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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1463-1482, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970618

ABSTRACT

Dolomiaea plants are perennial herbs in the Asteraceae family with a long medicinal history. They are rich in chemical constituents, mainly including sesquiterpenes, phenylpropanoids, triterpenes, and steroids. The extracts and chemical constituents of Dolomiaea plants have various pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumor, anti-gastric ulcer, hepatoprotective and choleretic effects. However, there are few reports on Dolomiaea plants. This study systematically reviewed the research progress on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Dolomiaea plants to provide references for the further development and research of Dolomiaea plants.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Asteraceae , Triterpenes , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 1-40, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370311

ABSTRACT

Cancer is an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells that spreads through cell division. There are different types of medicines available to treat cancers, but no drug is found to be fully effective and safe for humans. The major problem involved in the cancer treatments is the toxicity of the established drug and their side effects. Medicinal plants are used as folk medicines in Asian and African populations for thousands of years. 60% of the drugs for treating cancer are derived from plants. More than 3000 plants have anticancer activity. The present review aims at the study of a broad spectrum survey of plants having anticancer components for different type of cancers. This article consists of 364 medicinal plants and their different parts as potential Source of Anticancer Agents.


El cáncer es un crecimiento anormal y descontrolado de células que se disemina a través de la división celular. Hay diferentes tipos de medicamentos disponibles para tratar el cáncer, pero no se ha encontrado ningún medicamento que sea completamente efectivo y seguro para los seres humanos. El principal problema involucrado en los tratamientos del cáncer es la toxicidad del fármaco establecido y sus efectos secundarios. Las plantas medicinales se utilizan como medicinas populares en poblaciones asiáticas y africanas durante miles de años. El 60% de los medicamentos para el tratamiento del cáncer se derivan de plantas. Más de 3000 plantas tienen actividad anticancerígena. La presente revisión tiene como objetivo el estudio de un estudio de amplio espectro de plantas que tienen componentes anticancerígenos para diferentes tipos de cánceres. Este artículo consta de 364 plantas medicinales y sus diferentes partes como fuente potencial de agentes anticancerígenos.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/analysis , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242112, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278510

ABSTRACT

Plants possess a renewable source of metabolites with enormous chemical structural diversity, which may have potential therapeutic relevance. Furthermore, this chemical diversity favors the possibility of finding new and different chemical constituents with antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-tumor activities. This work analyzed preliminary phytochemical profiles and evaluated the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of hexane extracts of leaves of ten species of the family Melastomataceae. Phytochemical screening was performed using staining methods while total phenols and flavonoids were quantified by spectrophotometry. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) method. Toxicity was recorded using the lethality test with Artemia salina Leach (1819). Cytotoxic activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro with acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). Phytochemical analysis detected the presence of tannins, terpenes, steroids, polyphenols and flavonoids and the absence of alkaloids. Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl.) D. Don had the greatest amount of polyphenols (205.95 mg/g ± 4.14) while Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don had the highest content of total flavonoids (143.99 mg/g ± 4.18). The hexane extracts did not show antimicrobial activity nor toxicity against Artemia salina. The extract of Tibouchina francavillana Cogn. was the most active in sequestering the DPPH radical. The extracts showed cytotoxicity in THP-1 cells with the appearance of apoptotic bodies and cell death. The extracts of Miconia amoena, Clidemia sericea and Clidemia capitellata are non-toxic against Artemia salina and induce the formation of apoptotic bodies and cell death of the THP-1 lineage.


