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1.
Clinics ; 75: e1183, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the acute effects of a session of water-based aerobic exercise on the blood lipid levels of women with dyslipidemia and to compare these results according to their training status. METHOD: Fourteen premenopausal women with dyslipidemia, aged 40-50 years, participated in two water-based aerobic exercise sessions, the first when they were generally sedentary and the second after they were trained with a water-based aerobic training program for 12 weeks. Both experimental sessions were performed using the same protocol, lasted 45 min, and incorporated an interval method, alternating 3 min at a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 13 and 2 min at an RPE of 9. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lipoprotein lipase enzyme (LPL) were obtained through venous blood collection before and immediately after each session. A generalized estimating equation method and Bonferroni tests were conducted (with time and training status as factors) for statistical analyses. RESULTS: At enrollment, the mean age of the participants was 46.57 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 44.81−48.34). The statistical analyses showed a significant time effect for all variables (TC: p=0.008; TG: p=0.012; HDL: p<0.001; LPL: p<0.001) except for LDL (p=0.307). However, the training status effect was not significant for any variable (TC: p=0.527; TG: p=0.899; HDL: p=0.938; LDL: p=0.522; LPL: p=0.737). These results indicate that the TC and TG levels reduced and the HDL and LPL concentrations increased from pre- to post-session in similar magnitudes in both sedentary and trained women. CONCLUSIONS: A single water-based aerobic exercise session is sufficient and effective to beneficially modify the lipid profile of women with dyslipidemia, regardless of their training status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Water , Exercise/physiology , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Physical Exertion/physiology , Lipids/blood , Triglycerides/blood , Dyslipidemias/blood , Lipoprotein Lipase/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
2.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(4): 422-428, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020650

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La escala EPInfant ha sido validada para la estimación perceptual del esfuerzo físico en niños chile nos, pero se desconoce su utilidad para la autorregulación de la intensidad del ejercicio. OBJETIVO: evaluar la validez de criterio de la escala EPInfant para regular y reproducir la intensidad de ejercicio en una muestra de niños sanos. SUJETOS Y MÉTODO: Se seleccionaron 15 niños entre 8 y 12 años, en quienes se realizó un test de carga incremental (TCI) y tres pruebas de regulación perceptual (PRP) en trotadora. Las pruebas se realizaron con un intervalo de 48 horas entre ellas. En la PRP, la carga de trabajo se ajustó perceptualmente durante 5 minutos, considerando aleatoriamente los niveles 3, 6 y 9 de la escala EPInfant. Se consideró el promedio de la FC durante la PRP como la intensidad reproducida perceptualmente. Se empleó análisis de varianza, regresión lineal simple y análisis de confiabilidad para determinar la reproducibilidad de la FC durante la PRP. RESULTADOS: Existió diferencia significativa en la FC entre los niveles perceptivos durante la PRP (p < 0,001). Adicional mente, se observó correlación entre la FC durante el TCI y la PRP (r = 0,83; r2 = 0,69). El coeficiente de correlación intraclase fue de 0,76, 0,83 y 0,93 en los niveles perceptivos 3, 6 y 9; y la discordancia media entre la FC durante el TCI y la PRP fue de -2,4 lat/min. CONCLUSIÓN: En la muestra estudiada, la escala EPInfant fue válida para permitir la regulación y reproducción perceptual de la intensidad del ejercicio en trotadora.


INTRODUCTION: The EPInfant scale has been validated for the perceptual estimation of physical exer tion in Chilean children, but its usefulness for self-regulation of exercise intensity is unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate the criterion validity of the EPInfant scale to regulate and re produce exercise intensity in a sample of healthy children. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: 15 children between the ages of eight and 12 were selected for an incremental exercise test (IET) and three perceptually regulated exercise tests (PRET) on a treadmill. The tests were performed with a 48-hour interval between them. In the PRET, the exercise load was adjusted perceptually for five minutes, randomly considering levels 3, 6, and 9 of the EPInfant scale. The average heart rate (HR) during PRET was considered as the perceptually reproduced intensity. Variance analysis, simple linear regression, and reliability analysis were used to determine the reproducibility of HR during PRET. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in HR between perceptual levels during PRET (p < 0.001). Additionally, a correlation was observed between HR during the IET and the PRET (r = 0.83, r2 = 0.69). The intra class correlation coefficient was 0.76, 0.83. and 0.93 at perceptual levels 3, 6, and 9; and the mean dis cordance between HR during the IET and the PRET was -2.4 beats/min. CONCLUSION: In the studied sample, the EPInfant scale was valid to allow the perceptual regulation and reproduction of exercise intensity in a treadmill.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Exercise/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Chile , Reproducibility of Results
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 909-916, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011317

