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1.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 610-611, nov.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249974

ABSTRACT

Resumen La implementación en instituciones de salud de un cuadro básico permite adquirir y administrar una larga lista de medicamentos que presenta a los médicos las alternativas de tratamiento, así como la descripción académica colegiada de indicaciones, dosis, efectos secundarios, interacciones y análisis de costo-beneficio, con lo que se facilita la prescripción médica y la administración de insumos para la salud. El Comité de Ética y Transparencia en la Relación Médico-Industria emite diversas recomendaciones para la optimización de los beneficios generados por los cuadros básico de medicamentos.


Abstract The implementation of an essential medicines list in health institutions allows acquiring and administering a long list of drugs that offers treatment alternatives to physicians, as well as a collegiate academic description of indications, doses, side effects, interactions and cost-benefit analyses, thus facilitating medical prescription and administration of health products. The Committee of Ethics and Transparency in the Physician-Industry Relationship issues several recommendations for optimizing the benefits generated by essential medicines lists.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions , Ethics Committees , Guidelines as Topic , Drugs, Essential/therapeutic use , Physicians/ethics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drug Industry/ethics
2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 556-562, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249967

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La relación médico-industria farmacéutica (IF) se ha identificado como un problema ético por favorecer conflictos de interés derivados de los beneficios que reciben los médicos y que pueden afectar su juicio clínico. Objetivo: Identificar la frecuencia de participación de médicos en actividades financiadas por la IF, las actitudes de estos profesionales hacia los representantes de la IF, su conducta prescriptiva y la asociación de sus características y del trabajo con la participación en actividades financiadas por la IF. Método: Encuesta transversal a médicos internistas y cardiólogos. El cuestionario incluyó características de los médicos y centro de trabajo, participación en actividades financiadas por la IF, actitudes hacia los representantes y conducta de prescripción. Resultados: Se analizaron 455 cuestionarios, 78.5 % de los encuestados tuvo conocimiento de la relación médico-IF, la mayoría respondió reunirse con representantes de la IF, 30 % indicó haber recibido subsidios financieros y 10 % consideró que los obsequios afectan su prescripción. Tener conocimiento previo de la relación médico-IF se asoció con menor participación en actividades educativas financiadas por por la IF. Conclusión: Las prácticas y preferencias hacia la IF muestran la necesidad de diseñar estrategias para evitar la prescripción inapropiada.


Abstract Introduction: The physician-pharmaceutical industry relationship has been identified as an ethical problem, due to conflicts of interest motivated by the benefits that doctors receive and that can affect their clinical judgment. Objective: To identify the frequency of physicians participation in activities financed by the pharmaceutical industry (PI), their attitudes towards PI representatives (PIRs), their prescriptive behavior and the association between their characteristics and their workplace with their participation in activities financed by the PI. Method: Cross-sectional survey to internists and cardiologists. The questionnaire included characteristics of the doctors and their workplace, participation in activities financed by the PI, attitudes towards PIRs, and prescription behavior. Results: 455 questionnaires were analyzed; 78.5 % of surveyed subjects were aware of the physician-PI relationship, the majority acknowledged meeting with PIRs, 30 % indicated having received financial subsidies and 10 % considered that gifts affect their prescription. Having prior knowledge of the physician-PI relationship was associated with less participation in PI-financed educational activities. Conclusion: Practices and preferences towards the PI show the need to design strategies to avoid inappropriate prescription.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physicians/ethics , Drug Prescriptions , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Attitude of Health Personnel , Conflict of Interest , Drug Industry/ethics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Workplace , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Gift Giving/ethics , Inappropriate Prescribing/prevention & control , Cardiologists/ethics , Habits , Internal Medicine/ethics
3.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(5): 2435-2440, sept.-oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150027

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Patriota, médico y científico cubano, especialista en Obstetricia y Ginecología, Eusebio Hernández Pérez fue combatiente de las tres guerras del siglo xix por la independencia de Cuba. Como hombre de ciencias obtuvo notables reconocimientos y dejó una apreciable obra escrita en el terreno de la Obstetricia y la Ginecología. Fue un destacado revolucionario cubano, historiador y partícipe de los hechos narrados, y un excepcional profesor de Obstetricia y Ginecología de la Universidad de la Habana durante 30 años (AU).


SUMMARY Cuban patriot, physician and scientist, specialist in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eusebio Hernandez Perez was fighter of the three wars for Cuban independence in the XIX century. As a man of sciences he got remarkable recognitions and led a substantial written work in the field of Obstetrics and Gynecology. He was an outstanding Cuban revolutionary, historian and participant of the events recounted and an exceptional professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Havana for thirty years (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Physicians/history , Gynecology/education , Obstetrics/education , Physicians/ethics , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital , Emotions/ethics , Scientific Domains , Faculty
4.
Acta bioeth ; 26(1): 81-90, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114601

ABSTRACT

Doctor moral hazard has a significant effect on the doctor-patient relationship, increases the cost of healthcare, and introduces medical risks. It is a global concern. Doctor moral hazard behaviour is evolving in response to China's healthcare reform program which was inaugurated in 2009.A scientific understanding of doctor behaviour would facilitate the prevention and control of doctor moral hazard behaviour. This study used the principles and methodology of Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory. Theoretical and snowball samplings were used to identify 60 subjects. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with each subject. Themes were identified through substantial (open) coding and theoretical coding. Six types of doctor moral hazard behaviour were extracted from the data. A behavioural model was described and diagrammed to provide a conceptual framework of current doctor moral hazard behaviour. The conceptual model of doctor moral hazard behaviour can be used in several ways to correct or prevent undesirable actions. Rules governing hospital procedures can be strengthened and enforced by supervision and punishment; the asymmetry of information between doctor and patient can be reduced; patient participation in treatment decisions can be increased; the effectiveness of medical ethics education can be improved.


Para un médico, el riesgo moral tiene un efecto significativo en la relación médico-paciente, incrementa el costo de la atención de salud e introduce riesgos en la salud. Se trata de una preocupación global. El riesgo moral del comportamiento médico ha evolucionado en respuesta al programa de reforma de atención de salud del gobierno de China, inaugurado en 2009. Un entendimiento científico del comportamiento de los médicos facilitaría la prevención y el control del riesgo moral. El presente estudio usa los principios y metodología de la teoría fundamentada de Glaser y Strauss. Se usaron muestras teóricas y multiplicativas para identificar 60 sujetos y realizar entrevistas semiestructuradas en profundidad. Los temas se identificaron mediante codificación sustancial abierta y teórica. De los datos se extrajeron seis tipos de riesgo moral del comportamiento médico. Se describió y diagramó un modelo de comportamiento para proporcionar una estructura conceptual del riesgo moral del comportamiento médico actual. El modelo conceptual de riesgo moral del comportamiento médico puede usarse de varias maneras para corregir o prevenir acciones no deseadas. Las normas procedimentales de los hospitales pueden fortalecerse y exigirse mediante supervisión y castigo; se puede reducir la asimetría de la información que se da entre el médico y el paciente, incrementar la participación del paciente en decisiones de tratamiento y mejorar la efectividad en la educación en ética médica.


Risco moral médico tem um efeito significativo na relação médico-paciente, aumenta o custo dos cuidados à saúde e introduz riscos médicos. É uma preocupação global. Comportamento de risco moral médico vem se desenvolvendo em resposta ao programa de reforma de cuidados à saúde da China, que se iniciou em 2009. Uma compreensão científica do comportamento médico facilitaria a prevenção e controle do comportamento de risco moral médico. Este estudo utilizou os princípios da metodologia da Teoria Fundamentada de Glaser e Strauss. Amostragem teóricas e por bola de neve foram utilizadas para identificar 60 participantes. Entrevistas detalhadas semi-estruturadas foram realizadas com cada participante. Temas foram identificados através de codificação (aberta) substancial e codificação teórica. Seis tipos de comportamento de risco moral médico foram obtidos dos dados. Um modelo comportamental foi descrito e diagramado de forma a fornecer um enquadre conceitual do comportamento de risco moral médico. O modelo conceitual de comportamento de risco moral médico pode ser utilizado de diversas formas para corrigir ou prevenir ações indesejáveis. Regras que governam procedimentos em hospitais podem ser fortalecidas e reforçadas por supervisão e punição; a assimetria de informações entre médicos e pacientes pode ser reduzida; a participação dos pacientes nas decisões sobre tratamento pode ser aumentada; e a efetividade da educação ética médica pode ser melhorada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Physicians/psychology , Health Care Reform , Morale , Physician-Patient Relations , Physicians/ethics , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Health Behavior , China , Choice Behavior , Risk , Interviews as Topic , Grounded Theory , Medical Overuse
7.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 26(3): 733-752, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039949

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este artículo analiza cómo el discurso médico incorpora una serie de reflexiones sobre las conductas morales en Buenos Aires en la primera parte del siglo XIX. A través del estudio de tres textos, cuyos autores son los médicos Diego Alcorta, Guillermo Rawson y Francisco Javier Muñiz se identifican una serie de registros argumentales que resaltan el funcionamiento de los órganos, la cuestión de la herencia y la gravitación del clima en función de reflexionar sobre la moralidad de los individuos y las poblaciones. Este fenómeno de transferencia de saberes se debe a la presencia de la tradición médica francesa sumándose a factores locales derivados del intenso proceso de politización de la sociedad bajo el segundo gobierno de Juan Manuel de Rosas.


Abstract This article analyzes how medical discourse incorporated a series of reflections on moral behaviors in Buenos Aires in the early nineteenth century. Based on the study of three texts authored by the physicians Diego Alcorta, Guillermo Rawson and Francisco Javier Muñiz, it identifies a series of discursive registers that stress the role of organ functions, the question of heredity and the influence of climate in reflections on the morality of individuals and populations. This phenomenon of knowledge transfer is due to the presence of the French medical tradition, in addition to local factors stemming from the intense process of politicization of society under the second administration of Juan Manuel de Rosas.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , Physicians/history , Political Systems/history , Political Activism , Morals , Argentina , Physicians/ethics , Western World/history , France
8.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(2): 202-203, mar.-abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286485

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los médicos requieren flexibilidad para sus prescripciones. Sin embargo, algunos límites están marcados tanto por el conocimiento vigente como por las restricciones de acceso, normas y reglamentos. El Comité de Ética y Transparencia en la Relación Médico-Industria (CETREMI) propone varias sugerencias para ayudar a los pacientes, que incluyen la selección de las mejores alternativas para cada caso, la protocolización de variaciones a los estándares de prescripción (dosis, indicaciones, etcétera) por escrito en el expediente y eludir modas, novedades no probadas, argumentos simplemente publicitarios o promocionales y conflictos de interés.


Abstract Doctors require flexibility for prescription. However, some limits are laid down both by current knowledge and by restrictions imposed by access and rules and regulations. The Committee for Ethics and Transparency in the Physician-Industry Relationship (CETREMI) of the National Academy of Medicine proposes several suggestions to help patients, which include the selection of the best alternatives for each case, formalization of prescription standards variations (doses, drug indications, etc.) written down in the medical records, and avoidance of fashions, untested novelties, argumentations solely based on advertising or commercial promotion and conflicts of interest.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians/organization & administration , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Ethics, Medical , Physicians/ethics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/ethics , Advisory Committees , Mexico
10.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(5): 1654-1668, set.-oct. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-978693

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El pensamiento ético de José Martí juega un papel fundamental en la formación integral de las nuevas generaciones de profesionales de la salud. Este trabajo analiza varias ideas martianas acerca del humanismo, la solidaridad y la moral, a la luz de las actuales necesidades de la formación de estos profesionales en Cuba. La aplicación creadora de su pensamiento humanista en las nuevas circunstancias históricas demanda un mayor esfuerzo por parte de los educadores (AU).


ABSTRACT The ethical thought of José Marti plays an important role in the professional training of the new generations of health professionals. This work analyses several Jose Marti's ideas on humanism, solidarity and moral values, in the light of the current necessities of these professionals´ training in Cuba. The creative application of his humanist thought in the new historical circumstances demands a greater effort of the educators (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physicians/ethics , Thinking/ethics , Professional Training , Social Values , Teaching/ethics , Education, Medical/ethics , Ethics/classification
11.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(4): 1282-1287, jul.-ago. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1103691

ABSTRACT

Julio Miguel Aristegui Villamil se gradúa de Doctor en Medicina en la Universidad de La Habana en 1929 y regresa a Cárdenas, su ciudad natal, a ejercer su profesión. Sus ideas progresistas lo afilian a la Izquierda Médica, dentro de la Federación Médica de Cuba. Por el ejercicio desinteresado de su profesión la población le llega a nombrar "el médico de los pobres" (AU).


Julio Miguel Aristegui Villamil graduated as doctor in Medicine in the University of Havana in 1929 and came back to Cardenas, his home city, to practice his profession. His progressive ideas led him to enroll in the Izquierdad Médica (Medical Left translated in English), a group inside the Medical Federation of Cuba. Because of the selfless practice of his profession, the people began to call him "the doctor of the poors" (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Physicians/history , Health Care Costs/ethics , Physicians/ethics , Universities/history , Medical Care/history , Policy , Health Services/ethics
13.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 28: [1-7], jan.-dez. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-969829

ABSTRACT

A relação médico-paciente é um processo especial de interação humana, que é a base da prática clínica. Questões provenientes da aprendizagem dessa relação constituem a parte mais difícil na formação de um médico. Os estudantes possuem ao longo do curso diferentes oportunidades de estabelecer relação com o paciente, construindo habilidades para o desenvolvimento de uma comunicação efetiva que subsidia uma relação médico paciente de qualidade. Nesse trabalho objetivou-se conhecer qual é a percepção dos estudantes de uma faculdade filantrópica de Belo Horizonte sobre seu preparo no processo de ensino-aprendizagem da relação médico-paciente. Trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória, de caráter qualitativo, financiada pela FAPEMIG. Os entrevistados foram estudantes de medicina, escolhidos aleatoriamente, do quarto, quinto e sexto anos. A análise de dados foi feita com base no discurso de Bardin. Os dados evidenciaram que na visão dos estudantes as disciplinas práticas têm contribuído de forma mais significativa na construção da relação médico paciente. Essa relação tem tido como foco uma abordagem clínica orientada por uma visão de saúde ainda biologicista, que considera a anamnese biológica mais relevante. Essa visão dos estudantes, muitas vezes, faz com que priorizem os aspectos técnicos da consulta em detrimento da atenção integral do paciente. A relação médico-paciente efetiva é a base fundamental para garantir sucesso na identificação de demandas de saúde dos sujeitos. É imprescindível que o estudante aprenda e aperfeiçoe essa habilidade durante sua formação. Conhecer a percepção dos estudantes sobre seu preparo nesse processo coloca-se como estratégia de avaliação da formação que têm recebido. (AU)


The doctor-patient relationship is a special process of human interaction, which is the basis of clinical practice. Issues arising from learning this relationship are the most difficult part of a doctor's training. Throughout the course students have different opportunities to establish relationships with the patient, building skills for the development of effective communication that supports a quality patient medical relationship. This study aimed to know the perception of the students of a philanthropic college in Belo Horizonte about their preparation in the teaching-learning process of the doctor-patient relationship. This is an exploratory research, of a qualitative nature, financed by FAPEMIG. The interviewees were randomly chosen medical students of the fourth, fifth and sixth years. Data analysis was based on Bardin's discourse. The data showed that in the students' view the practical disciplines have contributed in a more significant way in the construction of the patient medical relation. This relationship has focused on a clinical approach guided by a health vision that is still biological, which considers biological anamnesis more relevant. This view of students often makes them prioritize the technical aspects of the consultation to the detriment of comprehensive patient care. The effective doctor-patient relationship is the fundamental basis for ensuring success in identifying the subjects' health demands. It is imperative that the student learn and perfect this skill during their training. Knowing the students' perception about their preparation in this process poses as a strategy to evaluate the training they have received. (AU)


Subject(s)
Physicians/ethics , Students, Medical , Patient Comfort , Physicians , Global Health , Patient Care
14.
Rev. medica electron ; 39(5): 1171-1179, set.-oct. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127723

ABSTRACT

Hablar de la historia de una disciplina es una tarea difícil, que requiere cierto distanciamiento, sobre todo temporal, para poder tener una visión que permita acoger la totalidad en el discernimiento de los hechos más significativos. Cuando la disciplina misma es breve, es joven, se tiene la tentación de hablar de una historia que pudiera parecer la más completa posible a través de la enumeración cronológica del mayor número de hechos de los cuales se tiene conocimiento. De tal modo se corre el riesgo de perder la totalidad, y con ella su significado. Me parece que sea el caso en nuestra disciplina, la Bioética (AU).


Talking about the history of a discipline is a difficult task, which requires a certain distance, especially temporary, to have a vision to embrace all in discerning the most significant events. When the discipline itself is brief, it is young, it is tempting to speak of a story that might seem the most complete possible through the chronological list of the largest number of facts that are known. Therefore, you run the risk of losing all and with it its meaning. We seem to be the case in our discipline, bioethics (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Science/education , Bioethics/history , Philosophy/history , Physicians/ethics , Science/history , Bioethics/education , Bioethics/trends , Historical Article
15.
Rev. medica electron ; 39(3): 685-691, may.-jun. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1121300

ABSTRACT

Angel Arturo Aballí Arellano es considerado como uno de los pediatras más importante de la historia de la medicina cubana, hasta el punto que resulta prácticamente imposible acometer la historia de esta disciplina en nuestro país, sin el estudio profundo de su vida y obra, toda ella dirigida a la defensa de los intereses de la nueva generación, al estado de salud de la niñez, y a luchar por los recursos requeridos para su atención, bienestar y felicidad. Dedicó estudios a las enfermedades diarreicas, a la desnutrición y a la tuberculosis. Para estos fines inauguró el Dispensario Antituberculoso para Niños ¨Calmette¨; el Preventorio ¨Grancher¨ para Lactantes, una sala destinada para niños tuberculosos en el Hospital La Esperanza, y más tarde el Hospital Infantil Antituberculoso, que ostenta hoy su nombre, convertido al triunfo de la Revolución en Hospital Pediátrico General (AU).


Angel Arturo Aballí Arellano is considered one of the most important pediatricians of the Cuban medicine history, up to the point that it is almost impossible to write the history of this discipline in our country without deeply studying his life and work, all of it devoted to the defense of the new generations interests, the childhood health status, and to struggle for obtaining the resources required for their attention, welfare and happiness. He studied diarrheic diseases, malnutrition and tuberculosis. With this aim he inaugurated the Anti-tuberculosis Dispensary for Children Calmette, the Grancvher Preventer for Nursing Infants, a ward for tuberculous children at the hospital La Esperanza and later the Infantile Antituberculous Hospital that today is named after him and after the triumph of the revolution became a General Pediatric Hospital (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physicians/history , Pediatricians/history , Physicians/standards , Physicians/ethics , Public Health/history , Faculty, Medical/education , Faculty, Medical/history , Faculty, Medical/standards , Faculty, Medical/ethics , Pediatricians/education , Pediatricians/standards , Pediatricians/ethics
17.
Rev. medica electron ; 39(2): 400-407, mar.-abr. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1120935

ABSTRACT

Se sintetiza los aspectos fundamentales de la vida social, profesional y revolucionaria del "Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy", su lucha estudiantil contra la dictadura de Machado, su vinculación con Fidel desde el partido Ortodoxo y en la fundación del Movimiento Revolucionario para derrocar al tirano Fulgencio Batista desde el mismo 10 de marzo de 1952. Las actividades realizadas por el Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy en la preparación y realización del asalto al cuartel "Moncada" el 26 de julio de 1953 y su asesinato ese mismo día. Se mencionan otros matanceros que participaron también en esa acción y los múltiples homenajes recibidos por el "Médico del Moncada" que hacen imperecedera su memoria (AU).


The available bibliography was reviewed, besides the main aspects of Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy´s social, professional and revolutionary life, his struggle against Machado´s dictatorship when he was still a student, his connection with Fidel through the Ortodoxo party and in the foundation of the revolutionary movement to overthrow the tyrant Fulgencio Batista since the same March 10 1952; the activities carried out by Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy in preparing and developing the assault to Moncada garrison on July 26 1953 and his assassination that same day. Other Matanzasan people who also participated in the assault are mentioned; the multiple homages received by the "Moncada physician" making undying his memory are mentioned as well (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Physicians/history , Physicians/ethics , Bibliographies as Topic , Personality Development , Radiology/history , Life Style/history
18.
Rev. medica electron ; 39(2): 408-417, mar.-abr. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1120931

ABSTRACT

El trabajo sustenta la tesis de que las ideas del Apóstol constituyen un verdadero legado histórico, sirviendo de referente a la Generación del Centenario para sentar las bases de los postulados esenciales que rigen el Sistema de Salud en la Cuba revolucionaria: acceso, equidad y solidaridad de la medicina cubana, lo que representa un logro inigualable y un orgullo para todos los cubanos. El mismo se propone exponer alguna de las aristas del pensamiento revolucionario de José Martí acerca de la Medicina y la Salud, así como su influencia en el ideario fidelista, tan importante en la transformación del Sistema Nacional de Salud en la Cuba revolucionaria y resalta la decisiva visión y acción estratégica del líder histórico de la Revolución cubana en esta importante esfera, inspirado en la continuidad del pensamiento martiano, constituyendo un sentido homenaje al eterno Comandante en Jefe Fidel Castro Ruz (AU).


This term sustains the thesis that the Apostle´s ideas are a true historical legacy, serving as a referent for the Generation of the Centenary to set the basis of the essential postulates ruling the Health System in the revolutionary Cuba: Cuban medicine access, equity and solidarity, representing an exceptional achievement and a proud for all the Cuban people. The purpose was exposing some of the aspects of José Marti's revolutionary thoughts on Medicine and Health, and also its influence on Fidel Castro ideology, so important in the transformation of the National Health System in the revolutionary Cuba. It is highlighted the decisive action and strategic vision of the Cuban Revolution historical leader in this important sphere inspired in the continuity of Jose Marti´s thoughts. Serve it as a deep homage to eternal Comandante en Jefe Fidel Castro Ruz (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Physicians/history , Physicians/ethics , Public Health/education , Public Health/history , Medicine/methods , Hygiene/history , Health Sciences/education , Health Facilities/history
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(8): 1053-1058, ago. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-830611

ABSTRACT

Since doctors disposed of effective tools to serve their patients, they had to worry about the proper management of available resources and how to deal with the relationship with the industry that provides such resources. In this relation­ship, health professionals may be involved in conflicts of interest that they need to acknowledge and learn how to handle. This article discusses the conflicts of interest in nephrology. Its objectives are to identify those areas where such conflicts could occur; to help to solve them, always considering the best interest of patients; and to help health workers to keep in mind that they have to preserve their autonomy and professional integrity. Conflicts of interest of professionals in the renal area and related scientific societies, with the industry producing equipment, supplies and drugs are reviewed. Dichotomy, payment for referral, self-referral of patients and incentives for cost control are analyzed. Finally, recommendations to help preserve a good practice in nephrology are made.


Subject(s)
Humans , Professional Practice/ethics , Conflict of Interest , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital/ethics , Interprofessional Relations/ethics , Nephrology/ethics , Physicians/ethics , Societies, Medical/ethics , Professional Autonomy , Physician Self-Referral/ethics , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital/economics , Industry
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