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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20201046, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286052

ABSTRACT

The present research evaluated muscle activation degrees and relaxation of patrolling horses submitted to dynamic mobilization exercises, associated or not with acupuncture. Twelve mixed breed gelding, aged 10 ± 2.0 years, were distributed in three treatments. Treatment with a single session of dynamic mobilization exercises (longitudinal cervical flexion of head between hooves, between carpus and to up to chest); treatment with a single acupuncture session during 20 minutes, and treatment with a single session of dynamic mobilization exercises with acupuncture. Thermographic images were analyzed before and after applying treatments to the cervical, thoracic, dorsal, abdominal and pelvic regions. Animal behavior was assessed through five minutes filming, before and ten minutes after the end of each treatment application, in an uninterrupted way. Increase in animals body temperature at the end of the single session of functional exercises (P < 0.0001) at all animal regions were reported, being cervical and thoracic areas with highest final temperature values. There was no temperature variation for other treatments (P > 0.05). All treatments stimulated higher expression frequency (P < 0.05) of relaxation behaviors. A single dynamic mobilization exercises session is enough to promote intense muscular response in entire horse body; and with acupuncture, individually or associated, promoted muscle and mental relaxation, interfering positively in animal welfare.


Objetivou-se avaliar o grau de ativação e relaxamento muscular de equinos de patrulhamento submetidos à exercícios de mobilização dinâmica associados ou não à acupuntura. Doze cavalos castrados, sem raça definida, com idade de 10 ± 2,0 anos, foram distribuídos em três tratamentos: tratamento com uma sessão única de exercícios de mobilização dinâmica (flexão cervical longitudinal da cabeça entre os cascos, entre os carpos e até o peito); tratamento com sessão única de acupuntura (20 minutos); e tratamento com sessão única composta por exercícios de mobilização dinâmica associados a acupuntura. Foram analisadas imagens termográficas antes e após a aplicação dos tratamentos das regiões cervical, torácica, dorsal, abdominal e pélvica. A avaliação comportamental foi obtida por meio de filmagens 5 minutos antes e 10 minutos após o término da aplicação dos tratamentos, de maneira ininterrupta. Houve aumento (P < 0,0001) na temperatura corporal dos animais ao final da sessão única de exercícios funcionais para todas as regiões estudadas, sendo a cervical e torácica aquelas com maior valor de temperatura final. Não houve variação da temperatura nos demais tratamentos (P > 0,05). Todos os tratamentos geraram maior frequência (P < 0,05) na expressão de comportamentos relacionados ao relaxamento. A realização de uma sessão única de exercícios de mobilização dinâmica é suficiente para promover uma intensa resposta muscular em todo o corpo do equino, e tanto os exercícios funcionais quanto a acupuntura, de maneira individual ou associada, foram capazes de promover relaxamento muscular e mental, interferindo de maneira positiva no bem-estar dos animais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Thermography/veterinary , Acupuncture Points , Horses/physiology , Muscle Relaxation/physiology
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1891-1900, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131574

ABSTRACT

Oito equinos foram distribuídos em delineamento randomizado cruzado, sendo um grupo sem suplementação (GC) e outro grupo suplementado com óleo de avocado (GOAv) por um período de sete semanas. Ao fim da sexta semana, os animais foram submetidos a teste padrão de exercício progressivo (TPEP) e, após sete dias, a teste de baixa intensidade e longa duração (BILD). Após o primeiro ciclo, houve período de descanso "washout" de 30 dias para troca de grupos para o segundo ciclo, que seguiu o protocolo do primeiro. A termorregulação foi avaliada com base na temperatura retal e na temperatura superficial corpórea, obtidas por termografia, de 15 regiões de interesse. A temperatura retal e as imagens termográficas foram obtidas antes, um minuto e 15 minutos após o exercício. Não houve diferença entre os grupos GC e GOAv em nenhum momento. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo revelaram que a suplementação de 5% da matéria seca (MS) com óleo de avocado por seis e sete semanas não influenciou na termorregulação com base na temperatura superficial corpórea dos equinos submetidos ao teste padrão de exercício progressivo (TPEP) e ao exercício de baixa intensidade e longa duração (BILD), respectivamente.(AU)


Eight equines were distributed in a randomized crossover design, one control group (CG) without supplementation and another group supplemented (SG) with avocado oil for a period of six weeks. At the end of the sixth week, the animals were submitted to standard exercise test (SET) and after seven days to the low intensity test (LIT). After the first cycle, there was a 30-day washout rest period to exchange groups for the second cycle, which followed the protocol of the first one. Thermoregulation was evaluated based on rectal temperature and body surface temperature of 15 regions of interest obtained by thermography. Rectal temperature and thermographic images were obtained before, one minute and 15 minutes after exercise. There was no difference between the CG and SG at any time. The results obtained in this study revealed that the supplementation of 5% of dry matter with avocado oil for six and seven weeks did not influence the thermoregulation based on the body surface temperature of the horses submitted to SET and LIT, respectively.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Temperature Regulation/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Persea/chemistry , Horses/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Thermography/veterinary , Dietary Supplements/analysis
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1631-1638, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131547

ABSTRACT

Avaliações com o intuito de mensurar marcadores de eficiência na performance esportiva do cavalo Crioulo são escassas e de fundamental importância no que tange às possíveis especificidades da raça. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar e determinar os padrões de frequência cardíaca, velocidade, concentração de lactato e gasto energético de equinos da raça Crioula durante provas credenciadoras ao Freio de Ouro. Tais variáveis foram avaliadas durante a realização das etapas funcionais da competição. Observaram-se flutuações superiores da variável frequência cardíaca (FC) durante a realização das etapas de Andadura, Figura, Volta sobre Patas e Esbarradas (And/fig/VSP) (203bpm) e menores valores na etapa Paleteada II (185bpm) (P<0,05). Em relação à velocidade, o maior valor atingido foi registrado na etapa de Paleteada II (39,7km/h). A concentração de lactato sanguíneo aferida se mostrou elevada em todas as fases da competição, sendo o maior valor observado na etapa de Paleteada II (14,5mmol/L) (P<0,05) e o menor durante a etapa de Mangueira I (9,3mmol/L). Superior gasto energético foi atribuído à etapa de And/Fig/VSP (853,28kcal/kgPV/min). Portanto, todas as etapas funcionais podem ser classificadas como anaeróbias, por apresentarem concentrações de lactato sanguíneo acima de 4mmol/L, e demandam alto gasto energético pelos competidores.(AU)


