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Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20201070, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286055


A comparative study was perfomed with conventional and ultrasound assisted extraction on tomato processing waste. Ultrasound extraction exhibited slightly higher phenolic and flavonoids content, as well as higher ABTS + radical scavenging capacity (4.63 mg GAE.g-1, 0.96 mg RUE.g-1 and 27.90 µmol TE.g -1 respectively). On both extracts, a high percentage of flavonoids was lost during simulated digestion, resulting on a bioacessibility of approximately 13 %. Extracts presented good stability during storage conditions, which indicates a possible technological application.

Foi realizado um estudo comparativo com a extração convencional e assistida por ultrassom em resíduos do processamento de tomate. A extração ultrassônica exibiu teor de fenólicos e flavonóides ligeiramente maiores, bem como maior capacidade antioxidante ABTS + (4,63 mg AG.g-1, 0,96 mg RUE.g-1 e 27,90 µmol TE.g -1, respectivamente). Em ambos os extratos, uma alta porcentagem de flavonóides foi perdida durante a digestão simulada, resultando em uma bioacessibilidade de aproximadamente 13%. Os extratos apresentaram boa estabilidade durante as condições de armazenamento, o que indica uma possível aplicação tecnológica.

Lycopersicon esculentum/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Ultrasonics
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19130, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350226


Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting a great part of population around the world. It is the fifth leading death causing disease in the world and its cases are increasing day by day. Traditional medicine is thought to have promising future in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In contrast to synthetic drugs phytochemicals are considered to be free from side effects. As one of the main class of natural products, alkaloids and their derivatives have been widely used as sources of pharmacological agents against a variety of medical problems. Many studies confirmed the role of alkaloids in the management of diabetes and numerous alkaloids isolated from different medicinal plants were found active against diabetes. Like other natural products, alkaloids regulate glucose metabolism either by inhibiting or inducing multiple candidate proteins including AMP-activated protein kinase, glucose transporters, glycogen synthase kinase-3, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1, glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase among the others. A comprehensive review of alkaloids reported in the literature with anti-diabetic activities and their target enzymes is conducted, with the aim to help in exploring the use of alkaloids as anti-diabetic agents. Future work should focus on rigorous clinical studies of the alkaloids, their development and relevant drug targets.

Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Alkaloids/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Metabolism , Sterols/adverse effects , Biological Products , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Glucose-6-Phosphatase/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Synthetic Drugs
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 289-299, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116296


Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi which belongs to the family Piperaceae, is a well-known medicinal plant possessing high medicinal and various therapeutic properties. It is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of asthma and rheumatic arthritis. Numerous studies on this species have also corroborated the significant anti-inflammatory potential of its extracts and secondary metabolites. The main chemical constituents which have been isolated and identified from P. kadsura are lignans and neolignans, which possess anti-inflammatory activities. The present article aims to provide a review of the studies done on the phytochemistry and antiinflammatory activities of P. kadsura. The scientific journals for this brief literature review were from electronic sources, such as Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. This review is expected to draw the attention of the medical professionals and the general public towards P. kadsura and to open the door for detailed research in the future.

Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, perteneciente a la familia Piperaceae, es una planta medicinal conocida que posee importantes propiedades medicinales y diversas propiedades terapéuticas. Es ampliamente utilizada en la medicina tradicional china para el tratamiento del asma y la artritis reumática. Numerosos estudios sobre esta especie también han corroborado el destacado potencial antiinflamatorio de sus extractos y metabolitos secundarios. Los principales componentes químicos que se han aislado e identificado de P. kadsura son los lignanos y los neolignanos, que poseen actividades antiinflamatorias. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo proporcionar una revisión de los estudios realizados sobre las actividades fitoquímicas y antiinflamatorias de P. kadsura. Las revistas científicas para esta breve revisión de literatura fueron de fuentes electrónicas, como Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus y Web of Science. Se espera que esta revisión atraiga la atención de los profesionales médicos y el público en general respecto de P. kadsura y abra la puerta a una investigación detallada en el futuro.

Piper/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lignans/analysis , Piperaceae/chemistry , Kadsura , Alkaloids/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 149-160, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104061


Clinopodium mexicanum (Benth.) Govaerts (Lamiaceae) is a native plant of Mexico. This plant is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of cultural specific syndromes such as "susto", "nervios" or "espanto", conditions related to anxiety and depression. In addition, it has a high biocultural value for its medicinal and culinary use and for its exchange value in various indigenous areas of México. This review aims to compile updated information about the ethnobotanical, phytochemistry and commercialization aspects of Clinopodium mexicanum, and it focuses on the potential use of this species as a raw material in the phytopharmaceutical industry for the treatment of anxiety and pain. Moreover, it would be a viable productive alternative for many rural communities, which could not only produce the raw material but who could also add value to the sale of the plant.

