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1.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(2): 113-122, dic. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358147

ABSTRACT

Se presenta conceptos de la inmunocompetencia y su relación con la nutrición en niños, que describen aspectos fisiológicos integrales. También se describen los aspectos inmunológicos, que permiten interpretar los mecanismos de la respuesta inmune, destacándose conceptos y criterios fisiológicos. Un niño malnutrido presenta alteraciones inmunológicas, y las mismas se las puede identificar como deficiencias a predominio celular, y a predominio humoral. Se destaca la importancia del eje Neuroinmunoendocrinológico como integrador de respuestas fisiológicas. El propósito del presente trabajo, esta dirigido a identificar las herramientas que permiten el estudio del sistema inmune en nuestro contexto, haciendo especial hincapié en la ecografía del timo, por ser una herramienta útil para evaluar al sistema inmune en niños con estado nutricional alterado en forma leve o moderada.


Concepts of immunocompetence and its relationship with nutrition in children are presented, describing comprehensive physiological aspects. Immunological aspects are also described, which allow to interpret the mechanisms of the immune response, highlighting physiological concepts and criteria. A malnourished child presents immunological alterations, and these can be identified as deficiencies with a cellular predominance, and with a humoral predominance. The importance of the Neuro-immunoendocrinological axis as an integrator of physiological responses is highlighted. The purpose of this work is aimed at identifying the tools that allow the study of the immune system in our context, with special emphasis on ultrasound of the thymus, as it is a useful tool to evaluate the immune system in children with altered nutritional status, mild or moderate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thymus Gland , Nutritional Status , Growth and Development , Nutritional Sciences , Physiological Phenomena , Immune System , Immunocompetence
2.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(5): 1507-1517, 01-09-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147329

ABSTRACT

Shading screens are widely used to control excessive solar radiation, thereby changing plant growth. Thus, through physiological indices the objective was to evaluate the growth of three cultivars of minitomatoes under colored meshes. The experiment was conducted from April to July in the DTCS / UNEB experimental field in experiment DBC with subdivided plots, and four replicates, comprised of three shaded environments and the control treatment, three cultivars, and seven plant sampling seasons. For growth analysis, we used the destructive method, total dry matter was determined after drying it in an oven at 65°C. The total leaf area (LAI) was obtained using the software QUANT. Results showed that there was no interaction between environments and the other factors. Regarding leaf area index, cvs. Shani and Sweet Million stood out in all environments, whereas cv. Red Sugar had a similar behavior in all environments. Shani obtained the best indices in open sun environment and in the environment covered with red shading screen, and Sweet Million obtained the best index under gray shading screen. Red Sugar had the lowest LAI, and consequently, the lowest SLA and LAR. On the other hand, it showed the highest RPF, since it obtained the highest dry matter in leaves compared to the other cultivars. Cvs. Shani and Sweet Million showed the best: TAL, TCR, TCA and TCC.


As telas de sombreamento são utilizadas para controlar a radiação solar excessiva, podendo alterar o crescimento das plantas. Desse modo, objetivou-se por meio de índices fisiológicos avaliar o crescimento de três cultivares de mini tomates sob malhas coloridas. O experimento foi conduzido no período de abril a julho no campo experimental do DTCS/UNEB em delineamento experimental DBC, com parcelas subsubdivididas, com quatro repetições, compostos de três ambientes sombreados além do controle, três cultivares e sete épocas de amostragens. Para análise de crescimento, utilizou-se o método destrutivo e as massas secas totais obtidas após secagem em estufa a 65°C. A área foliar total foi obtida usando-se o software QUANT. Os resultados mostraram que não houve interação entre os ambientes e os demais fatores. Quanto as cvs., para índice de área foliar (LAI), destacaram-se as cvs. Shani e Sweet Million dentro de cada ambiente, tendo a cultivar Red Sugar comportamento similar nos ambientes. A cv. Shani obteve os melhores índices no ambiente a céu aberto e com tela vermelha e a cv. Sweet Million o melhor índice na tela cinza. A cv. Red Sugar apresentou o menor LAI, e consequentemente à menor AFE e RAF, em contrapartida apresentou a maior RPF, uma vez que obteve a maior massa seca nas folhas quando comparada as outras cultivares. As cvs. Shani e Sweet Million apresentaram as melhores: TAL, TCR, TCA e TCC.


