a high A/U preference in the third codon position. Additionally, 67 simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci were identified, with a preference for A and T bases. The inverted repeat (IR) boundary regions of the chloroplast genome of C. insularis were relatively conserved, except for a few variable regions. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that C. insularis was most closely related to C. fascicularis. Yellow camellia is a valuable material for genetic engineering breeding. This study provides fundamental genetic information on chloroplast engineering and offers valuable resources for conducting in-depth research on the evolution, species identification, and genomic breeding of yellow Camellia.


Subject(s)
Genome, Chloroplast/genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Breeding , Camellia/genetics , Chloroplasts/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 226-238, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008091

ABSTRACT

TCP family as plant specific transcription factor, plays an important role in different aspects of plant development. In order to screen TCP family members in tobacco, the homologous sequences of tobacco and Arabidopsis TCP family were identified by genome-wide homologous alignment. The physicochemical properties, phylogenetic relationships and cis-acting elements were analyzed by bioinformatics. The homologous genes of AtTCP3/AtTCP4 were screened, and RT-qPCR was used to detect the changes of gene expression upon 20% PEG6000 treatment. The results show that tobacco contains 63 TCP family members. Their amino acid sequence length ranged from 89 aa to 596 aa, and their protein hydropathicity grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY) ranged from -1.147 to 0.125. The isoelectric point (pI) ranges from 4.42 to 9.94, the number of introns is 0 to 3, and the subcellular location is all located in the nucleus. The results of conserved domain and phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that the tobacco TCP family can be divided into PCF, CIN and CYC/TB1 subfamilies, and each subfamily has a stable sequence. The results of cis-acting elements in gene promoter region showed that TCP family genes contain low docile acting elements (LTR) and a variety of stress and metabolic regulation related elements (MYB, MYC). Analysis of gene expression patterns showed that AtTCP3/AtTCP4 homologous genes (NtTCP6, NtTCP28, NtTCP30, NtTCP33, NtTCP42, NtTCP57, NtTCP63) accounted for 20% PEG6000 treatment significantly up-regulated/down-regulated expression, and NtTCP30 and NtTCP57 genes were selected as candidate genes in response to drought. The results of this study analyzed the TCP family in the tobacco genome and provided candidate genes for the study of drought-resistance gene function and variety breeding in tobacco.


Subject(s)
Nicotiana/genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Breeding , Amino Acid Sequence , Arabidopsis , Polyethylene Glycols
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 211-225, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008090

ABSTRACT

The banana Fusarium wilt (BFW) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race4 (FocTR4) is difficult to control worldwide, which causes a huge economic losse to banana industry. The purpose of this study was to screen Trichoderma strains with antagonistic activity against FocTR4, to isolate and purify the active compound from the fermentation broth, so as to provide important biocontrol strains and active compound resources. In this work, Trichoderma strains were isolated and screened from the rhizosphere soil of crops, and the strains capable of efficiently inhibiting FocTR4 were screened by plate confrontation, and further confirmed by testing inhibition for the conidial germination and mycelial growth of FocTR4. The phylogenetic tree clarified the taxonomic status of the biocontrol strains. Moreover, the active components in the fermentation broth of the strains were separated and purified by column chromatography, the structure of the most active component was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), the BFW control effect was tested by pot experiments. We obtained a strain JSHA-CD-1003 with antagonistic activity against FocTR4, and the inhibition rate from plate confrontation was 60.6%. The fermentation broth of JSHA-CD-1003 completely inhibited the germination of FocTR4 conidia within 24 hours. The inhibition rate of FocTR4 hyphae growth was 52.6% within 7 d. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the ITS and tef1-α gene tandem sequences, and JSHA-CD-1003 was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum. Purification and NMR identification showed that the single active compound was trichodermin, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 25 μg/mL. Pot experiments showed that the fermentation broth of strain JSHA-CD-1003 was effective against BFW. The control rate of leaf yellowing was 47.4%, and the rate of bulb browning was 52.0%. Therefore, JSHA-CD-1003 effectively inhibited FocTR4 conidial germination and mycelium growth through producing trichodermin, and showed biocontrol effect on banana wilt caused by FocTR4, thus is a potential biocontrol strain.


