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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255529, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364534

ABSTRACT

Reports from popular medicine usually act as a basis for the development of new drugs from natural compounds with therapeutic actions for serious diseases and prevalence such as cancer. Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. is a species of the Bromeliaceae family, considered an unconventional food plant, found in the south and midwest regions of Brazil. Despite the high nutritional content and pharmacological potential of its fruits, few scientific studies report its biological actions. Thus, this study evaluates the phytochemical profile of aqueous and ethanol extracts obtained from B. antiacantha fruits, as well as their possible antioxidant, antitumor, and cytotoxic activities. The aqueous extract exhibited phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while ethanol extracts indicated the presence of flavonoids and coumarin in their composition, regardless of the region of collection. The ethanolic extract demonstrated a more promising antioxidant effect than the aqueous extract and also induced a significant inhibition in the viability of human cervical cancer cells of the SiHa strain. In addition, treatment with both extracts did not alter the viability of non-tumor cells of the immortalized human keratinocyte lineage (HaCaT). These results bring new data about extracts obtained from a native plant, edible and traditionally used in popular medicine, opening new perspectives for its possible therapeutic application.


Relatos da medicina popular costumam atuar como referencial para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a partir de moléculas naturais com ações terapêuticas para doenças de alta gravidade e prevalência como o câncer. Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. é uma espécie da família Bromeliaceae, considerada uma planta alimentícia não convencional (PANC), encontrada nas regiões sul e centro-oeste do Brasil. Apesar do alto teor nutritivo e potencial farmacológico de seus frutos, poucos estudos científicos relatam suas ações biológicas. Desta forma, este estudo avalia o perfil fitoquímico de extratos aquoso e etanólico obtidos de frutos de B. antiacantha, bem como a sua possível ação antioxidante, antitumoral e citotóxica. O extrato aquoso apresentou compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, enquanto os extratos etanólicos apontam a presença de flavonóides e cumarina em sua composição, independente da região de coleta. O extrato etanólico demonstrou efeito antioxidante mais promissor do que o extrato aquoso e também induziu uma inibição significativa na viabilidade de células humanas de câncer cervical da linhagem SiHa. Além disso, o tratamento com ambos extratos não alterou a viabilidade de células não tumorais da linhagem de queratinócitos humanos imortalizados (HaCaT). Estes dados trazem novas informações sobre extratos obtidos de uma espécie vegetal nativa, comestível e já utilizada tradicionalmente, mas abrindo novas perspectivas quanto a possíveis aplicações terapêuticas.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Bromeliaceae , Bromelia , Therapeutic Uses , Phytochemicals , Phytotherapy
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e236649, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339379

ABSTRACT

Abstract Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg., from the Euphorbiaceae family, popularly known as marmeleiro prateado or sacatinga, is a plant from the Caatinga biome commonly found in Brazil's northeastern region. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the species. The phytochemical study was performed through qualitative analysis of chemical constituents and quantitative determination of the total phenol content through the Folin-Ciocalteu test. The qualitative and quantitative antioxidant tests were performed using the DPPH method (2.2 diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution in 96-well plates. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of C. argyrophylloides manifested antioxidant action in the quantitative DPPH test with a significant bioactivity of 84.70 AAO% in 500 µg/mL, with an EC50 of 236.79. The content of total phenolic compounds was 946.06 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample, and total flavonoids was 58.11 mg of quercetin equivalents/g of sample, the result obtained for FRAP was 15294.44 µM Trolox/g of sample and ABTS was 718 μM Trolox of sample. The prospecting of the chemical constituents of the leaves of C. argyrophylloides revealed the presence of the main compounds that manifests the antioxidant activity and it was proven by the DPPH method that there is antioxidant activity in the analyzed sample, in addition to demonstrating a significant content of phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content in the species, which corroborates the antioxidant activity of the plant sample. The leaf extracts presented growth inhibition halos of 10 and 12 mm upon Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.


Resumo Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg., pertencente à família Euphorbiaceae, conhecida popularmente como marmeleiro prateado e sacatinga, é um vegetal do bioma caatinga comumente encontrado no Nordeste do Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antioxidante da espécie. O estudo fitoquímico foi realizado por meio de análise qualitativa dos constituintes químicos e determinação quantitativa do teor de fenóis totais pelo teste de Folin-Ciocalteu. Os testes antioxidantes qualitativos e quantitativos foram realizados pelo método do DPPH (2,2 difenil-1- picril-hidrazila) e redução do ferro (FRAP). A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) foi determinada por microdiluição em placas de 96 poços. O extrato etanólico das folhas de C. argyrophylloides apresentou ação antioxidante no teste DPPH quantitativo com uma significativa bioatividade de 84.70 AAO% em 500 µg/mL, apresentando um CE50 de 236.79. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais, foi de 946,06 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico/g de amostra, e de flavonoides totais de 58,11 mg equivalentes de quercetina/g da amostra, o valor encontrado para FRAP foi de 15294,44 µM Trolox/g da amostra e de ABTS foi 718 μM Trolox da amostra. A prospecção dos constituintes químicos das folhas de C. argyrophylloides revelou a presença dos principais compostos que caracterizam a atividade antioxidante e foi possível comprovar pelo método de DPPH que há atividade antioxidante na amostra analisada, além de demonstrar um resultado significativo de teor de compostos fenólicos e teor de flavonoides totais na espécie e o que corrobora com a atividade antioxidante da amostra vegetal. Os extratos das folhas apresentaram halos de inibição de crescimento de 10 e 12mm frente a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.


Subject(s)
Euphorbiaceae , Croton , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245753, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278536

ABSTRACT

Abstract The species Eugenia involucrata DC. is a plant native to Brazil and is traditionally used for intestinal problems, however, little research has documented about its biological potential and phytochemical profile. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical prospecting, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of E. involucrata extracts. Using the E. involucrata leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The phytochemical prospecting detected the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans, with concentrations between 3.12 and 50 mg/mL. The ethanolic and metanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (>90%). The methanol extract showed an IC50 value statistically equal to that found for the commercial antioxidant BHT (p <0.05). The crude extracts obtained with ethanol and methanol were the most promising. These results suggest that methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts are a promising source of natural bioactive.