Evaluations of athletic performance markers of Crioulo breed horses are scarce yet fundamentally important regarding possible unique characteristics of this breed. This study aimed to evaluate and determine heart rate, speed, blood lactate and energy expenditure patterns of Crioulo breed horses during qualifying tests in the functional phases of the "Freio de Ouro" championship. Higher values of heart rate during the phases "andadura, figura, voltas sobre patas, esbarradas" (And/Fig/VSP) (203bpm) and lower values at "Paleteada II" (185bpm) (P<0.05) were noticed. Regarding speed variable, the maximum value was registered at "Paleteada II" (39.7km/h). During all the phases, blood lactate concentration was high, with the highest value found at "Paleteada II" (14.5mm/L) and the lowest during "Mangueira I" (9.3mm/L) (P<0.05). Superior energy expenditure was noticed in the "And/Fig/VSP" phase (853.28Kcal/kgPV/min). Thus, all functional phases can be classified as anaerobic, as blood lactate concentrations remained above 4mmol/L, with high energy demand of the horses.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Lactic Acid/blood , Energy Metabolism , Heart Rate/physiology , Horses/physiology
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1566-1570, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131516

ABSTRACT

No Brasil, Mangalarga Marchador é a raça com o maior número de equinos registrados, um total de 600.000 animais. Devido à falta de estudos termográficos, este estudo buscou avaliar alterações superficiais de temperatura corporal de membros torácicos e pélvicos após o esforço de marcha, usando uma câmera termográfica com infravermelho. O estudo avaliou 25 equinos, com peso médio de 414,9±34,5kg e idade média de 6,5±3 anos. As imagens foram obtidas a cinco metros de distância perpendicular à superfície lateral e caudal do corpo, em uma sala apropriada. Os animais foram submetidos ao exercício de marcha na velocidade de 15km.h-1 por 20 minutos. As imagens foram capturadas imediatamente antes e após o esforço, e repetidas após 30 minutos de repouso. As frequências cardíaca e respiratória aumentaram significativamente (P<0,001), comparando-se antes e após o esforço. Embora tenha sido notado também aumento significativo da temperatura retal (P<0,001), as alterações de temperatura superficial dos membros torácicos e pélvicos entre os termogramas obtidos antes e após o exercício não foram significativas (P>0,05). Dessa forma, mais estudos se fazem necessários para avaliar a relação da duração desse esforço e elevação da temperatura corporal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pelvis , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Thorax , Body Temperature , Body Temperature Regulation/physiology , Horses/physiology , Thermography/veterinary
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(1): 100-105, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055084

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The emergence of coronary heart disease is increased with menopause, physical inactivity and with dyslipidemia. Physical training is known to promote the improvement of cardiovascular functions. Objective: To investigate the effects of aerobic physical training on the left ventricle in ovariectomized LDL knockout mice. Methods: Thirty animals were divided into 6 groups (n = 5): Sedentary non-ovariectomized control; Sedentary ovariectomized control; Trained ovariectomized control; Sedentary non-ovariectomized LDL-knockout, sedentary ovariectomized LDL-knockout and trained ovariectomized LDL-knockout. We analyzed the average parameters of apparent density of collagen fibers types I and III, and metalloproteinase type 2 and type 9, were considered significant p < 0.05. Results: The results showed that the proposed exercise protocol altered the volume of type I collagen fibers, altered collagen remodeling parameters (MMP-2), and also reduced the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) oxidative stress parameter. Conclusion: Moderate intensity aerobic training acts on collagen fiber volume, on collagen remodeling with the reduction of oxidative stress in the left ventricles of ovariectomized LDL-knockout mice.


Resumo Fundamento: O surgimento da doença cardíaca coronariana aumenta com a menopausa, inatividade física e dislipidemia. Sabe-se que o treinamento físico promove a melhora das funções cardiovasculares Objectivo: Investigar os efeitos do treinamento físico aeróbico sobre o ventrículo esquerdo em camundongos LDL knockout ovariectomizadas. Métodos: Trinta animais foram divididos em 6 grupos (n = 5): controle sedentário não ovariectomizado, controle sedentário ovariectomizado, controle treinado ovariectomizado, sedentário LDL-knockout não ovariectomizado, sedentário LDL-knockout ovariectomizado e treinado LDL-knockout ovariectomizado. Analisamos os parâmetros médios da densidade de volume de fibras colágenas tipo I e III, e metaloproteinases 2 e 9. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: Os resultados mostram que o protocolo de exercício proposto alterou o volume de fibras colágenas do tipo I e os parâmetros de remodelamento do colágeno (MMP-2), e ainda reduziu o parâmetro de estresse oxidativo do 8-hidroxi-2'-deoxiganosina (8-OhdG). Conclusão: O treinamento aeróbico de intensidade moderada age sobre o volume das fibras colágenas e sobre o remodelamento de colágeno, com redução do estresse oxidativo em ventrículos esquerdos de camundongos ovariectomizados LDLr Knockout.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Collagen Type III/metabolism , Inflammation/physiopathology , Myocardium/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Ovariectomy , Mice, Knockout , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Models, Animal
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e9237, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132520