Subject(s)
Fusarium , Musa , Phylogeny , Trichodermin , Hypocreales
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 190-210, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008089

ABSTRACT

The Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) is an ancillary transcription initiation complex which is highly conserved. The ADA1 (alteration/deficiency in activation 1, also called histone H2A functional interactor 1, HFI1) is a subunit in the core module of the SAGA protein complex. ADA1 plays an important role in plant growth and development as well as stress resistance. In this paper, we performed genome-wide identification of banana ADA1 gene family members based on banana genomic data, and analyzed the basic physicochemical properties, evolutionary relationships, selection pressure, promoter cis-acting elements, and its expression profiles under biotic and abiotic stresses. The results showed that there were 10, 6, and 7 family members in Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana and Musa itinerans. The members were all unstable and hydrophilic proteins, and only contained the conservative SAGA-Tad1 domain. Both MaADA1 and MbADA1 have interactive relationship with Sgf11 (SAGA-associated factor 11) of core module in SAGA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that banana ADA1 gene family members could be divided into 3 classes. The evolution of ADA1 gene family members was mostly influenced by purifying selection. There were large differences among the gene structure of banana ADA1 gene family members. ADA1 gene family members contained plenty of hormonal elements. MaADA1-1 may play a prominent role in the resistance of banana to cold stress, while MaADA1 may respond to the Panama disease of banana. In conclusion, this study suggested ADA1 gene family members are highly conserved in banana, and may respond to biotic and abiotic stress.


Subject(s)
Musa/genetics , Phylogeny , Fungal Proteins , Cell Nucleus , Histones , Stress, Physiological/genetics
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 137-149, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008085

ABSTRACT

As one of the key enzymes in cell metabolism, the activity of citrate synthase 3 (CS3) regulates the substance and energy metabolism of organisms. The protein members of CS3 family were identified from the whole genome of apple, and bioinformatics analysis was performed and expression patterns were analyzed to provide a theoretical basis for studying the potential function of CS3 gene in apple. BLASTp was used to identify members of the apple CS3 family based on the GDR database, and the basic information of CS3 protein sequence, subcellular localization, domain composition, phylogenetic relationship and chromosome localization were analyzed by Pfam, SMART, MEGA5.0, clustalx.exe, ExPASy Proteomics Server, MEGAX, SOPMA, MEME, WoLF PSORT and other software. The tissue expression and inducible expression characteristics of 6 CS3 genes in apple were determined by acid content and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Apple CS3 gene family contains 6 members, and these CS3 proteins contain 473-608 amino acid residues, with isoelectric point distribution between 7.21 and 8.82. Subcellular localization results showed that CS3 protein was located in mitochondria and chloroplasts, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis divided them into 3 categories, and the number of genes in each subfamily was 2. Chromosome localization analysis showed that CS3 gene was distributed on different chromosomes of apple. The secondary structure of protein is mainly α-helix, followed by random curling, and the proportion of β-angle is the smallest. The 6 members were all expressed in different apple tissues. The overall expression trend from high to low was the highest relative expression content of MdCS3.4, followed by MdCS3.6, and the relative expression level of other members was in the order of MdCS3.3 > MdCS3.2 > MdCS3.1 > MdCS3.5. qRT-PCR results showed that MdCS3.1 and MdCS3.3 genes had the highest relative expression in the pulp of 'Chengji No. 1' with low acid content, and MdCS3.2 and MdCS3.3 genes in the pulp of 'Asda' with higher acid content had the highest relative expression. Therefore, in this study, the relative expression of CS3 gene in apple cultivars with different acid content in different apple varieties was detected, and its role in apple fruit acid synthesis was analyzed. The experimental results showed that the relative expression of CS3 gene in different apple varieties was different, which provided a reference for the subsequent study of the quality formation mechanism of apple.