ABSTRACT

English Thoroughbred horses, are widespread in Mexico and due to the lack of data on their exercise physiology, it is important to conduct exercise tests in order to obtain information the effects of exercise on more essential cations/anions in blood serum, as these horses are submitted to constant efforts. The study was carried out with 150 blood samples of English Thoroughbred horses clinically healthy. The blood sample collection was performed during three periods: 1) rest, 2) 30min after exercise (speed race of 12km/h for 30min with no rest) and 3) 60min after exercise. Mean values were calculated for cations (sodium and potassium) and anions (chloride and bicarbonate). The resulting data set was analyzed using Gaussian distribution and descriptive statistics. Confidence intervals of 95% were established. The linear relationships between ions were quantified, and an analysis of variance was performed to compare the mean values between groups. The concentrations of the described analytes are consistent with values reported by international literature. The comparison between groups, revealed that during exercise, sodium ion did not show changes 30min after exercise and increase 60min after. Potassium ion showed increase 30min after exercise and decrease 60min after. Chloride ion showed a decrease 30min after exercise, to recover gradually 60min after. Meanwhile, bicarbonate ion showed increase 30min after exercise, decreasing slightly in the final stage. Negative correlation between bicarbonate ion and chloride ion were determined. It was concluded that exercise tests are useful for the determination of acid-base balance and osmotic balance, and their main role is to evaluate the athletic ability of horses.Considering that chloride ion excretion and metabolic adjustments of potassium ion and bicarbonate ion are superior to water loss, compared to the normal osmolarity of blood serum. The results found can be used to structure an adequate replacement program of electrolytes lost in sweat.(AU)


Equinos da raça Puro-Sangue-Inglês são difundidos no México e, devido à falta de dados sobre sua fisiologia do exercício, é importante fazer testes de exercício para obter informações sobre os efeitos do exercício em cátions/ânions mais essenciais no soro do sangue, pois esses equinos são submetidos a esforços constantes. O estudo foi realizado com 150 amostras de sangue de equinos Puro-Sangue-Inglês, clinicamente saudáveis. A coleta de sangue foi realizada em três períodos: 1) descanso, 2) 30min após o exercício (corrida de velocidade de 12km/h por 30min, sem descanso) e 3) 60min após o exercício. Os valores médios foram calculados para cátions (sódio e potássio) e ânions (cloreto e bicarbonato). O conjunto de dados resultante foi analisado utilizando-se distribuição gaussiana e estatística descritiva. Intervalos de confiança de 95% foram estabelecidos. As relações lineares entre os íons foram quantificadas, e uma análise de variância foi realizada para se compararem os valores médios entre grupos. As concentrações dos analitos descritos são consistentes com os valores relatados na literatura internacional. A comparação entre os grupos revelou que, durante o exercício, o sódio íon não mostrou alterações 30min após o exercício e aumentou 60min após. O potássio íon mostrou aumento 30min após o exercício e diminuiu 60min após. O cloreto íon mostrou uma diminuição 30min após o exercício, para recuperar gradualmente 60min depois. O bicarbonato íon mostrou aumento 30min após o exercício, diminuindo ligeiramente no estágio final. Correlação negativa entre bicarbonato íon e cloreto íon foi encontrada. Concluiu-se que os testes de exercício são úteis para a determinação do equilíbrio ácido-base e do equilíbrio osmótico, e seu principal papel é avaliar a capacidade atlética dos equinos. Considerando-se que a excreção de cloro íon e ajustes metabólicos de potássio íon e bicarbonato íon são superiores à perda de água, comparada à osmolaridade normal do soro sanguíneo,os resultados encontrados podem ser usados para estruturar um programa adequado de reposição de eletrólitos perdidos no suor.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Running/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Horses/physiology , Horses/immunology , Veterinary Sports Medicine , Mexico
5.
Motriz (Online) ; 25(3): e101910, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040651

ABSTRACT

Aim: The present study aimed to verify if there is a difference between genders in anaerobic capacity estimated by energetic equivalents of glycolytic and phosphagen pathways (AC[La-]+EPOCfast). Methods: In this way, 8 men and 8 women (physical education students) were subjected to the following sequence of tests: session 1) graded exercise test to measure the maximal oxygen consumption (VÖ½ O2max) and intensity associated with VÖ½ O2max (iVÖ½ O2max); sessions 2 to 3) familiarization with supramaximal effort at 115% of iVÖ½ O2max; session 4) supramaximal effort at 115% of iVÖ½ O2max to measure AC[La-]+EPOCfast. Results: The AC[La-]+EPOCfast was lower in women compared to men when expressed in absolute and relative values (-38.11%; p=0.01 and -25.71%; p=0.03, respectively). A non-significant difference was observed in performance in the supramaximal effort (-12.08%; p=0.15), besides which, a likely negative inference was observed when comparing women to men. In addition, energetic equivalents of the glycolytic pathway (e[La- ]) were also lower in women when expressed in relative and absolute values (-47.01%; p=0.001 and -36.71%; p=0.001, respectively), however no statistical difference was found for energetic equivalents of the phosphagen pathway (ePCr) (p>0.05). Conclusion: The AC[La-]+EPOCfast is lower in women compared to men, mainly due to differences in the glycolytic pathway.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Sex Characteristics , Physical Exertion/physiology , Lactic Acid/blood , Glycolysis/physiology , Anaerobiosis/physiology
6.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(5): 390-397, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975950