Resumo A espécie Eugenia involucrata DC. é uma planta nativa do Brasil e tradicionalmente utilizada para problemas intestinais, porém, poucas pesquisas documentam sobre seu potencial biológico e perfil fitoquímico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção fitoquímica preliminar, o potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante dos extratos de E. involucrata. A partir das folhas de E. involucrata, foram obtidos extratos aquosos e orgânicos com os seguintes solventes (etanol, metanol, hexano, acetona, diclorometano e acetato de etila). A prospecção fitoquímica detectou a presença de saponinas, esteroides, flavonóides e taninos nos extratos. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana para a maioria das cepas bacterianas testadas, assim como para a levedura Candida albicans, com concentrações entre 3,12 e 50 mg/mL. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram alto potencial de sequestro de radicais livres (> 90%). O extrato metanólico apresentou IC50 estatisticamente igual ao encontrado para o antioxidante comercial BHT (p <0,05). Os extratos brutos obtidos com etanol e metanol foram os mais promissores. Esses resultados sugerem que os extratos metanólico, etanólico e aquoso são uma fonte promissora de bioativos naturais.


Subject(s)
Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Phytochemicals , Antioxidants/pharmacology
4.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-10, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364028

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Evaluation of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts of C. longa, P. nigrum and C. cyminum. In addition to proposing a quantum-mechanical model to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Methods: The aqueous extracts were prepared using roots of the Curcuma longa L., seeds of the Piper nigrum L. and seeds of Cuminum cyminum. The extracts were subjected to tests to detect and quantify phenolic compounds and to assess their antioxidant capacity by different methods. Furthermore, to investigate the electronic nature of the antioxidant activity of the main compounds present in these extracts, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) were obtained by the DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. Results: After statistical analysis of the results, a greater number of phenolic compounds and better antioxidant activity was identified in the aqueous extracts of cumin (C. cyminum) in all three assays performed, when compared to the other extracts tested. The theoretical model based on the Pietro method is in agreement with the experimental results. Conclusion: This study has an innovative proposal with the trivial antioxidant activity combined with theoretical quantum-mechanical calculations that can serve to reduce costs and time and to predict the antioxidant activity of subsequent studies.


Objetivos: avaliar os compostos fenólicos e atividades antioxidantes dos extratos aquosos de C. longa, P. nigrum e C. cyminum bem como propor um modelo quanto-mecânico para avaliar a atividade antioxidante. Métodos: os extratos aquosos foram preparados por meio da utilização de raízes de Curcuma longa L., sementes de Piper nigrum L. e sementes de Cuminum cyminum. Os extratos foram submetidos a ensaios para detectar e quantificar compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante por diferentes métodos. Além disso, com objetivo de investigar a natureza eletrônica da atividade antioxidante dos principais compostos presentes nesses extratos, orbitais moleculares de fronteira (OMFs) foram obtidos pelo nível de teoria DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p). Resultados: após as análises estatísticas dos resultados, a maior quantidade de compostos fenólicos com maior atividade antioxidante foi identificada no extrato aquoso do cominho (C. cyminum) em todos os ensaios realizados, quando comparados com os outros extratos testados. O modelo teórico baseado no método de Pietro está concordante com os resultados experimentais. Conclusão: este estudo possui uma proposta inovadora com a atividade antioxidante trivial combinada com cálculos quanto-mecânicos que podem servir para reduzir custos e tempo para predizer a atividade antioxidante de estudos futuros.


Subject(s)
Piper nigrum , Curcuma , Phytochemicals , Border Areas , Phenolic Compounds , Density Functional Theory , Antioxidants
5.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3)set-dez. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399147

ABSTRACT

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a non-melanoma skin cancer, with chronic sun exposure as the main risk factor. Excisional surgery is the most indicated treatment; however, patients can suffer functional, aesthetic, and psychological damage depending on the lesion site. Topical administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13- acetate (TPA) induce to the appearance of benign skin tumors in mice, some of which develop into SCC. This protocol has been used to analyze the effects of many chemopreventive agents that may block or inhibit the mechanisms of action of chemical carcinogenesis. We compared the effects of chemopreventive agents in an induced skin carcinogenesis animal model. In the Scopus, PubMed, and EMBASE databases, we searched for manuscripts published between June 16, 2011, and June 16, 2021. We excluded studies conducted in vitro or on transgenic mice; in addition, studies without drug dosage, route of administration, or tumor incidence were excluded. We selected 26 studies and analyzed their main characteristics and the outcomes of tumorigenesis analysis. Most chemopreventive agents have shown excellent potential to inhibit the development of skin tumors. This review also discusses the standardization of studies in animal models to ensure better responses and future randomized clinical trials for cancer treatment and prevention.


O carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo (CEC) é um câncer de pele não melanoma, com a exposição solar crônica como o principal fator de risco. A cirurgia excisional é o tratamento mais indicado; entretanto, os pacientes podem sofrer danos funcionais, estéticos e psicológicos dependendo do local da lesão. A administração tópica de 7,12-dimetilbenz[a]antraceno (DMBA) e 12-O- Tetradecanoilforbol-13-acetato (TPA) induz ao aparecimento de tumores cutâneos benignos em camundongos, alguns dos quais evoluíram para CEC. Este protocolo tem sido utilizado para analisar os efeitos de muitos agentes quimiopreventivos que podem bloquear ou inibir os mecanismos de ação da carcinogênese química. Comparamos os efeitos de agentes quimiopreventivos em um modelo animal que foi induzido à carcinogênese de pele. Nas bases de dados Scopus, PubMed e EMBASE, buscamos manuscritos publicados entre 16 de junho de 2011 e 16 de junho de 2021. Excluímos estudos realizados in vitro ou em camundongos transgênicos; além disso, estudos sem dosagem de drogas, via de administração ou incidência de tumores foram excluídos. Selecionamos 26 estudos e analisamos suas principais características e os resultados da análise da tumorigênese. A maioria dos agentes quimiopreventivos tem demonstrado excelente potencial para inibir o desenvolvimento de tumores cutâneos. Esta revisão também discute a padronização de estudos em modelos animais para garantir melhores respostas e futuros ensaios clínicos randomizados para tratamento e prevenção do câncer.


El carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE) es un cáncer de piel no melanoma, cuyo principal factor de riesgo es la exposición crónica al sol. La cirugía de escisión es el tratamiento más indicado; sin embargo, los pacientes pueden sufrir daños funcionales, estéticos y psicológicos dependiendo de la localización de la lesión. La administración tópica de 7,12-dimetilbenz[a]antraceno (DMBA) y 12-O-Tetradecanoilforbol-13-acetato (TPA) inducen a la aparición de tumores cutáneos benignos en ratones, algunos de los cuales se convierten en CCE. Este protocolo se ha utilizado para analizar los efectos de muchos agentes quimiopreventivos que pueden bloquear o inhibir los mecanismos de acción de la carcinogénesis química. Comparamos los efectos de los agentes quimiopreventivos en un modelo animal de carcinogénesis cutánea inducida. En las bases de datos Scopus, PubMed y EMBASE, se buscaron los manuscritos publicados entre el 16 de junio de 2011 y el 16 de junio de 2021. Se excluyeron los estudios realizados in vitro o en ratones transgénicos; además, se excluyeron los estudios sin dosis de fármacos, vía de administración o incidencia tumoral. Se seleccionaron 26 estudios y se analizaron sus características principales y los resultados del análisis de la tumorigénesis. La mayoría de los agentes quimiopreventivos han mostrado un excelente potencial para inhibir el desarrollo de tumores cutáneos. Esta revisión también analiza la estandarización de los estudios en modelos animales para garantizar mejores respuestas y futuros ensayos clínicos aleatorios para el tratamiento y la prevención del cáncer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Chemoprevention , Antineoplastic Agents , Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate , Models, Animal , 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene/analysis , Carcinogenesis , Phytochemicals
6.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(3): 321-327, jul.-sep. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410009

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo . Analizar y determinar la actividad antifúngica in vitro del extracto etanólico de las hojas de Solanum hispidum Pers. Materiales y métodos . Se realizó el análisis fitoquímico preliminar cualitativo mediante reacciones de color y precipitación. Se investigó la actividad antifúngica in vitro frente a Candida albicans, Aspergillus brasilensis y Trichophyton mentagrophytes usando el método de difusión en pozo de agar y el ensayo de la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI). Resultados . El análisis fitoquímico preliminar cualitativo mostró la presencia de compuestos fenólicos, taninos, flavonoides, esteroides, alcaloides y saponinas. La actividad antifúngica in vitro fue demostrada para todos cultivos fúngicos con halos de inhibición entre 23 a 26 mm. Los valores de la CMI fueron de 125, 250 y 125 µg/mL para C. albicans, A. brasilensis y T. mentagrophytes, respectivamente. Conclusiones. El extracto etanólico de las hojas de Solanum hispidum Pers contiene importantes metabolitos secundarios y tiene moderada actividad antifúngica.


ABSTRACT Objective. To analyze and determine the in vitro antifungical activity of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Solanum hispidum Pers. Materials and methods. We carried out a preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis by color and precipitation reactions. We evaluated the in vitro antifungical activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus brasilensis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes by using the agar well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Results. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids and saponins. In vitro antifungal activity was demonstrated for all fungal cultures with inhibition halos between 23 to 26 mm. The MIC values were 125, 250, and 125 μg/mL for C. albicans, A. brasilensis, and T. mentagrophytes, respectively. Conclusions. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Solanum hispidum Pers. contains important secondary metabolites and has moderate antifungical activity.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts , Phytochemicals , Antifungal Agents , Plants, Medicinal , Solanaceae , Medicine, Traditional
7.
Más Vita ; 4(1): 153-164, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1372276

ABSTRACT

Nuestro país presenta un gran potencial de plantas medicinales en todo su territorio, por ser megadiverso, con muchas regiones agroecologicas y formaciones vegetales, pese a ello es incipiente la atención al desarrollo de las cadenas de valor del potencial de plantas medicinales, constituyendo un desafío el registro adecuado, con calidad y seguridad porque previenen y solucionan dificultades de salud por sus principios activos. Argyrochosma nivea (Poir.) Windham, "cuti cuti" conocido también como Notholaena nivea. Objetivos: Determinar los grupos metabólicos del extracto alcohólico al 20% de Argyrochosma nivea (Poir.) Windham, administrado a pacientes de diabetes del programa de medicina complementaria, EsSALUD Huancayo. Materiales y métodos: Estudios descriptivo, comparativo. La recolección de información relevante de aspectos botánicos, etnobotánicos, etnofarmacológicos y fitoquímicos sobre Argyrochosma nivea se realizó mediante la búsqueda en las bases de datos Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed y la biblioteca virtual del CONCYTEC (servicio de esa institución que reúne revistas de SciELO-Perú y la producción científica y tecnológica del Perú); además, se utilizó el buscador Google-Académico con el fin de agotar la búsqueda. Los términos de búsqueda fueron "Argyrochosma nivea", "Notholaena nivea" o "cuti cuti". Resultados: La Tintura de Argyrochosma nivea al 20% preparado con alcohol etílico al 50% en el analisis fitoquimico realizado se encontro compuestos de Flavanoides totales 0.111 mg de Catequina/ml, Flavonoides totales 0.133 mg de Quercitina /ml, Polifenoles totales 5.189 mg de ácido gálico/ml, Capacidad Antioxidante* 424.701 µ mol trolox/ml, Rutina 0.00579 mg de Rutina/ml, Quercitina 0.105mg/ml y Cumarinas 0.170 mg /ml. Ausencia de antocianinas totales, estos valores aportan la capacidad antioxidante de "cuti cuti", y el contenido de flavonoides (quercetina), permite la prevalencia en el tratamiento de la diabetes. Conclusión: El Estudio fitoquimico de Argyrochosma nivea (Poir.) Windham (Cuti cuti) mediante el análisis por espectrofotometría y análisis por HPLC verifico la existencia de 7 compuestos Flavanoides totales 0.111 mg de Catequina/ml, Flavonoides totales 0.133 mg de Quercitina /ml, Polifenoles totales 5.189 mg de ácido gálico/ml, Capacidad Antioxidante* 424.701 µ mol trolox/ml, Rutina 0.00579 mg de Rutina/ml, Quercitina 0.105mg de Qu ercitina/ml y Cumarinas 0.170 mg de Cumarina/ml(AU)