Clinopodium mexicanum (Benth.) Govaerts, es una planta nativa de México. Es usada en la medicina tradicional mexicana para tratar síndromes de filiación cultural como "susto", "nervios" o "espanto", los cuales están asociados a la ansiedad y depresión. Además, la planta presenta un alto valor biocultural por sus usos: medicinal, culinario y por el valor de cambio que tiene en áreas indígenas de México. La revisión presentada tiene como objetivo compilar información actualizada sobre aspectos etnobotánicos, fitoquímicos y comercialización de Clinopodium mexicanum. Igualmente señalar el potencial uso de esta especie como materia prima para la elaboración de productos para la ansiedad y el dolor por parte de la industria fitofarmacéutica. Además de ser una alternativa productiva para muchas comunidades rurales, las cuales pueden venderla como materia prima o como producto derivado.

Plants, Medicinal , Ethnobotany , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Commerce , Phytochemicals/analysis , Indigenous Peoples , Mexico
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 31-40, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092741


It is important to determine the chemical composition of fruits in order to establish their potential health benefits for human nutrition and thus stimulate their cultivation and consumption. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the physical and chemical parameters, vitamin C content, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and carotenoids, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of fruits from different regions of Brazil. We observed that the different regions and fruits studied presented very distinct characteristics. For example, the cupuaçu pit is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, while the genipap and java plum presented high flavonoid content and the butia had a high concentration of carotenoids. Guava was the fruit with the highest antioxidant activity through the ABTS radical, while the yellow mombim presented the best response when the activity was determined by FRAP.

Es importante determinar la composición química de las frutas para establecer sus potenciales beneficios para la salud humana y, por lo tanto, estimular su cultivo y consumo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar parámetros físicos y químicos, el contenido de vitamina C, los compuestos fenólicos, los flavonoides y los carotenoides, el perfil de ácidos grasos y la actividad antioxidante de las frutas de diferentes regiones de Brasil. De los resultados obtenidos en este estudio se pudo observar que las diferentes regiones y frutas estudiadas presentaban características muy distintas, ya que la semilla de cupuaçu es rica en ácidos grasos insaturados, mientras que el genipapo y la ciruela java presentaron un alto contenido de flavonoides y el butia presentó alta concentración de carotenoides. La guayaba fue la fruta con la mayor actividad antioxidante determinada por el radical ABTS, mientras que el mombim amarillo presentó la mejor respuesta cuando la actividad fue determinada por FRAP

Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Brazil , Carotenoids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(6): 527-541, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284290


The genus Lindera consists of approximately 100 species that are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas throughout the world. Most Lindera plants, particularly Lindera aggregata is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that has important medicinal value and health benefits. Contemporary chemical and pharmacological studies have shown that L. aggregata are a source of structurally diverse molecules having pharmacological potential. In an effort to promote research on L. aggregata and develop therapeutic and pharmacological products, this review describes the structural diversity of its components and pharmacological and biological significance of L. aggregata. This review is based on a literature analysis of scientific journals from electronic sources, such as Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science. Thus, with the growing interest in traditional medicine and botanical drugs worldwide, L. aggregata will increasingly capture chemists' and pharmacologists' attention because they produce diverse and structurally novel compounds having pharmacological significance.

El género Lindera consta de aproximadamente 100 especies que están ampliamente distribuidas en áreas tropicales y subtropicales en todo el mundo. La mayoría de las plantas de Lindera, particularmente Lindera aggregata, es parte conocida de la medicina tradicional china con un importante valor medicinal y beneficios para la salud. Estudios químicos y farmacológicos contemporáneos han demostrado que L. aggregata es una fuente de moléculas estructuralmente diversas que con potencial farmacológico. En un esfuerzo por promover la investigación sobre L. aggregata y desarrollar productos terapéuticos y farmacológicos, esta revisión describe la diversidad estructural de sus componentes y la importancia farmacológica y biológica de L. aggregata. Esta revisión se basa en un análisis de literatura de revistas científicas de fuentes electrónicas, como Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus y Web of Science. Por lo tanto, con el creciente interés en la medicina tradicional y las drogas botánicas en todo el mundo, L. aggregata captará cada vez más la atención de los químicos y farmacólogos debido a que producen compuestos diversos y estructuralmente novedosos que tienen importancia farmacológica.