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the impact of adherence to long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) on quality of life, dyspnea, and exercise capacity in patients with COPD and exertional hypoxemia followed for one year. Methods: Patients experiencing severe hypoxemia during a six-minute walk test (6MWT) performed while breathing room air but not at rest were included in the study. At baseline and after one year of follow-up, all patients were assessed for comorbidities, body composition, SpO2, and dyspnea, as well as for anxiety and depression, having also undergone spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis, and the 6MWT with supplemental oxygen. The Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was used in order to assess quality of life, and the Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index was calculated. The frequency of exacerbations and the mortality rate were noted. Treatment nonadherence was defined as LTOT use for < 12 h per day or no LTOT use during exercise. Results: A total of 60 patients with COPD and exertional hypoxemia were included in the study. Of those, 10 died and 11 experienced severe hypoxemia during follow-up, 39 patients therefore being included in the final analysis. Of those, only 18 (46.1%) were adherent to LTOT, showing better SGRQ scores, higher SpO2 values, and lower PaCO2 values than did nonadherent patients. In all patients, SaO2, the six-minute walk distance, and the BODE index worsened after one year. There were no differences between the proportions of adherence to LTOT at 3 and 12 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Quality of life appears to be lower in patients with COPD and exertional hypoxemia who do not adhere to LTOT than in those who do. In addition, LTOT appears to have a beneficial effect on COPD symptoms (as assessed by SGRQ scores). (Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials - ReBEC; identification number RBR-9b4v63 [http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br])


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o impacto da adesão à oxigenoterapia de longa duração (OLD) na qualidade de vida, dispneia e capacidade de exercício em pacientes com DPOC e hipoxemia decorrente do esforço acompanhados durante um ano. Métodos: Foram incluídos no estudo pacientes que apresentaram hipoxemia grave durante um teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6) realizado enquanto respiravam ar ambiente, mas não em repouso. No início e após um ano de acompanhamento, todos os pacientes foram avaliados quanto a comorbidades, composição corporal, SpO2 e dispneia, bem como quanto a ansiedade e depressão, além de terem sido submetidos a espirometria, gasometria arterial e TC6 com oxigênio suplementar. O Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) foi usado para avaliar a qualidade de vida, e o índice Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE; índice de massa corporal, obstrução do fluxo aéreo, dispneia e capacidade de exercício) foi calculado. A frequência de exacerbações e a taxa de mortalidade foram registradas. Usar OLD durante < 12 h por dia ou não usar OLD durante o exercício caracterizaram não adesão ao tratamento. Resultados: Foram incluídos no estudo 60 pacientes com DPOC e hipoxemia decorrente do esforço. Destes, 10 morreram e 11 apresentaram hipoxemia grave durante o acompanhamento; portanto, foram incluídos na análise final 39 pacientes. Destes, apenas 18 (46,1%) aderiram à OLD, apresentando melhor pontuação no SGRQ, maior SpO2 e menor PaCO2 do que os pacientes que não aderiram à OLD. Em todos os pacientes, a SaO2, a distância percorrida no TC6 e o índice BODE pioraram após um ano. Não houve diferenças entre as proporções de adesão à OLD aos 3 e 12 meses de acompanhamento. Conclusões: A qualidade de vida parece ser menor em pacientes com DPOC e hipoxemia decorrente do esforço que não aderem à OLD do que naqueles que o fazem. Além disso, a OLD parece ter efeito benéfico nos sintomas da DPOC (avaliados pela pontuação obtida no SGRQ). (Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos - ReBEC; número de identificação RBR- 9b4v63 [http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br])


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Quality of Life , Spirometry , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Blood Gas Analysis , Oximetry , Follow-Up Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Walk Test
7.
Motriz (Online) ; 24(1): e1018155, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-895054

ABSTRACT

AIM: Describe and compare training load dynamics of two Olympic beach volleyball players. METHODS Two Olympic beach volleyball players participated in this study (specialist defender and blocker: both aged 34 years, holding 14 years of competitive experience, height: 1.74 m and 1.81 m, weight: 69 kg and 65 kg, respectively). Internal training load (ITL), total weekly training load (TWTL), monotony and strain were obtained through the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) for three training mesocycles (10 weeks). Lower limb explosive power was assessed through the counter movement jump (CMJ). RESULTS: Mean ITL, TWTL, monotony and strain during the 10-week period were: 370 ± 156; 1997 ± 838; 2.7 ± 1.3; 5621 ± 1802 arbitrary units (Defender) and 414 ± 153; 2392 ± 892; 2.7 ± 1.1; 6894 ± 3747 (Blocker). Mean of CMJ height was 47.0 ± 1.3 and 40.3 ± 1.6 cm, for the defender and blocker, respectively. The defender player presented higher ITL in the second (effect size (ES) = 0.90; 92/5/3, likely) and in the third (ES = 0.91; 94/4/2, likely) mesocycles when compared to the first. Monotony raised from the first to the third mesocycle (ES = 2.91; 98/1/1, very likely). Blocker's ITL was higher in the third mesocycle than the first (ES = 1.42. 98/1/1, very likely) and the second (ES = 1.49; 98/1/1, likely) ones. CONCLUSION: ITL magnitude increased from the first to the third mesocycle, in both players.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Athletic Performance , Monitoring , Physical Exertion/physiology , Volleyball/physiology , Weight-Bearing
8.
Clinics ; 73: e516, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974927

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe external training load and internal training load through sets of a single session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) body work. METHODS: Twenty male individuals (24±3 years) performed a HIIT body work protocol consisting of a single bout of exercise with 1:1 stimuli. The exercises used were 30 min in duration with "all-out" intensity. The exercises included jumping jacks, mountain climbers, burpees and squat jumps, totaling 20 min of exercise. During exercise, total movement capacity, blood lactate measurement, ratings of perceived exertion and recovery, training load and intensity were monitored. RESULTS: The single bout examined showed a total of 382±89 movements. Differences (p<0.01) in the total amount of movement for each exercise were noted, reflecting the difficulty of maintaining exercise over time. Increases in lactate concentrations (before: 0.98±0.16, after: 14.10±1.66; mmol/L) were found postexercise. Significant differences (p<0.01) were found after the fifth set, and the values for movement capacity remained higher than the values of the first set, demonstrating high load in a single session. No differences in ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during the sets were found. However, the ratings of perceived recuperation from the second set were significantly (p<0.01) lower than those from the first set. CONCLUSIONS: The exercise protocol used in this study was of high intensity and produced large values for stress during performance, with increases recorded for the internal load indicators.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Resistance Training , High-Intensity Interval Training , Heart Rate/physiology , Lactic Acid/blood , Physical Exertion/physiology
9.
Motriz (Online) ; 24(4): e101884, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976265