ABSTRACT

We investigated changes in oxidative biomarkers in brain regions such as brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex of 3-, 6-, 18-, 24-, and 30-month-old rats. We also assessed the effects of low-intensity exercise on these biomarkers in these regions of 6-, 18-, and 24-month-old rats that started exercise on a treadmill at 3, 15, and 21 months of age, respectively. Radiographic images of the femur were taken for all rats. A total of 25 rats (age: twelve 6-, ten 18-, ten 24-, and three 30-month-old rats) were used. Lipid hydroperoxide levels increased in cerebellum at 18 months. Total antioxidant activity exhibited lowest values in brainstem at 3 months. Superoxide dismutase activity did not exhibit significant changes during aging. Total thiol content exhibited lowest values in brain regions of 24- and 30-month-old rats. Exercise reduced total thiol content in brainstem at 6 months, but no change occurred in other regions and other ages. Femur increased its length and width and cortical thickness with advancing age. No change occurred in medullary width. Radiolucency increased and sclerosis was found in cortical and medullary bone with advancing age. Exercise reduced radiolucency and medullary sclerosis. Therefore, aging differentially changed oxidative biomarkers in different brain regions and radiographic measures of the femur. Low-intensity exercise only ameliorated some radiographic measurements of femur. Since the present study possessed limitations (small number of rats per group), a beneficial effect of regular low-intensity exercise on oxidative markers in brain cannot be ruled out.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Brain/metabolism , Aging/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Femur/diagnostic imaging , Lipid Peroxides/analysis , Oxidation-Reduction , Aging/metabolism , Biomarkers/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation , Rats, Wistar , Femur/chemistry
7.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4784, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039736

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effect of three types of muscular resistance training on adiposity, inflammation levels and insulin activity in Swiss mice with fat-rich diet-induced obesity. Methods Lean and obese male Swiss mice were selected and allocated to one of eight groups comprising eight mice each, as follows: standard diet + no training; standard diet + muscular resistance training; standard diet + hypertrophy training; standard diet + strength training; high-fat diet + no training; high-fat diet + muscular resistance training; high-fat diet + hypertrophy training; high-fat diet + strength training. The training protocol consisted of stair climbing for a 10-week period. Blood samples were collected for lactate analysis, glucose level measurement and insulin tolerance test. After euthanasia, adipose tissues were removed and weighed for adiposity index determination. Fragments of epididymal adipose tissue were then embedded for histological analysis or homogenized for tumor necrosis factor alpha level determination using the ELISA method. Results Ausency of differences in total training volume and blood lactate levels overall emphasize the similarity between the different resistance training protocols. Body weight loss, reduced adipocyte area and lower adiposity index were observed in trained obese mice, regardless of training modality. Different training protocols also improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation levels. Conclusion Resistance training protocols were equally effective in reducing body fat, inflammation levels and insulin resistance in obese mice.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos de três tipos de treinamentos de resistência na adiposidade, na inflamação e na ação da insulina em camundongos Swiss obesos por dieta hiperlipídica. Métodos Camundongos Swiss machos magros e obesos foram selecionados e posteriormente separados em oito grupos com oito animais em cada: dieta padrão + não treinado; dieta padrão + treinamento de resistência muscular; dieta padrão + treinamento de hipertrofia; dieta padrão + treinamento de força; dieta hiperlipídica + não treinado; dieta hiperlipídica + treinamento de resistência muscular; dieta hiperlipídica + treinamento de hipertrofia; e dieta hiperlipídica + treinamento de força. O protocolo de treinamento consistiu em escaladas, por um período de 10 semanas. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para análises de lactato, glicemia e teste de tolerância à insulina. Após eutanásia, os tecidos adiposos foram retirados e pesados para determinar o índice de adiposidade. Em seguida, parte do tecido adiposo epididimal foi emblocado para análises histológicas, e outra parte foi homogeneizada para análises de fator de necrose tumoral alfa por ELISA. Resultados O volume total de treinamento e a concentração sanguínea de lactato não diferiram entre os três treinos resistidos, sugerindo similaridade entre eles. Nos animais obesos, as três modalidades de treinamento reduziram o peso corporal, a área adipocitária e o índice de adiposidade. Os três tipos de treinamentos ainda melhoraram a tolerância à insulina e reduziram a inflamação. Conclusão Os protocolos de treinamento resistido foram igualmente efetivos em reduzir a adiposidade, a inflamação e a resistência à ação da insulina em camundongos obesos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Adiposity/physiology , Muscle Stretching Exercises/methods , Hypertrophy/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Reproducibility of Results , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Adipose Tissue, White/physiopathology , Resistance Training/methods , Diet, High-Fat , Mice , Mice, Obese
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(5): e9211, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098114

ABSTRACT

Strenuous exercise triggers deleterious effects on the intestinal epithelium, but their mechanisms are still uncertain. Here, we investigated whether a prolonged training and an additional exhaustive training protocol alter intestinal permeability and the putative effect of alanyl-glutamine (AG) pretreatment in this condition. Rats were allocated into 5 different groups: 1) sedentary; 2 and 3) trained (50 min per day, 5 days per week for 12 weeks) with or without 6 weeks oral (1.5 g/kg) AG supplementation; 4 and 5) trained and subjected to an additional exhaustive test protocol with or without oral AG supplementation. Venous blood samples were collected to determine gasometrical indices at the end of the 12-week protocol or after exhaustive test. Lactate and glucose levels were determined before, during, and after the exhaustive test. Ileum tissue collected after all experimental procedures was used for gene expression analysis of Zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-2, and oligopeptide transporter 1 (PepT-1). Intestinal permeability was assessed by urinary lactulose/mannitol test collected after the 12-week protocol or the exhaustive test. The exhaustive test decreased pH and base excess and increased pCO2. Training sessions delayed exhaustion time and reduced the changes in blood glucose and lactate levels. Trained rats exhibited upregulation of PEPT-1, ZO-1, and occludin mRNA, which were partially protected by AG. Exhaustive exercise induced intestinal paracellular leakage associated with the upregulation of claudin-2, a phenomenon protected by AG treatment. Thus, AG partially prevented intestinal training adaptations but also blocked paracellular leakage during exhaustive exercise involving claudin-2 and occludin gene expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Permeability/drug effects , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Dipeptides/administration & dosage , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8761, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089339