Biological Products , Lindera/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Alkaloids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phytotherapy , Medicine, Traditional
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180735, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132190


Abstract Thevetia peruviana is an ornamental shrub grown-up in many tropical region of the world. This plant produces secondary metabolites with biological properties of interest for the pharmaceutical industry. The objective was to determine the secondary metabolites profile of callus and cell suspension cultures of T. peruviana and compare them with those from explant (fruit pulp). Extracts in 50% aqueous ethanol and ethyl acetate were prepared. The phytochemical analysis was performed using standard chemical tests and thin layer chromatography. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoids compounds (TPC and TFC), total cardiac glycosides (TCG) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) was determined during the cell suspension growth. Phenolic chemical profile was also analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Common metabolites (alkaloids, amino acids, antioxidants, cardiac glycosides, leucoanthocyanidins, flavonoids, phenols, sugars and triterpenes) were detected in all samples. The maximum production of extracellular TCG, TPC, TFC and TAA in cells suspensions were at 6-12 days; in contrast, intracellular content was relatively constant during the exponential grown phase (0 to 12-days). HPLC analysis detected one compound with retention time at 11.6 min; this compound was tentatively identified as dihydroquercetin, a flavonoid with anti-cancer properties. These results provide evidence on the utility of the in vitro cell cultures of T. peruviana for valuable pharmaceutical compounds production.

Cells, Cultured , Thevetia/cytology , Phytochemicals/biosynthesis , Triterpenes , Flavonoids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Anticarcinogenic Agents , Thevetia/chemistry , Culture Techniques , Phytochemicals/analysis , Antioxidants
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(5): 593-605, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042700


Sólo un 30% de los hogares en México, presentan seguridad alimentaria, es decir, un gran porcentaje de los hogares y por ende de la población no satisfacen las necesidades básicas diarias de macro y micronutrimentos. Los quelites, que se definen como plantas silvestres comestibles (hojas, tallos y flores) son una fuente accesible, continua, económica y adecuada de nutrimentos. Sin embargo, su consumo ha disminuido por modificaciones en las preferencias alimentarias, derivadas de los cambios en estilos de vida. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue valorizar a los quelites como fuente de alimento. Los quelites, aportan proteínas, aminoácidos, minerales (Ca, Mg, Zn), vitaminas (E, C) y fibra. Además, son una excelente fuente de compuestos bioactivos, como ácidos fenólicos (ácido cafeico, ferúlico) y flavonoides (quercetina, kaempferol, espinacetina), carotenoides, ácido α-linolénico y betalainas, que presentan elevada actividad antioxidante. Su consumo habitual se ha relacionado con beneficios a la salud, tales como efectos antitumorales, antihiperlipidémicos y antidiabéticos. Los quelites, además de estar disponibles en forma silvestre, forman parte de las tradiciones culinarias de México, incorporados de forma cruda y cocida en los platillos regionales. Por lo tanto, la revalorización y reincorporación de los quelites en la dieta, puede coadyuvar a cubrir las necesidades nutrimentales, en poblaciones con poco acceso o inseguridad alimentaria, además de contribuir a proporcionar efectos adicionales a través de sus compuestos bioactivos.

Only 30% of households in Mexico present food security, which means a large percentage of households and the population does not meet their needs in terms of macro and micronutrients. Thus, quelites, which are defined as wild edible plants, are an accessible, continuous, economical and adequate source of nutrients. However, quelite consumption in Mexico has been decreasing in response to changes in food preferences and lifestyles, including increased exposure to hypercaloric foods. Therefore, the aim of this work was to discuss the value of quelites as a food source rich in nutrients, proteins, amino acids, minerals (Ca, Mg, Zn), vitamins (E, C) and fiber. We also discuss how quelites are good source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, spinacetin), carotenoids, α-linolenic acid and betalaines. There use have been mainly related to the anti-tumor, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic benefits. We further discuss topics related to the culinary traditions of Mexico and the incorporation of quelites in the raw and cooked form in regional markets. The revaluation and the reincorporation of quelites in the diet can help meet nutritional needs, in addition to possibly providing additional health benefits.

Humans , Plants, Edible , Chenopodium/chemistry , Portulaca/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Plants, Medicinal , Food Supply , Mexico
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(3): 277-288, mayo 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007989


Neurolaena lobata (L.) R.Br. ex Cass. (Asteraceae)Is a popular folk remedy for in Central America. The plant is of commercial value in Guatemala but so far there is not any monograph to guide regional laboratories on ensuring identity and chemical tests for this species. As identity test we here run macro and micro morphoanatomical studies of the characters of the vegetative organs. We also developed standard chemical tests for quality by both TLC and HPLC for infusions and tinctures of varying alcoholic strength. Their radical scavenging activities in DPPH and NO were also measured. Macro and micro morphoanatomical characters of the vegetative organs present a set of characteristics to facilitate the identification of dry powdered samples of this species. We developed optimal conditions for the TLC and HPLC phytochemical fingerprints of the 4 most common pharmacopoeial liquid herbal preparations from this herbal drug, namely infusion, 70%, 45% and 20% hydroalcoholic tinctures. Our work provides the Latin-American industry with a set of analyses to establish the identity and chemistry of N. lobata samples for quality control purposes.