Subject(s)
Citric Acid , Malus/genetics , Citrate (si)-Synthase , Phylogeny , Citrates
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248656, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several species of Cichla successfully colonized lakes and reservoirs of Brazil, since the 1960's, causing serious damage to local wildlife. In this study, 135 peacock bass were collected in a reservoir complex in order to identify if they represented a single dominant species or multiple ones, as several Cichla species have been reported in the basin. Specimens were identified by color pattern, morphometric and meristic data, and using mitochondrial markers COI, 16S rDNA and Control Region (CR). Overlapping morphological data and similar coloration patterns prevented their identification using the taxonomic keys to species identification available in the literature. However, Bayesian and maximum likelihood from sequencing data demonstrated the occurrence of a single species, Cichla kelberi. A single haplotype was observed for the 16S and CR, while three were detected for COI, with a dominant haplotype present in 98.5% of the samples. The extreme low diversity of the transplanted C. kelberi evidenced a limited number of founding maternal lineages. The success of this colonization seems to rely mainly on abiotic factors, such as increased water transparency of lentic environments that favor visual predators that along with the absence of predators, have made C. kelberi a successful invader of these reservoirs.


Resumo Muitas espécies de Cichla colonizaram com sucesso lagos e reservatórios do Brasil desde os anos 1960, causando graves prejuízos à vida selvagem nesses locais. Neste estudo, 135 tucunarés foram coletados em um complexo de reservatórios a fim de identificar se representavam uma espécie dominante ou múltiplas espécies, uma vez que diversas espécies de Cichla foram registradas na bacia. Os espécimes foram identificados com base na coloração, dados morfométricos e merísticos, e por marcadores mitocondriais COI, 16S rDNA e Região Controle (RC). A sobreposição dos dados morfométricos e o padrão similar de coloração impediram a identificação utilizando as chaves de identificação disponíveis na literatura. Entretanto, as análises bayesiana e de máxima verossimilhança de dados moleculares demonstraram a ocorrência de uma única espécie, Cichla kelberi. Um único haplótipo foi observado para o 16S e RC, enquanto três foram detectados para o COI, com um haplótipo dominante presente em 98,5% das amostras. A baixa diversidade nos exemplares introduzidos de C. kelberi evidenciou um número limitado de linhagens maternas fundadoras. O sucesso da invasão parece depender de fatores abióticos, como a maior transparência da água de ambientes lênticos que favorece predadores visuais que, atrelado à ausência de predadores, fez do C. kelberi um invasor bem-sucedido nesses reservatórios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Haplotypes/genetics , Lakes , Bayes Theorem
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249664, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345558

ABSTRACT

Abstract The impact of antibiotics on growth, cocoon production was assessed in addition to isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with silkworm gut of infected larvae. Larval rearing was maintained at recommended conditions of temperature and humidity. Silkworm larvae showing abnormal symptoms were collected from the control group and dissected for gut collection. Bacteria were isolated from the gut content by spreading on agar plates and incubated at 37 °C for 48 hrs. Bacterial identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (disc diffusion methods) by using Penicillin (10 µg/mL), Tetracycline (30 µg/mL), Amoxicillin (25 µg/mL), Ampicillin (10 µg/mL), and Erythromycin (15 µg/mL). All isolated strains showed positive results for the catalase test. We isolated and identified bacterial strains (n = 06) from the gut of healthy and diseased silkworm larvae. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolated bacteria showed close relation with Serratia, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas spp. Notably, 83.3% of strains were resistant to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Erythromycin but 16.6% showed antibiotic susceptibility to the above-mentioned commonly used antibiotics. Silkworm larvae fed on penicillin-treated leaves showed significant improvement in larval weight, larval length, and cocoon production. Significantly higher larval weight (6.88g), larval length (5.84cm), and cocoon weight (1.33g) were recorded for larvae fed on leaves treated with penicillin as compared to other antibiotics. Isolated bacterial strains showed close relation with Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.


Resumo O impacto dos antibióticos no crescimento e na produção do casulo foi avaliado, além do isolamento e caracterização das bactérias associadas ao intestino de larvas infectadas do bicho-da-seda. A criação das larvas foi mantida nas condições recomendadas de temperatura e umidade. As larvas do bicho-da-seda com sintomas anormais foram coletadas do grupo controle e dissecadas para coleta do intestino. As bactérias foram isoladas do conteúdo intestinal por espalhamento em placas de ágar e incubadas a 37° C durante 48 horas. A identificação bacteriana e a análise filogenética foram realizadas pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. As bactérias isoladas foram submetidas a teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana (métodos de difusão em disco) com penicilina (10 µg / mL), tetraciclina (30 µg / mL), amoxicilina (25 µg / mL), ampicilina (10 µg / mL) e eritromicina (15 µg / mL). Todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resultados positivos para o teste da catalase. Isolamos e identificamos cepas bacterianas (n = 06) do intestino de larvas de bicho-da-seda saudáveis e doentes. Com base na sequência do gene 16S rRNA, as bactérias isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia, Bacillus e Pseudomonas spp. Notavelmente, 83,3% das cepas eram resistentes a penicilina, tetraciclina, amoxicilina, ampicilina e eritromicina, mas 16,6% mostraram suscetibilidade aos antibióticos comumente usados mencionados acima. As larvas do bicho-da-seda alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina apresentaram melhora significativa no peso larval, comprimento larval e produção de casulo. Peso larval significativamente maior (6,88g), comprimento larval (5,84cm) e peso do casulo (1,33g) foram registrados para larvas alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina, em comparação com outros antibióticos. Cepas bacterianas isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. e Pseudomonas spp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Larva
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254253, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350308