Os vegetais apresentam uma fonte renovável de metabólitos com enorme diversidade química estrutural, os quais podem apresentar potencial relevante na terapêutica, aumentando as possibilidades de encontrar novos e diferentes constituintes químicos com atividades antimicrobiana, antioxidante e antitumoral. Este trabalho analisou o perfil fitoquímico preliminar e as atividades antimicrobiana, antioxidante, citotóxica dos extratos em hexano das folhas de dez espécies da família Melastomataceae. A triagem fitoquímica foi executada utilizando métodos de coloração e quantificação de fenóis e flavonoides totais por espectrofotometria. A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pelo método de difusão em disco. A atividade antioxidante foi determinada pelo método 2,2-difenil1-picrilhidrazila (DPPH). A toxicidade foi registrada utilizando o ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina Leach (1819). A atividade citotóxica dos extratos foi realizada in vitro com células leucêmicas monocítica aguda (THP-1). A análise fitoquímica detectou a presença de taninos, terpenos, esteroides, polifenóis, flavonoides e ausência de alcaloides. A maior quantificação de polifenóis foi da Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl.) D. Don (205,95 mg/g ± 4,14) e o extrato de Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don apresentou maior teor de flavonoides totais (143,99 mg/g ± 4,18). Os extratos hexânicos não demostraram atividade antimicrobiana e nem toxicidade frente à Artemia salina. O extrato de Tibouchina francavillana Cogn. foi o mais ativo no sequestro do radical DPPH. Os extratos apresentaram citotoxicidade em células THP-1, com visualização de corpos apoptóticos e morte celular. Os extratos de Miconia amoena, Clidemia sericea e Clidemia capitellata são atóxicos contra Artemia salina e induzem a formação de corpos apoptóticos e morte celular da linhagem THP-1.


Subject(s)
Melastomataceae , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236297, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153472

ABSTRACT

Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) is widely distributed in the world and has a range of popular therapeutic indications. This work aimed to evaluate the phytochemical characterization of two leaf extracts of P. barbatus, and their antimicrobial, antineoplastic and immunomodulatory potential. After collection, herborization and obtainment of the P. barbatus aqueous extract (PBA) and acetone:water 7:3 P. barbatus organic extract (PBO), the phytochemical characterization was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antimicrobial activity was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against eight bacterial strains using the microdilution test and the fungus Trichophyton rubrum by disc diffusion assay and microdilution test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT and trypan blue methods in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at concentrations ranged between 0.1 to 100 µg.mL-1 and in neoplastic cell lines Toledo, K562, DU-145 and PANC-1 at 1, 10 and 100 µg.mL-1 . Immunomodulatory activity, was evaluated by sandwich ELISA of proinflammatory cytokines at BALB/c mice splenocytes cultures supernatant. Both extracts presented flavonoids, cinnamic derivatives, steroids and ellagic acid. PBO showed bacteriostatic activity against Acinetobacter baumannii (MIC = 250 µg.mL-1) clinical isolate and PBA fungistatic activity against Trichophyton rubrum (MIC = 800 µg.mL-1). The extracts did not exhibit toxicity to PBMCs and neoplastic cells (IC50 > 100 µg.mL-1). Additionally, PBO at 100 µg.mL-1 significantly inhibited IFN-γ and IL-17A cytokines (p = 0.03). Plectranthus barbatus is a potential candidate for therapeutic use due to its low toxicity in healthy human cells and exhibits biological activities of medical interest as bacteriostatic, fungistatic and immunomodulatory.


Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) é amplamente distribuída no mundo e com uma série de indicações terapêuticas populares. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a caracterização fitoquímica de dois extratos da folha de P. barbatus e seu potencial antimicrobiano, antineoplásico e imunomodulador. Após coleta, herborização e obtenção do extrato aquoso (PBA) e acetona: água 7: 3 (orgânico) (PBO) de P. barbatus, a caracterização fitoquímica foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) contra oito cepas bacterianas usando o teste de microdiluição e o fungo Trichophyton rubrum por ensaio de difusão em disco e teste de microdiluição. A citotoxicidade foi avaliada por métodos MTT e azul de tripan em células normais mononucleares do sangue periférico (CMSP) em concentrações variadas entre 0,1 a 100 µg.mL-1 e nas linhagens celulares neoplásicas Toledo, K562, DU-145 e PANC-1 em 1, 10 e 100 µg.mL-1 . A atividade imunomoduladora foi avaliada por ELISA sanduíche de citocinas pró-inflamatórias em sobrenadante de culturas de esplenócitos de camundongos BALB/c. Ambos os extratos apresentaram flavonoides, derivados cinâmicos, esteróides e ácido elágico. O PBO mostrou atividade bacteriostática contra Acinetobacter baumannii (CIM = 250 µg.mL-1) e atividade fungistática do PBA contra Trichophyton rubrum (CIM = 800 µg.mL-1). Os extratos não apresentaram toxicidade para CMSP e células neoplásicas (IC50 > 100 µg.mL-1). Além disso, o PBO a 100 µg.mL-1 inibiu significativamente as citocinas IFN-γ e IL-17A (p = 0,03). Plectranthus barbatus é um candidato potencial para uso terapêutico devido à sua baixa toxicidade em células humanas saudáveis e exibe atividade de interesse médico como bacteriostática, fungistática e imunomoduladora.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Plectranthus , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Arthrodermataceae , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 872-879, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928004

ABSTRACT

Sarcandra glabra, a medicinal plant in family Chloranthaceae, has been taken as an important raw material for multiple Chinese patent drugs due to its diverse indications. Considering the diversified chemical constituents and rich biological activities of S. glabra, numerous phytochemical and pharmacodynamic investigations were conducted to explore the material basis for its medicinal use. It has been found that its main chemical constituents were sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpenoid polymers, phenolic acids, coumarins, and flavonoids. As revealed by pharmacological research, it possesses multiple biological activities like anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, and neuroprotection. Some unreported novel structures, including polymers of lindenane sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes, sesquiterpene trimers, and adducts of flavonoids and monoterpenes, have been identified from S. glabra in recent years. Moreover, biological studies relating to its anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities have been deepened. This paper reviewed the chemical constituents and bioactivities of S. glabra explored over the past ten years, so as to provide a scientific basis for further development and utilization of this plant.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Flavonoids , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Seeds
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 509-515, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153407

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this work was to perform the phytochemical characterization, to determine total phenols, antioxidant (AAO%) and antimicrobial potential of the ethanolic extracts of carambola. The phytochemical study was carried out through a qualitative analysis of the chemical constituents and quantitative determination of the phenol content By the Folin-Ciocalteu test. Qualitative and quantitative antioxidant tests were performed using the DPPH method (2,2 diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazila) and iron reduction (FRAP). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution in 96-well plates. The presence of pyrogallic tannins, steroids and saponins has been identified. The highest total phenol content, quantified in the samples, was found in the stem bark (0.0866 mgEAG/g) and in the fruit (0.0734 mgEAG/g). In the antioxidant evaluation, the extracts of the green fruit bagasse (AAO% 71.9%,) and stem bark at 50 μg/mL (AAO% 94%) with CE50 23.7 μg/mL. Leaf extracts, stem bark, ripe fruit bagasse and green fruit bagasse presented MICs of 100 μg/mL against multiresistant pathogenic bacteria and fungi.


Resumo O objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar a caracterização fitoquímica, determinar fenóis totais, potencial antioxidante (AAO%) e antimicrobiano dos extratos etanólicos de carambola O estudo fitoquímico foi realizado por meio de análise qualitativa dos constituintes químicos e determinação quantitativa do teor de fenóis totais pelo teste de Folin-Ciocalteu. Os testes antioxidantes qualitativos e quantitativos foram realizados pelo método do DPPH (2,2 difenil-1- picril-hidrazila) e redução do ferro (FRAP). A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) foi determinada por microdiluição em placas de 96 poços. Foi identificada a presença de taninos pirogálicos, esteroides e saponinas. O maior teor de fenóis totais, quantificado nas amostras, foi encontrado na casca do caule (0,0866 mg EAG/g) e no fruto (0,0734 mg EAG/g). Na avaliação antioxidante destacaram-se a 500 µg/mL os extratos do bagaço do fruto verde (AAO% 71,9%,), e casca do caule a 50 µg/mL (AAO% 94%) com CE50 23,7 µg/mL. Os extratos das folhas, casca do caule, bagaço do fruto maduro e bagaço do fruto verde apresentaram CIM de 100 µg/mL contra bactérias e fungos patogênicos multirresistentes.


Subject(s)
Oxalidaceae , Averrhoa , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
7.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 526-536, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br. is a succulent perennial plant native to South Africa and grows invasively in the Mediterranean basin. It is commonly used for the treatment of various diseases, including skin wound healing and regeneration, for which experimental validation is lacking. We therefore evaluated the skin healing properties by testing a C. edulis aqueous leaf extract (CAE) on cell cultures and in enzymatic assays.@*METHODS@#Micro-morphological analysis of leaves was carried out using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Phytochemical features and antioxidant activity of CAE were evaluated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (RP-LC-DAD-ESI-MS), and in vitro cell-free assays. Biological activities were evaluated using keratinocytes and fibroblasts, as well as elastase, collagenase, and hyaluronidase.@*RESULTS@#CAE showed high carbohydrates (28.59% ± 0.68%), total phenols ([101.9 ± 6.0] g gallic acid equivalents/kg dry extract [DE]), and flavonoids ([545.9 ± 26.0] g rutin equivalents/kg DE). RP-LC-DAD-ESI-MS revealed the predominant presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (51.96%), followed by tannins (14.82%) and flavonols (11.32%). The extract was not cytotoxic, had a strong and dose-dependent antioxidant activity, and inhibited collagenase (> 90% at 500 µg/mL) and hyaluronidase (100% at 1000 µg/mL). In cell culture experiments, CAE increased wound closure and collagen production, which was consistent with its high polyphenol content.@*CONCLUSION@#Our data support the use of the C. edulis for skin care and the treatment of skin problems. Moreover, use of C. edulis for skin care purposes could be an eco-friendly solution to reduce its invasiveness in the environment.


Subject(s)
Aizoaceae , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Flavonoids , Medicine, Traditional , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols
8.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 528-535, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888781

ABSTRACT

In this study, three new germacranolide sesquiterpenes (1-3), together with six related known analogues (4-9) were isolated from the whole plant of Carpesium cernuum. Their structures were established by a combination of extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis, HR-ESIMS data, and ECD calculations. The anti-leukemia activities of all compounds towards three cell lines (HEL, KG-1a, and K562) were evaluated in vitro. Compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity with IC


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Asteraceae/chemistry , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , K562 Cells , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane/pharmacology
9.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 500-504, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888778

ABSTRACT

Two new lignan glucosides, tinsinlignans A and B (1 and 2), two new oxyneolignans, tinsinlignans C and D (3 and 4), along with one known analogue (5), were isolated from the stems of Tinospora sinensis. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on analysis of spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined through electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation based on the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells and compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities with IC


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Glucosides/pharmacology , Lignans/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides , Molecular Structure , Nitric Oxide , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Tinospora/chemistry
10.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 491-499, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888777

ABSTRACT

Six new oligomeric neolignans including two trimeric neolignans (1 and 2) and four dimeric neolignans (3-6) were isolated from the leaves of Magnolia officinalis var. biloba. Their structures were determined based on HR-ESIMS and NMR data, as well as electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compound 1 is formed from two obovatol moieties directly linked to an aromatic ring of the remaining obovatol moiety, which is an unprecedented type of linkage between monomers. All isolates were assessed for their inhibitory effects on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Compounds 1 and 3 showed significantly inhibitory activities with IC


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Lignans/pharmacology , Magnolia/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3789-3796, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888100

ABSTRACT

The genus Chloranthus has 13 species and 5 varieties in China, which can be found in the southwest and northeast regions. Phytochemical studies on Chloranthus plants have reported a large amount of terpenoids, such as diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and sesquiterpenoid dimers. Their anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, antifungal, antivirus, and neuroprotection activities have been confirmed by previous pharmacological research. Herein, research on the chemical constituents from Chloranthus plants and their biological activities over the five years was summarized to provide scientific basis for the further development and utilization of Chloranthus plants.


Subject(s)
Diterpenes , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Terpenes
12.
Biol. Res ; 54: 7-7, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Leaves of the natural plant lotus are used in traditional Chinese medicine and tea production. They are rich in flavonoids. METHODS: In this study, lotus leaf flavonoids (LLF) were applied to human lung cancer A549 cells and human small cell lung cancer cells H446 in vitro to verify the effect of LLF on apoptosis in these cells through the ROS/p38 MAPK pathway. RESULTS: LLF had no toxic effect on normal cells at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL, but could significantly inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells and H446 cells. Flow cytometry showed that LLF could induce growth in A549 cells. We also found that LLF could increase ROS and MDA levels, and decrease SOD activity in A549 cells. Furthermore, qRT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that LLF could upregulate the expression of p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK), caspase-3, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and Bax and downregulate the expression of Cu/Zn SOD, CAT, Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, and Bcl-2 in A549 cells. Results of HPLC showed that LLF mainly contain five active substances: kaemp-feritrin, hyperoside, astragalin, phloridzin, and quercetin. The apoptosis-inducing effect of LLF on A549 cells came from these naturally active compounds. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown in this study that LLF is a bioactive substance that can induce apoptosis in A549 cells in vitro, and merits further research and development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Lotus/chemistry , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Cell Proliferation , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , A549 Cells , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200163, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153296

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Isolate, fractionate and characterize extracts obtained from soursop leaves. Use of emerging green technologies such as microwave-ultrasound hybridization. The extracts contain kaempferol, procyanidins, catechin, and quercetin. The total ethanolic extract demonstrates cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells.


Abstract Cervical cancer is classified as the fourth most common malignancy in women. Natural compounds are a therapeutic alternative in cancer therapy. The aim of the study is to isolate, fractionate, and characterize extracts obtained from soursop leaves (Annona muricata L.) and determine their cytotoxic effect against HeLa cervical cancer cells and non-carcinogenic fibroblast 3T3 cells. The phytochemicals of soursop leaves were extracted through emerging green technologies such as the novel use of microwave-ultrasound hybridization and the use of environmentally friendly solvents (water and ethanol), in addition to the purification of extracts enriched in polyphenols by liquid chromatography with Amberlite XAD-16. Total aqueous and ethanolic extract were purified, as well as the fraction one of each extract. The extracts recovered from soursop leaves contained kaempferol and its isomers, procyanidins, catechin, and quercetin. The viability of the cells was determined with the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. HeLa and 3T3 cells were exposed to concentrations of 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm of a solution of soursop leaf extract powder. The MTT assay showed that soursop leaf extracts were toxic to both cell lines in general, however, the ethanolic extract at 25 and 50 ppm demonstrated inhibition in cell viability against the HeLa cancer line and low cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblast cells. In conclusion, the novel microwave-ultrasound hybridization technology allows the extraction of polyphenols that may have a potential cytotoxic effect on cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , HeLa Cells , Annona/chemistry , Polyphenols/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Catechin/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Ethanol , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 829-838, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142523

ABSTRACT

Abstract In vitro and screen house experiments were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of thirteen phytochemicals from Artemisia elegantissimia and A. incisa on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cv. Rio Grande. A positive control (Carbofuran) and negative control (H2O) were also used for comparison. Effectiveness of phytochemicals against juveniles (J2s) mortality and egg hatch inhibition were evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation at three concentrations viz; 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL in vitro conditions. Amongst thirteen phytochemicals, Isoscopletin (Coumarin), Carbofuran and Apigenin (Flavonoid) showed the highest mortality and egg hatch inhibition of M. incognita at all intervals. Inhibition of eggs and J2s mortality were the greatest (90.0%) and (96.0%) at 0.3 mg/mL concentration. Application of phytochemicals caused reduction in number of galls, galling index, and egg masses on tomato plant and enhanced plant growth parameters under screen house conditions. Gall numbers (1.50), galling index (1.00), number of juveniles (4.83) and egg masses (4.00) were greatly reduced and plant growth parameters such as; plant height (28.48 cm), fresh (72.13 g) and dry shoot weights (35.99 g), and root fresh (6.58 g) and dry weights (1.43 g) were increased significantly by using Isoscopletin. In structure activity relationship, juveniles of M. incognita, exhibited variations in their shape and postures upon death when exposed to different concentrations of phytochemicals of Artemisia spp. The present study suggests that Artemisia based phytochemicals possess strong nematicidal effects and can be used effectively in an integrated disease management program against root knot nematodes.


Resumo Experimentos in vitro e de triagem foram conduzidos para investigar a eficácia de treze constituintes fitoquímicos de Artemisia elegantissimia e A. incisa no nematóide de galhas, Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cv. Rio Grande. Um controle positivo (carbofuran) e controle negativo (H2O) também foram utilizados para comparação. A eficácia dos fitoquímicos contra a mortalidade juvenil (J2s) e a inibição da eclosão de ovos foram avaliadas após 24, 48 e 72 horas de incubação em três concentrações, tais como: 0,1; 0,2 e 0,3 mg/mL em condições in vitro. Dentre os treze fitoquímicos, isoscopletina (cumarina), carbofurano e apigenina (flavonoide) apresentaram a maior mortalidade e a inibição da eclosão de ovos de M. incognita em todos os intervalos. A inibição da mortalidade dos ovos e J2s foi a maior (90,0%) e (96,0%) na concentração de 0,3 mg/mL. A aplicação de fitoquímicos causou redução no número de galhas, índice de fricção e massa de ovos no tomateiro e melhorou os parâmetros de crescimento das plantas em condições de triagem. Números de galhas (1,50), índice de insetos galhadores (1,00), número de juvenis (4,83) e massas de ovos (4,00) foram bastante reduzidos e os parâmetros de crescimento das plantas, como altura da planta (28,48 cm), peso fresco (72,13 g) e seco (35,99 g), raiz fresca (6,58 g) e peso seco (1,43 g) foram significativamente aumentados usando isoscopletina. Na relação atividade estrutura, juvenis de M. incognita, exibiram variações em sua forma e posturas após a morte quando expostos a diferentes concentrações de fitoquímicos de Artemisia spp. O presente estudo sugere que os fitoquímicos à base de artemísia possuem fortes efeitos nematicidas e podem ser usados ​​eficazmente em um programa integrado de controle de doenças contra nematóides de galhas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tylenchoidea , Solanum lycopersicum , Artemisia , Plant Roots , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 934-942, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142529

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of Moringa oleifera and Sorbus domestica plant extracts on bacterial disease agents Yersinia ruckeri in aquaculture. Morphological and biochemical properties of 2 different Y. ruckeri isolates were determined. Then, Real-Time PCR analysis and gene sequencing of the isolates were identified. Phytochemicals (M. oleifera and S. domestica) and antibiotics (Oxytetracycline (OX) and Enrofloxacin (ENR)) were used together in the antibiogram test of antibiotics compared to the effect status of antibiotics. Also, the effects of phytochemicals on Y. ruckeri growth was examined comparatively by spectrophotometrically measuring at 600 nm wavelength every 2 hours according to bacterial growth densities with 10 different groups formed on TSB medium. As a result of the study, it was observed that the isolates formed Gram negative, catalase positive, oxidase negative, mobile and typical Y. ruckeri colonies. After the biochemical tests performed with Microgen ID panel, 99.85% similarity was determined. The isolates overlap with the 16S rRNA gene region after sequence analysis, and 99% of the isolates were similar in phylogenetic analysis. After the antibiogram test, Oxytetracycline and Enrofloxacin antibiotics were resistant to Y. ruckeri but the effects of phytochemicals were less on solid medium (MHA). As a result of the measurements carried out in liquid medium (TSB), it was observed that phytochemicals such as M. oliefera and S. domestica inhibit the growth of bacteria by 40-50%. As the importance of antibiotic resistance is increasing day by day, we believe that these phytochemicals will give positive results in treatment instead of using antibiotics.


Resumo Neste estudo, objetiva-se investigar os efeitos dos extratos de plantas de Moringa oleifera e Sorbus domestica sobre agentes bacterianos Yersinia ruckeri na aquicultura. Foram determinadas as propriedades morfológicas e bioquímicas de 2 isolados diferentes de Y. ruckeri. Em seguida, a análise de PCR em tempo real e o seqüenciamento genético dos isolados foram identificados. Fitoquímicos (M. oleifera e S. domestica) e antibióticos (Oxitetraciclina e Enrofloxacina) foram usados ​​juntos no teste de antibiograma dos antibióticos em comparação com o status de efeito dos antibióticos. Além disso, os efeitos dos fitoquímicos no crescimento de Y. ruckeri foram examinados comparativamente por medição espectrofotométrica no comprimento de onda de 600 nm a cada 2 horas de acordo com as densidades de crescimento bacteriano com 10 grupos diferentes formados no meio TSB. Como resultado do estudo, observou-se que os isolados formaram colônias Gram-negativas, catalase-positivas, oxidase-negativas, móveis e típicas de Y. ruckeri. Após os testes bioquímicos realizados com o painel Microgen ID, foi determinada uma similaridade de 99,85%. Os isolados se sobrepõem à região do gene 16S rRNA após a análise da sequência e 99% dos isolados foram semelhantes na análise filogenética. Após o teste do antibiograma, os antibióticos Oxitetraciclina e Enrofloxacina foram resistentes a Y. ruckeri, mas os efeitos dos fitoquímicos foram menores no meio sólido (MHA). Como resultado das medições realizadas em meio líquido (TSB), observou-se que os fitoquímicos inibem o crescimento de bactérias em 40-50%. Como a importância da resistência aos antibióticos está aumentando dia a dia, acreditamos que as plantas que são mais alternativas e mais adequadas para o uso de antibióticos hoje em dia darão resultados positivos no tratamento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Yersinia Infections , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Fish Diseases , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Yersinia ruckeri/genetics , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 497-512, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008531

ABSTRACT

To date, 205 compounds have been identified from different medicinal parts of Eucommia ulmoides, including lignans, iridoid terpenoids, phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids, polysaccharides and others. Their pharmacological effects include blood pressure-lowering, blood sugar-lowering, blood lipids-regulating, prevention of osteoporosis, anti-inflammation, liver protection, anti-cancer and so on. Their efficacy and mechanism from different parts are slightly different. In this paper, the chemical composition, pharmacological action and mechanism of different parts of E. ulmoides were systematically summarized, as well as its quality control and processing research, to provide theoretical basis for further rational development and utilization of E. ulmoides.


Subject(s)
Eucommiaceae/chemistry , Flavonoids , Iridoids , Lignans , Phenols , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Polysaccharides , Steroids , Terpenes
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 896-898, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008516

ABSTRACT

A new isobenzoisofuran(1) has been isolated from the whole plant of Cassia pumila using various chromatographic techniques, including silica gel, Sephadex, MCI-gel resin, and RP-HPLC, and its structure was determined as 9-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,2-dimethyl-2H-furo[3,4-g]chromen-6(8H)-one. This compound was also evaluated for its antibacterial activity. The results showed that it had prominent antibacterial activity with MIC_(90) value of(45.2±4.2) μg·mL~(-1) for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) strain. This value was closed to that of levofloxacin [with MIC_(90) value(48.5±4.3) μg·mL~(-1)].


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Cassia/chemistry , Levofloxacin , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 816-824, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008506

ABSTRACT

Citrullus colocynthis is widely distributed in the desert regions of the world. C. colocynthis has shown to improve constipation, liver diseases, jaundice, typhoid fever, diabetes and asthma in traditional use. As a kind of exterritorialy medicinal material, C. colocynthis has been used in China and introduced successfully. The main active ingredients of C. colocynthis are cucurbitacin, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenolic acids, which have been proven to have antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-pathogenic microorganisms and anti-cancer activities in modern pharmacological research. This paper reviews the traditional application, chemical composition and pharmacological effects of C. colocynthis, and provides reference for the in-depth study for the efficacy and mechanism of different components of C. colocynthis.


Subject(s)
China , Citrullus colocynthis/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1076-1081, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008475

ABSTRACT

To prepare the herpetolide A nanosuspension lyophilized powder(HPA-NS-LP), in order to investigate its anti-hepatitis B virus(HBV) activity and the dissolution in vitro. Herpetolide A nanosuspension(HPA-NS) was prepared by ultrasonic precipitation method. The formulation and process of HPA-NS were optimized by the single factor experiment. Lyophilized powder(HPA-NS-LP) was prepared by freeze-drying method. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphology of HPA-NS-LP. Paddle method was used to determinate the dissolution of HPT-NS-LP in vitro. The anti-HBV activity of herpetolide A coarse suspension lyophilized powder(HPA-CS-LP) and HPA-NS-LP was evaluated by HepG2.2.15 cell model. The mean particle size of optimized HPA-NS was(173.46±4.36) nm, with a polydispersity index of 0.110±0.012. After redispersion, the mean particle size and the polydispersity index of HPA-NS-LP increased, with changes within a rational range. Scanning electron microscopy showed that HPA-NS-LP was spherical in shape. Cumulative dissolution rate of HPA-NS-LP was more than 90% in 2 hours, which was higher than that of HPA-CS-LP. Both HPA-CS-LP and HPA-NS-LP could effectively inhibit the secretion of HepG2.2.15 cell antigens(HBsAg and HBeAg), and the inhibitory effect of HPA-NS-LP was significantly higher than that of HPA CS-LP(P<0.05). HBV-DNA test showed that high, medium and low-dose HPA-NS-LP(50, 25, 12.5 mg·kg~(-1)) significantly decreased the level of HBV-DNA(P<0.05), and the effect was better than that of the same dose of HPA-CS-LP(P<0.05). The results revealed that HPA-NS-LP exhibited anti-HBV activity in vitro, and its effect was superior to that of HPA-CS-LP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coumarins/pharmacology , Cucurbitaceae/chemistry , Hep G2 Cells , Hepatitis B virus/drug effects , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Solubility , Suspensions
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 37-51, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008435

ABSTRACT

The genus Carpesium plants contain many kinds of sesquiterpenes. Up to now, more than 201 sesquiterpene compounds have been isolated and identified, including 86 germacranolides, 30 eudesmanolides, 29 guaianolides, 23 sesquiterpene dimers, 9 pseudoguaianes, 9 carabranolides, 7 xanthanolides, 6 sesquiterpenes without lactone, 1 eremophilane and 1 tricyclo dodecane sesquiterpene. The reported sesquiterpenes possess a series of pharmacological properties, such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiparasitic, insecticidal, and antiviral activities. This paper summarizes the 201 chemical structures and biological activities of sesquiterpenes in genus Carpesium, and provides the scientific basis for the further development and utilization.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Asteraceae/chemistry , Lactones , Molecular Structure , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
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