Neurolaena lobata (L.) R.Br. ex cass. (Asteraceae) es un remedio popular popular en América Central. La planta tiene un valor comercial en Guatemala, pero hasta el momento no existe una monografía que guíe a los laboratorios regionales para garantizar la identidad y las pruebas químicas para esta especie. Como prueba de identidad proponemos estudios macro y micro morfoanatómicos de los caracteres de los órganos vegetativos. También desarrollamos pruebas químicas de calidad mediante CCF y CLAR para infusiones y tinturas de grado alcohólico variable. También se midieron sus actividades de captación de radicales en DPPH y NO. Los caracteres macro y micro morfoanatómicos de los órganos vegetativos presentan un conjunto de características para facilitar la identificación de muestras de polvo seco de esta especie. Desarrollamos condiciones óptimas para las huellas dactilares fitoquímicas de CCF y CLAR de las 4 preparaciones herbales líquidas farmacopéicas más comunes de esta droga herbal, a saber, infusión, 70%, 45% y 20% tinturas hidroalcohólicas. Nuestro trabajo proporciona a la industria latinoamericana un conjunto de análisis base para establecer la identidad y la química de las muestras de N. lobata con fines de control de calidad.

Asteraceae/anatomy & histology , Asteraceae/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Quality Control , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Free Radical Scavengers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Asteraceae/ultrastructure , Guatemala , Microscopy
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 233-242, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989454


Abstract The expression of chemical compounds by individual plants of the same species in different locations may be affected by abiotic factors resulting in differences in the production of allelopathic compounds. The objective of this study was to compare the phytochemical profiles of plant species from two different forest formations in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The forest formations were Seasonal Semideciduous Forest (SSF) and Lowland Ombrophilous Dense Forest (LODF), and the five study species were Jacaranda micrantha, Cecropia pachystachya, Mimosa bimucronata, Schinus terebinthifolius and Cedrela fissilis. Secondary metabolites were extracted by exhaustive extraction with methanol, and the crude extract was fractionated using column chromatography. The fractions were used to calculate the retention factor of the main compounds using thin layer chromatography and phytochemical tests. The classes of compounds identified were practically the same among the analyzed species, however, at different levels of concentration. The type of tannins found in S. terebinthifolius differed between the two forest formations.

Resumo A expressão de compostos químicos de uma mesma espécie pode ser afetada e diferenciada pelos fatores abióticos, resultando em respostas alelopáticas diferenciadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o perfil químico de espécies provenientes de duas Formações Florestais do Estado do Paraná. As formações foram a Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Floresta Ombrófila Densa, sendo as espécies escolhidas: Jacaranda micrantha, Cecropia pachystachya, Mimosa bimucronata, Schinus terebinthifolius e Cedrela fissilis. Foi realizada extração exaustiva dos metabólitos secundários com metanol e o extrato bruto fracionado em coluna cromatográfica. As frações foram utilizadas para calcular o fator de retenção dos constituintes principais empregando cromatografia em camada delgada e para realizar testes fitoquímicos. As classes de compostos identificados foram praticamente as mesmas entre as espécies analisadas, porém, em diferentes níveis de concentração. O tipo de tanino encontrado em S. terebinthifolius foi diferente entre as duas formações florestais.

Plants/classification , Plants/chemistry , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Forests , Phytochemicals/analysis , Brazil
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 22(3): 89-90, jul-set. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1052669


A Cúrcuma (Curcuma longa) é uma planta originária do sudoeste asiático, que faz parte da família Zingiberaceae. É uma erva amarga, adstringente, com cheiro característico e forte cor amarela e que cujas raízes (rizomas) secas e maceradas têm sido utilizadas atualmente como corante e condimento para carnes e vegetais. O principal composto bioativo da cúrcuma é a curcumina, que se encontra em percentuais de dois a cinco por cento em suas raízes, sendo também é responsável pela sua coloração. Sabendo-se das suas propriedades bioativas e de várias que ainda estão sendo testadas, esse trabalho objetivou apresentar as principais propriedades e usos da cúrcuma. Historicamente a cúrcuma é empregada em diversos medicamentos utilizados pela medicina Ayurveda (sistema medicinal característico da Índia Antiga). Quimicamente é um pó insolúvel na água e no éter etílico, mas solúvel no etanol e acetona, é um diferoilmetano com a fórmula C21H20O6 e peso molecular 368,4. Muitos trabalhos estão sendo produzidos ultimamente buscando entender o funcionamento metabólico da curcumina e suas possíveis atividades biológicas. Entre as propriedades já estudadas destacam-se as capacidades anticoagulante, antifúngica, anti-inflamatória, antimalárica, antioxidante, antiviral, cicatrizante, esquistossomicida, hipolipemiante, leishmanicida, nematocida, tripanocida neuroprotetora, anti-amiloidogênica e imunomoduladora. A curcumina possui a vantagem de ser uma molécula de fácil acesso, uma vez que pode ser adquirida como condimento doméstico em todo o mundo e possui variadas aplicações, porém devido a sua baixa biodisponibilidade, baixa solubilidade em água e alta afinidade pelas proteínas plasmáticas faz-se necessário que novos estudos sejam realizados para que ela possa ser empregada efetivamente como um bioativo vegetal.(AU)