ABSTRACT

Abstract During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan's reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, os espécimes foram coletados em locais selecionados do deserto do Cholistan e da Reserva de Caça de Kalabagh, província de Punjab, Paquistão. Cada espécime capturado foi etiquetado com o número do comprovante e medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento médio do focinho à cloaca foi de 172,559 ± 1,40 mm, e o peso médio foi de 92,1 ± 1,30 g. O DNA de Uromastyx hardwickii foi amplificado e sequenciado usando o conjunto de primer 16S rRNA. A sequência de DNA obtida mostrou identificação de espécies confiável e clara. Após o corte de bases ambíguas, o fragmento de rRNA 16S obtido tinha 520 pb, enquanto os fragmentos de rRNA 16S alinhados com a sequência próxima do NCBI composta por 510 pb. Sequências semelhantes do gênero Uromastyx foram recuperadas do NCBI em pesquisas de explosão. A árvore de união de vizinhos do gênero Uromastyx foi construída com base na distância-p usando MEGA X. A variação intraespecífica média foi de 0,095 ± 0,01, enquanto a variação intraespecífica foi de 0-1%. Da mesma forma, a variação interespecífica de Uromastyx hardwikii com Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti foi de 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19%, respectivamente. O DNA recém-produzido foi submetido ao NCBI e o número de acesso foi obtido (MW052563.1). Os resultados do estudo atual forneceram informações sobre a identificação molecular e morfológica do Gênero Uromastyx. Em nossa recomendação, a identificação de base molecular abrangente de répteis do Paquistão é necessária para relatar qualquer nova ou subespécie do país.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lizards , Pakistan , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253156, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355904

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endophytic fungi are a ubiquituos group that colonize all plant species on earth. Studies comparing the location of endophytic fungi within the leaves and the sampling time in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) are limited. In this study, mature leaves of M. esculenta from Panama were collected in order to compare the cultivable diversity of endophytic fungi and to determine their distribution within the leaves. A total of one hundred sixty endophytes belonging to 97 species representing 13 genera and 8 morphospecies determined as mycelia sterilia that containing 63 isolates were isolated. Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia, and mycelia sterilia 1 and 3 were the most predominant isolated endophytes. We detected that endophytes varied across the sampling time, but not amongst locations within leaves. The endophytes composition across sampling and the location of endophytes within leaf was similar, except for Periconia and mycelia sterilia 3 and 7. The data generated in this study contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Panama, and establish the bases for future research focused on understanding the function of endophytes in M. esculenta crops.


Resumo Os fungos endofíticos são um grupo ubiquituo que colonizam todas as espécies de plantas na terra. Os estudos que comparam a localização dos fungos endofíticos dentro das folhas de Manihot esculenta Crantz (mandioca) e o tempo de amostragem são muito escassos. Neste estudo, folhas maduras de M. esculenta foram coletadas do Panamá com a finalidade de comparar a diversidade cultivável de endófitos e determinar sua distribuição dentro das folhas. Um total de 170 endófitos foram isolados de 97 espécies que representam 13 gêneros e 8 morfoespécies determinadas como micélios esterilizados contendo 63 isolados. Os fungos Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia e mycelia sterilia 1 e 3 foram os isolados mais predominantes. Também detectamos que os endófitos variaram ao longo do tempo de amostragem, mas não entre os locais dentro das folhas. A composição de endófitos na amostragem e localização de endófitos dentro da folha foi semelhante, exceto para Periconia e mycelia sterilia 3 e 7. Os dados gerados neste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da biodiversidade de fungos endofíticos no Panamá e estabelecem as bases para pesquisas sobre o entendimento da função de endófitos em culturas de M. esculenta.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Manihot , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Biodiversity , Endophytes , Fungi
13.
Vet. zootec ; 31: 1-7, 2024.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1552662