Our country has a great potential for medicinal plants throughout its territory, as it is megadiverse, with many agroecological regions and plant formations, despite this, attention to the development of value chains for the potential of medicinal plants is incipient, constituting a I challenge the proper registration, with quality and safety because they prevent and solve health difficulties due to their active ingredients. Argyrochosma nivea (Poir.) Windham, "cuti cuti" also known as Notholaena nivea. Objectives: To determine the metabolic groups of the 20% alcoholic extract of Argyrochosma nivea (Poir.) Windham, administered to diabetes patients of the complementary medicine program, EsSALUD Huancayo. Methods: Descriptive, comparative studies. The collection of relevant information on botanical, ethnobotanical, ethnopharmacological and phytochemical aspects of Argyrochosma nivea was carried out by searching the Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed databases and the virtual library of CONCYTEC (a service of that institution that brings together SciELO-Peru journals). and the scientific and technological production of Peru); In addition, the Google-Academic search engine was used in order to exhaust the search. The search terms were "Argyrochosma nivea", "Notholaena nivea" or "cuti cuti". Results: The Argyrochosma nivea tincture at 20% prepared with 50% ethyl alcohol in the phytochemical analysis carried out found compounds of total Flavanoids 0.111 mg of Catechin / ml, total Flavonoids 0.133 mg of Quercetin / ml, total Polyphenols 5.189 mg of acid gallic/ml, Antioxidant Capacity* 424.701 µmol trolox/ml, Rutin 0.00579 mg Rutin/ml, Quercetin 0.105mg/ml and Coumarins 0.170 mg/ml. Absence of total anthocyanins, these values provide the antioxidant capacity of "cuti cuti", and the content of flavonoids (quercetin), allows prevalence in the treatment of diabetes. Conclusion: The phytochemical study of Argyrochosma nivea (Poir.) Windham (Cuti cuti) through spectrophotometric analysis and HPLC analysis verified the existence of 7 total Flavanoid compounds 0.111 mg of Catechin/ml, total Flavonoids 0.133 mg of Quercetin /ml, Total polyphenols 5.189 mg of gallic acid/ml, Antioxidant Capacity* 424.701 µ mol trolox/ml, Rutin 0.00579 mg of Rutin/ml, Quercetin 0.105mg of Quercetin/ml and Coumarins 0.170 mg of Coumarin/ml(AU)


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Complementary Therapies , Pteridaceae/chemistry , Phytochemicals , Flavonoids , Dry Plant Extracts , Phenolic Compounds
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 131-155, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393364

ABSTRACT

Bacopa monnieri(L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), also known as Brahmi, has been used to improve cognitive processes and intellectual functions that are related to the preservation of memory. The objective of this research is to review the ethnobotanical applications, phytochemical composition, toxicity and activity of B. monnieri in the central nervous system. It reviewed articles on B. monnieri using Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline, and PubMed. Saponins are the main compounds in extracts of B. monnieri. Pharmacological studies showed that B. monnieri improves learning and memory and presents biological effects against Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. No preclinical acute toxicity was reported. However, gastrointestinal side effects were reported in some healthy elderly individuals. Most studies with B. monnieri have been preclinical evaluations of cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system and further translational clinical research needs to be performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the plant.


Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), también conocida como Brahmi, se ha utilizado para mejorar los procesos cognitivos y las funciones intelectuales que están relacionadas con la preservación de la memoria. El objetivo de esta investigación es revisar las aplicaciones etnobotánicas, composición fitoquímica, toxicidad y actividad de B. monnieri en el sistema nervioso central. Se revisaron artículos sobre B. monnieri utilizando Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline y PubMed. Las saponinas son los principales compuestos de los extractos de B. monnieri. Los estudios farmacológicos mostraron que B. monnieri mejora el aprendizaje y la memoria y presenta efectos biológicos contra la enfermedad de Alzheimer, la enfermedad de Parkinson, la epilepsia y la esquizofrenia. No se informó toxicidad aguda preclínica. Sin embargo, se informaron efectos secundarios gastrointestinales en algunos ancianos sanos. La mayoría de los estudios con B. monnieri han sido evaluaciones preclínicas de los mecanismos celulares en el sistema nervioso central y es necesario realizar más investigaciones clínicas traslacionales para evaluar la seguridad y eficacia de la planta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Central Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Bacopa/chemistry , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Saponins/analysis , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Triterpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Cognition/drug effects , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Phytochemicals
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 1-40, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370311

ABSTRACT

Cancer is an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells that spreads through cell division. There are different types of medicines available to treat cancers, but no drug is found to be fully effective and safe for humans. The major problem involved in the cancer treatments is the toxicity of the established drug and their side effects. Medicinal plants are used as folk medicines in Asian and African populations for thousands of years. 60% of the drugs for treating cancer are derived from plants. More than 3000 plants have anticancer activity. The present review aims at the study of a broad spectrum survey of plants having anticancer components for different type of cancers. This article consists of 364 medicinal plants and their different parts as potential Source of Anticancer Agents.


El cáncer es un crecimiento anormal y descontrolado de células que se disemina a través de la división celular. Hay diferentes tipos de medicamentos disponibles para tratar el cáncer, pero no se ha encontrado ningún medicamento que sea completamente efectivo y seguro para los seres humanos. El principal problema involucrado en los tratamientos del cáncer es la toxicidad del fármaco establecido y sus efectos secundarios. Las plantas medicinales se utilizan como medicinas populares en poblaciones asiáticas y africanas durante miles de años. El 60% de los medicamentos para el tratamiento del cáncer se derivan de plantas. Más de 3000 plantas tienen actividad anticancerígena. La presente revisión tiene como objetivo el estudio de un estudio de amplio espectro de plantas que tienen componentes anticancerígenos para diferentes tipos de cánceres. Este artículo consta de 364 plantas medicinales y sus diferentes partes como fuente potencial de agentes anticancerígenos.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/analysis , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 41-50, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370333

ABSTRACT

Solanum nudum Dunal (Solanaceae) is most commonly known andused by the population of the colombian Pacific coast as an antimalarial treatment. This article study into optimization and quantitative analysis of compounds steroidal over time of development of this species when grown in vitro and wild. A new steroidal compound named SN6 was elucidated by NMR and a new method of quantification of seven steroidal compounds (Diosgenone DONA and six steroids SNs) using HPLC-DAD-MS in extracts of cultures in vitroand wild was investigated. Biology activity of extracts was found to a range of antiplasmodial activity in FCB2 and NF-54 with inhibitory concentration (IC50) between (17.04 -100µg/mL) and cytotoxicity in U-937 of CC50 (7.18 -104.7µg/mL). This method creates the basis for the detection of seven sterols antiplasmodial present in extracts from S. nudum plant as a quality parameter in the control and expression of phytochemicals.