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a plant originated from Southeast Asia; it belongs to the Zingiberaceae family. It is a bitter, astringent herb, with a characteristic smell and strong yellow color. Its dried and macerated roots (rhizomes) have been used as coloring and condiment for meat and vegetables. Turmeric main bioactive compound is curcumin, which is found at concentrations of approximately two to five percent on its roots, being also responsible for its coloration. With the knowledge of its bioactive properties and of several other properties that are still being tested, this paper aimed at presenting the main properties and uses of turmeric. Turmeric has historically been used in various medicines by Ayurveda medicine (a medicinal system characteristic of ancient India). Chemically, it is a powder insoluble in either water or ethyl ether, despite being soluble in ethanol and acetone. It is a difoylmethane of formula C21H20O6 and molecular weight 368.4. Many works are being produced seeking to understand the metabolic functioning of curcumin and its possible biological activities. Among the properties already studied, it has proven anticoagulant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiviral, scarring, schistosomicide, hypolipidemic, leishmanicidal, nematocidal, trypanocidal neuroprotective, anti-amyloidogenic and immunomodulatory capacities. Curcumin has the advantage of being an easily accessible molecule as it can be purchased as a domestic condiment worldwide and is widely applied in several cuisines. However, due to its low bioavailability, low water solubility and high affinity for plasma proteins, further studies should be carried out so that it can be effectively employed as a plant bioactive.(AU)

La cúrcuma (Curcuma longa) es una planta originaria del sudeste asiático, pertenece a la familia Zingiberaceae. Es una hierba amarga y astringente, con un olor característico y un fuerte color amarillo y cuyas raíces (rizomas) secas y maceradas se utilizan actualmente como colorante y condimento para carnes y vegetales. El principal compuesto bioactivo de la cúrcuma es la curcumina, que se encuentra cerca del dos al cinco por ciento de sus raíces y también es responsable por su coloración. Debido a sus propiedades bioactivas y de varias que aún se están probando, ese estudio tuvo como objetivo presentar las principales propiedades y usos de la cúrcuma. Históricamente, la cúrcuma es empleada en varias medicinas utilizadas por la medicina Ayurveda (sistema medicinal característico de la antigua India). Químicamente es un polvo insoluble en agua y éter etílico, pero soluble en etanol y acetona, es un diferoilmetano de fórmula C21H20O6 y peso molecular 368.4. Últimamente se están produciendo muchos trabajos que buscan comprender el funcionamiento metabólico de la curcumina y sus posibles actividades biológicas. Entre las propiedades ya estudiadas se encuentran las capacidades anticoagulante, antifúngica, antiinflamatoria, antipalúdica, antioxidante, antiviral, cicatrizante, esquistosomicida, hipolipidémica, leishmanicida, nematocida, tripanocida, neuroprotectora, antiamiloidogénica e inmunomoduladora. La curcumina tiene la ventaja de ser una molécula de fácil acceso, ya que se puede comprar como condimento doméstico en todo el mundo y tiene una variedad de aplicaciones, pero debido a su baja biodisponibilidad, baja solubilidad en agua y alta afinidad por las proteínas plasmáticas se hace necesario que nuevos estudios sean llevados a cabo para que ella pueda ser empleada efectivamente como planta bioactiva.(AU)

Curcumin/analysis , Curcuma/classification , Curcuma/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19170758, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039130


Abstract The present study aims to evaluate the influence of extraction methods on the quality of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in Pterodon emarginatusVogel (sucupira) oils. The oils were extracted from the sucupira seeds by Soxhlet and by the extraction system of Bligh & Dyer. The oils were analyzed as to fatty acid profile, tocopherols, phytosterols, carotenoids, total phenolics, and total antioxidant capacity. The extraction by Soxhlet showed better yield of total lipids and was more efficient to extract tocopherols, phytosterols, and carotenoids, besides presenting better antioxidant activity by DPPH•. However, this method showed insufficient capacity to extract the polar lipid components of the sample, as evidenced by the low results of total phenolic compounds. On the other hand, the Bligh & Dyer method preserved the fatty acid profile and was also effective to extract higher phenolic compounds content and presented superior antioxidant activity when assessed by FRAP, ABTS•+, and oxidative stability index.