ABSTRACT

Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease that affects several mammals. Hematophagous bats are recognized hosts of the rabies virus, and their main food source is the blood of other mammals, particularly cattle. During feeding, bats transmit the virus to cattle, which are victims of the disease, contributing to economic losses and increasing the risk of infection for humans. Based on this affinity in the rabies cycle between bats and cattle, the objective of this study was to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of rabies virus samples in cattle and bats. The G gene of the rabies virus was chosen for this study because it is directly related to the infection process. Nucleotide sequences of the viral G gene were selected from GenBank for samples obtained from infected cattle and bats. Maximum parsimony analyses were conducted using the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis software. The Maxima Parsimony tree indicated a phylogenetic relationship between the G genes of both hosts, indicating that the virus evolved from bats to cattle. Analysis of parsimoniously informative sites revealed that the viral G gene carried specific mutations in each host. Knowledge of the evolutionary relationships between the rabies virus and its hosts is critical for identifying potential new hosts and the possible routes of infection for humans.


A Raiva é uma zoonose fatal que infecta várias espécies de mamíferos. Os morcegos hematófagos são reconhecidos como hospedeiros do vírus da Raiva e sua principal fonte de alimento é o sangue de outros mamíferos, especialmente os bovinos. Quando se alimentam, os morcegos transmitem o vírus para o bovino os quais são vítimas da doença, contribuindo para perdas econômicas e riscos de infecção para humanos. Baseado nesta afinidade do ciclo da Raiva entre morcegos e bovinos, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as relações filogenéticas de amostras do vírus da Raiva em ambos os hospedeiros, bovinos e morcegos. O gene G do vírus da Raiva foi escolhido para esta pesquisa porque ele está diretamente relacionado ao processo de infecção. Sequências de nucleotídeos do gene G viral foram selecionadas no GenBank a partir de amostras obtidas de bovinos e morcegos infectados. Análises de Máxima Parcimônia foram conduzidas utilizando o software Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis. A árvore de Máxima Parcimônia indicou uma relação filogenética entre o gene G de ambos os hospedeiros, indicando que o vírus evoluiu dos morcegos para os bovinos. A análise dos sítios parcimoniosamente informativos revelou que o gene G viral apresentou mutações específicas em cada hospedeiro. O conhecimento sobre as relações evolutivas do vírus da Raiva e seus hospedeiros é crucial para identificar nos hospedeiros potenciais e novas rotas possíveis de infecção para humanos.


La rabia es una zoonosis fatal que infecta a varias especies de mamíferos. Los murciélagos hematófagos son reconocidos como huéspedes del virus de la rabia y su principal fuente de alimentación es la sangre de otros mamíferos, especialmente del ganado. Al alimentarse, los murciélagos transmiten el virus al ganado que es víctima de la enfermedad, contribuyendo a pérdidas económicas y riesgos de infección para los humanos. Basado en esta afinidad del ciclo de la rabia entre murciélagos y ganado, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las relaciones filogenéticas de las muestras de virus de la rabia tanto en huéspedes, ganado y murciélagos. El gen G del virus de la rabia fue elegido para esta investigación porque está directamente relacionado con el proceso de infección. Las secuencias de nucleótidos del gen G viral se seleccionaron en GenBank a partir de muestras obtenidas de bovinos y murciélagos infectados. Los análisis de parsimonia máxima se realizaron utilizando el software Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis. El árbol de Máxima Parsimônia indicó una relación filogenética entre el gen G de ambos huéspedes, indicando que el virus evolucionó de murciélagos a bovinos. El análisis de los sitios parsimoniosamente informativos reveló que el gen G viral presentaba mutaciones específicas en cada huésped. El conocimiento sobre las relaciones evolutivas del virus de la rabia y sus huéspedes es crucial para identificar huéspedes potenciales y nuevas posibles rutas de infección para humanos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phylogeny , Rabies virus/genetics , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Chiroptera/virology
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 288-311, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533904