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) inhibition by high-dose NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) is associated with several detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. However, low-dose L-NAME increases NO synthesis, which in turn induces physiological cardiovascular benefits, probably by activating a protective negative feedback mechanism. Aerobic exercise, likewise, improves several cardiovascular functions in healthy hearts, but its effects are not known when chronically associated with low-dose L-NAME. Thus, we tested whether the association between low-dose L-NAME administration and chronic aerobic exercise promotes beneficial effects to the cardiovascular system, evaluating the cardiac remodeling process. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (C), L-NAME (L), chronic aerobic exercise (Ex), and chronic aerobic exercise associated to L-NAME (ExL). Aerobic training was performed with progressive intensity for 12 weeks; L-NAME (1.5 mg·kg-1·day-1) was administered by orogastric gavage. Low-dose L-NAME alone did not change systolic blood pressure (SBP), but ExL significantly increased SBP at week 8 with normalization after 12 weeks. Furthermore, ExL promoted the elevation of left ventricle (LV) end-diastolic pressure without the presence of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Time to 50% shortening and relaxation were reduced in ExL, suggesting a cardiomyocyte contractile improvement. In addition, the time to 50% Ca2+ peak was increased without alterations in Ca2+ amplitude and time to 50% Ca2+ decay. In conclusion, the association of chronic aerobic exercise and low-dose L-NAME prevented cardiac pathological remodeling and induced cardiomyocyte contractile function improvement; however, it did not alter myocyte affinity and sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+ handling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Calcium/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Body Weight/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Pressure/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Models, Animal , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adiposity , Hemodynamics , Motor Activity/physiology , Myocardium/pathology
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(8): 668-671, Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040732

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum amyloid A (SAA) and biomarkers of muscle activity of horses submitted to show jumping activity. To do this, the variables SAA, glucose, lactate and the biomarkers creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) were evaluated in 10 horses submitted to the show jumping exercise in a tournament for beginners. The evaluations occurred before exercise (T0), immediately after (T1), 30 minutes (T2), 60 minutes (T3) and 24 hours after the end (T4). Data were evaluated using analysis of variance for repeated measures. The statistical software SAEG 9.1 was used to verify the level of significance between the moments for P<0.05. Glucose presented a difference between the moments T0 (97.7±13.3mg/dL) and T1 (79.7±14.1mg/dL). Lactate presented elevation in T1 (15.3±6.1mmol/L) compared to the others T0 (3.8±0.8mmol/L), T2 (6.5±3.9mmol/L), T3 (5.3±2.2mmol/L) and T4 (5.1±1.6mmol/L). The CK showed a significant difference between T0 (82.8±51.2U/L) and T1 (140.1±58.5U/L) and between T4 (74.4±43.1U/L) with T1 (140.1±58.5U/L). The AST presented no difference between moments. The show jumping activity with one-meter obstacles did not induce changes in the SAA protein between the moments.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a amilóide sérica A (SAA) e biomarcadores de atividade muscular de equinos submetidos a atividade de salto, ou hipismo clássico. Para tanto, foram avaliadas as variáveis SAA, glicose, lactato e os biomarcadores creatina quinase (CK) e aspartatoaminotransferase (AST) em 10 equinos submetidos ao exercício de saltos em torneio para iniciantes. As avaliações ocorreram antes do exercício (T0), imediatamente após (T1), 30 minutos (T2), 60 minutos (T3) e 24 horas após o término (T4). Os dados foram avaliados utilizando análise de variância para medidas repetidas. O software estatístico SAEG 9.1 foi utilizado para verificar o nível de significância entre os momentos para P<0,05. A glicose diferenciou-se entre os momentos T0 (97.7±13.3mg/dL) e T1 (79.7±14.1mg/dL). O lactado apresentou elevação comparada com o momento T1(15.3±6.1mmol/L) e os demais T0 (3.8±0.8mmol/L), T2 (6.5±3.9mmol/L), T3 (5.3±2.2mmol/L) e T4 (5.1±1.6mmol/L). A CK mostrou diferença significativa entre T0 (82.8±51.2U/L) e T1 (140.1±58.5U/L) e entre T4 (74.4±43.1U/L) com T1 (140.1±58.5U/L). A AST não apresentou diferença entre os momentos. A atividade de hipismo clássico com obstáculos de um metro não induziu alterações na proteína SAA entre os momentos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Biomarkers , Horses/physiology , Amyloid/blood , Motor Activity , Acute-Phase Proteins
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(5): 534-542, May 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011189

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) show deficit in thermal balance during physical exercise. Objective: To assess the effects of low-intensity physical exercise training on thermal balance of hypertensive rats undergoing an acute exercise protocol. Methods: Sixteen-week-old male Wistar rats and SHR were allocated into four groups: control Wistar rats (C-WIS), trained Wistar (T-WIS), control SHR (C-SHR) and trained SHR (T-SHR). Treadmill exercise training was performed for 12 weeks. Blood pressure, resting heart rate and total exercise time was measured before and after the physical exercise program. After the exercise program, a temperature sensor was implanted in the abdominal cavity, and the animals subjected to an acute exercise protocol, during which internal body temperature, tail skin temperature and oxygen consumption until fatigue were continuously recorded. Mechanical efficiency (ME), work, heat dissipation threshold and sensitivity were calculated. Statistical significance was set at 5%. Results: Physical training and hypertension had no effect on thermal balance during physical exercise. Compared with C-WIS, the T-WIS group showed higher heat production, which was counterbalanced by higher heat dissipation. Hypertensive rats showed lower ME than normotensive rats, which was not reversed by the physical training. Conclusion: Low-intensity physical training did not affect thermal balance in SHR subjected to acute exercise.