Solanum nudum Dunal (Solanaceae) es el más conocido y utilizado por la población de la costa del Pacífico colombiano como tratamiento antipalúdico. Este artículo estudia la optimización y el análisis cuantitativo de compuestos esteroides a lo largo del tiempo de desarrollo de esta especie cuando se cultiva in vitro y en forma silvestre. Un nuevo compuesto esteroideo llamado SN6 fue dilucidado por RMN y se investigó un nuevo método de cuantificación de siete compuestos esteroides (Diosgenone DONA y seis esteroides SN) usando HPLC-DAD-MS en extractos de cultivos in vitro y silvestres. La actividad biológica de los extractos se encontró en un rango de actividad antiplasmodial en FCB2 y NF-54 con concentración inhibitoria (IC50) entre (17.04 -100 µg/mL) y citotoxicidad en U-937 de CC50 (7.18 -104.7 µg/mL). Este método crea la base para la detección de siete esteroles antiplasmodiales presentes en extractos de planta de S. nudum como parámetro de calidad en el control y expresión de fitoquímicos.


Subject(s)
Steroids/analysis , Solanum/chemistry , Antimalarials/chemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Solanum/growth & development , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Phytochemicals , Antimalarials/pharmacology
11.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 292-304, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939886

ABSTRACT

Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth is a medicinal plant used to manage inflammatory illnesses such as conjunctivitis, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract disorders in tropical and subtropical regions. However, little is known about its pharmacological mechanism of action against eye diseases. This review aims to critically discuss the phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of P. pellucida as well as its roles in the treatment of cataract, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Recent developments in the uses of P. pellucida for healthcare and nutraceutical products by the pharmaceutical industry are also covered in this review. For this review, a literature search was performed with PubMed, ScienceDirect, SciFinder Scholar and Scopus databases, using relevant keywords. Among the various phytochemicals identified from P. pellucida, β-caryophyllene, carotol, dillapiole, ellagic acid, pellucidin A, phytol and vitexin exhibit strong pharmacological activities within the mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signalling pathways in inflammatory eye diseases. The antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-angiogenic activities displayed by P. pellucida extracts in many in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies suggest its potential role in the management of inflammatory eye diseases. P. pellucida extract was non-toxic against normal cell lines but displayed mild toxicity in animal models. The growing public interest in P. pellucida has inspired the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries to process the plant into health products. Although the potential pharmacological mechanisms against eye diseases have been summarized, further studies of the interactions among constituent phytochemicals from P. pellucida within various signalling pathways shall support the use of the plant as an alternative therapeutic source.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ethnopharmacology , Eye Diseases/drug therapy , Peperomia , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928004

ABSTRACT

Sarcandra glabra, a medicinal plant in family Chloranthaceae, has been taken as an important raw material for multiple Chinese patent drugs due to its diverse indications. Considering the diversified chemical constituents and rich biological activities of S. glabra, numerous phytochemical and pharmacodynamic investigations were conducted to explore the material basis for its medicinal use. It has been found that its main chemical constituents were sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpenoid polymers, phenolic acids, coumarins, and flavonoids. As revealed by pharmacological research, it possesses multiple biological activities like anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, and neuroprotection. Some unreported novel structures, including polymers of lindenane sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes, sesquiterpene trimers, and adducts of flavonoids and monoterpenes, have been identified from S. glabra in recent years. Moreover, biological studies relating to its anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities have been deepened. This paper reviewed the chemical constituents and bioactivities of S. glabra explored over the past ten years, so as to provide a scientific basis for further development and utilization of this plant.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Flavonoids , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Seeds
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20015, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403744

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study assessed the inhibitory potential of the probiotics Lactobacillus (LB) exopolysaccharides (EPS) with or without extracts of Satureja calamintha on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEc) responsible for gastroenteritis. Methanolic and hydromethanolic extracts were prepared by cold maceration and subjected to phytochemical screening. The compounds of the extracts were determined with the colorimetric assays and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Antioxidant activities of the extracts were also evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging. Antibacterial effect on EPEc was evaluated by using both agar disc diffusion and microdilution methods. The in vitro test of auto-aggregation was investigated. Microbiological analysis showed that 63% of the isolated LB were producing EPS, with the amount ranging from 8.21 to 43.13 mg/L. Chemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids, more abundant in the hydromethanolic extract, which presented the highest content with 2.11 mg EGA/g of polyphenol and 1.64 mg EC/g of flavonoids and 1.71 mg EGA/g of polyphenol and 1.15 mg EC/g of flavonoids in the methanolic extract. Hydromethanolic extracts and EPS exhibited a more important activity than did the methanolic extract against EPEc. The combined action of EPS and extracts reduced the aggregation ability of EPEc and decreased the rate of their adhesion.


Subject(s)
Probiotics/adverse effects , Satureja/adverse effects , Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli/classification , Lactobacillus/classification , Plant Extracts/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Nepeta/adverse effects , Phytochemicals , Gastroenteritis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20114, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403742

ABSTRACT

Abstract Curcumin, contained at Turmeric (Curcumalonga), can exert many beneficial pleiotropic activities in the gastrointestinal tract. This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of C. longa on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced oral mucositis (OM) in hamsters. Phytochemical analysis of crude C. longa extract (CLE) was performed to detect the presence of curcumin by TLC and HPLC. Golden Syrian hamsters were orally pre-treated with CLE (5, 50, or 100mg/kg). Cheek pouch samples were subjected to macroscopic and histopathological evaluation. ELISA was performed to quantify the inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and TNF-α. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy analysis. Behavior analysis was conducted by the open field test. Curcumin content in the CLE was 0.55%m/m ± 0.0161 (2.84%). The group treated with 5mg/kg CLE showed healing evidence with macroscopic absence of ulceration (p<0.05) and microscopic aspect of re-epithelialization, discrete inflammatory infiltrate and absence of edema. Treatment with 5mg/kg CLE significantly increased GSH levels, and reduced MDA levels and SOD activity (p˂0.05), and decreased IL-1ß (p˂0.05) and TNF-α (p˂0.01) levels. A significant reduction in walking distance, ambulation, speed, and rearing was observed for motor activity. Curcumin reduced oxidative stress, inflammation, and motor activity in hamsters with 5-FU-induced OM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Stomatitis/pathology , Curcumin/analysis , Curcuma/classification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Phytochemicals/agonists , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Inflammation/complications , Antioxidants/classification
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e256856, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355846