ABSTRACT

Los hongos son organismos polifacéticos presentes en casi todos los ecosistemas de la tierra, donde establecen diversos tipos de simbiosis con otros seres vivos. A pesar de ser reconocidos por los humanos desde la antigüedad -y de la cantidad de trabajos que han profundizado sobre su biología y ecología-, aún falta mucho por conocer sobre estos organismos. Algunos de los criterios que clásicamente se han utilizado para su estudio, hoy resultan limitados y hasta cierto punto permiten un agrupamiento de los aislamientos según algunas características, pero generan confusión en su clasificación y, más aún, cuando se pretende comprender sus relaciones genealógicas. Los caracteres fenotípicos no son suficientes para identificar una especie de hongos y, menos aún, para construir una filogenia amplia o de un grupo particular. Hay grandes vacíos que hacen que los árboles generados sean inestables y fácilmente debatidos. Para los profesionales de la salud, parece que la identificación de los hongos hasta niveles inferiores como género y especie es suficiente para elegir el tratamiento más adecuado para su control, comprender la epidemiología de los cuadros clínicos asociados y reconocer los brotes y los factores determinantes de la resistencia a los antimicrobianos. No obstante, la ubicación taxonómica dentro del reino permitiría establecer relaciones filogenéticas entre los taxones fúngicos, facilitando la comprensión de su biología, su distribución en la naturaleza y la evolución de su potencial patogénico. Los avances de las técnicas de biología molecular y las ciencias de la computación en los últimos 30 años han permitido cambios importantes dirigidos a establecer los criterios para definir una especie fúngica y alcanzar una construcción filogenética más o menos estable. Sin embargo, el camino por recorrer aún es largo, y supone un trabajo mancomunado de la comunidad científica a nivel global y el apoyo a la investigación básica.


Fungi are multifaceted organisms found in almost all ecosystems on Earth, where they establish various types of symbiosis with other living beings. Despite being recognized by humans since ancient times, and the high number of works delving into their biology and ecology, much is still unknown about these organisms. Some criteria classically used for their study are nowadays limited, generating confusion in categorizing them, and even more, when trying to understand their genealogical relationships. To identify species within Fungi, phenotypic characters to date are not sufficient, and to construct a broad phylogeny or a phylogeny of a particular group, there are still gaps affecting the generated trees, making them unstable and easily debated. For health professionals, fungal identification at lower levels such as genus and species, is enough to select the most appropriate therapy for their control, understand the epidemiology of clinical pictures associated, and recognize outbreaks and antimicrobial resistance. However, the taxonomic location within the kingdom, information with apparently little relevance, can allow phylogenetic relationships to be established between fungal taxa, facilitating the understanding of their biology, distribution in nature, and pathogenic potential evolution. Advances in molecular biology and computer science techniques from the last 30 years have led to crucial changes aiming to establish the criteria to define a fungal species, allowing us to reach a kind of stable phylogenetic construction. However, there is still a long way to go, and it requires the joint work of the scientific community at a global level and support for basic research.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Fungi , Classification , Biological Evolution , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
15.
ABCS health sci ; 48: e023216, 14 fev. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516682

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Species A rotavirus (RVA) infections are a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in children of <5 years worldwide. In Brazil, before vaccination, RVA was associated with 3.5 million episodes of acute diarrheal disease per year. Due to the segmented nature of their genomes, rotaviruses can exchange genes during co-infections, and generate new virus strains and new reinfections. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the genomic diversity of RVA isolated in Brazil in 30 years, between 1986 to 2016, to investigate possible changes in the frequency of genotype constellations before and after the implementation of the vaccine. METHODS: In total, 4,474 nucleotide sequences were obtained from the Virus Variation Database. Genomic constellation was compared, and the proportion of rotavirus genotypes was analyzed by time and geographic region. RESULTS: Our results showed that major known genotypes were circulating in the country during the period under analysis, with a prevalence of the G1P[8] Wa-like genotype, decreasing only in the period immediately after the introduction of the vaccine. Regarding the geographical distribution, most of our constellations, 62 (39.2%), and 50 (31.6%) were concentrated in the North and Northeast regions. Our analysis also showed the circulation of multiple strains during the periods when the DS-1-like and AU-1-like genotypes were co-circulating with the Wa-like genotype. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it is likely that inter-genogroup reassortments are still occurring in Brazil and so it is important to establish an efficient surveillance system to follow the emergence of novel reassorted strains that might not be targeted by the vaccine.