Resumo Fundamento: Ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR) apresentam déficits no balanço térmico durante o exercício físico. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento físico de baixa intensidade sobre o balanço térmico de ratos hipertensos submetidos a um protocolo de exercício físico agudo. Métodos: Ratos machos Wistar e SHR, com 16 semanas de idade, foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais: Wistar controle (WIS-C), Wistar treinado (WIS-T), SHR controle (SHR-C) e SHR treinado (SHR-T). O treinamento físico em esteira rolante foi realizado durante 12 semanas. A pressão arterial, a frequência cardíaca de repouso e o tempo de exercício foram medidos previamente e após o programa de treinamento físico. Após o programa de treinamento físico, um sensor de temperatura foi implantado na região intraperitoneal e os ratos foram submetidos a um protocolo de exercício físico agudo com registros contínuos da temperatura corporal interna, temperatura da pele da cauda e do consumo de oxigênio até a fadiga. A eficiência mecânica (EM), o trabalho, o limiar e a sensibilidade para dissipação de calor foram calculados. Para as análises estatísticas o nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados: O treinamento físico e a hipertensão arterial não alteraram o balanço térmico durante o exercício físico. O grupo WIS-T quando comparado ao WIS-C, apresentou maior produção de calor, que foi contrabalanceado por uma maior dissipação de calor. Os animais hipertensos apresentaram menor EM em comparação aos animais normotensos, e o treinamento físico não foi capaz de reverter esta alteração. Conclusão: O treinamento físico de baixa intensidade não provocou alterações no balanço térmico de ratos hipertensos submetidos a um protocolo de exercício físico agudo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Body Temperature Regulation/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Blood Pressure/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Heart Rate/physiology
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 631-639, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011289

ABSTRACT

Foram avaliados parâmetros fisiológicos e bioquímicos em equinos Quarto de Milha durante treinamento de três tambores, antes do condicionamento (T0), após o condicionamento (T1), após um percurso (T2), após descanso do percurso, por 20 minutos (T3) e após descanso do percurso, por 40 minutos (T4). Os parâmetros físicos avaliados foram: frequência cardíaca (FC), frequência respiratória (FR), temperatura retal (TR) e tempo de enchimento capilar (TEC); e os bioquímicos: sódio, potássio, cloreto, cálcio total, ureia, creatinina, osmolaridade, creatinaquinase, aspartato transaminase, proteínas totais (PT), glicose e lactato. A FC, a FR e a TR aumentaram após o percurso (T2), mas foram recompostas após 40 minutos de descanso. A concentração do lactato pouco aumentou após o condicionamento, mas altas concentrações ocorreram após o percurso (T2), e embora ele tenha diminuído após 20 (T3) e 40 minutos (T4) do percurso, ainda permaneceu acima dos limites normais. Nos demais parâmetros, não houve variações significativas. Concluiu-se que, ao final de um percurso de três tambores, o exercício sob máxima intensidade não ocasionou variações bioquímicas significativas nos equinos, exceto para o lactato, pois gerou uma hiperlactatemia que não foi restaurada até 40 minutos de descanso pós-percurso, mesmo com os parâmetros físicos já recompostos do esforço.(AU)


Physiological and biochemical parameters were evaluated in Quarter Horse during three-barrel training, in three times: T0 (before warm-up), T1 (after warm-up), T2 (after completing the exercise, performing only one course), T3 (after resting for 20 minutes of the course), and T4 (after resting for 40 minutes of the course). The parameters evaluated were: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT) and capillary filling time (ECT); Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, total calcium, BUN, creatinine, osmolarity, creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase; Plasma concentrations of total protein (PT), glucose, and lactate. HR, RR and RT increased shortly after the course (T2) but were restored after 40 minutes of rest. Lactate concentration increased after conditioning, but at low concentrations, but high levels occurred after the course (T2), and although decreased after 20 (T3) and 40 minutes (T4) of the course, it was still above normal limits. There were no significant changes in the other parameters. At the end of a single course of three-barrel, the exercise of maximum intensity did not cause significant biochemical variations in horses, except for lactate, which increased to levels of hyperlactatemia, and was not restored until 40 minutes of rest, even with the physical parameters already recovered.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Physical Exertion , Horses/physiology , Horses/blood
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 154-162, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983823

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, leading to endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis impairment . MiR-126 and miR-210 support angiogenic response in endothelial cells. Objective: The present study sought to explore the effect of garlic and voluntary exercise, alone or together, on miR-126 and miR-210 expressions and cardiac angiogenesis in rats with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 7): Control, Diabetes, Diabetes+Garlic, Diabetes+Exercise, and Diabetes+Garlic+Exercise. Diabetes was induced in the animals by streptozotocin (ip, 50 mg/kg). The rats were then fed raw fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg) or were subjected to voluntary exercise, or to combined garlic and voluntary exercise for 6 weeks. MiR-126 and miR-210 expressions in the myocardium were determined by real time PCR, and the serum lipid profile was measured by enzymatic kits. Angiogenesis was evaluated by immunostaining for PECAM-1/ CD31 in the myocardium. Results: Diabetes reduced both cardiac miR-126 expression and angiogenesis (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there was a miR-210 expression increase in the myocardium of diabetic animals (p < 0.001). However, those effects reversed either with garlic or voluntary exercise (p < 0.01). Moreover, treating diabetic rats with garlic and voluntary exercise combined had an additional effect on the expressions of miR-126 and miR-210 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, both voluntary exercise and garlic significantly improved serum lipid profiles (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The induction of diabetes decreased angiogenesis in the myocardium, whereas our treatment using long-term voluntary exercise and garlic improved myocardial angiogenesis. These changes were possibly owing to the enhancement of myocardial miR-126 and miR-210 expressions.