Subject(s)
Lycopersicon esculentum , Environment, Controlled , Physiological Phenomena , Solar Radiation , Growth
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811201

ABSTRACT

Matrix metallopeptidase 3 or MMP3, is a zinc-dependent proteolytic enzyme that is involved in various physiological processes via modification of the extracellular matrix. In particular, its over-expression has been associated with cancer metastasis and tumor growth in various cancers including breast cancer. MMP3 gene expression is regulated by several factors such as DNA polymorphisms which also serve as risk factors for breast cancer. As such, DNA polymorphisms of MMP3 have the potential to be utilized as genetic biomarkers for prediction and prognosis of metastatic breast cancer. Presently, genome-wide association studies of MMP3 gene polymorphisms which are associated with breast cancer risk and patient survival in a variety of populations are reviewed. In order to understand the potential role of MMP3 polymorphisms as genetic markers for breast cancer metastasis, the domain structure of MMP3, the regulation of its expression and its role in breast cancer metastasis are also briefly discussed in this review. The emergence of MMP3 gene polymorphisms as prognostic biomarker candidates for breast cancer metastasis may contribute towards improving targeted therapies and categorization of breast cancer cases in order to provide a better and more accurate prognosis.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , DNA , Extracellular Matrix , Gene Expression , Genetic Markers , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 , Neoplasm Metastasis , Physiological Phenomena , Prognosis , Risk Factors
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Considering important role of vitamin D in many physiological processes including vestibular system in the ear, aim of present study is to evaluate saccule function via cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP), in patients with vitamin D deficiency. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: After routine audiological tests, cVEMP were recorded in 15 patients with vitamin D deficiency and 16 normal subjects. The short tone burst (95 dB nHL, 500 Hz) was presented to ears. cVEMP was recorded with surface electromyography over the contracted ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle. RESULTS: Mean of p13, n13, interpeak latencies and amplitude ratios were measured in both groups. Statistical analysis did not show differences between two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Maybe serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was not low enough to have effect on saccule in the patients in present study or saccule have had low susceptibility to effects of vitamin D deficiency. For better judgment about effect of vitamin D deficiency on saccular function planning studies with high sample size is recommended.