INTRODUÇÃO: As infecções por rotavírus A (RVA) são uma das principais causas de gastroenterite grave em crianças <5 anos em todo o mundo. No Brasil, antes da vacinação, o RVA estava associado a 3,5 milhões de episódios de diarreia aguda por ano. Devido à natureza segmentada de seus genomas, os rotavírus podem trocar genes durante as coinfecções, gerar novas cepas de vírus e novas reinfecções. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a diversidade genômica de RVA isolados no Brasil entre 1986 a 2016 para investigar possíveis alterações na frequência das constelações de genótipos antes e após a implantação da vacina. MÉTODOS: No total, 4.474 sequências de nucleotídeos foram obtidas do Banco de Dados de Variação de Vírus. A constelação genômica foi comparada e a proporção dos genótipos de rotavírus foi analisada por tempo e região geográfica. RESULTADOS: Nossos resultados mostraram que os principais genótipos conhecidos circulavam no país no período em análise, com prevalência do genótipo G1P[8] Wa-like, diminuindo apenas no período imediatamente após a introdução da vacina. Em relação à distribuição geográfica, a maioria das nossas constelações, 62 (39,2%) e 50 (31,6%), concentrava-se nas regiões Norte e Nordeste. Nossa análise também mostrou a circulação de cepas múltiplas durante os períodos em que os genótipos DS-1-like e AU-1-like estavam co-circulando com o genótipo Wa-like. CONCLUSÃO: Portanto, é provável que rearranjos inter-genogrupos ainda estejam ocorrendo no Brasil e por isso é importante estabelecer um sistema de vigilância eficiente para acompanhar o surgimento de novas cepas rearranjadas que podem não ser protegidas pela vacina.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Gene Rearrangement , Genome , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus Vaccines
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4996-5013, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008074

ABSTRACT

Transmembrane emp24 domain (TMED) gene is closely related to immune response, signal transduction, growth and disease development in mammals. However, only the Drosophila TMED gene has been reported on insects. We identified the TMED family genes of silkworm, Tribolium castaneum, tobacco moth and Italian bee from their genomes, and found that the TMED family gene composition patterns of one α-class, one β-class, one δ-class and several γ-classes arose in the common ancestor of pre-divergent Hymenoptera insects, while the composition of Drosophila TMED family members has evolved in a unique pattern. Insect TMED family γ-class genes have evolved rapidly, diverging into three separate subclasses, TMED6-like, TMED5-like and TMED3-like. The TMED5-like gene was lost in Hymenoptera, duplicated in the ancestors of Lepidoptera and duplicated in Drosophila. Insect TMED protein not only has typical structural characteristics of TMED, but also has obvious signal peptide. There are seven TMED genes in silkworm, distributed in six chromosomes. One of seven is single exon and others are multi-exons. The complete open reading frame (ORF) sequences of seven TMED genes of silkworm were cloned from larval tissues and registered in GenBank database. BmTMED1, BmTMED2 and BmTMED6 were expressed in all stages and tissues of the silkworm, and all genes were expressed in the 4th and 5th instar and silk gland of the silkworm. The present study revealed the composition pattern of TMED family members, their γ class differentiation and their evolutionary history, providing a basis for further studies on TMED genes in silkworm and other insects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx/metabolism , Genes, Insect/genetics , Moths/metabolism , Insecta/metabolism , Drosophila , Insect Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Mammals/genetics
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4982-4995, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008073