Resumo Fundamento: O diabetes mellitus (DM) é um dos principais fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares, levando à disfunção endotelial e inibição da angiogênese. O miRNA-126 e o miRNA-210 promovem a resposta angiogênica em células endoteliais. Objetivo: O presente estudo buscou explorar o efeito do alho e de exercícios físicos voluntários, isoladamente ou em conjunto, nas expressões do miRNA-126 e do miR-210 e na angiogênese cardíaca em ratos com diabetes tipo 1. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em cinco grupos (n = 7): Controle, Diabetes, Diabetes+Alho, Diabetes+Exercícios e Diabetes+Alho+Exercícios. Introduziu-se diabetes nos animais por estreptozotocina (ip, 50 mg/kg). Os ratos foram então alimentados com homogenato de alho fresco cru (250 mg/kg), ou foram submetidos a exercícios voluntários, ou a uma combinação de alho e exercícios voluntários, durante 6 semanas. As expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA-210 no miocárdio foram determinadas por PCR em tempo real, e o perfil lipídico sérico foi medido por kits enzimáticos. A angiogênese foi avaliada por imunocoloração por PECAM-1/CD31 no miocárdio Resultados: O diabetes reduziu a expressão do miRNA-126 cardíaco e da angiogênese (p < 0,05). Por outro lado, houve um aumento da expressão do miRNA-210 no miocárdio dos animais diabéticos (p < 0,001). No entanto, tais efeitos foram revertidos com alho ou exercícios voluntários (p < 0,01). Além disso, o tratamento de ratos diabéticos conjuntamente com alho e exercícios voluntários teve um efeito adicional sobre as expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA-210 (p < 0,001). Além disso, tanto os exercícios voluntários quanto o alho melhoraram significativamente os perfis lipídicos séricos (p < 0,001). Conclusões: A indução de diabetes diminuiu a angiogênese no miocárdio, enquanto nosso tratamento com exercícios voluntários de longa duração e alho melhorou a angiogênese miocárdica. Estas alterações devem-se, possivelmente, ao aumento das expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA no miocárdio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , MicroRNAs/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Garlic/chemistry , Triglycerides/blood , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Cholesterol/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , MicroRNAs/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Heart/physiopathology
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 180-188, Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983821

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: In menopause, there is greater cellular exposure to oxidative stress, related to the decreased antioxidative effects of estrogen. These metabolic changes favor the progression of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Abnormal function of the aorta - the most important artery - is associated with many cardiovascular diseases. Collagen, especially types I and III, is one of the most important aortic wall components and it can be affected by many factors, including menopause. The 8-OHdG is one of the main markers of DNA oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Objective: We aimed to investigate effects of moderate aerobic training on the ascending aorta of LDL-knockout (LDL-KO) and ovariectomized female mice. Methods: A total of 15 C57BL/6 mice and 15 LDL-KO mice were divided into experimental groups. The thickness and volume density of types I and III collagen fibers were performed by morphoquantitative analysis, whereas the MMP-2 and MMP-9 and 8-OHdG were detected by immunohistochemistry and apoptosis was detected by the TUNEL assay. The significance level for all tests was p < 0.05. Results: Exercise causes an increase in the thickness of the aorta in LDL-KO groups, particularly accentuated in the ovariectomized groups. The type I collagen fibers showed an increase in volume density influenced by training in both Control groups and in the LDL-KO group. Type III collagen density decreased in both groups. The MMP-2 showed moderade immunostaining in the tunica media in LDL-KO groups, which did not occur in the control groups and the MMP-9 stained irregularly in all tissues. The marker 8-OhdG was stronger in the exercise training groups. Additionally, the ovariectomy, the exercise training and the LDL-KO treatments increased apoptosis. Conclusion: These results suggest that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in ovariectomized mice associated to an increase in LDL rate possibly increases oxidative stress and apoptosis induction.


Resumo Fundamento: Na menopausa, há maior exposição celular ao estresse oxidativo, relacionada à diminuição dos efeitos antioxidantes do estrogênio. Essas alterações metabólicas favorecem a progressão das doenças cardiovasculares, como a aterosclerose. A função anormal da aorta - a artéria mais importante - está associada a muitas doenças cardiovasculares. O colágeno, especialmente os tipos I e III, é um dos mais importantes componentes da parede da aorta e pode ser afetado por muitos fatores, incluindo a menopausa. Por sua vez, 8-OHdG é um dos principais marcadores de danos oxidativos do DNA induzidos por espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROS). Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos do treinamento aeróbico moderado na aorta ascendente de camundongos fêmeas, nocaute para LDL (LDL-KO) e ovariectomizadas. Métodos: Um total de 15 animais C57BL/6 e 15 animais LDL-KO foram divididos em grupos experimentais. A espessura e a densidade de volume das fibras de colágeno tipos I e III foram realizadas por análise morfoquantitativa; MMP-2 e MMP-9 e 8-OHdG foram detectadas por imunohistoquímica; e a apoptose foi detectada pelo ensaio TUNEL. O nível de significância adotado para todos os testes realizados foi p < 0,05. Resultados: o exercício causa aumento da espessura da aorta em grupos LDL-KO, particularmente acentuada em grupos ovariectomizados. As fibras de colágeno de tipo I mostraram aumento da densidade de volume influenciado pelo treinamento em animais controle e LDL-KO. A densidade do colágeno tipo III diminuiu em ambos os grupos. A MMP-2 mostrou imunomarcação moderada na túnica média em animais LDL-KO; em grupos controle, a MMP-9 marcou irregularmente em todos os tecidos. O marcador 8-OHdG foi mais forte nos grupos de treinamento de exercícios. Além disso, a ovariectomia, o treinamento físico e os tratamentos de LDL-KO aumentaram a apoptose. Conclusão: Esses resultados sugerem que exercícios aeróbicos de intensidade moderada em camundongos ovariectomizados associados ao aumento da taxa de LDL, possivelmente, aumentam o estresse oxidativo e a indução da apoptose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Aorta/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Ovariectomy , Collagen/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/analysis , Aorta/pathology , Menopause/metabolism , Receptors, LDL/blood , Immunohistochemistry , Tunica Media/pathology , Apoptosis/physiology , Mice, Knockout , Oxidative Stress/physiology , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Sedentary Behavior
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(1): 32-37, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973843