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative activity of ethanolic extract of leaves and fruits Citrus paradisi plant on HepG-2 liver cell lines by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-terazolium bromide) assay and to isolate and characterize the antiproliferative compounds by TLC (Thin layer chromatography) and FT-IR (Fourier transforms Infrared) spectroscopy. Qualitative phytochemical screening tests were performed to detect phytochemicals compounds from the crude extracts. Antioxidant activity of the plant extracts were characterized by using DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging method. The results showed that antioxidant activity using DPPH were found to be increased in a concentration dependent manner and decreased cell viability and cell growth inhibition in a dose dependent manner. The findings from this study indicated that fruit extract exhibited good antiproliferation and antioxidant potential. The seven functional groups of phytocompounds such as carboxylic acid, amine salt, aromatic compounds, cyclic alkene, aldehyde, fluoro compounds and alkene were detected by FT-IR which indicated that fruit extracts of Citrus paradisi possessed vast potential as a medicinal drug especially in liver cancer treatment.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a atividade antiproliferativa in vitro do extrato etanólico de folhas e frutos da planta Citrus paradisi em linhagens de células hepáticas HepG-2 por MTT (3- (4, 5-dimetil-2-tiazolil) -2, Ensaio de brometo de 5-difenil-2H-terazólio) e isolar e caracterizar os compostos antiproliferativos por espectroscopia de TLC (cromatografia de camada fina) e FT-IR (infravermelho com transformadas de Fourier). Testes qualitativos de triagem fitoquímica foram realizados para detectar compostos fitoquímicos nos extratos brutos. A atividade antioxidante dos extratos vegetais foi caracterizada pelo método de eliminação de radicais livres DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil). Os resultados mostraram que a atividade antioxidante usando DPPH aumentou de uma maneira dependente da concentração e diminuiu a viabilidade celular e a inibição do crescimento celular de uma maneira dependente da dose. Os resultados deste estudo indicaram que o extrato de fruta exibiu bom potencial antiproliferação e antioxidante. Os sete grupos funcionais de fitocompostos, como ácido carboxílico, sal de amina, compostos aromáticos, alceno cíclico, aldeído, compostos de flúor e alceno, foram detectados por FT-IR, o que indicou que extratos de frutas de Citrus paradisi possuíam vasto potencial como medicamento, especialmente no tratamento de câncer do fígado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Citrus paradisi , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cell Line , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Phytochemicals , Antioxidants
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242112, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278510

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plants possess a renewable source of metabolites with enormous chemical structural diversity, which may have potential therapeutic relevance. Furthermore, this chemical diversity favors the possibility of finding new and different chemical constituents with antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-tumor activities. This work analyzed preliminary phytochemical profiles and evaluated the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of hexane extracts of leaves of ten species of the family Melastomataceae. Phytochemical screening was performed using staining methods while total phenols and flavonoids were quantified by spectrophotometry. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) method. Toxicity was recorded using the lethality test with Artemia salina Leach (1819). Cytotoxic activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro with acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). Phytochemical analysis detected the presence of tannins, terpenes, steroids, polyphenols and flavonoids and the absence of alkaloids. Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl.) D. Don had the greatest amount of polyphenols (205.95 mg/g ± 4.14) while Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don had the highest content of total flavonoids (143.99 mg/g ± 4.18). The hexane extracts did not show antimicrobial activity nor toxicity against Artemia salina. The extract of Tibouchina francavillana Cogn. was the most active in sequestering the DPPH radical. The extracts showed cytotoxicity in THP-1 cells with the appearance of apoptotic bodies and cell death. The extracts of Miconia amoena, Clidemia sericea and Clidemia capitellata are non-toxic against Artemia salina and induce the formation of apoptotic bodies and cell death of the THP-1 lineage.


Resumo Os vegetais apresentam uma fonte renovável de metabólitos com enorme diversidade química estrutural, os quais podem apresentar potencial relevante na terapêutica, aumentando as possibilidades de encontrar novos e diferentes constituintes químicos com atividades antimicrobiana, antioxidante e antitumoral. Este trabalho analisou o perfil fitoquímico preliminar e as atividades antimicrobiana, antioxidante, citotóxica dos extratos em hexano das folhas de dez espécies da família Melastomataceae. A triagem fitoquímica foi executada utilizando métodos de coloração e quantificação de fenóis e flavonoides totais por espectrofotometria. A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pelo método de difusão em disco. A atividade antioxidante foi determinada pelo método 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila (DPPH). A toxicidade foi registrada utilizando o ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina Leach (1819). A atividade citotóxica dos extratos foi realizada in vitro com células leucêmicas monocítica aguda (THP-1). A análise fitoquímica detectou a presença de taninos, terpenos, esteroides, polifenóis, flavonoides e ausência de alcaloides. A maior quantificação de polifenóis foi da Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl.) D. Don (205,95 mg/g ± 4,14) e o extrato de Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don apresentou maior teor de flavonoides totais (143,99 mg/g ± 4,18). Os extratos hexânicos não demostraram atividade antimicrobiana e nem toxicidade frente à Artemia salina. O extrato de Tibouchina francavillana Cogn. foi o mais ativo no sequestro do radical DPPH. Os extratos apresentaram citotoxicidade em células THP-1, com visualização de corpos apoptóticos e morte celular. Os extratos de Miconia amoena, Clidemia sericea e Clidemia capitellata são atóxicos contra Artemia salina e induzem a formação de corpos apoptóticos e morte celular da linhagem THP-1.


Subject(s)
Melastomataceae , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
17.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20201070, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286055

ABSTRACT

A comparative study was perfomed with conventional and ultrasound assisted extraction on tomato processing waste. Ultrasound extraction exhibited slightly higher phenolic and flavonoids content, as well as higher ABTS + radical scavenging capacity (4.63 mg GAE.g-1, 0.96 mg RUE.g-1 and 27.90 µmol TE.g -1 respectively). On both extracts, a high percentage of flavonoids was lost during simulated digestion, resulting on a bioacessibility of approximately 13 %. Extracts presented good stability during storage conditions, which indicates a possible technological application.


Foi realizado um estudo comparativo com a extração convencional e assistida por ultrassom em resíduos do processamento de tomate. A extração ultrassônica exibiu teor de fenólicos e flavonóides ligeiramente maiores, bem como maior capacidade antioxidante ABTS + (4,63 mg AG.g-1, 0,96 mg RUE.g-1 e 27,90 µmol TE.g -1, respectivamente). Em ambos os extratos, uma alta porcentagem de flavonóides foi perdida durante a digestão simulada, resultando em uma bioacessibilidade de aproximadamente 13%. Os extratos apresentaram boa estabilidade durante as condições de armazenamento, o que indica uma possível aplicação tecnológica.


Subject(s)
Lycopersicon esculentum/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Ultrasonics
18.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 139 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378713

ABSTRACT

A obesidade é uma doença complexa que está associada inflamação crônica de baixo grau que contribui para o desenvolvimento de diversos distúrbios metabólicos como a resistência à insulina e estudos recentes sugerem a influência da microbiota intestinal no desenvolvimento e manutenção da doença. Diversos estudos apontam para o benefício da ingestão de frutas e vegetais na prevenção e tratamento de doenças crônicas. O suco de laranja contém diversos compostos bioativos com ações anti-inflamatórias, antioxidantes com efeitos na composição da microbiota intestinal. Deste modo, o objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da ingestão do suco de laranja Pera e Moro sobre a composição da microbiota intestinal e de parâmetros inflamatórios em voluntários com obesidade e resistência à insulina. Foi realizado um ensaio clínico crossover com suplementação de suco de laranja (400ml/dia) por 15 dias com um período de washout de 40 dias. As análises de sangue, fezes, urina, composição corporal, consumo alimentar foram realizadas antes e após cada intervenção. A comparação entre os tratamentos foi realizada utilizando equações de estimativas generalizadas e adotou-se um nível de significância de 5%. Em relação à microbiota intestinal, em ambos os tratamentos, os dois filos mais abundantes foram Firmicutes e Actinobateria. Dos gêneros analisados, observou-se maior abundância de Bifidobacterium após a suplementação com o suco de laranja Moro. O suco de laranja Pera promoveu uma diminuição da zonulina e o suco de laranja Moro contribuiu para redução de citocinas inflamatórias, diminuição da pressão arterial e aumento nos níveis de acetato nas fezes. Após a separação dos voluntários por grau de obesidade, observamos que o suco de laranja Moro contribuiu para o aumento na abundância de Akkermansia, Alistipes, Bacteroides e Catenibacterium em indivíduos com obesidade grau 3. Além disso, em ambos os sucos encontramos redução da razão Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes e aumento da excreção de metabólitos de flavonoides após os tratamentos. Diante destes resultados, conclui-se que o suco de laranja Pera apresentou ações positivas sobre a permeabilidade intestinal e o suco de laranja Moro promoveu efeitos mais expressivos na modulação da inflamação associada à obesidade e da microbiota intestinal


Obesity is a complex disease that is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, and it contributes to the development of several metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, and recent studies suggest the influence of the intestinal microbiota in the development and maintenance of the disease. Several studies have suggested the benefit of fruits and vegetables consumption in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. The orange juice contains some bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions with effects in the composition of the gut microbiota. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Pera and Moro orange juice consumption on the composition of the gut microbiota and inflammatory parameters in volunteers with obesity and insulin resistance. A crossover clinical trial was carried out with orange juice supplementation (400ml/day) for 15 days with a washout period of 40 days. Blood, feces, urine, body composition, food consumption were analyzed before and after each intervention. Comparison between treatments was performed using generalized estimating equations and a significance level of 5% was adopted. In relation to gut microbiota, in both treatments, the two most abundant phyla were Firmicutes and Actinobateria. In the analysis of bacterial genera, a greater abundance of Bifidobacterium was observed after supplementation with Moro orange juice. The Pera orange juice reduced zonulin and Moro orange juice contributed to a reduction on inflammatory cytokines, a decrease in blood pressure and an increase in acetate levels in the stool. After separating the volunteers by degree of obesity, we observed that Moro orange juice contributed to the increase in the abundance of Akkermansia, Alistipes, Bacteroides and Catenibacterium in individuals with grade 3 obesity. Furthermore, in both juices we found a reduction in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and increased excretion of flavonoid metabolites after treatments. Therefore, we concluded that Pera orange juice had positive actions on intestinal permeability and Moro orange juice promoted more expressive effects on the modulation of inflammation associated with obesity and on the intestinal microbiota


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Citrus sinensis/classification , Citrus sinensis/adverse effects , Eating , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/adverse effects , Fruit , Obesity/classification , Volunteers , Flavonoids/agonists , Body Composition , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Insulin Resistance , Chronic Disease , Eating , Arterial Pressure , Phytochemicals/adverse effects , Inflammation
19.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 84 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400479

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O padrão da dieta ocidental, caracterizado pela ingestão elevada de açúcares e lipídios, está relacionado à gênese da inflamação metabólica, a qual é caracterizada por um quadro de inflamação crônica, sistêmica e de baixa intensidade. A inflamação metabólica contribui para o desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT), as quais representam a principal causa de morte no mundo. Por outro lado, a ingestão de uma dieta saudável, rica em frutas e hortaliças, é relevante para a redução do risco das DCNT. Nesse contexto, destaca-se o suco de uva, bebida rica em compostos bioativos, que possui potencial efeito anti-inflamatório. Estudos recentes sugerem que nutrientes e compostos bioativos dos alimentos possam atenuar a inflamação por meio da modulação da expressão de microRNA, os quais representam novos biomarcadores inflamatórios, contribuindo para a identificação do risco de desenvolvimento de doenças cardiometabólicas. Objetivo: Investigar o efeito da ingestão de suco de uva integral sobre a expressão de microRNA no plasma e em células mononucleares do sangue periférico (PBMC) e sua relação com a resposta inflamatória. Métodos: Estudo intervencional, no qual, durante quatro semanas, as voluntárias ingeriram 500 mL diários de suco de uva integral, com coletas de sangue no momento basal, 2 e 4 semanas após o início da ingestão da bebida. A população do estudo foi composta por mulheres saudáveis (n = 20), com idade entre 18 e 40 anos e índice de massa corpórea classificado como sobrepeso (25,0 - 29,9 kg/m2). Foram avaliados o perfil lipídico, o hemograma e as concentrações plasmáticas de glicose, insulina, leptina, adiponectina, lipopolissacarídeos e seus ligantes plasmáticos LBP e sCD14 e biomarcadores inflamatórios (IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, proteína C reativa, MCP-1, VCAM-1 e ICAM-1), bem como a concentração dos principais compostos bioativos presentes no suco de uva. Dois painéis de microRNA, sendo um plasmático e outro de PBMC, de 8 indivíduos foram avaliados, em todos os tempos, pelo ensaio de PCR em tempo real. Posteriormente, foram selecionados os microRNA relacionados à resposta inflamatória e à endotoxemia metabólica, os quais foram avaliados no restante das voluntárias. As proteínas-alvo dos microRNA em PBMC foram analisadas por Western Blotting. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado pela análise de três recordatórios de 24 horas coletados em todos os tempos experimentais. Resultados: A ingestão de suco de uva, após 4 semanas de intervenção, em PBMC, promoveu redução da expressão gênica do TNF-α, IL-6 e das subunidades p50 e p65, as quais compõem o fator de transcrição NF-kB. Em relação ao conteúdo de proteínas nestas células, houve apenas diminuição da fosforilação da TAK-1 em relação ao seu conteúdo total. Dentre os miRNA analisados, o miR-144-5p e o miR-144-3p tiveram a sua expressão aumentada no plasma e em PBMC, respectivamente. A concentração plasmática de sICAM-1 reduziu significativamente na semana 4 em relação a semana 2, enquanto, a concentração plasmática de gama glutamil transferase aumentou significativamente na última semana. As voluntárias apresentaram menor pressão arterial diastólica no final do estudo em relação ao momento basal. Conclusão: A ingestão do suco de uva, após 4 semanas de intervenção, influenciou a concentração de biomarcadores relacionados ao processo inflamatório mediado pela via do fator de transcrição NF-kB em mulheres com sobrepeso.


Introduction: The Western diet pattern, characterized by excessive ingestion of sugars and lipids, is related to the genesis of metabolic inflammation, which is characterized by a condition of a chronic, systemic, and low-grade inflammation. Metabolic inflammation contributes to the development of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), the leading cause of death in the world. On the other hand, the adoption of a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables is relevant to reduce the risk of NCDs. Grape juice is a beverage rich in bioactive compounds which have a potential anti-inflammatory effect. Recent studies suggest that nutrients can modulate inflammation through microRNAs action, which have been highlighted because they are new inflammatory biomarkers, contributing to the identification of the risk of cardiometabolics diseases. Objective: Investigate the effect of the grape juice ingestion on microRNA expression in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and its relationship with the development of the inflammatory process. Methods: Interventional study, in which, for four weeks, the volunteers ingested 500 mL of whole grape juice daily, with blood drawn at baseline, 2 and 4 weeks after the intake. The study population consisted of healthy women (n = 20), aged between 18 and 40 years and body mass index classified as overweight (25.0 - 29.9 kg/m2). The lipid profile, blood count and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, lipopolysaccharides, and their plasma ligands LBP and sCD14 and inflammatory biomarkers (IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, MCP-1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1) were evaluated, as well as the concentration of the main bioactive compounds present in grape juice. Two microRNA panels, one plasma and the other PBMC, from 8 individuals were evaluated, at all times, by real-time PCR. Subsequently, microRNAs related to the inflammatory response and metabolic endotoxemia were selected, which were evaluated in the rest of the volunteers. MicroRNA target proteins in PBMC were analyzed by Western Blotting. Food consumption was assessed by analyzing three 24-hour recalls collected at all experimental times. Results: The intake of grape juice, after 4 weeks of intervention, in PBMC, promoted a reduction in gene expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and p50 and p65 subunits, which composes the NF-kB transcription factor. Regarding the protein content in these cells, there was only a decrease in TAK-1 phosphorylation in relation to its total content. Among the analyzed miRNAs, miR-144-5p and miR-144-3p had their expression increased in plasma and in PBMC, respectively. The plasma concentration of sICAM-1 significantly reduced in week 4 compared to week 2, while the plasma concentration of gamma glutamyl transferase increased significantly in the last week. The volunteers had lower diastolic blood pressure at the end of the study compared to baseline. Conclusion: The intake of grape juice after 4 weeks of intervention influenced the concentration of biomarkers related to the inflammatory process mediated by the transcription factor NF-kB pathway in overweight women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Endotoxemia , Vitis , MicroRNAs , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Inflammation , Phytochemicals
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e234476, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153484

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Brazilian Cerrado biome consists of a great variety of endemic species with several bioactive compounds, and Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg is a promising species. In this study, we aimed to perform phytochemical characterization and evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli of the hydroethanolic extract of A. peregrina stem bark. The barks were collected in the Botanical Garden of Goiânia, Brazil. The hydroethanolic extract was obtained by percolation and subjected to physicochemical screening, total phenolic content estimation, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting, and antioxidant (IC50 values were calculated for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay - DPPH) and antibacterial activity determination. The pH of the extract was 5.21 and density was 0.956 g/cm3. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of cardiac glycosides, organic acids, reducing sugars, hemolytic saponins, phenols, coumarins, condensed tannins, flavonoids, catechins, depsides, and depsidones derived from benzoquinones. The extract showed intense hemolytic activity. The total phenolic content was 6.40 g GAE 100 g-1. The HPLC fingerprinting analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin. We confirmed the antioxidant activity of the extract. Furthermore, the extract did not inhibit the growth of E. coli colonies at any volume tested, but there were halos around S. aureus colonies at all three volumes tested. These results contribute to a better understanding of the chemical composition of A. peregrina stem bark and further support the medicinal applications of this species.


Resumo O bioma Cerrado brasileiro apresenta em uma grande variedade de espécies endêmicas com diversos compostos bioativos, e Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg é uma espécie promissora. Neste estudo, objetivamos realizar a caracterização fitoquímica e avaliar as atividades antioxidantes e antibacterianas contra Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli do extrato hidroetanólico de cascas do caule de A. peregrina. As cascas foram coletadas no Jardim Botânico de Goiânia, Brasil. O extrato hidroetanólico foi obtido por percolação e submetido a triagem físico-química, estimativa de conteúdo fenólico total, impressão digital por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC) e determinação da atividade antioxidante (valores de IC50 foram calculados para o ensaio 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazil) e antibacteriana. O pH do extrato foi de 5,21 e a densidade foi de 0,956 g/cm3. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de glicosídeos cardíacos, ácidos orgânicos, açúcares redutores, saponinas hemolíticas, fenóis, cumarinas, taninos condensados, flavonóides, catequinas, depsídios e depsidonas derivados de benzoquinonas. O extrato mostrou intensa atividade hemolítica. O conteúdo fenólico total foi de 6,40 g de GAE 100 g-1. A análise por impressão digital por HPLC revelou a presença de ácido gálico, catequina e epicatequina. Confirmamos a atividade antioxidante do extrato. Além disso, o extrato não inibiu o crescimento de colônias de E. coli em nenhum volume testado, mas houve halos em torno das colônias de S. aureus nos três volumes testados. Estes resultados contribuem para uma melhor compreensão da composição química da casca de A. peregrina e apoia ainda mais as aplicações medicinais desta espécie.


Subject(s)
Plant Bark , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Phytochemicals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
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