ABSTRACT

The aldo-keto reductase super family (AKRs) has a wide range of substrate specificity. However, the systematic identification of insect AKR gene family members has not been reported. In this study, bioinformatics methods were used to predict the phylogenetic evolution, physical and chemical properties, chromosome location, conserved motifs, and gene structure of AKR family members in Bombyx mori (BmAKR). Transcriptome data or quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to analyze the expression level of BmAKR genes during different organizational periods and silkworm eggs in different developmental states. Moreover, Western blotting was used to detect the expression level of the BmAKR in silkworm eggs. The results showed that 11 BmAKR genes were identified. These genes were distributed on 4 chromosomes of the silkworm genome, all of which had the (α/β) 8-barrel motif, and their physical and chemical characteristics were relatively similar. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the BmAKR genes could be divided into 2 subgroups (AKR1 and AKR2). Transcriptome data analysis showed that the expression of BmAKR genes were quite different in different tissues and periods. Moreover, the expression analysis of BmAKR genes in silkworm eggs showed that some genes were expressed significantly higher in nondiapause eggs than in diapause eggs; but another gene, BmAKR1-1, was expressed significantly higher in diapause eggs than in nondiapause eggs. The detection of protein level found that the difference trend of BmAKR1-1 in diapause eggs and non-diapause eggs was consistent with the results of qRT-PCR. In conclusion, BmAKR1-1 was screened out as candidates through the identification and analysis of the BmAKR genes in silkworm, which may regulate silkworm egg development is worthy of further investigation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx/metabolism , Phylogeny , Diapause , Genes, Insect , Gene Expression Profiling , Insect Proteins/metabolism
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4550-4562, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008041

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium neoaurum has the ability to produce steroidal intermediates known as 22-hydroxy-23, 24-bisnorchol-4-en-3-one (BA) upon the knockout of the genes for either the hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Hsd4A) or acyl-CoA thiolase (FadA5). In a previous study, we discovered a novel metabolite in the fermentation products when the fadA5 gene was deleted. This research aims to elucidate the metabolic pathway of this metabolite through structural identification, homologous sequence analysis of the fadA5 gene, phylogenetic tree analysis of M. neoaurum HGMS2, and gene knockout. Our findings revealed that the metabolite is a C23 metabolic intermediate, named 24-norchol-4-ene-3, 22-dione (designated as 3-OPD). It is formed when a thioesterase (TE) catalyzes the formation of a β-ketonic acid by removing CoA from the side chain of 3, 22-dioxo-25, 26-bisnorchol-4-ene-24-oyl CoA (22-O-BNC-CoA), followed by spontaneously undergoing decarboxylation. These results have the potential to contribute to the development of novel steroid intermediates.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium/metabolism , Phylogeny , Steroids/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Sterols/metabolism
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3670-3680, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007984

ABSTRACT

Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) is an oral anaerobic bacterium that has recently been found to colonize on the surface of colorectal cancer cells in humans, and its degree of enrichment is highly negatively correlated with the prognosis of tumor treatment. Numerous studies have shown that Fn is involved in the occurrence and development of colorectal cancer (CRC), and Fn interacts with multiple components in the tumor microenvironment to increase tumor resistance. In recent years, researchers have begun using nanomedicine to inhibit Fn's proliferation at the tumor site or directly target Fn to treat CRC. This review summarizes the mechanism of Fn in promoting CRC and the latest research progress on Fn-related CRC therapy using different nanomaterials. Finally, the applications perspective of nanomaterials in Fn-promoted CRC therapy was prospected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Fusobacterium nucleatum/genetics , Base Composition , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tumor Microenvironment
20.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 800-813, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007854

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to determine the HIV-1 subtype distribution and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) in patients with ART failure from 2014 to 2020 in Hainan, China.@*METHODS@#A 7-year cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV/AIDS patients with ART failure in Hainan. We used online subtyping tools and the maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree to confirm the HIV subtypes with pol sequences. Drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were analyzed using the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database.@*RESULTS@#A total of 307 HIV-infected patients with ART failure were included, and 241 available pol sequences were obtained. Among 241 patients, CRF01_AE accounted for 68.88%, followed by CRF07_BC (17.00%) and eight other subtypes (14.12%). The overall prevalence of HIVDR was 61.41%, and the HIVDR against non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and protease inhibitors (PIs) were 59.75%, 45.64%, and 2.49%, respectively. Unemployed patients, hypoimmunity or opportunistic infections in individuals, and samples from 2017 to 2020 increased the odd ratios of HIVDR. Also, HIVDR was less likely to affect female patients. The common DRMs to NNRTIs were K103N (21.99%) and Y181C (20.33%), and M184V (28.21%) and K65R (19.09%) were the main DRMs against NRTIs.@*CONCLUSION@#The present study highlights the HIV-1 subtype diversity in Hainan and the importance of HIVDR surveillance over a long period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV-1/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Phylogeny , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Mutation , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Genotype
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