Phytochemicals/analysis , Antioxidants , Chromatography/instrumentation , Oxidation
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 601-608, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951599


Abstract This work describes the preliminary evaluation of cytotoxic, antimicrobial, molluscicidal, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities from leaf (LECF) and stem bark alcoholic extracts (BECF) of the species Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as capixingui or tapixingui. BECF presented significant toxicity (LC50 = 89.6 μg/ml) in the Artemia salina Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) bioassay, whereas LECF did not show activity (LC50 > 1000 μg/ml). From DPPH method, the values of IC50 for the LECF and BECF were 61.2 μg/ml and 62.2 μg/ml, respectively, showing that C. floribundus has an expressive antioxidant activity. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by microdilution technique and only BECF was active against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 39.6 μg/ml). The extracts did not present molluscicidal activity against snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Both extracts revealed the presence of several components with an inhibiting capacity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme on the bioautographic assay. C. floribundus showed to be a promising species considering that it exhibited good biological activity in the most assays performed.

Resumo Este trabalho descreve a avaliação preliminar das atividades citotóxica, antimicrobiana, moluscicida, antioxidante e anticolinesterásica de extratos alcoólicos das folhas (LECF) e das cascas do caule (BECF) da espécie Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae), popularmente conhecida como capixingui ou tapixingui. No bioensaio com Artemia salina Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda), BECF apresentou toxicidade significante (LC50 = 89,6 µg/ml), enquanto que LECF não apresentou atividade (LC50 > 1000 µg/ml). A partir do método de DPPH, os valores de IC50 para o LECF e BECF foram 61,2 µg/ml e 62,2 µg/ml, respectivamente, evidenciando que C. floribundus tem uma atividade antioxidante expressiva. A susceptibilidade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pela técnica de microdiluição e apenas BECF foi ativo contra Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 39,6 mg/ml). Os extratos não apresentaram atividade moluscicida contra o caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Ambos os extratos revelaram a presença de componentes com capacidade inibidora da enzima acetilcolinesterase no ensaio bioautográfico. C. floribundus mostrou ser uma espécie promissora considerando que exibiu boa atividade biológica na maioria dos ensaios testados.

Animals , Artemia/drug effects , Biomphalaria/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Croton/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Phytochemicals/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(2): e16141, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839481


ABSTRACT Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a native fruit of the American tropics with commercial applications for its taste, flavor and aroma. Numerous pharmacological uses have been described for it, such as the antiseptic effect of its leaves, the use of the fresh fruit and tea from its leaves for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, diabetes mellitus, and others. However, considering its rich composition, the guava also is a potential source of antioxidants to be used in the development of new formulations for cosmetic and/or dermatological applications, the main focus of this research. Herein, we describe the study of the phytochemical composition and the antioxidant activity of a guava extract prepared with non-toxic solvents aiming its use at biological applications. High performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were employed to identify the major components, while thermoanalytical measurements and hot stage microscopy were used to assess the chemical stability of guava fruit extract. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated assessing the SOD-like activity and ABTS free radical scavenger. The results show that the extract is a rich source of phenolic compounds, such as quercetin, kaempferol, schottenol, among many others. All of the components found in guava extract exhibit biological effects according to the literature data, mainly antioxidant properties.

Psidium/chemistry , Dermatology/classification , Phytochemicals/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation , Cosmetics/classification
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(3): e17095, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889381


ABSTRACT In this work, the potential chemopreventive activities of Elaeagnus umbellata fruit aqueous (EUFA) and leaf aqueous (EULA) extracts focusing on the modulatory influence of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), antioxidant enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, lipid peroxidation (LP), sulfhydryl groups were investigated in the hepatic and extrahepatic organs of Swiss albino mice (50 and 100 mg/kg body wt given orally for 14 days) and compared with BHA (0.75 % in diet). The modulatory and chemopreventive properties of two different doses EUFA and EULA were observed for cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, sulfhydryl groups, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, 7-ethoxyresorufin-deethylase and N,N-dimethylaniline N-oxidase activities in the liver and compared with BHA as a standard. The activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and DT-diaphorase (DTD) showed a significant increase in the kidney, forestomach, heart and brain at both doses of EUFA and EULA. The results of EULA-treated groups were found a notable increase in LDH, G6PD, 6PGD, GST and DTD activities. Superoxide dismutase level in liver, kidney and heart exhibited a significant increase at both doses of EULA. Glutathione reductase activity was a remarkable level at high dose of EUFA in liver, kidney and EULA in kidney. Both doses of EUFA were effective in inducing glutathione peroxidase activitiy in heart. The levels of LP at low and high doses of EULA-treated and EUFA-treated were effective in liver and kidney, respectively. The present results demonstrate that significant effects in the level of XMEs and antioxidant enzymes of EUFA and EULA are remarkable for modulating roles and natural chemoprevention properties and therefore is considered for a valuable natural source.

Animals , Mice , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Elaeagnaceae/adverse effects , Antioxidants , Disease Prevention , Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/classification
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2141-2154, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886785


ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic activity of Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. aqueous extracts on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L. as well as determine the phenolic compounds in such extracts. S. australis inflorescences and leaves of two accessions were used for aqueous extract preparation at concentrations: 0.003 g/ml and 0.012 g/ml. A. cepa bulbs were rooted in distilled water and, subsequently, placed in treatments for 24 hours. Rootlets were collected and fixed in modified Carnoy's solution for 24 hours and kept. The squash technique was performed for slide preparation. Root tips were smashed and stained with 2% acetic orcein, and a total of 4000 cells per treatment were analyzed. The phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and data was analyzed using the Scott-Knott test. The results show that S. australis aqueous extracts have antiproliferative potential. Besides, the extracts prepared from S. australis leaves of both accessions at a concentration of 0.012 g/ml have shown antigenotoxic activity. The phytochemical analysis allowed us to determine the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids, of which kaempferol and chrologenic acid were the most predominant compounds in the extracts from the inflorescences and leaves, respectively.

Flavonoids/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Sambucus/chemistry , Adoxaceae/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Water/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(4): 1431-1439, oct.-dic. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958224


Abstract:Vismia genus is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of Central, South America and some areas of Africa. According to previous investigations, antioxidant potential of Vismia species might be related to anthrones, anthraquinones, flavonoids and phenol derivatives biosynthesized by these plants. In this investigation, phytochemical screening of Vismia baccifera (VB) from Mérida-Venezuela and Vismia macrophylla (VM) from Táchira-Venezuela methanolic extracts, carried out using various chemical assays, revealed an abundant presence of anthraquinones in both species analyzed. Glycosides were also present while flavones and dehydroflavones were observed abundantly in VB but moderated in VM. Triterpenes were also detected and steroids showed to be abundant in VM but moderate in VB. On the other hand, antioxidant capacity measured by the DPPH assay showed that VM possesses a stronger antioxidant activity than VB with IC50 5.50 µg mL-1. Phenol and flavonoid assays carried out by Folin-Ciocalteu and colorimetric test also revealed that methanol extracts of both species contain high concentrations of these metabolites. A relationship between the antioxidant activity, total phenol and flavonoids content of the extracts analyzed was demonstrated in this investigation since those samples with higher phenolic concentrations showed likewise higher antioxidant activity. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (4): 1431-1439. Epub 2016 December 01.

Resumen:El género Vismia esta distribuido principalmente en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales de Centro, Sur América y algunas zonas de África. De acuerdo a reportes previos, el potencial antioxidante de las especies de Vismia puede estar relacionado con antronas, antraquinonas, flavonoides y derivados fenólicos biosintetizados por estas plantas. En la presente investigación, el tamizaje fitoquímico de los extractos metanólicos de Vismia baccifera (VB) de Mérida-Venezuela y Vismia macrophylla (VM) de Táchira-Venezuela realizado con diferentes ensayos químicos reveló abundante presencia de antraquinonas en ambas especies analizadas. Glucósidos también estuvieron presentes mientras que flavonas y dehidroflavonas fueron observados abundantemente en VB pero con presencia moderada en VM. Triterpenos y esteroides también fueron detectados mostrando ser abundantes en VM y moderados en VB. Por otro lado, la actividad antioxidante determinada por el método DPPH reveló que VM posee actividad antioxidante más fuerte que VB con un IC50 de 5.50 µg mL-1. El ensayo del contenido de fenoles y flavonoides realizado con los métodos de Folin-Ciocalteu y test colorimétrico también demostró que los extractos metanólicos de ambas especies contienen altas concentraciones de estos metabolitos. En este estudio se observó una relación entre la actividad antioxidante, el contenido de fenoles y de flavonoides en los extractos analizados ya que las muestras que presentaron concentraciones más altas de fenoles y flavonoides también mostraron una mayor actividad antioxidante.

Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Phenol/analysis , Clusiaceae/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Picrates , Reference Values , Venezuela , Biphenyl Compounds , Analysis of Variance , Free Radical Scavengers/analysis , Methanol/chemistry , Indicators and Reagents
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 408-414, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787946


ABSTRACT Pseudobrickelliabrasiliensisis aspecies endemic toBrazil, popularlyknown as “arnica”/ “arnica-do-campo”/ “arnica-do-mato” and used for itsanalgesicand anti-inflammatoryproperties. The objective of this research was thephytochemical studyof the essential oilandhexaneandethyl acetateextracts of the leaves of this species. The essential oilwasextracted byhydrodistillation using a Clevengerapparatusand was analyzed byGC/MS, 25components were identified, with a predominance ofmonoterpenes. The extractswere subjected toclassicalchromatographyand the fractionswere analyzed byGC/MS, 1D 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 13C-NMR-DEPT 135.α-amyrin, α-amyrin acetate, β-amyrin, β-amyrin acetate, lupeol, lupeolacetate, pseudotaraxasterol andtaraxasterol (triterpenes), andkaurenoicacid (diterpene) were identified.Theseterpenesarechemo-taxonomicallyrelated to theEupatorieaetribe(Asteraceae) and may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity attributed to the plant.

RESUMO Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis é uma espécie endêmica do Brasil, popularmente conhecida como “arnica”/ “arnica-do-campo”/ “arnica-do-mato” e usada por suas propriedades analgésica e antiinflamatória. O objetivo do trabalho foi o estudo fitoquímico do óleo essencial e dos extratos hexânico e em acetato de etila das folhas dessa espécie. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilação em aparato de Clevenger e foi analisado por CG/EM, sendo identificados 25 componentes, com predomínio de monoterpenos. Os extratos foram submetidos a cromatografia clássica, e as frações foram analisadas por CG/EM, 1D 1H-RMN, 13C-RMN e 13C-RMN-DEPT 135. Foram identificados α-amirina, acetato de α-amirina, β-amirina, acetato de β-amirina, lupeol, acetato de lupeol, pseudotaraxasterol e taraxasterol (triterpenos) e o ácido caurenóico (diterpeno). Estes terpenos estão quimiotaxonomicamente relacionados a tribo Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) e podem ser responsáveis pela atividade antiinflamatória atribuída a planta.

Asteraceae/chemistry , Solidago/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Terpenes/classification
Rev. peru. med. integr ; 1(4): 31-37, 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-876583


Objetivo: Determinar la actividad antioxidante en partes aéreas (hojas, tallos y flores) de la especie Loricaria ferruginea Ruiz & Pav. Wedd. Material y Método: El material vegetal fue recolectado en la quebrada de Llaca, Provincia de Huaraz, Región Ancash. Los extractos se obtuvieron utilizando el método de extracción sólido - líquido Soxhlet con etanol. El extracto etanólico fue fraccionado utilizando solventes de polaridad creciente. Para la determinación de la actividad antioxidante se utilizó el método de neutralización del radical libre Difenildipicrilhidracil (DPPH). Se determinó la Concentración Efectiva Media (CE50) en la fracción de mayor actividad. Asimismo se realizó el tamizaje fitoquímico preliminar, para determinar los tipos de metabolitos secundarios presentes en la planta. En el extracto etanólico total y sus fracciones también se realizó un análisis fitoquímico preliminar con el mismo objetivo. Resultados: La fracción de acetato de etilo tuvo mayor actividad antioxidante 19.25% (10 µg/mL) y 73.47% (50 µg/mL), con una CE50 de 28.37µg/mL. El tamizaje fitoquímico de la especie vegetal, indicó la presencia de flavonoides, triterpenos y catequinas. El análisis fitoquímico preliminar en la fracción Acetato de Etilo detectó la presencia de flavonoides y catequinas. Conclusión: La fracción de acetato de etilo tuvo mayor actividad antioxidante, pero inferior a la sustancia patrón (Rutina), pudiendo los flavonoides y catequinas estar relacionados con la actividad antioxidante.

Antioxidants , Phytochemicals/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(4): 861-867, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-778407


abstract Sidastrum micranthum (A. St.-Hil.) Fryxell, a member of the Malvaceae family, is called malva preta in Brazil. As this species is commonly used to treat bronchitis, cough, and asthma, better knowledge of its chemical compounds is important. The phytochemical study of its hexane extract, using chromatographic techniques, led to isolation of six compounds: the triterpene isoarborinol, a mixture of sitosterol and stigmasterol, sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, pheophytin a, and 132-hydroxy-(132-S)-pheophytin a. Structural identification of these compounds was carried out using spectroscopic methods such as IR and 1D and 2D NMR (HOMOCOSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY). Compounds isolated from S. micranthum were screened for their in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity against twenty fungal and bacterial standard strains. Pheophytin a exhibited antimicrobial action against all microorganisms tested.

resumo Sidastrum micranthum (A. St.-Hil.) Fryxell, pertencente à família Malvaceae, é conhecida no Brasil como "malva preta". A espécie é popularmente usada contra bronquite, tosse e asma, mostrando a relevância de conhecer melhor sua composição química. O estudo fitoquímico do extrato hexânico da espécie, utilizando técnicas cromatográficas, conduziu ao isolamento de seis compostos: o triterpeno isoarborinol, mistura de sitosterol e estigmasterol, sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glicopiranosídeo, feofitina a e de 132-hidroxi-(132-S)-feofitina a. A identificação estrutural destes compostos foi realizada com base em métodos espectroscópicos, tais como IV, RMN 1D e 2D (HOMOCOSY, HMQC, HMBC e NOESY). As substâncias isoladas de Sidastrum micranthum foram avaliadas quanto às suas atividades antimicrobianas in vitro, contra vinte cepas fúngicas e bacterianas. A feofitina a mostrou ação antimicrobiana contra todos os microrganismos testados.

Malvaceae/classification , Pheophytins/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacokinetics , Chemical Compounds/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis