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Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 1-40, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370311


Cancer is an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells that spreads through cell division. There are different types of medicines available to treat cancers, but no drug is found to be fully effective and safe for humans. The major problem involved in the cancer treatments is the toxicity of the established drug and their side effects. Medicinal plants are used as folk medicines in Asian and African populations for thousands of years. 60% of the drugs for treating cancer are derived from plants. More than 3000 plants have anticancer activity. The present review aims at the study of a broad spectrum survey of plants having anticancer components for different type of cancers. This article consists of 364 medicinal plants and their different parts as potential Source of Anticancer Agents.

El cáncer es un crecimiento anormal y descontrolado de células que se disemina a través de la división celular. Hay diferentes tipos de medicamentos disponibles para tratar el cáncer, pero no se ha encontrado ningún medicamento que sea completamente efectivo y seguro para los seres humanos. El principal problema involucrado en los tratamientos del cáncer es la toxicidad del fármaco establecido y sus efectos secundarios. Las plantas medicinales se utilizan como medicinas populares en poblaciones asiáticas y africanas durante miles de años. El 60% de los medicamentos para el tratamiento del cáncer se derivan de plantas. Más de 3000 plantas tienen actividad anticancerígena. La presente revisión tiene como objetivo el estudio de un estudio de amplio espectro de plantas que tienen componentes anticancerígenos para diferentes tipos de cánceres. Este artículo consta de 364 plantas medicinales y sus diferentes partes como fuente potencial de agentes anticancerígenos.

Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/analysis , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928004


Sarcandra glabra, a medicinal plant in family Chloranthaceae, has been taken as an important raw material for multiple Chinese patent drugs due to its diverse indications. Considering the diversified chemical constituents and rich biological activities of S. glabra, numerous phytochemical and pharmacodynamic investigations were conducted to explore the material basis for its medicinal use. It has been found that its main chemical constituents were sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpenoid polymers, phenolic acids, coumarins, and flavonoids. As revealed by pharmacological research, it possesses multiple biological activities like anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, and neuroprotection. Some unreported novel structures, including polymers of lindenane sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes, sesquiterpene trimers, and adducts of flavonoids and monoterpenes, have been identified from S. glabra in recent years. Moreover, biological studies relating to its anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities have been deepened. This paper reviewed the chemical constituents and bioactivities of S. glabra explored over the past ten years, so as to provide a scientific basis for further development and utilization of this plant.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Flavonoids , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Seeds
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236297, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153472


Abstract Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) is widely distributed in the world and has a range of popular therapeutic indications. This work aimed to evaluate the phytochemical characterization of two leaf extracts of P. barbatus, and their antimicrobial, antineoplastic and immunomodulatory potential. After collection, herborization and obtainment of the P. barbatus aqueous extract (PBA) and acetone:water 7:3 P. barbatus organic extract (PBO), the phytochemical characterization was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antimicrobial activity was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against eight bacterial strains using the microdilution test and the fungus Trichophyton rubrum by disc diffusion assay and microdilution test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT and trypan blue methods in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at concentrations ranged between 0.1 to 100 µg.mL-1 and in neoplastic cell lines Toledo, K562, DU-145 and PANC-1 at 1, 10 and 100 µg.mL-1 . Immunomodulatory activity, was evaluated by sandwich ELISA of proinflammatory cytokines at BALB/c mice splenocytes cultures supernatant. Both extracts presented flavonoids, cinnamic derivatives, steroids and ellagic acid. PBO showed bacteriostatic activity against Acinetobacter baumannii (MIC = 250 µg.mL-1) clinical isolate and PBA fungistatic activity against Trichophyton rubrum (MIC = 800 µg.mL-1). The extracts did not exhibit toxicity to PBMCs and neoplastic cells (IC50 > 100 µg.mL-1). Additionally, PBO at 100 µg.mL-1 significantly inhibited IFN-γ and IL-17A cytokines (p = 0.03). Plectranthus barbatus is a potential candidate for therapeutic use due to its low toxicity in healthy human cells and exhibits biological activities of medical interest as bacteriostatic, fungistatic and immunomodulatory.

Resumo Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) é amplamente distribuída no mundo e com uma série de indicações terapêuticas populares. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a caracterização fitoquímica de dois extratos da folha de P. barbatus e seu potencial antimicrobiano, antineoplásico e imunomodulador. Após coleta, herborização e obtenção do extrato aquoso (PBA) e acetona: água 7: 3 (orgânico) (PBO) de P. barbatus, a caracterização fitoquímica foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) contra oito cepas bacterianas usando o teste de microdiluição e o fungo Trichophyton rubrum por ensaio de difusão em disco e teste de microdiluição. A citotoxicidade foi avaliada por métodos MTT e azul de tripan em células normais mononucleares do sangue periférico (CMSP) em concentrações variadas entre 0,1 a 100 µg.mL-1 e nas linhagens celulares neoplásicas Toledo, K562, DU-145 e PANC-1 em 1, 10 e 100 µg.mL-1 . A atividade imunomoduladora foi avaliada por ELISA sanduíche de citocinas pró-inflamatórias em sobrenadante de culturas de esplenócitos de camundongos BALB/c. Ambos os extratos apresentaram flavonoides, derivados cinâmicos, esteróides e ácido elágico. O PBO mostrou atividade bacteriostática contra Acinetobacter baumannii (CIM = 250 µg.mL-1) e atividade fungistática do PBA contra Trichophyton rubrum (CIM = 800 µg.mL-1). Os extratos não apresentaram toxicidade para CMSP e células neoplásicas (IC50 > 100 µg.mL-1). Além disso, o PBO a 100 µg.mL-1 inibiu significativamente as citocinas IFN-γ e IL-17A (p = 0,03). Plectranthus barbatus é um candidato potencial para uso terapêutico devido à sua baixa toxicidade em células humanas saudáveis ​​e exibe atividade de interesse médico como bacteriostática, fungistática e imunomoduladora.