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Whole body vibration training (WBV) is a new training program, which is safe and effective. It can be followed by the public. However, data on the safety and efficacy of vibration on myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury are lacking. Objective: To examine the effect of WBV on the tolerance of the myocardium to acute IR injury in an experimental rat model. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into control and vibration groups. Vibration training consisted of vertical sinusoidal whole body vibration for 30 min per day, 6 days per week, for 1 or 3 weeks (WBV1 and WBV3 groups, respectively). All the rats were submitted to myocardial IR injury. Myocardial infarct size and ischemia-induced arrhythmias were assessed. Differences between variables were considered significant when p < 0.05. Results: No differences were observed between the groups regarding the baseline hemodynamic parameters. Infarct size was smaller in the experimental group (control, 47 ± 2%; WBV1, 39 ± 2%; WBV3, 37 ± 2%; p < 0.05, vs. control). Vibration produced a significant decrease in the number and duration of ventricular tachycardia (VT) episodes compared to the control value. All ventricular fibrillation (VF) episodes in the vibration groups were self-limited, while 33% of the rats in the control group died due to irreversible VF (p = 0.02). Conclusion: The data showed that vibration training significantly increased cardiac tolerance to IR injury in rats, as evidenced by reduction in the infarct size and cardiac arrhythmias, and by facilitating spontaneous defibrillation.


Resumo Fundamento: O treinamento com vibração de corpo inteiro (WBV) é um novo programa de treinamento seguro e eficaz, e pode ser seguido pelo público. No entanto, dados sobre a segurança e eficácia da vibração na lesão de isquemia e reperfusão (IR) do miocárdio estão em falta. Objetivo: Examinar o efeito da WBV na tolerância do miocárdio à lesão aguda por IR em um modelo experimental em ratos. Métodos: Vinte e quatro ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em 2 grupos: controle e vibração. O treino de vibração consistiu em vibração sinusoidal vertical de corpo inteiro durante 30 min por dia, 6 dias por semana, durante 1 ou 3 semanas (grupos WBV1 e WBV3, respectivamente). Todos os ratos foram submetidos a lesão por IR do miocárdio. O tamanho do infarto do miocárdio e as arritmias induzidas por isquemia foram avaliados. As diferenças entre as variáveis foram consideradas significativas quando p < 0,05. Resultados: Não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos em relação aos parâmetros hemodinâmicos basais. O tamanho do infarto foi menor no grupo experimental (controle, 47 ± 2%; WBV1, 39 ± 2%; WBV3, 37 ± 2%; p < 0,05, vs. controle). A vibração produziu uma diminuição significativa no número e duração das taquicardia ventriculares (TV) em comparação com o valor de controle. Todos os episódios de fibrilação ventricular (FV) nos grupos de vibração foram autolimitados, enquanto 33% dos ratos do grupo controle morreram devido a FV irreversível (p = 0,02). Conclusão: Os dados mostraram que o treinamento com vibração de corpo inteiro aumentou significativamente a tolerância cardíaca à lesão de IR em ratos, como evidenciado pela redução do tamanho do infarto e arritmias cardíacas, e pela facilitação da desfibrilação espontânea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/methods , Vibration/therapeutic use , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Time Factors , Ventricular Fibrillation/prevention & control , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Rats, Wistar , Hemodynamics
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(5): e201900503, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To analyze the muscle changes with high-intensity aerobic training (HIAT) in an animal model of renal disease (RD). Methods: Twenty one adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: healthy sedentary (HS), RD sedentary (RDS), RD aerobic training (RDAT). RDS and RDAT were subjected to unilateral renal ischemia-reperfusion (10 min) and 21days after that, RDAT was subjected to 6 weeks HIAT (swimming). Serum creatinine (Cr) and muscle morphometry (cross-sectional area = CSA) of gastrocnemius were analyzed. Results: Cr was higher (p = 0.0053) in RDS (0.82 ± 0.04) than in the others (RDAT 0.55 ± 0.04; HS 0.55 ± 0.04). Morphometric analysis (class interval of CSA in μm2/absolute frequency of muscle fibers in each class) indicated that 50th percentile occurred in: HS 7th class (3000.00-3499.00/515), RDS, 8th class (3500.00-3999.00/484), RDAT 5th class (2000.00-2499.00/856). CSA of largest fibers in RDS, RDAT, HS was 9953.00 μm2, 9969.00 μm2,11228.00 μm2, respectively. High frequency of fibers with lower CSA occurred in 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th class in RDA, absence of fibers into 22nd, 23rd classes (RDS and RDAT). Conclusion: HIAT in an animal model of RD resulted in increased the number of muscle fibers with smaller CSA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Reference Values , Swimming/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/physiology , Creatinine/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Sedentary Behavior , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/blood supply
17.
Clinics ; 74: e829, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test whether swimming training benefits femoral neck strength in young diabetic rats under insulin therapy. METHODS: A total of 60 male Wistar rats (age: 40 days) were divided equally into the following six groups: control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary plus insulin and diabetic exercise plus insulin. Diabetes was induced with a unique intraperitoneal injection (60 mg/kg body weight) of streptozotocin. Seven days after the injection and after 12 hours of fasting, the animals with blood glucose levels ≥300 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Seven days after the induction of diabetes, the animals in the exercise groups were subjected to progressive swimming training (final week: 90 min/day; 5 days/week; 5% load) for eight weeks. The animals in the insulin groups received a daily dose of insulin (2-4 U/day) for the same period. RESULTS: Severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes reduced the structural properties of the femoral neck (trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness and collagen fiber content). The femoral neck mechanical properties (maximum load and tenacity) were also impaired in the diabetic rats. Insulin therapy partially reversed the damage induced by diabetes on the structural properties of the bone and mitigated the reductions in the mechanical properties of the bone. The combination of therapies further increased the femoral neck trabecular bone volume (∼30%), trabecular thickness (∼24%), collagen type I (∼19%) and type III (∼13%) fiber contents, maximum load (∼25%) and tenacity (∼14%). CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of swimming training potentiates the recovery of femoral neck strength in young rats with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes under insulin therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Swimming/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Exercise Therapy/methods , Femur Neck/physiopathology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Collagen/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Fractures, Bone/physiopathology , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Cancellous Bone/physiopathology
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(7): e8429, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011597

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to analyze age-related changes to motor coordination, balance, spinal cord oxidative biomarkers in 3-, 6-, 18-, 24-, and 30-month-old rats. The effects of low-intensity exercise on these parameters were also analyzed in 6-, 18-, and 24-month-old rats. Body weight, blood glucose, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assessed for all rats. The soleus muscle weight/body weight ratio was used to estimate skeletal muscle mass loss. Body weight increased until 24 months; only 30-month-old rats exhibited decreased blood glucose and increased total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. The soleus muscle weight/body weight ratio increased until 18 months, followed by a small decrease in old rats. Exercise did not change any of these parameters. Stride length and step length increased from adult to middle age, but decreased at old age. Stride width increased while the sciatic functional index decreased in old rats. Performance in the balance beam test declined with age. While gait did not change, balance improved after exercise. Aging increased superoxide anion generation, hydrogen peroxide levels, total antioxidant capacity, and superoxide dismutase activity while total thiol decreased and lipid hydroperoxides did not change. Exercise did not significantly change this scenario. Thus, aging increased oxidative stress in the spinal cord, which may be associated with age-induced changes in gait and balance. Regular low-intensity exercise is a good alternative for improving age-induced changes in balance, while beneficial effects on gait and spinal cord oxidative biomarkers cannot be ruled out because of the small number of rats investigated (n=5 or 6/group).


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Age Factors , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Postural Balance/physiology , Gait/physiology , Spinal Cord/physiology , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cholesterol/blood , Rats, Wistar , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(6): e8009, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001539

ABSTRACT

The progression of myocardial injury secondary to hypertension is a complex process related to a series of physiological and molecular factors including oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate whether moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) could improve cardiac function and oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Eight-week-old male SHRs and age-matched male Wistar-Kyoto rats were randomly assigned to exercise training (treadmill running at a speed of 20 m/min for 1 h continuously) or kept sedentary for 16 weeks. Cardiac function was monitored by polygraph; cardiac mitochondrial structure was observed by scanning electron microscope; tissue free radical production was measured using dihydroethidium staining. Expression levels of SIRT3 and SOD2 protein were measured by western blot, and cardiac antioxidants were assessed by assay kits. MIE improved the cardiac function of SHRs by decreasing left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), and first derivation of LVP (+LVdP/dtmax and −LVdP/dtmax). In addition, exercise-induced beneficial effects in SHRs were mediated by decreasing damage to myocardial mitochondrial morphology, decreasing production of reactive oxygen species, increasing glutathione level, decreasing oxidized glutathione level, increasing expression of SIRT3/SOD2, and increasing activity of superoxide dismutase. Exercise training in SHRs improved cardiac function by inhibiting hypertension-induced myocardial mitochondrial damage and attenuating oxidative stresses, offering new insights into prevention and treatment of hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blood Pressure/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Mitochondria, Heart/physiology , Cardiomyopathies/prevention & control , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Superoxide Dismutase/physiology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Disease Models, Animal , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(2): e7637, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984028

ABSTRACT

Non-diabetic individuals use hormones like insulin to improve muscle strength and performance. However, as insulin also leads the liver and the adipose tissue to an anabolic state, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of insulin on liver metabolism in trained non-diabetic Swiss mice. The mice were divided into four groups: sedentary treated with saline (SS) or insulin (SI) and trained treated with saline (TS) or insulin (TI). Training was made in a vertical stair, at 90% of the maximum load, three times per week. Insulin (0.3 U/kg body weight) or saline were given intraperitoneally five times per week. After eight weeks, tissue and blood were collected and in situ liver perfusion with glycerol+lactate or alanine+glutamine (4 mM each) was carried out. The trained animals increased their muscle strength (+100%) and decreased body weight gain (-11%), subcutaneous fat (-42%), mesenteric fat (-45%), and peritoneal adipocyte size (-33%) compared with the sedentary groups. Insulin prevented the adipose effects of training (TI). The gastrocnemius muscle had greater density of muscle fibers (+60%) and less connective tissue in the trained groups. Liver glycogen was increased by insulin (SI +40% and TI +117%), as well as liver basal glucose release (TI +40%). Lactate and pyruvate release were reduced to a half by training. The greater gluconeogenesis from alanine+glutamine induced by training (TS +50%) was reversed by insulin (TI). Insulin administration had no additional effect on muscle strength and reversed some of the lipolytic and gluconeogenic effects of the resistance training. Therefore, insulin administration does not complement training in improving liver glucose metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Muscle Strength , Glucose/administration & dosage , Glucose/adverse effects , Liver/drug effects , Exercise Test , Resistance Training , Glucose/metabolism , Liver/metabolism
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