ABSTRACT

This study tested whether performing exergames with and without additional external load could induce to different internal load demand for young adults. Methods: Fifteen young women (24.4 ± 4.06 years) participated in the study. Electromyography (EMG) activity, heart rate (HR) and overall and local rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined in "Just Dance" and "Ski" exergames without additional external load and with additional external load of 5% of body mass attached bilaterally to the ankles in "Just Dance" and using a weight vest in "Ski". Results: EMG, HR and overall RPE presented similar responses between loads in both exergames (p>.05). However, local RPE differentiate internal load only in "Just Dance", with higher values with additional load (with additional load: 11.2 ± 2.1 RPE; without additional load: 10.3 ± 1.4 RPE; p = .037). Conclusion: Therefore, performing exergames with an additional external load of 5% of young women body mass did not induce different internal load demand in "Just Dance" and "Ski" exergames compared to performing such games without external load. However, the greater local RPE in "Just Dance" exergame after adding the external load suggests that a higher amount of load (i.e., > 5% of body mass) to this population may generate different internal load demand.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Video Games/psychology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Muscles/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(5): e6964, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889089

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) availability potentiates fat oxidation after an exhaustive high-intensity exercise bout. Eight physically active men underwent a high-intensity exercise (∼95% V̇O2max) until exhaustion under low or high pre-exercise CHO availability. The protocol to manipulate pre-exercise CHO availability consisted of a 90-min cycling bout at ∼70% V̇O2max + 6 × 1-min at 125% V̇O2max with 1-min rest, followed by 48 h under a low- (10% CHO, low-CHO availability) or high-CHO diet (80% CHO, high-CHO availability). Time to exhaustion was shorter and energy expenditure (EE) lower during the high-intensity exercise in low- compared to high-CHO availability (8.6±0.8 and 11.4±1.6 min, and 499±209 and 677±343 kJ, respectively, P<0.05). Post-exercise EE was similar between low- and high-CHO availability (425±147 and 348±54 kJ, respectively, P>0.05), but post-exercise fat oxidation was significantly higher (P<0.05) in low- (7,830±1,864 mg) than in high-CHO availability (6,264±1,763 mg). The total EE (i.e., exercise EE plus post-exercise EE) was similar between low- and high-CHO availability (924±264 and 1,026±340 kJ, respectively, P>0.05). These results suggest that a single bout of high-intensity exercise performed under low-CHO availability increased post-exercise fat oxidation, and even with shorter exercise duration, both post-exercise EE and total EE were not impaired.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism/physiology , Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Adipose Tissue/physiology , Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage , Exercise Test/methods , Oxidation-Reduction , Time Factors
11.
Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum ; 19(6): 696-709, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897880

ABSTRACT

Abstract Self-selected intensities during walking and resistances training by obese subjects are below recommended guidelines to improve health-related outcomes. From this perspective, there is the possibility of combining both aerobic and resistance training in a single exercise session with the purpose of increasing training volume and optimizing physiological adaptations, while preserving positive affective responses. Until now, no study has assessed ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and sensations of pleasure/displeasure (SPD) during a combined training session in obese women. The present study aimed to: (1) assess RPE and SPD during a combined training session in obese women; and (2) compare RPE and SPD responses during different resistance training exercises. Twelve sedentary obese women (age: 39.2 ±11.1 years; height: 160.4 ± 5.9 cm; body mass: 87.4 ± 5.8 kg; BMI: 33.6 ±1.2 kg.m-2) performed a combined aerobic and resistance training session. RPE and SPD were recorded during the session. Data were analyzed with One-way repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni's post hoc tests. The results revealed that, despite the increase in exercise volume, RPE responses were low and affective responses were positive. There were no significant differences in RPE and SPD values among resistance exercises. Combined aerobic and resistance training can be prescribed during the initial phase of a training program because it produces low perceived exertion and positive affective responses.


Resumo As intensidades autosselecionadas observadas tanto na caminhada como no treinamento resistido em obesos são inferiores as recomendações do ACSM, (2011) as quais, promovem melhora na aptidão cardiorrespiratória e força muscular. A partir disso, surge a hipótese de combinar os exercícios, aeróbio e resistido em uma única sessão com o intuito de aumentar o volume de treinamento otimizando os ajustes fisiológicos tentando preservar baixos níveis de percepção subjetiva do esforço (PSE) e sensações prazerosas (SPD) observadas nessa intensidade. Desta maneira, o presente estudo teve três objetivos: 1) verificar ao longo de uma sessão de treinamento combinado a PSE e a SPD em mulheres obesas; 2) analisar se ocorrerá alteração na PSE e SPD entre os diferentes exercícios resistidos; 3) investigar se existe correlação entre a PSE e SPD. Participaram doze mulheres obesas não praticantes de exercício físico com idades de 39.2±11.1 anos e IMC: 33.6±1.2 kg.m-2 as quais, foram submetidas a uma sessão de treinamento combinado com duração total de 60 minutos. Ao longo da sessão foram reportadas a PSE e SPD. Para analisar os dados foi utilizado uma ANOVA de medidas repetidas seguido de um Post Hock de Bonferroni. Os resultados demonstram que o volume aumentado produziu baixos valores de PSE (~3) e sensações prazerosas (~3) ao longo da sessão. Não foi encontrado diferença significativa da PSE e SPD entre os exercícios resistidos e foi evidenciada uma relação negativa moderada significativa (r= -0.624; p= 0.001 com 95% IC: -0.710; -0.280) entre a PSE e SPD. Sendo assim, o treinamento combinado pode ser prescrito para mulheres obesas, pois, produz baixa percepção de esforço e sensações prazerosas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Exercise/psychology , Affect/physiology , Obesity , Perception/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Pleasure
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(6): 556-561, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887615

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The enzymatic activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD2) is key to protecting mineral corticoid receptors from cortisol and has been implicated in blood pressure regulation. Grapefruit juice (GFJ) and acidity are thought to inhibit this enzyme in vitro. This study examines the effect of GFJ and intense exercise on 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity in vivo. Subjects and methods Eighteen subjects ingested GFJ or apple juice (CON) on separate days prior to reporting to the laboratory in a randomized order. Saliva (Sal) samples were obtained at baseline, 15 and 45 minutes post-treadmill stress test; Sal cortisone (E) and cortisol (F) levels were determined, and the Sal cortisone:cortisol (E:F) ratio was used as an index of 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity at rest and after intense muscular work. Results GFJ treatment decreased baseline 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity (44%) and Sal-E (28%) compared to CON (both, p < 0.05). Sal-E (r = 0.61, p < 0.05) and Sal-F (r = 0.66, p < 0.05) were correlated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in GFJ-treated individuals. Treadmill stress significantly increased Sal-E and Sal-F but did not alter 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity regardless of treatment. When treatments were examined separately, CON 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity decreased by 36% (p < 0.05) from baseline to 15 post-treadmill exercise. Conclusion Our findings suggest that GFJ and intense muscular work decrease 11β-HSD-2 activity independently, and no additive effect was noted. The association between DBP and the levels of Sal-F and Sal-E during the GFJ trial should be interpreted cautiously and warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cortisone/blood , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Citrus paradisi , Physical Exertion/physiology , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Cross-Over Studies , 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2/antagonists & inhibitors , 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2/blood , Exercise Test , Heart Rate/physiology
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(3): 191-198, Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887922

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Little has been studied on heart rate and its relationship with metabolic disorders. Objective: To identify possible association between heart rate (HR) and metabolic disorders in children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 2.098 subjects, aged between 7 and 17 years. The variables evaluated were: HR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), double-product (DP), myocardial oxygen consumption (mVO2), lipids, glucose and uric acid levels, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The values of HR at rest and effort were divided into quartiles. The association between continuous values of HR and cardiometabolic indicators was tested by linear regression. Results: LDL cholesterol presented a significantly higher mean (p = 0.003) in schoolchildren with resting HR greater or equal to 91 bpm, compared to students with less than 75 bpm. Compared with the quartiles of effort HR, SBP, DBP, glucose and uric acid presented high values when HR was greater or equal than 185 bpm. SBP, glucose and HDL cholesterol demonstrated a significant association with resting HR. Uric acid was observed as a predictor of increased effort HR. Conclusion: Schoolchildren with a higher resting HR have higher mean of LDL cholesterol. For effort HR, there was an increase in blood pressure, glucose and uric acid levels. Uric acid has been shown to be a predictor of elevated effort HR.


Resumo Fundamento: Pouco se tem estudado sobre frequência cardíaca e suas relações com alterações metabólicas. Objetivo: Verificar se existe associação entre frequência cardíaca e disfunções metabólicas em crianças e adolescentes. Método: Estudo transversal com 2.098 escolares, com idade entre 7 e 17 anos. As variáveis avaliadas foram: frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), diastólica (PAD) e de pulso (PP), duplo-produto (DP), consumo de oxigênio pelo miocárdio (mVO2), perfil lipídico e glicêmico, níveis de ácido úrico, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e circunferência da cintura (CC). Os valores de FC de repouso e esforço foram divididos em quartis. A associação entre os valores contínuos de FC com indicadores cardiometabólicos foi testada por meio da regressão linear. Resultados: O colesterol LDL apresentou média significativamente superior (p = 0,003) nos escolares com FC de repouso maior ou igual a 91 bpm, em comparação aos escolares que apresentaram menos de 75 bpm. Comparados com os quartis da FC de esforço, a PAS, PAD, glicose e ácido úrico apresentaram valores elevados quando a FC foi igual ou superior a 185 bpm. A PAS, a glicose e o colesterol HDL demonstraram associação significativa com a FC de repouso. Observou-se o ácido úrico como um preditor do aumento da FC de esforço. Conclusão: Escolares com FC de repouso mais elevada apresentam médias superiores de colesterol LDL. Para FC de esforço, observou-se elevação na pressão arterial, nos níveis de glicose e de ácido úrico. O ácido úrico demonstrou ser preditor da elevação da FC de esforço.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Rest/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Uric Acid/blood , Blood Pressure/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glycemic Index/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Lipids/blood , Metabolic Diseases/physiopathology , Metabolic Diseases/blood
14.
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 4(1)Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Performing high intensity or exhaustive exercise can lead to muscle damage such as injuries, chronic fatigue and overtraining, partly due to the high synthesis of reactive oxygen species. The α-lipoic acid (ALA) and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, act as potent antioxidant and eliminate free radicals. Although this response depends on the type of exercise and supplementation, animal and human studies have shown the benefits of antioxidant supplementation on the recovery of damages caused by exhaustive exercise, either by restoring antioxidant levels or by decreasing the damage. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of ALA supplementation on muscular biomarkers of oxidative stress following exhaustive exercise of trained mice. METHODS: Sixty mice were trained to swim for 6 weeks. On the last week, half of the animals were supplemented daily with 100 mg/kg of oral gavage of ALA in soy oil as a vehicle. The other half received just the vehicle. On the last day 20 animals from each group were submitted to an exhaustion protocol with 10% overweight attached to tail. Animals were euthanized on 3 moments: basal, just after the exhaustive protocol (0 h) and, 4 h after the exhaustive protocol. The gastrocnemius muscle was promptly excised and homogenized. The homogenates were used to estimate oxidative stress biomarkers. RESULTS: There was a simultaneous decrease of non-protein thiols and vitamin E after 4 h of exhaustive exercise in the ALA group (p<0.05) compared to the control group, suggesting the consumption of these compounds in the process of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, there was an increase of nitrate and nitrite in ALA group (p<0.05) and a decrease in the control (p<0.05) compared to basal moment, possibly by activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. The total antioxidant capacity remained unchanged in the ALA group. CONCLUSION: The supplementation with ALA resulted in a protection against oxidative stress caused by exhaustive exercise.


CONTEXTO: A realização de exercício de alta intensidade ou exaustivo pode levar a danos musculares, como lesões, fadiga crônica e overtraining, em parte devido à alta síntese de espécies reativas de oxigênio. O ácido α-lipóico e sua forma reduzida, o ácido dihidrolipóico, atuam como potentes antioxidantes e eliminam os radicais livres. Apesar de depender do tipo de exercício e suplementação, estudos com animais e humanos mostram benefícios da suplementação com antioxidante na recuperação de danos causados pelo exercício exaustivo, seja restaurando os níveis de antioxidantes ou diminuindo os danos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da suplementação com ácido α-lipóico sobre biomarcadores musculares de estresse oxidativo após o exercício exaustivo de camundongos treinados. METODOLOGIA: Os camundongos (n = 60) foram treinados em natação por 6 semanas. Na última semana, metade dos animais foram suplementados diariamente com gavagem oral de 100 mg / kg de ácido α-lipóico em óleo de soja como veículo. A outra metade recebeu apenas o veículo. No último dia 20 animais de cada grupo foram submetidos ao protocolo de exaustão com 10% de sobrepeso atado à cauda. Os animais foram eutanasiados em 3 momentos: basal, logo após o protocolo de exaustão (0 h) e 4 h após o protocolo de exaustão. O músculo gastrocnêmio foi imediatamente coletado e homogeneizado. Os homogeneizados foram usados para acessar os biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo. RESULTADOS: Houve diminuição simultânea de tióis não protéicos e vitamina E após 4 h de exercício exaustivo no grupo ácido α-lipóico (p <0,05) em relação ao grupo controle, sugerindo o consumo destes compostos no processo de peroxidação lipídica. Interessantemente, houve aumento de nitrato e nitrito no grupo ácido α-lipóico (p <0,05) e diminuição no controle (p <0,05) em relação ao momento basal, possivelmente pela ativação da óxido nítrico sintase endotelial. A capacidade antioxidante total permaneceu inalterada no grupo ácido α-lipóico. CONCLUSÃO: A suplementação com ácido α-lipóico resultou em proteção contra o estresse oxidativo causado pelo exercício exaustivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Thioctic Acid/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Physical Exertion/physiology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/analysis
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6335, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888966

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=8) or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n=8). The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and peak treadmill speed (PTS). A submaximal constant-speed test to measure the running economy (RE) and a 5-km running trial on an outdoor track to establish pacing strategy and performance were also done. During the 5-km running trial, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and time to cover the 5-km trial (T5) were registered. After the training period, there were significant improvements in the HIIT group of ∼7 and 5% for RE (P=0.012) and PTS (P=0.019), respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups for VO2max (P=0.495) or onset of blood lactate accumulation (P=0.101). No difference was found in the parameters measured during the 5-km trial before the training period between HIIT and CON (P>0.05). These findings suggest that 4 weeks of HIIT can improve some traditional physiological variables related to endurance performance (RE and PTS), but it does not alter the perception of effort, pacing strategy, or overall performance during a 5-km running trial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Physical Endurance/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Running/physiology , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Rate/physiology , Lactic Acid/blood , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
16.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 45(4): 1-15, set.-dic. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-960562

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la labor policial es una de las profesiones más estresantes del mundo, debido a las amenazas físicas, la violencia, las acciones brutales e inclusive la muerte. Objetivo: comparar el nivel de actividad física en el tiempo libre, riesgo coronario, índice de satisfacción con el trabajo, dominio de la calidad de vida y datos antropométricos de acuerdo con el tiempo de servicio en la Policía Militar. Métodos: estudio descriptivo comparativo. La población estuvo compuesta por los efectivos activos del Batallón de Policía Militar de Santa Catarina, localizado en un municipio del Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil (N=224), de 20 junio hasta 30 junio, 2012. Inicialmente, se realizó la anamnesis y posteriormente la aplicación de los cuestionarios ( International Physical Activity Questionnaires versión completa (IPAQ-long), Inventario de Riesgo Coronario, Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI), Rotterdam Symptom Check List (RCSL) adaptado y el cuestionario Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) y la evaluación antropométrica. Resultados: hubo diferencias significativas en la capacidad funcional, dolor, estado general de salud, componente físico, nivel de stress percibido, índice de conicidad, circunferencia abdominal, relación cintura- estatura, grasa corporal relativa y en el puntaje del riesgo coronario de acuerdo con el tiempo de servicio profesional en la Policía Militar. Conclusión: con el aumento del tiempo de servicio en la policía militar, se producen cambios antropométricos, se incrementa el riesgo coronario y baja calidad de vida(AU)


Introduction: The police work is one of the most stressful professions in the world, because of physical threats in your operating field, as these professionals work in their daily lives, with violence, brutality and death. Objective: To compare the level of physical activity during leisure time, coronary risk, satisfaction with work, domains of quality of life and anthropometric data according to professional practice time in the military police. Methods: The sample was composed of military officers who met the eligibility criteria of the study. Initially, subjects were submitted to an interview, application of questionnaires and anthropometric assessment. Results: There were significant differences in functioning, bodily pain, general health, physical component, level of perceived stress, conicity index, waist circumference, waist height, relative body fat and coronary risk score according to the professional practice time in the Military Police. Conclusion: It can be concluded that professional practice time in the military police have anthropometric changes, coronary risk and low quality of life(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Professional Practice , Police , Physical Exertion/physiology , Quality of Life , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Data Collection/methods
17.
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 3(5)Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A simple, low-cost approach commonly used to objectively analyze the cardiorespiratory fitness of individuals with different health conditions is the six-minute walk test (6-MWT). Our objective was to develop peak aerobic power prediction using the six-minute walk test in healthy older men. METHODS: We measured body composition (body mass [BM], body mass index [BMI], fat percentage [FAT]) and peak aerobic power breath-by-breath during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET [velocity, heart rate [HR] and VO2 at the anaerobic threshold and peak]) and a 6-MWT (distance [D], weight by distance [WxD], HR and oxygen consumption [VO2] at peak) in 76 healthy older men aged 65 to 80 years (69.1 ± 0.3 yrs-old). RESULTS: We observed significant correlations for VO2peak during the 6-MWT as a function of WxD (R = 0.75, P < 0.0005), BM (R = 0.56, P < 0.0005), D (R = 0.43, P = 0.0004) and maximum HR (R = 0.37, P = 0.001). Distance correlated significantly with FAT (R = -0.43, P = 0.005), BMI (R = -0.36, P = 0.021) and age (R = -0.31, P < 0.045), whereas WxD correlated with BM (R = 0.86, P<0.005).The inclusion of WxD increased the R2 from 0.65 to 0.74 and decreased the estimative error while yielding the following equation (R = 0.86, standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 182.1 mL•min-1, P < 0.0005) to predict VO2peak: VO2peak = 962.2 + (0.037 x WxD) + (8.565 x maximum HR). A non-exercise model was obtained by univariate regressions but not multiple regressions. The FAT (R = 0.43, SEE = 702.2 m, P < 0.005) yielded the best model for predicting distance, i.e., distance = 702.2 - (3.067 x FAT). CONCLUSION: Our prediction model seems to accurately estimate VO2peak in healthy older men primarily when WxD is considered.


OBJETIVO: O teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6M) é uma estrategia simples e de baixo custo operacional que objetivamente mede a aptidão cardiorrespiratória de indivíduos com diferentes condições de saúde. Nosso objetivo foi desenvolver equações de predição da potência aeróbica em homens idosos saudáveis usando o TC6M. MÉTODOS: Foram medidos a composição corporal (massa corporal [MC], índice de massa corporal [BMI], porcentagem de gordura [%G]) e potência aeróbica de pico através de teste cardiopulmonar de exercício máximo (velocidade, frequência cardíaca [FC] e consumo de oxigênio [VO2] no limiar anaeróbico e no pico]) e através do TC6M (distancia [D], produto massa corporal x distância, FC e VO2de pico) em 76 idosos saudáveis com idade entre 65 e 80 anos (69.1 ± 0.3 anos). RESULTADOS: Foram observadas correlações significativas para VO2pico no TC6M em função do produto MCxD (R = 0,75, P < 0,0005), MC (R = 0,56, P < 0,0005), D (R = 0,43, P = 0,0004) e FC máxima (R = 0,37, P = 0,001). A correlacionou-se significativamente com %G (R = -0,43, P = 0,005), IMC (R = -0,36, P = 0,021) e idade (R = -0,31, P < 0,045), enquanto que a MCxD correlacionou-se com MC (R = 0,86, P < 0,005). A inclusão da MCxD aumentou o R 2 de 0,65 para 0,74 e diminuiu o erro padrão da estimativa (EPE) gerando a equação (R = 0,86, EPE = 182,1 mL·min-1, P < 0,0005) para a predição do VO2peak: VO2peak = 962,2 + (0,037 x MCxD) + (8,565 x FC máxima). Foi também gerado um modelo preditivo não dependente de exercício através de regressão univariada, mas não múltipla. A %G (R=0,43, EPE = 702,2 m, P < 0,005) gerou o melhor modelo para a predição da distancia, i.e., distancia = 702,2 - (3,067 x %G). CONCLUSÃO: Nossas modelos de predição parecem estimar precisamente o VO2pico de idosos saudáveis, especialmente quando a MCxD é considerada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Walk Test/methods , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology
18.
Motriz rev. educ. fís. (Impr.) ; 22(3): 160-165, July-Sept. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789099

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze the responses of creatine kinase [CK] expressed in different forms to the training load of professional soccer players during a competitive season. Twelve players (age, 24 ± 4 years) participated in the study. [CK] was analyzed before the pre-season (Pre), after the pre-season (Post), and in the competitive mesocycles (M1, M2, and M3). Results showed [CK] in the Pre, Post, M1, M2, and M3 phases in absolute values (181.3 ± 58.7, 416.4 ± 155.7, 526.4 ± 268.0, 403.8 ± 137.0, and 442.5 ± 212.3 U/L, respectively), relative values (16.3 ± 4.6, 39.5 ± 19.1, 47.8 ± 20.1, 37.5 ± 14.2, 40.1 ± 17.4 %CKmáx, respectively), and values relative to the variation delta (19.9 ± 3.6, 48.1 ± 26.5, 57.0 ± 23.2, 45.1 ± 17.7, and 48.3 ± 22.0 %ΔCKmáx, respectively). [CK] was lower only during the Pre phase compared to the other phases (p < 0.05). [CK] was expressed as %CKmáx or %ΔCKmáx may be more specific to monitor training. In addition, the individualization of this biomarker optimizes the athletes' performance as muscle injuries can be prevented


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Soccer/physiology , Creatine Kinase , Physical Exertion/physiology , Athletes
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(9): 1159-1163, set. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-830625

ABSTRACT

Background: Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale (RPE) is a psychophysiological measurements that translates physical stimuli to a psychological construct, which is perceived exertion. Its use is simple and it represents the effort perception. Each number of the scale is associated with a heart rate or percentage of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), which estimates the intensity of exercise. Aim: To validate RPE scale in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Material and Methods: Thirty five DM2 participants with a median age of 59 years underwent an incremental exercise test in a treadmill with breath-by-breath analysis of oxygen consumption. After every three minute stage, the RPE scale was applied and correlated with oxygen consumption variables. Results: There was correlation coefficient of 0.91 between RPE score and VO2max. A RPE score of 11 corresponded to 52% of VO2max, a RPE score of 13 corresponded to 76% of VO2max, a RPE of 15 corresponded to 88% of VO2max and a RPE of 17 correspondent to a 100% of VO2max. Conclusions: RPE Scale is valid in patients with type 2 diabetes as an estimate of the intensity of physical activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Oxygen Consumption , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Perception , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/psychology , Exercise Test
20.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 32(3): 155-159, set. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844377

ABSTRACT

The scales of perceived exertion (PE) quantify the perceptual changes induced by physiological stress during exercise. Whereas the adult scales cannot be used in children, it was built the EPInfant scale for Spanish speaking children. The aim of this study is to determine the validity of the criteria for an exercise test on a treadmill. Methods: Cross-sectional study, in which the criterion validity was determined by linear regression between the EP and variable intensity exercise (heart rate and workload) during incremental exercise test in treadmill (Naughton’s test). Results: At study entered 26 healthy children (13 males) with a mean age of 13.6 ± 0.13 years-old. Both the PE and heart rate (HR) increased significantly at every level of intensity during the Naughton’ test. It was observed a strong linear correlation between the PE and HR, as well as between PE and workload (speed and slope of the treadmill). All regression models were highly significant (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: EPInfant scale has an acceptable criterion-related validity to measure PE during an incremental exercise test on a treadmill in the studied sample of children. Future studies are needed to determine other properties of measurement in this type of exercise.


Introducción: Las escalas de esfuerzo percibido (EP) permiten cuantificar los cambios perceptuales inducidos por el estrés fisiológico durante el ejercicio. Considerando que las escalas de EP para adultos no pueden ser utilizados en niños, se construyó la escala EPInfant. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar su validez de criterio durante una prueba de ejercicio en cinta rodante. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal. Se determinó validez de criterio concurrente aplicando regresión lineal entre EP y variables de intensidad de ejercicio (frecuencia cardíaca (FC) y carga de trabajo), durante la prueba de ejercicio incremental en cinta rodante (test de Naughton), en población infantil sana de la ciudad de Concepción Chile. Resultados: Se estudiaron 26 sujetos (13 varones), con una media de edad de 13,6 ± 0,13. Tanto la FC como el EP incrementaron significativamente en cada nivel de intensidad durante el test de Naughton. Se verificó correlación lineal entre el EP y FC; así como también, entre EP y carga de trabajo (velocidad e inclinación de la trotadora). Todos los modelos de regresión fueron significativos (p < 0,0001). Conclusión: La escala EPInfant posee una adecuada validez de criterio concurrente para medir EP durante el test de Naughton en la muestra estudiada. Se requieren estudios adicionales para determinar otras propiedades de medición en esta modalidad de ejercicio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Exercise Test , Exercise/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Demography , Linear Models , Perception , Reproducibility of Results
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