Animals , Rabbits , Plectranthus , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Arthrodermataceae , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242112, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278510


Abstract Plants possess a renewable source of metabolites with enormous chemical structural diversity, which may have potential therapeutic relevance. Furthermore, this chemical diversity favors the possibility of finding new and different chemical constituents with antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-tumor activities. This work analyzed preliminary phytochemical profiles and evaluated the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of hexane extracts of leaves of ten species of the family Melastomataceae. Phytochemical screening was performed using staining methods while total phenols and flavonoids were quantified by spectrophotometry. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) method. Toxicity was recorded using the lethality test with Artemia salina Leach (1819). Cytotoxic activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro with acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). Phytochemical analysis detected the presence of tannins, terpenes, steroids, polyphenols and flavonoids and the absence of alkaloids. Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl.) D. Don had the greatest amount of polyphenols (205.95 mg/g ± 4.14) while Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don had the highest content of total flavonoids (143.99 mg/g ± 4.18). The hexane extracts did not show antimicrobial activity nor toxicity against Artemia salina. The extract of Tibouchina francavillana Cogn. was the most active in sequestering the DPPH radical. The extracts showed cytotoxicity in THP-1 cells with the appearance of apoptotic bodies and cell death. The extracts of Miconia amoena, Clidemia sericea and Clidemia capitellata are non-toxic against Artemia salina and induce the formation of apoptotic bodies and cell death of the THP-1 lineage.

Resumo Os vegetais apresentam uma fonte renovável de metabólitos com enorme diversidade química estrutural, os quais podem apresentar potencial relevante na terapêutica, aumentando as possibilidades de encontrar novos e diferentes constituintes químicos com atividades antimicrobiana, antioxidante e antitumoral. Este trabalho analisou o perfil fitoquímico preliminar e as atividades antimicrobiana, antioxidante, citotóxica dos extratos em hexano das folhas de dez espécies da família Melastomataceae. A triagem fitoquímica foi executada utilizando métodos de coloração e quantificação de fenóis e flavonoides totais por espectrofotometria. A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pelo método de difusão em disco. A atividade antioxidante foi determinada pelo método 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila (DPPH). A toxicidade foi registrada utilizando o ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina Leach (1819). A atividade citotóxica dos extratos foi realizada in vitro com células leucêmicas monocítica aguda (THP-1). A análise fitoquímica detectou a presença de taninos, terpenos, esteroides, polifenóis, flavonoides e ausência de alcaloides. A maior quantificação de polifenóis foi da Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl.) D. Don (205,95 mg/g ± 4,14) e o extrato de Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don apresentou maior teor de flavonoides totais (143,99 mg/g ± 4,18). Os extratos hexânicos não demostraram atividade antimicrobiana e nem toxicidade frente à Artemia salina. O extrato de Tibouchina francavillana Cogn. foi o mais ativo no sequestro do radical DPPH. Os extratos apresentaram citotoxicidade em células THP-1, com visualização de corpos apoptóticos e morte celular. Os extratos de Miconia amoena, Clidemia sericea e Clidemia capitellata são atóxicos contra Artemia salina e induzem a formação de corpos apoptóticos e morte celular da linhagem THP-1.

Melastomataceae , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 509-515, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153407


Abstract The objective of this work was to perform the phytochemical characterization, to determine total phenols, antioxidant (AAO%) and antimicrobial potential of the ethanolic extracts of carambola. The phytochemical study was carried out through a qualitative analysis of the chemical constituents and quantitative determination of the phenol content By the Folin-Ciocalteu test. Qualitative and quantitative antioxidant tests were performed using the DPPH method (2,2 diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazila) and iron reduction (FRAP). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution in 96-well plates. The presence of pyrogallic tannins, steroids and saponins has been identified. The highest total phenol content, quantified in the samples, was found in the stem bark (0.0866 mgEAG/g) and in the fruit (0.0734 mgEAG/g). In the antioxidant evaluation, the extracts of the green fruit bagasse (AAO% 71.9%,) and stem bark at 50 μg/mL (AAO% 94%) with CE50 23.7 μg/mL. Leaf extracts, stem bark, ripe fruit bagasse and green fruit bagasse presented MICs of 100 μg/mL against multiresistant pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