Subject(s)
Ear , Electromyography , Humans , Judgment , Physiological Phenomena , Saccule and Utricle , Sample Size , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a member of the neurotrophic factor family and plays a vital role in the physiological processes of organisms, especially in the nervous system. Many recent studies have reported that NGF is also involved in the regulation of tumourigenesis by either promoting or suppressing tumor growth, which depends on the location and type of tumor. However, little is known regarding the effect of NGF on interspinal schwannoma (IS). In the present study, we aimed to explored whether mouse nerve growth factor (mNGF), which is widely used in the clinic, can influence the growth of interspinal schwannoma cells (ISCs) isolated from IS in vitro. METHODS: ISCs were isolated, cultured and identified by S-100 with immunofluorescence analysis. S-100-positive cells were divided into five groups, and separately cultured with various concentrations of mNGF (0 [phosphate buffered saline, PBS], 40, 80, 160, and 320 ng/mL) for 24 hours. Western blot and quantantive real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied to detect tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) receptor and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) in each group. Crystal violet staining was selected to assess the effect of mNGF (160 ng/mL) on ISCs growth. RESULTS: ISCs growth was enhanced by mNGF in a dose-dependent manner. The result of crystal violet staining revealed that it was significantly strengthened the cells growth kinetics when cultured with 160 ng/mL mNGF compared to PBS group. Western blot and quantantive real time PCR discovered that TrkA receptor and mRNA expression were both up-regualated under the condition of mNGF, expecially in 160 ng/mL, while the exoression of p75(NTR) demonstrated no difference among groups. CONCLUSION: From these data, we conclude that exogenous mNGF can facilitate ISC growth by activating both TrkA receptor and p75(NTR). In addition, patients who are suffering from IS should not be administered mNGF in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gentian Violet , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Kinetics , Mice , Nerve Growth Factor , Nervous System , Neurilemmoma , Physiological Phenomena , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor , Receptor, trkA , Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor , RNA, Messenger
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a member of the neurotrophic factor family and plays a vital role in the physiological processes of organisms, especially in the nervous system. Many recent studies have reported that NGF is also involved in the regulation of tumourigenesis by either promoting or suppressing tumor growth, which depends on the location and type of tumor. However, little is known regarding the effect of NGF on interspinal schwannoma (IS). In the present study, we aimed to explored whether mouse nerve growth factor (mNGF), which is widely used in the clinic, can influence the growth of interspinal schwannoma cells (ISCs) isolated from IS in vitro.METHODS: ISCs were isolated, cultured and identified by S-100 with immunofluorescence analysis. S-100-positive cells were divided into five groups, and separately cultured with various concentrations of mNGF (0 [phosphate buffered saline, PBS], 40, 80, 160, and 320 ng/mL) for 24 hours. Western blot and quantantive real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied to detect tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) receptor and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) in each group. Crystal violet staining was selected to assess the effect of mNGF (160 ng/mL) on ISCs growth.RESULTS: ISCs growth was enhanced by mNGF in a dose-dependent manner. The result of crystal violet staining revealed that it was significantly strengthened the cells growth kinetics when cultured with 160 ng/mL mNGF compared to PBS group. Western blot and quantantive real time PCR discovered that TrkA receptor and mRNA expression were both up-regualated under the condition of mNGF, expecially in 160 ng/mL, while the exoression of p75(NTR) demonstrated no difference among groups.CONCLUSION: From these data, we conclude that exogenous mNGF can facilitate ISC growth by activating both TrkA receptor and p75(NTR). In addition, patients who are suffering from IS should not be administered mNGF in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gentian Violet , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Kinetics , Mice , Nerve Growth Factor , Nervous System , Neurilemmoma , Physiological Phenomena , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor , Receptor, trkA , Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor , RNA, Messenger
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aortocaval compression by the gravid uterus is a known physiological phenomenon that is classically claimed to cause supine hypotension in full-term pregnant women. This study aimed to investigate the effects of fetal position on maternal hemodynamics after spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. METHODS: In total, 71 women with intrauterine pregnancy over 36 weeks of gestation who were scheduled for elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were enrolled in the study. Based on the fetal position, the women were divided into two groups: right position group (group R) and left position group (group L). Occurrence of hypotension, requirement for rescue bolus injections of phenylephrine, and the total amount of infused phenylephrine before delivery were recorded in each group. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of hypotension between the two groups (P = 0.075); however, the amount of phenylephrine required before delivery was significantly greater in group R (P = 0.028). There was a statistically significant decrease in the systolic blood pressure compared with the baseline values in group R, and this change persisted until 15 min after spinal anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference according to fetal position in the number of patients who showed hypotension before delivery after spinal anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Spinal , Blood Pressure , Cesarean Section , Female , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypotension , Phenylephrine , Physiological Phenomena , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Uterus
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764308

ABSTRACT

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from oxidative stress by reducing intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In mammalian cells, the six Prx isoforms are ubiquitously expressed in diverse intracellular locations. They are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, immune response and metabolism as well as intracellular ROS homeostasis. Although there are increasing evidences that Prxs are involved in carcinogenesis of many cancers, their role in cancer is controversial. The ROS levels in cancer cells are increased compared to normal cells, thus promoting cancer development. Nevertheless, for various cancer types, an overexpression of Prxs has been found to be associated with poor patient prognosis, and an increasing number of studies have reported that tumorigenesis is either facilitated or inhibited by regulation of cancer-associated signaling pathways. This review summarizes Prx isoforms and their basic functions, the relationship between the expression level and the physiological role of Prxs in cancer cells, and their roles in regulating cancer-associated signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Carcinogenesis , Homeostasis , Humans , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Peroxiredoxins , Physiological Phenomena , Prognosis , Protein Isoforms , Reactive Oxygen Species
9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 155-171, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764272

ABSTRACT

Oxygen is crucial to maintain the homeostasis in aerobic cells. Hypoxia is a condition in which cells are deprived of the oxygen supply necessary for their optimum performance. Whereas oxygen deprivation may occur in normal physiological processes, hypoxia is frequently associated with pathological conditions. It has been identified as a stressor in the tumor microenvironment, acting as a key mediator of cancer development. Numerous pathways are activated in hypoxic cells that affect cell signaling and gene regulation to promote the survival of these cells by stimulating angiogenesis, switching cellular metabolism, slowing their growth rate, and preventing apoptosis. The induction of dysregulated metabolism in cancer cells by hypoxia results in aggressive tumor phenotypes that are characterized by rapid progression, treatment resistance, and poor prognosis. A non-invasive assessment of hypoxia-induced metabolic and architectural changes in tumors is advisable to fully improve breast cancer (BC) patient management, by potentially reducing the need for invasive biopsy procedures and evaluating tumor response to treatment. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular changes in breast tumors secondary to hypoxia and the non-invasive imaging alternatives to evaluate oxygen deprivation, with an emphasis on their application in BC and the advantages and limitations of the currently available techniques.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Apoptosis , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Homeostasis , Humans , Metabolism , Molecular Imaging , Oxygen , Phenotype , Physiological Phenomena , Prognosis , Tumor Microenvironment
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764038

ABSTRACT

Melatonin is a neurotransmitter that modulates various physiological phenomena including regulation and maintenance of the circadian rhythm. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in oral functions including orofacial muscle contraction, salivary secretion, and tooth development. However, knowledge regarding physiological crosstalk between melatonin and nAChRs is limited. In the present study, the melatonin-mediated modulation of nAChR functions using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, a representative model for the study of nAChRs, was investigated. Melatonin inhibited the nicotinic agonist dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) iodide-induced cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺](i)) increase and norepinephrine secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of melatonin on the DMPP-induced [Ca²⁺](i) increase was observed when the melatonin treatment was performed simultaneously with DMPP. The results indicate that melatonin inhibits nAChR functions in both peripheral and central nervous systems.


Subject(s)
Calcium Signaling , Central Nervous System , Chromaffin Cells , Circadian Rhythm , Cytosol , Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Iodide , Melatonin , Muscle Contraction , Neurotransmitter Agents , Nicotinic Agonists , Norepinephrine , Physiological Phenomena , Receptors, Nicotinic , Tooth
11.
Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum ; 20(5): 432-444, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977439

ABSTRACT

The present study aiming to verify the interference of different conditions (treadmill vs. track) on critical velocity (CV) values, as well as on the correlation to the 3000-meter performance (v3000m), and thus infer about the specificity of each values as training parameter for this distance. Seven runners (15.3±1.4 years) were submitted to a maximal progressive test (1.0 km×h-1 increments per minute until exhaustion) to assess V̇O2max and maximal aerobic velocity (vV̇O2max). Subsequently, CV was estimated from three running performances at each test condition, with exercise intensities adjusted for different time limits (tLim) at 900, 2100 and 3300 meters in track or at 90, 95 and 115% of vV̇O2max in treadmill. From linear adjustments, using stepwise method, CV was assessed on treadmill (CVTREADMILL) and track (CVTRACK), and both compared by the Mann-Whitney test. The sample-adjusted dispersion coefficient (R2adj) analyzed the variance of v3000m with CVTRACK, CVTREADMILL and vV̇O2max. In all analyses, significance was set at P≤0.05. In progressive test, V̇O2max reached 54.2±5.2 mLO2×kg-1×min-1 and vV̇O2max reached 16.8±1.9 km×h-1. No differences were observed between CVTREADMILL and CVTRACK (14.0±1.8 vs. 12.3±3.2 km×h-1, P=0.46). Correlations were observed for v3000m with CVTREADMILL (R2adj ~0.94), CVTRACK (R2adj ~0.99) and vV̇O2max (R2adj ~0.90), all showing P=0.001. It could be concluded that no influence was observe on the ability to achieve identical CV values from different assessment conditions. The correlation to the v3000 meters suggested better specificity of CVTRACK than CVTREADMILL for training prescription and performance control.


O presente estudo averiguou se as diferenças nas circunstâncias (esteira vs. pista) de avaliação da velocidade crítica (VC) interferem no valor e na relação com a desempenho em 3000 metros (v3000m) e, assim, indicar a especificidade de cada valor como parâmetro de treinamento para esta distância. Sete corredores (15,3±1,4 anos) submeteram-se a um teste progressivo máximo (incrementos de 1,0 km×h-1×min-1, até a exaustão) para avaliação do V̇O2max e velocidade aeróbia máxima (vV̇O2max). A seguir, a VC foi estimada a partir do desempenho de corrida em três diferentes intensidades do exercício, em cada ambiente de avaliação, registrando-se o tempo-limite (tLim) nas distâncias de 900, 2100 e 3300 metros na pista, e à 90, 95 e 115% vV̇O2max em esteira. Ajustes lineares, pelo método "stepwise", forneceram os parâmetros VC em esteira (VCESTEIRA) e pista (VCPISTA), que foram comparados pelo teste de Mann-Whitney. O coeficiente de dispersão ajustado à amostra (R2aj) averiguou a variância de v3000m com VCPISTA, VCESTEIRA e vV̇O2max. Em todas as análises adotou-se .≤0,05. No teste progressivo, o V̇O2max atingiu 54,2±5,2 mLO2∙kg-1∙min-1 e a vV̇O2max foi 16,8±1,9 km×h-1. Não se observaram diferenças entre VCESTEIRA e VCPISTA (14,0±1,8 vs. 12,3±3,2 km∙h-1, P=0,46). Houveram correlações entre v3000m com VCESTEIRA (R2aj ~0,94), VCPISTA (R2aj~0,99) e vV̇O2max (R2aj ~0,90), todas com P=0,001. Conclui-se que o contexto de avaliação não interfere na consistência do valor de VC. Porém, quanto à relação com v3000 metros, a VCPISTA apresenta melhor especificidade, tornando-a mais autêntica que VCESTEIRA para a prescrição do treino e monitoramento do desempenho.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Track and Field , Athletic Performance , Physiological Phenomena , Exercise Tolerance , Exercise Test
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718796

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Learning physiological concepts and their practical applications in the appropriate contexts remains a great challenge for undergraduate medical students. Hence the present study aimed to analyze the learning experience of undergraduate medical students during an active learning process of ‘preparation of models’ depicting physiological concepts. METHODS: A total of 13 groups, involving 55 undergraduate medical students with three to five individuals in each group, were involved in model preparation. A total of 13 models were exhibited by the students. The students shared their learning experiences as responses to an open-ended questionnaire. The students' responses were analyzed and generalized comments were generated. RESULTS: Analysis of the results showed that the act of ‘model preparation’ improved concept understanding, retention of knowledge, analytical skills, and referral habits. Further, the process of ‘model preparation’ could satisfy all types of sensory modality learners. CONCLUSION: This novel active method of learning could be highly significant in students' understanding and learning physiology concepts. This approach could be incorporated in the traditional instructor-centered undergraduate medical curriculum as a way to innovate it.


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Education , Humans , Learning , Methods , Physiological Phenomena , Physiology , Problem-Based Learning , Referral and Consultation , Students, Medical
13.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 420-424, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717084

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic bariatric therapies (EBTs) are promising alternatives to the conventional surgeries used to treat obesity and related metabolic conditions, targeting gastrointestinal anatomical and physiological processes. Many EBTs are at various stages of development and are aimed at promoting an early sense of satiety via anatomical and physiological mechanisms. In the present study, we focused on relevant clinical issues and future perspectives with regard to gastric non-balloon methods treating obesity.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Physiological Phenomena , Stomach
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758794

ABSTRACT

Similar to other studies of bacterial pathogens, current studies of the pathogenesis of Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) are focused mainly on in vitro culture conditions. To elucidate further the pathogenesis of RA in vivo, bacterial RNA was extracted from overnight tryptic soy broth cultures (in vitro) and from the blood of infected ducks (in vivo) for comparative RNA sequencing analysis. In total, 682 upregulated genes were identified in vivo. Among the upregulated genes, a signal transduction response regulator (ArsR) and a signal transduction histidine kinase (SthK) were predicted to be located on the same operon. A mutant was constructed by deletion of both of these genes. Duck infection tests showed that genes ArsR and SthK were related to the virulence of the pathogen in vivo. Differentially expressed genes identified by comparison of in vitro and in vivo conditions provided an insight into the physiological process of RA infection and provided an opportunity to identify additional virulence factors.


Subject(s)
Ducks , Genes, vif , Histidine , In Vitro Techniques , Operon , Phosphotransferases , Physiological Phenomena , Riemerella , RNA, Bacterial , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Signal Transduction , Virulence Factors , Virulence
15.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 20(2): 101-108, jan-mar. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-879683

ABSTRACT

As atividades que antecedem o abate exigem um padrão e ainda algumas mudanças que priorizem em particular o bem-estar do animal. Dessa forma, o bem-estar na espécie suína assume grande importância quando se observa o manejo da granja ao frigorífico correlacionando com a atuação de fatores estressores que implicam em perdas tanto aos produtores quanto à indústria frigorífica. As falhas no manejo pré-abate podem resultar em carcaças com desvios, como carne pálida, flácida e exsudativa (PSE) e carne escura, firme e seca (DFD). Para assegurar o bem-estar e obter carne suína de qualidade é necessário que o manejo pré-abate seja realizado de forma adequada considerando as características comportamentais e fisiológicas dos animais, que se trata do ajuste com o ambiente e com os indivíduos, estabelecendo uma harmonia entre homem e animal. Em função do que foi relatado, objetivou-se revisar os fatores que interferem no manejo pré-abate de suínos e suas influências sobre os indicadores de estresse e qualidade da carne. O manejo pré-abate deve ser estabelecido conforme padrões conhecidos, no entanto, existe a necessidade de rever cada procedimento e estabelecer estudos regionais que envolvam todos os procedimentos, desde o embarque até o período de espera dos suínos na indústria frigorífica.(AU)


The activities that take place before slaughtering require a standard and also a few changes prioritizing the animal's welfare. Thus, the wellness of pigs is very important when analyzing their handling from the farm to the slaughterhouse, correlated with the stressing factors that imply in losses to both the producers and the meat industry. Flaws in the pre-slaughter management can result in carcasses presenting deviations, such as pale, limp and exudative (PSE) meat, and dark, firm and dry (DFD) meat. In order to ensure the well-being and obtain a quality pork meat, the pre-slaughter management must be appropriately carried out, considering the behavioral and physiological characteristics of the animals. Such characteristics are related to both the environment and the individuals, establishing harmony between humans and animals. Therefore, this paper aimed to review the factors interfering in the pre-slaughter management of pigs and their influence on stress indicators and meat quality. The pre-slaughter management must follow known standards; however, each procedure must be reviewed, developing regional studies involving all procedures, from shipping to the waiting period of the animals at the slaughterhouses.(AU)


Las actividades que anteceden la matanza exigen un estándar y aún algunos cambios que prioricen en particular el bienestar del animal. Así, el bienestar en la especie porcina es de gran importancia cuando se observa el manejo de la granja al matadero, correlacionando con la actuación de factores de estrés que implican en pérdidas tanto a los productores como a la industria frigorífica. Las fallas en el manejo pre matanza pueden resultar en caparazones con desvíos, como carne pálida, flácida y exudativa (PSE), y carne oscura, firme y seca (DFD). Para asegurar el bienestar y obtener carne porcina de calidad es necesario que el manejo pre matanza sea realizado de forma adecuada, considerando las características comportamentales y fisiológicas de los animales, pues se trata del ajuste con el ambiente y con los individuos, estableciendo armonía entre hombre y animal. De acuerdo a lo informado, se ha buscado revisar los factores que interfieren en el manejo pre matanza de porcinos y sus influencias sobre los indicadores de estrés y calidad de la carne. El manejo pre matanza debe ser establecido conforme estándares conocidos, sin embargo, existe la necesidad de revisar cada procedimiento y establecer estudios regionales que involucran todos los procedimientos, desde el embarque hasta el periodo de espera de los porcinos en el matadero.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Welfare , Meat/analysis , Physiological Phenomena , Animal Culling , Stress, Physiological
16.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 22(2): 141-152, abr.-jun. 2017.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1102268

ABSTRACT

O crescimento no número de idosos no Brasil e no mundo é uma realidade nas estatísticas sociodemográficas. Tal fator é resultado do avanço no acesso aos serviços sociossanitários, bem como ao tratamento de algumas doenças que têm propiciado maior longevidade e esperança de vida. Desse modo, a resiliência é um constructo psicossocial importante que possibilita enfrentamento das adversidades na velhice. A presente investigação teve como objetivos principais estudar e comparar os níveis de resiliência entre idosos de diferentes classes sociais (baixa renda e alta renda). A amostra foi composta por 20 idosos, entre eles, homens e mulheres, de ambas as classes sociais, com idades que variam de 61 a 84 anos (M=67, 75 DP= 6,17). No contato com os participantes, foram utilizados instrumentos como questionários sociodemográficos e entrevistas semiestruturadas. Para a análise da entrevista semiestruturada, foi empregada a análise de conteúdo de Bardin. A partir dos dados desta pesquisa, pode-se verificar que os idosos de ambos os grupos relataram dificuldades decorrentes do período da velhice, porém tanto o de nível social baixo como o de alto estão munidos de ideias e recursos para superar os empecilhos que a vida apresenta. Espera-se que os dados da presente pesquisa possam subsidiar novas investigações, com o escopo de somar dados inovadores, referentes à resiliência na velhice com idosos de diferentes classes sociais, considerando-se a escassez de publicações relacionadas a esse tema e as limitações deste estudo.


The growth in the number of elderly people in Brazil and around the world is a reality in socio-demographic statistics. This factor is a result of advances for the access to health services, as well as the treatment of some diseases that has provided greater longevity and life expectancy. Thus, resilience is an important psychosocial construct that enables the facing of adversities in the old age. This research aimed to study and compare the levels of resilience among elderly people of different social classes (low-income and high-income). The sample consisted of 20 elders, including men and women of both classes with ages ranging 61-84 years (M = 67, 75 SD = 6.17). In the contact with the participants, instruments were used, such as sociodemographic questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. For the analysis of semi-structured interview, Bardin content analysis was used. From the data of this research, it could be noticed that the elderly of both groups reported difficulties arising from the old age period, but the two are provided with ideas and resources to overcome the obstacles that life presents. It is expected that the survey data can support new researches, with the aim of adding innovative data regarding resilience in old age, with older people from different social classes, considering the scarcity of publications related to this topic and the limitations of this study.


El aumento en el número de personas mayores en Brasil y en el mundo entero es una realidad en las estadísticas socio-demográficas. Este factor es el resultado de los avances en el acceso a los servicios sociales y sanitarios, así como el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades que ha proporcionado una mayor longevidad y la esperanza de vida. Por lo tanto, la capacidad de recuperación es un importante constructo psicosocial que permite enfrentan a las adversidades en la vejez. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo estudiar y comparar los niveles de resiliencia entre las personas mayores de diferentes clases sociales (de bajos y altos ingresos). La muestra está formada por 20 personas de edad avanzada, incluyendo hombres y mujeres de ambas clases con edades entre 61-84 años (M = 67.75; DT = 6,17). En contacto con los participantes, instrumentos fueron utilizados como cuestionarios sociodemográficos y entrevistas semiestructuradas. Para el análisis de la entrevista semiestructurada se utilizó para el análisis de contenido de Bardin. A partir de los datos de esta investigación, se puede observar que los ancianos de ambos grupos informaron de las dificultades derivadas de período de la vejez, pero tanto el bajo nivel social como de alto, están provistos de ideas y recursos para superar los obstáculos que la vida presenta. Se espera que los datosde la encuesta pueden apoyar esta nueva investigación, con el objetivo de añadir innovadora capacidad de recuperación de datos en la vejez con las personas mayores de diferentes clases sociales, teniendo en cuenta la escasez de publicaciones relacionadas con este tema y las limitaciones de este estudio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Resilience, Psychological , Social Behavior , Social Class , Aged/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Life Expectancy , Physiological Phenomena
17.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 84: e0992016, 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-887871

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o estresse e as alterações no leucograma dos juvenis de Oreochromis niloticus submetidos à toxicidade aguda do óleo diesel. A toxicidade foi avaliada em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco diluições (20, 25, 30, 35 e 40%) e um controle, ambos com três repetições. Para a avaliação dos níveis glicêmicos e alteração no leucograma, foi retirado sangue por punção caudal dos peixes moribundos. Dessa forma, conclui-se que o óleo diesel pode apresentar riscos ao ecossistema aquático, provocando toxicidade aos organismos aquáticos e alterações fisiológicas.(AU)


This study aimed to evaluate the stress and changes in white blood cell count of juveniles Oreochromis niloticus subjected to acute toxicity of diesel oil. The toxicity was evaluated in a completely randomized design with five dilutions (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40%) and one control, both with three replicates. For the assessment of blood glucose levels and changes in white blood cell count, blood was drawn by caudal puncture of the dying fish. It was concluded that diesel oil can present risks to aquatic ecosystem, causing toxicity and physiological changes to fish.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poisoning/blood , Fuel Oils , Cichlids , Leukocyte Count/veterinary , Hazardous Substances , Physiological Phenomena
18.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 113-121, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93437

ABSTRACT

Bestrophin-1 (Best1) is a calcium-activated anion channel identified from retinal pigment epithelium where human mutations are associated with Best's macular degeneration. Best1 is known to be expressed in a variety of tissues including the brain, and is thought to be involved in many physiological processes. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge on aspects of expression and function of Best1 in the brain. Best1 protein is observed in cortical and hippocampal astrocytes, in cerebellar Bergmann glia and lamellar astrocytes, in thalamic reticular neurons, in meninges and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. The most prominent feature of Best1 is its significant permeability to glutamate and GABA in addition to chloride ions because glutamate and GABA are important transmitters in the brain. Under physiological conditions, both Best1-mediated glutamate release and tonic GABA release from astrocytes modulate neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. Under pathological conditions such as neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, reactive astrocytes phenotypically switch from GABA-negative to GABA-producing and redistribute Best1 from the perisynaptic microdomains to the soma and processes to tonically release GABA via Best1. This implicates that tonic GABA release from reactive astrocyte via redistributed Best1 is a common phenomenon that occur in various pathological conditions with astrogliosis such as traumatic brain injury, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and hypoxic and ischemic insults. These properties of Best1, including the permeation and release of glutamate and GABA and its redistribution in reactive astrocytes, promise us exciting discoveries of novel brain functions to be uncovered in the future.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , Brain Injuries , Brain , Carisoprodol , Choroid Plexus , Epithelial Cells , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Glutamic Acid , Humans , Ions , Macular Degeneration , Meninges , Neuroglia , Neuronal Plasticity , Neurons , Permeability , Physiological Phenomena , Retinal Pigment Epithelium , Synaptic Transmission
19.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 132-140, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93435

ABSTRACT

Tryptophan metabolites regulate a variety of physiological processes, and their downstream metabolites enter the kynurenine pathway. Age-related changes of metabolites and activities of associated enzymes in this pathway are suggestable and would be potential intervention targets. Blood levels of serum tryptophan metabolites in C57BL/6 mice of different ages, ranging from 6 weeks to 10 months, were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the enzyme activities for each metabolic step were estimated using the ratio of appropriate metabolite levels. Mice were subjected to voluntary chronic aerobic exercise or high-fat diet to assess their ability to rescue age-related alterations in the kynurenine pathway. The ratio of serum kynurenic acid (KYNA) to 3-hydroxylkynurenine (3-HK) decreased with advancing age. Voluntary chronic aerobic exercise and high-fat diet rescued the decreased KYNA/3-HK ratio in the 6-month-old and 8-month-old mice groups. Tryptophan metabolites and their associated enzyme activities were significantly altered during aging, and the KYNA/3-HK ratio was a meaningful indicator of aging. Exercise and high-fat diet could potentially recover the reduction of the KYNA/3-HK ratio in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Diet, High-Fat , Exercise , Humans , Infant , Kynurenic Acid , Kynurenine , Mice , Physiological Phenomena , Tryptophan
20.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 258-264, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulpal pain is one of the most common and severe orofacial pain conditions with considerable adverse effects on physiological processes including learning and memory. Regular exercise is known to be effective on cognitive function as well as pain processing in the central nervous system. Here, the possible effects of regular exercise on pulpal pain response as well as pain-induced changes in learning and memory efficiency in rats were investigated. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the control, capsaicin, exercise, and exercise plus capsaicin groups. Rats in exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill with a moderate exercise protocol for 4 weeks. Capsaicin was used to induce dental pulp pain. Passive avoidance learning and memory performance was assessed by using a shuttle box apparatus. RESULTS: According to the results, regular exercise could decrease the time course of capsaicin-induced pulpal pain (P < 0.001). Moreover, in capsaicin-treated rats, passive avoidance acquisition was impaired as compared to the control (P < 0.05) and exercise (P < 0.001) groups. Additionally, regular exercise before capsaicin injection could attenuate capsaicin-induced memory impairments (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the present data showed that regular exercise has inhibitory effects on capsaicin-induced pulpal pain as well as pain-induced cognitive dysfunction in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Avoidance Learning , Capsaicin , Central Nervous System , Cognition , Dental Pulp , Facial Pain , Humans , Learning , Male , Memory , Physiological Phenomena , Rats , Rats, Wistar
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