Resumo O objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar a caracterização fitoquímica, determinar fenóis totais, potencial antioxidante (AAO%) e antimicrobiano dos extratos etanólicos de carambola O estudo fitoquímico foi realizado por meio de análise qualitativa dos constituintes químicos e determinação quantitativa do teor de fenóis totais pelo teste de Folin-Ciocalteu. Os testes antioxidantes qualitativos e quantitativos foram realizados pelo método do DPPH (2,2 difenil-1- picril-hidrazila) e redução do ferro (FRAP). A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) foi determinada por microdiluição em placas de 96 poços. Foi identificada a presença de taninos pirogálicos, esteroides e saponinas. O maior teor de fenóis totais, quantificado nas amostras, foi encontrado na casca do caule (0,0866 mg EAG/g) e no fruto (0,0734 mg EAG/g). Na avaliação antioxidante destacaram-se a 500 µg/mL os extratos do bagaço do fruto verde (AAO% 71,9%,), e casca do caule a 50 µg/mL (AAO% 94%) com CE50 23,7 µg/mL. Os extratos das folhas, casca do caule, bagaço do fruto maduro e bagaço do fruto verde apresentaram CIM de 100 µg/mL contra bactérias e fungos patogênicos multirresistentes.

Oxalidaceae , Averrhoa , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 526-536, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922521


OBJECTIVE@#Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br. is a succulent perennial plant native to South Africa and grows invasively in the Mediterranean basin. It is commonly used for the treatment of various diseases, including skin wound healing and regeneration, for which experimental validation is lacking. We therefore evaluated the skin healing properties by testing a C. edulis aqueous leaf extract (CAE) on cell cultures and in enzymatic assays.@*METHODS@#Micro-morphological analysis of leaves was carried out using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Phytochemical features and antioxidant activity of CAE were evaluated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (RP-LC-DAD-ESI-MS), and in vitro cell-free assays. Biological activities were evaluated using keratinocytes and fibroblasts, as well as elastase, collagenase, and hyaluronidase.@*RESULTS@#CAE showed high carbohydrates (28.59% ± 0.68%), total phenols ([101.9 ± 6.0] g gallic acid equivalents/kg dry extract [DE]), and flavonoids ([545.9 ± 26.0] g rutin equivalents/kg DE). RP-LC-DAD-ESI-MS revealed the predominant presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (51.96%), followed by tannins (14.82%) and flavonols (11.32%). The extract was not cytotoxic, had a strong and dose-dependent antioxidant activity, and inhibited collagenase (> 90% at 500 µg/mL) and hyaluronidase (100% at 1000 µg/mL). In cell culture experiments, CAE increased wound closure and collagen production, which was consistent with its high polyphenol content.@*CONCLUSION@#Our data support the use of the C. edulis for skin care and the treatment of skin problems. Moreover, use of C. edulis for skin care purposes could be an eco-friendly solution to reduce its invasiveness in the environment.

Aizoaceae , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Flavonoids , Medicine, Traditional , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888781


In this study, three new germacranolide sesquiterpenes (1-3), together with six related known analogues (4-9) were isolated from the whole plant of Carpesium cernuum. Their structures were established by a combination of extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis, HR-ESIMS data, and ECD calculations. The anti-leukemia activities of all compounds towards three cell lines (HEL, KG-1a, and K562) were evaluated in vitro. Compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity with IC

Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Asteraceae/chemistry , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Humans , K562 Cells , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane/pharmacology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888778


Two new lignan glucosides, tinsinlignans A and B (1 and 2), two new oxyneolignans, tinsinlignans C and D (3 and 4), along with one known analogue (5), were isolated from the stems of Tinospora sinensis. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on analysis of spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined through electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation based on the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells and compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities with IC

Animals , Glucosides/pharmacology , Lignans/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice , Molecular Structure , Nitric Oxide , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Tinospora/chemistry
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888777


Six new oligomeric neolignans including two trimeric neolignans (1 and 2) and four dimeric neolignans (3-6) were isolated from the leaves of Magnolia officinalis var. biloba. Their structures were determined based on HR-ESIMS and NMR data, as well as electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compound 1 is formed from two obovatol moieties directly linked to an aromatic ring of the remaining obovatol moiety, which is an unprecedented type of linkage between monomers. All isolates were assessed for their inhibitory effects on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Compounds 1 and 3 showed significantly inhibitory activities with IC

Animals , Lignans/pharmacology , Magnolia/chemistry , Mice , Molecular Structure , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888100


The genus Chloranthus has 13 species and 5 varieties in China, which can be found in the southwest and northeast regions. Phytochemical studies on Chloranthus plants have reported a large amount of terpenoids, such as diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and sesquiterpenoid dimers. Their anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, antifungal, antivirus, and neuroprotection activities have been confirmed by previous pharmacological research. Herein, research on the chemical constituents from Chloranthus plants and their biological activities over the five years was summarized to provide scientific basis for the further development and utilization of Chloranthus plants.

Diterpenes , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Terpenes
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200163, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153296


HIGHLIGHTS Isolate, fractionate and characterize extracts obtained from soursop leaves. Use of emerging green technologies such as microwave-ultrasound hybridization. The extracts contain kaempferol, procyanidins, catechin, and quercetin. The total ethanolic extract demonstrates cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells.

Abstract Cervical cancer is classified as the fourth most common malignancy in women. Natural compounds are a therapeutic alternative in cancer therapy. The aim of the study is to isolate, fractionate, and characterize extracts obtained from soursop leaves (Annona muricata L.) and determine their cytotoxic effect against HeLa cervical cancer cells and non-carcinogenic fibroblast 3T3 cells. The phytochemicals of soursop leaves were extracted through emerging green technologies such as the novel use of microwave-ultrasound hybridization and the use of environmentally friendly solvents (water and ethanol), in addition to the purification of extracts enriched in polyphenols by liquid chromatography with Amberlite XAD-16. Total aqueous and ethanolic extract were purified, as well as the fraction one of each extract. The extracts recovered from soursop leaves contained kaempferol and its isomers, procyanidins, catechin, and quercetin. The viability of the cells was determined with the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. HeLa and 3T3 cells were exposed to concentrations of 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm of a solution of soursop leaf extract powder. The MTT assay showed that soursop leaf extracts were toxic to both cell lines in general, however, the ethanolic extract at 25 and 50 ppm demonstrated inhibition in cell viability against the HeLa cancer line and low cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblast cells. In conclusion, the novel microwave-ultrasound hybridization technology allows the extraction of polyphenols that may have a potential cytotoxic effect on cancer cells.

Humans , Female , HeLa Cells , Annona/chemistry , Polyphenols/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Catechin/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Ethanol , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 934-942, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142529


Abstract In this study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of Moringa oleifera and Sorbus domestica plant extracts on bacterial disease agents Yersinia ruckeri in aquaculture. Morphological and biochemical properties of 2 different Y. ruckeri isolates were determined. Then, Real-Time PCR analysis and gene sequencing of the isolates were identified. Phytochemicals (M. oleifera and S. domestica) and antibiotics (Oxytetracycline (OX) and Enrofloxacin (ENR)) were used together in the antibiogram test of antibiotics compared to the effect status of antibiotics. Also, the effects of phytochemicals on Y. ruckeri growth was examined comparatively by spectrophotometrically measuring at 600 nm wavelength every 2 hours according to bacterial growth densities with 10 different groups formed on TSB medium. As a result of the study, it was observed that the isolates formed Gram negative, catalase positive, oxidase negative, mobile and typical Y. ruckeri colonies. After the biochemical tests performed with Microgen ID panel, 99.85% similarity was determined. The isolates overlap with the 16S rRNA gene region after sequence analysis, and 99% of the isolates were similar in phylogenetic analysis. After the antibiogram test, Oxytetracycline and Enrofloxacin antibiotics were resistant to Y. ruckeri but the effects of phytochemicals were less on solid medium (MHA). As a result of the measurements carried out in liquid medium (TSB), it was observed that phytochemicals such as M. oliefera and S. domestica inhibit the growth of bacteria by 40-50%. As the importance of antibiotic resistance is increasing day by day, we believe that these phytochemicals will give positive results in treatment instead of using antibiotics.

Resumo Neste estudo, objetiva-se investigar os efeitos dos extratos de plantas de Moringa oleifera e Sorbus domestica sobre agentes bacterianos Yersinia ruckeri na aquicultura. Foram determinadas as propriedades morfológicas e bioquímicas de 2 isolados diferentes de Y. ruckeri. Em seguida, a análise de PCR em tempo real e o seqüenciamento genético dos isolados foram identificados. Fitoquímicos (M. oleifera e S. domestica) e antibióticos (Oxitetraciclina e Enrofloxacina) foram usados ​​juntos no teste de antibiograma dos antibióticos em comparação com o status de efeito dos antibióticos. Além disso, os efeitos dos fitoquímicos no crescimento de Y. ruckeri foram examinados comparativamente por medição espectrofotométrica no comprimento de onda de 600 nm a cada 2 horas de acordo com as densidades de crescimento bacteriano com 10 grupos diferentes formados no meio TSB. Como resultado do estudo, observou-se que os isolados formaram colônias Gram-negativas, catalase-positivas, oxidase-negativas, móveis e típicas de Y. ruckeri. Após os testes bioquímicos realizados com o painel Microgen ID, foi determinada uma similaridade de 99,85%. Os isolados se sobrepõem à região do gene 16S rRNA após a análise da sequência e 99% dos isolados foram semelhantes na análise filogenética. Após o teste do antibiograma, os antibióticos Oxitetraciclina e Enrofloxacina foram resistentes a Y. ruckeri, mas os efeitos dos fitoquímicos foram menores no meio sólido (MHA). Como resultado das medições realizadas em meio líquido (TSB), observou-se que os fitoquímicos inibem o crescimento de bactérias em 40-50%. Como a importância da resistência aos antibióticos está aumentando dia a dia, acreditamos que as plantas que são mais alternativas e mais adequadas para o uso de antibióticos hoje em dia darão resultados positivos no tratamento.

Animals , Yersinia Infections , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Fish Diseases , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Yersinia ruckeri/genetics , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 829-838, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142523


Abstract In vitro and screen house experiments were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of thirteen phytochemicals from Artemisia elegantissimia and A. incisa on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cv. Rio Grande. A positive control (Carbofuran) and negative control (H2O) were also used for comparison. Effectiveness of phytochemicals against juveniles (J2s) mortality and egg hatch inhibition were evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation at three concentrations viz; 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL in vitro conditions. Amongst thirteen phytochemicals, Isoscopletin (Coumarin), Carbofuran and Apigenin (Flavonoid) showed the highest mortality and egg hatch inhibition of M. incognita at all intervals. Inhibition of eggs and J2s mortality were the greatest (90.0%) and (96.0%) at 0.3 mg/mL concentration. Application of phytochemicals caused reduction in number of galls, galling index, and egg masses on tomato plant and enhanced plant growth parameters under screen house conditions. Gall numbers (1.50), galling index (1.00), number of juveniles (4.83) and egg masses (4.00) were greatly reduced and plant growth parameters such as; plant height (28.48 cm), fresh (72.13 g) and dry shoot weights (35.99 g), and root fresh (6.58 g) and dry weights (1.43 g) were increased significantly by using Isoscopletin. In structure activity relationship, juveniles of M. incognita, exhibited variations in their shape and postures upon death when exposed to different concentrations of phytochemicals of Artemisia spp. The present study suggests that Artemisia based phytochemicals possess strong nematicidal effects and can be used effectively in an integrated disease management program against root knot nematodes.

Resumo Experimentos in vitro e de triagem foram conduzidos para investigar a eficácia de treze constituintes fitoquímicos de Artemisia elegantissimia e A. incisa no nematóide de galhas, Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cv. Rio Grande. Um controle positivo (carbofuran) e controle negativo (H2O) também foram utilizados para comparação. A eficácia dos fitoquímicos contra a mortalidade juvenil (J2s) e a inibição da eclosão de ovos foram avaliadas após 24, 48 e 72 horas de incubação em três concentrações, tais como: 0,1; 0,2 e 0,3 mg/mL em condições in vitro. Dentre os treze fitoquímicos, isoscopletina (cumarina), carbofurano e apigenina (flavonoide) apresentaram a maior mortalidade e a inibição da eclosão de ovos de M. incognita em todos os intervalos. A inibição da mortalidade dos ovos e J2s foi a maior (90,0%) e (96,0%) na concentração de 0,3 mg/mL. A aplicação de fitoquímicos causou redução no número de galhas, índice de fricção e massa de ovos no tomateiro e melhorou os parâmetros de crescimento das plantas em condições de triagem. Números de galhas (1,50), índice de insetos galhadores (1,00), número de juvenis (4,83) e massas de ovos (4,00) foram bastante reduzidos e os parâmetros de crescimento das plantas, como altura da planta (28,48 cm), peso fresco (72,13 g) e seco (35,99 g), raiz fresca (6,58 g) e peso seco (1,43 g) foram significativamente aumentados usando isoscopletina. Na relação atividade estrutura, juvenis de M. incognita, exibiram variações em sua forma e posturas após a morte quando expostos a diferentes concentrações de fitoquímicos de Artemisia spp. O presente estudo sugere que os fitoquímicos à base de artemísia possuem fortes efeitos nematicidas e podem ser usados ​​eficazmente em um programa integrado de controle de doenças contra nematóides de galhas.

Animals , Tylenchoidea , Solanum lycopersicum , Artemisia , Plant Roots , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1): 1-11, 20200129.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095406


Introdução: O fator nuclear eritroide 2 relacionado ao fator 2 (Nrf2) desempenha papel fundamental na expressão de genes mediados por elemento de resposta antioxidante (ERA); sendo assim, é uma via importante para proteger as células de substâncias carcinogênicas. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão integrativa da literatura acerca da ação quimiopreventiva dos fitoquímicos por meio da regulação do fator de transcrição Nrf2. Método: O levantamento de artigos para a revisão integrativa da literatura sobre essa temática foi realizado nos periódicos indexados nas bases de dados: Google Acadêmico, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect e SpringerLink, utilizando-se os descritores advindos do MeSH: fitoquímicos, radicais livres, estresse oxidativo, carcinogênese, quimioprevenção e Nrf2. Os critérios de seleção foram artigos publicados de 2000 a 2019, relacionados, ou que investiguem diretamente a atuação de fitoquímicos no fator de transcrição Nrf2, e a prevenção do desenvolvimento de câncer. Resultados: Foram selecionados 58 artigos que estavam relacionados com o objetivo da revisão. Os estudos revisados apontaram que fitoquímicos, tais como resveratrol, curcumina, isotiocianato, luteolina, entre outros, atuam na ativação da via Nrf2, utilizando diferentes mecanismos, sendo eles dependentes ou independentes da proteína repressora Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusão: Diante disso, conclui-se que a modulação do fator de transcrição Nrf2 é um mecanismo que se configura como um importante mediador no que concerne compostos nocivos ao organismo humano, e que a atuação dos fitoquímicos nessa via contribui para a redução do risco de câncer. No entanto, ainda não são completamente elucidados todos os mecanismos utilizados pelos fitoquímicos, sendo necessários ulteriores estudos na área

Introduction: The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays a fundamental role in the expression of genes mediated by antioxidant response element (ARE), thus it is an important pathway to protect the cells from carcinogenic substances. Objective: To perform an integrative literature review on the quimiopreventive action of phytochemicals through regulation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Method: Search of papers for the integrative literature review about this theme conducted in journals indexed in the databases: Academic Google, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect and Springer Link, using the MeSH descriptors: phytochemicals, free radicals, oxidative stress, carcinogenesis, chemoprevention and Nrf2. The selection criteria were articles published from 2000 to 2019, related to or that directly investigate the role of phytochemicals in the transcription factor Nrf2, and the prevention of cancer development. Results: 58 articles were selected, all related to the objective of the review. The reviewed studies showed that phytochemicals, such as resveratrol, curcumin, isothiocyanate, luteolin, among others, act on the activation of the Nrf2 pathway, using different mechanisms, which are dependent or independent of the repressor protein Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusion: Therefore, the conclusion is that the modulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 is a mechanism that configures itself as an important mediator for harmful compounds to the human organism, and that the action of phytochemicals, in this pathway, contributes to the reduction of cancer risk. However, all the mechanisms used by phytochemicals, are not completely elucidated, and further studies are needed in the area

Introducción: El factor nuclear eritroide 2 relacionado con el factor 2 (Nrf2) desenvuelve un papel fundamental en la expresión de los genes mediados por él elemento de respuesta antioxidante (ERA), por lo tanto, es una vía importante para proteger las células de las sustancias carcinógenas. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión integradora de la literatura sobre la acción quimiopreventiva de los fitoquímicos mediante la regulación del factor de transcripción Nrf2. Método: El levantamiento de artículos para la revisión integral de la literatura sobre este tema se realizó en revistas indexadas en las bases de datos: Google Académico, PubMed, Scielo, ScienceDirect y SpringerLink, usando los descriptores MeSH: fitoquímicos, radicales libres, estrés oxidativo, carcinogénesis, quimioprevención y Nrf2. Los criterios de selección fueron artículos publicados entre 2000 y 2019, relacionados o que investigan directamente el papel de los fitoquímicos en el factor de transcripción Nrf2 y la prevención del desarrollo del câncer. Resultados: 58 artículos relacionados con el objetivo de la revisión fueron seleccionados. Los estudios revisados mostraron que los fitoquímicos, como el resveratrol, la curcumina, el isotiocito, la luteolina, entre otros, actúan sobre la activación de la vía Nrf2, utilizando diferentes mecanismos, que son dependientes o independientes de la proteína represora Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusión: Por lo tanto, se concluí que la modulación del factor de transcripción Nrf2 es un mecanismo que se configura como un importante mediador en relación con los compuestos nocivos para el cuerpo humano, y que la acción de los fitoquímicos en esta vía contribuye a reducir el riesgo de cáncer. Sin embargo, todos los mecanismos utilizados por los fitoquímicos aún no se han dilucidado por completo, por lo que se necesitan más estudios en esta área

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress , Diet , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/therapeutic use , Antioxidant Response Elements , Free Radicals , Antioxidants
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 697-702, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001477


Abstract This study evaluated the antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of the essential oil of Psidium guajava leaves (PG-EO), traditionally used in folk medicine. The essential oil was obtained from fresh leaves by hydrodistillation, using a modified Clevenger apparatus. The major PG-EO chemical constituents were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID as being β-caryophyllene (16.1%), α-humulene (11.9%), aromadendrene oxide (14.7%), δ-selinene (13.6%), and selin-11-en-4α-ol (12.5%). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil of P. guajava leaves was determined in terms of its minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) using the broth microdilution method in 96-well microplates. PG-EO had moderate activity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 200 µg/mL), S. mitis (MIC = 200 µg/mL), S. sanguinis (MIC = 400 µg/mL), S. sobrinus (MIC = 100 µg/mL), and S. salivarius (MIC = 200 µg/mL). The antiproliferative activity was evaluated against different tumor cell lines: breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), and human gliobastoma (M059J). A normal human cell line (GM07492A, lung fibroblasts) was included. The antiproliferative activity was evaluated using the XTT assay and the results were expressed as IC50. The essential oil showed significantly lower IC50 values against MCF-7 and M059J lines than that obtained for the normal line, showing selectivity. Our results suggest that the essential oil of Psidium guajava L. has promising biological activities and can be considered a new source of bioactive compounds.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou as atividades antibacteriana e antiproliferativa do óleo essencial das folhas frescas de Psidium guajava (PG-OE), tradicionalmente utilizadas na medicina popular. O óleo essencial foi obtido por hidrodestilação das folhas frescas, utilizando aparelho do tipo Clevenger. Os principais constituintes químicos de PG-OE identificados por CG-EM e CG-DIC foram: β-cariofileno (16,1%), α-humuleno (11,9%), óxido de aromadendreno (14,7%), δ-selineno (13,6%) e selin-11-en-4α-ol (12,5%). A atividade antibacteriana do óleo essencial das folhas de P. guajava foi determinada em termo de sua concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) utilizando o método de microdiluição de caldo em microplacas de 96 poços. PG-OE apresentou moderada atividade contra Streptococcus mutans (CIM = 200 μg/mL), S. mitis (CIM = 200 μg/mL), S. sanguinis (CIM = 400 μg/mL), S. sobrinus (CIM = 100 μg/mL) e S. salivarius (CIM = 200 μg/mL). A atividade antiproliferativa foi avaliada frente a diferentes linhagens de células tumorais como: adenocarcinoma de mama (MCF-7), adenocarcinoma cervical humano (HeLa) e gliobastoma humano (M059J). Foi incluída uma linhagem celular humana normal (GM07492A, fibroblastos pulmonares). A atividade antiproliferativa foi avaliada utilizando o ensaio XTT e os resultados foram expressos como CI50. As linhagens MCF-7 e M059J mostraram valores significativamente mais baixos de CI50 do que os obtidos para a linhagem normal, mostrando seletividade. Nossos resultados sugerem que o óleo essencial das folhas frescas de Psidium guajava L. possui atividades biológicas promissoras e pode ser considerado como uma nova fonte de compostos bioativos.

Humans , Plant Leaves , Psidium , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Azulenes/pharmacology , Monocyclic Sesquiterpenes , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18133, 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011641


This study endeavors to overcome the limits of an orally transmitted pharmacopoeia, and tries to utilize the large ethnobotany patrimony of the area to investigate the biological diversity. Thirty-five traditional practitioners from dissimilar ethnic groups including traditional health practitioners (THPs) and indigenous people were interviewed. A total of 35 species of plants, belonging to 20 families were recognized for the treatment of more than 26 types of ailments. Informant consensus factor (FIC) values of this study reflected the high agreement in the use of plants in the treatment of gastro-intestinal complaints, infectious, parasitic diseases and constipation among the informants. Constipation had the highest use-reports and 8 species of plants had the highest fidelity level (FL) of 100%. In addition one of the species showed the highest relative importance (RI) value of 2.00. Priority should be given to phytochemical investigation of plants that scored the highest FL, FIC, RI values; as such values could be considered as a good indicator of potential plants for discovering new drugs. In addition, traditional knowledge of THPs should be taken into consideration in order to smooth continuation and extension of the nutraceutical aspects and biological diversity of the region.

Plants/drug effects , Ethnobotany/trends , Biosphere/analysis , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Medicine, Traditional , Plants, Medicinal/toxicity , Dietary Supplements , Indigenous Peoples
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 691-696, Nov. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951593


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the phytochemicals thymol, linalool, and citronellol against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus oralis. Disk diffusion screening on solid medium and measurement of the diameter of the bacterial growth inhibition halos was the technique utilized. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the substances was determined using serial substance dilutions and microdilution technique in Brain Heart Infusion culture medium. After incubation for 24 hours in an oven at 37 °C, plate reading was completed and confirmed by visual method using 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride dye. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was determined from MIC subcultures. Assays were performed in triplicate, and chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. The diameters in mm of the growth inhibition halos ranged between 7.3 and 10.7 for S. mutans, 7.3 and 10.0 for S. oralis, and 8.2 and 9.8 for S. salivarius. The MIC and MBC values obtained converged, ranging from maximum values in the presence of Linalool (1,250.0 mg/mL, 2,500.0 mg/mL and 2,500.0 mg/mL, respectively, for S. mutans, S. oralis, and S. salivarius); and minimum values with Thymol (312.5 μg/ml, 156.2 μg/mL and 156.2 μg/ml, respectively for S. mutans, S. oralis, and S. salivarius). All the tested phytochemicals displayed antibacterial activity, thus representing substances with potential applications in preventing tooth decay.

Resumo Este estudo objetivou avaliar a atividade antibacteriana in vitro dos fitoquímicos timol, linalol e citronelol sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivaris e Streptococcus oralis. Utilizou-se a técnica de discos de difusão em meio sólido e medição do diâmetro dos halos de inibição. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) das substâncias foi determinada utilizando diluições em série das substâncias e técnica de microdiluição em meio de cultura de Brain Heart Infusion. Após incubação durante 24 horas em estufa a 37 °C, a leitura da placa foi confirmada pelo método visual usando o corante 2,3,5 trifenil cloreto de tetrazólio. A concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) foi determinada a partir de subculturas de MIC. Os ensaios foram realizados em triplicata, e clorexidina foi usada como um controle positivo. Os diâmetros dos halos de inibição do crescimento variaram entre 7,3 e 10,7 por S. mutans, 7,3 e 10,0 por S. oralis, e 8,2 e 9,8 para S. salivaris. Os valores de CIM e CBM obtidos variaram de valores máximos na presença de linalol (1.250,0 mg/mL, 2.500.0 mg/mL e 2.500.0 mg/mL, respectivamente, para o S. mutans, S oralis e S. salivaris); a valores mínimos com timol (312,5 μg/ml, 156,2 μg/mL e 156,2 μg/ml, respectivamente para S. mutans, S. oralis e S. salivaris). Todos os fitoquímicos testados apresentaram atividade antibacteriana, representando, assim, substâncias com potencial de aplicações na prevenção da cárie dentária.

Streptococcus/drug effects , Thymol/pharmacology , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Dental Caries/microbiology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Acyclic Monoterpenes
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(2): 138-141, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950505


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Extracts obtained from plants and fruits provide a relatively safe and practical alternative for the conventional medicine of gastrointestinal diseases. The specie Eugenia mattosii, popularly known in Brazil as "cerejinha", belongs to Myrtaceae family. Species of this family present pharmacological properties, and can be used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical profile and evaluate the gastroprotective activity of Eugenia mattosii fruits. METHODS: Phytochemical analysis was carried out by thin layer chromatography and gastroprotective assays were performed using two experimental models: acute ulcer model induced by ethanol/HCl and acute ulcer model induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (indomethacin). Total lesion area (mm2) and relative lesion area (%) were determined. RESULTS: The results of the phytochemical analysis indicated that the bark and pulp and seeds of E. mattosii present phenolic compounds, terpenes and/or steroids. In gastric ulcer model induced by ethanol was evidenced significant reduction of damaged areas for doses of 50 and 250 mg/ kg of seeds methanol extract, while in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model, all parts of the fruit presented defense capability of the gastric mucosa by reducing lesions at doses of 50, 125 and 250 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that the specie E. mattosii has bioactive compounds that provide gastroprotective activity, presenting possible therapeutic potential.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Extratos obtidos de plantas e frutos fornecem uma alternativa relativamente segura e prática para os remédios convencionais de doenças gastrointestinais. A espécie Eugenia mattosii, popularmente conhecida no Brasil como "cerejinha", pertence à família Myrtaceae. Espécies desta família apresentam propriedades farmacológicas e podem ser utilizadas no tratamento de distúrbios gastrointestinais. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil fitoquímico e avaliar a atividade gastroprotetora dos frutos de Eugenia mattosii. MÉTODOS: A análise fitoquímica foi realizada por cromatografia em camada delgada e dois modelos experimentais foram utilizados para avaliação da atividade gastroprotetora em camundongos: modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por anti-inflamatório não-esteroidal (indometacina) e modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por etanol/HCl. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da análise fitoquímica indicaram que a casca e polpa e as sementes de E. mattosii apresentam compostos fenólicos, terpenos e/ou esteroides. No modelo de úlcera gástrica induzido pelo etanol, foi evidenciada redução significativa de áreas danificadas para doses de 50 e 250 mg/kg do extrato das sementes, enquanto no modelo de úlcera induzida por indometacina, todas as partes do fruto apresentaram capacidade de defesa da mucosa gástrica ao reduzir as lesões nas doses de 50, 125 e 250 mg/kg. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstram que a espécie E. mattosii possui compostos bioativos com atividade gastroprotetora, apresentando possível potencial terapêutico.

Animals , Female , Mice , Stomach Ulcer/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Brazil , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Indomethacin , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Anti-Ulcer Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 296-302, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889227


Abstract The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the antimicrobial potential of the crude extract and fractions of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., popularly known as Santa-Maria herb, against microorganisms of clinical interest by the microdilution technique, and also to show the chromatographic profile of the phenolic compounds in the species. The Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of cardiotonic, anthraquinone, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. The analysis by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of rutin in the crude extract (12.5 ± 0.20 mg/g), ethyl acetate (16.5 ± 0.37 mg/g) and n-butanol (8.85 ± 0.11 mg/g), whereas quercetin and chrysin were quantified in chloroform fraction (1.95 ± 0.04 and 1.04 ± 0.01 mg/g), respectively. The most promising results were obtained with the ethyl acetate fraction, which inhibited a greater number of microorganisms and presented the lowest values of MIC against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 0.42 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 34.37 mg/mL), Paenibacillus apiarus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL) and Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL). Considering mycobacterial inhibition, the best results were obtained by chloroform fraction against M. tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, and M. avium (MIC ranging from 156.25 to 625 µg/mL). This study proves, in part, that the popular use of C. ambrosioides L. can be an effective and sustainable alternative for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by various infectious agents.

Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Chenopodium ambrosioides/chemistry , Phenols/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (1): 199-203
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185759


The aim of this experimental work was to explore the potential pharmacological activities of Gaultheria trichophylla Royle in hyperactive respiratory and vascular conditions. Gaultheria trichophylla was extracted with solvents, phytochemical detection tests were performed, and rabbit trachea and aorta strips were used to evaluate its effects on airways and vascular smooth muscles. Qualitative phytochemical tests showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, saponins, terpenoids, and condensed tannins. The methanol extract caused inhibition [EC[50] values of 3.12 mg/mL] of carbachol [1 micro M] and partial relaxation of K[+][80 mM] caused contractions in tracheal strips. The chloroform extract was comparatively more potent against carbachol than K[+] induced contraction with EC[50] values of 0.64 and 2.26 mg/mL, respectively. However, the n-hexane extract showed more potency against K[+] than cabachol induced contractions, as in case with verapamil, with EC[5]0 values of 0.61 and 6.58 mg/mL, respectively. In isolated prepared trachea, the extracts displaced the carbachol concentration response curves and maximum response was suppressed. In rabbit aorta preparations, methanol and n-hexane extracts partially relaxed phenylephrine [1 micro M] and K[+] induced vasoconstrictions. However, the chloroform extract inhibited phenylephrine induced contractions and exhibited a vasoconstrictor effect at lower concentrations and a relaxant effect at higher concentrations against K[+] precontractions. The data indicates that, in addition to others, the extracts of G .trichophylla possess verapamil like Ca[++] channel blocking components which explain the possible role of this plant in respiratory and vascular conditions

Adult , Animals, Laboratory , Female , Male , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Aorta/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers