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1.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(2): 46-52, 30 Diciembre 2021. ilus, tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368285

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Los cambios de color en los dientes acrílicos dependen de varios factores, con el humo de cigarrillo como uno de los principales agentes de igmentación de las prótesis. OBJETIVO. Valorar el grado de pigmentación en dientes acrílicos sometidos al humo del cigarrillo, mediante espectrofotometría digital. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio observacional, analítico, de caso y control. Muestra de 60 dientes acrílicos divididos en dos grupos: A (resina acrílica de 3 capas) y B (resina acrílica de 4 capas). Se subdividió en: grupo 1: dientes sometidos a humo de cigarrillo estándar con filtro de carbón; grupo 2: dientes sometidos a humo de cigarrillo estándar sin filtro; y, grupo 3: grupo control. Cada uno de éstos se expuso a 150 cigarrillos, 5 diarios durante 30 días y el grupo control fue mantenido a 37ºC en saliva artificial durante 30 días sin aplicación de humo de cigarrillo. Para la toma de color se empleó espectrofotómetro Vita Easyshade®. Los análisis se realizaron en el programa estadístico International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences mediante la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y comparaciones de Dunn. RESULTADOS. Se determinó que la pigmentación del grupo B fue mayor a la del grupo A, con una diferencia significativa entre ellos (p< 0,05). No se encontró datos estadísticamente significativos entre cigarrillos (con filtro - sin filtro). CONCLUSIÓN. La exposición al humo de cigarrillo pigmentó los dientes acrílicos de ambas propiedades siendo mayor en los dientes de resina acrílica de 4 capas.


INTRODUCTION. Color changes in acrylic teeth depend on several factors, with cigarette smoke as one of the main agents of denture pigmentation. OBJECTIVE. To assess the degree of pigmentation in acrylic teeth subjected to cigarette smoke, using digital spectrophotometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Observational, analytical, case-control study. Sample of 60 acrylic teeth divided into two groups: A (3-layer acrylic resin) and B (4-layer acrylic resin). It was subdivided into: group 1: teeth subjected to standard cigarette smoke with charcoal filter; group 2: teeth subjected to standard cigarette smoke without filter; and, group 3: control group. Each of these was exposed to 150 cigarettes, 5 daily for 30 days and the control group was maintained at 37ºC in artificial saliva for 30 days without application of cigarette smoke. Vita Easyshade® spectrophotometer was used for color determination. The analyses were performed in the statistical program International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's comparisons. RESULTS. It was determined that the pigmentation of group B was greater than that of group A, with a significant difference between them (p< 0,05). No statistically significant data was found between cigarettes (filtered - unfiltered). CONCLUSION. Cigarette smoke exposure pigmented acrylic teeth of both properties being higher in 4-layer acrylic resin teeth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Saliva, Artificial , Pigmentation , Jaw, Edentulous , Dental Prosthesis , Color Perception , Cigarette Smoking , Students, Dental , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Tooth Diseases , Acrylic Resins , In Vitro Techniques , Dentistry , Tooth Wear
2.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e885, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347457

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La precisión diagnóstica de los nevus pigmentados ha sido una constante preocupación por los dermatólogos. Objetivo: Identificar la utilidad del dermatoscopio en la correlación de las características clínicas y los patrones dermatoscópicos de nevus pigmentados y su asociación con el diagnóstico histológico. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación observacional, analítica, de tipo correlacional, con pacientes de la zona sur de Ciego de Ávila que acudieron a la consulta de dermatología del Hospital Provincial General Docente Dr. Antonio Luaces Iraola en el periodo de abril 2017 a diciembre 2019. Resultados: Predominó el sexo femenino, el grupo de edad de 21 a 30 años, el fototipo II de piel y la zona expuesta (cara y V del escote) (18 ;35,3 por ciento) sin relación entre estas variables. El diagnóstico histológico de nevus de la unión se encontró asociado a la simetría (p < 0,004), la pigmentación homogénea (p < 0,000), así como al patrón dermatoscópico reticular (p < 0,000), globular (p < 0,002) y homogéneo (p < 0,008). El nevus intradérmico se observó asociado a la característica clínica de pigmentación homogénea (p < 0,007), y al patrón dermatoscópico reticular (p < 0,000) y homogéneo (p < 0,005). El nevus compuesto no presentó relación con las características clínicas ni dermatoscópicas. El nevus azul solo se correlacionó con el patrón dermatoscópico homogéneo (p < 0,025). Conclusión: Los patrones dermatoscópicos fueron útiles para el diagnóstico clínico e histológico de los nevus pigmentados(AU)


Introduction: The diagnostic precision of pigmented nevi has been a constant concern of dermatologists. Objective: To determine the usefulness of the Dermatoscope in the correlation of the clinical characteristics and the dermoscopic patterns of pigmented nevi and their association with the histological diagnosis. Methods: An analytical observational investigation of a correlational type was carried out in patients from the southern area of Ciego de Ávila who attended the Dermatology consultation at the Antonio Luaces Iraola Provincial Hospital in the period from April 2017 to December 2019. Results: The female sex, the age group of 21 to 30 years, skin phototype II and the exposed area (face and V of the neckline) (18; 35.3 percent) predominated with no relationship between these variables. The histological diagnosis of junctional nevus was found associated with symmetry (p <0.004), homogeneous pigmentation (p <0.000), as well as the reticular dermoscopic pattern (p <0.000), globular (p <0.002) and homogeneous (p <0.008). The intradermal nevus was observed associated with the clinical characteristic of homogeneous pigmentation (p <0.007), and with the reticular (p <0.000) and homogeneous (p <0.005) dermoscopic pattern. The composite nevus was not related to clinical or dermoscopic characteristics. The blue nevus only correlated with the homogeneous dermoscopic pattern (p <0.025). Conclusions: The dermoscopic patterns were useful for the clinical and histological diagnosis of pigmented nevi(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pigmentation , Clinical Diagnosis , Dermatology , Nevus, Pigmented , Dermoscopy/methods
3.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(2): 249-260, Maio 25, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284172

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Estrias são alterações no tecido tegumentar, principalmente nas fibras de elastina e colágeno. São frequentemente acompanhadas de problemas psicossociais e de autoestima. Existem diversas técnicas utilizadas, como o microagulhamento, que estimula a produção de colágeno e a dermopigmentação, que camufla as estrias por meio da pigmentação. Objetivo: Verificar a influência do microagulhamento associado a micropigmentação em estrias albas de mulheres. Métodos: Realizou-se um protocolo de Estriaderme em três mulheres de fototipo de pele II a V, de idade média de 27 ± 0,3 anos com estrias albas nos glúteos. O protocolo foi composto por 5 sessões com intervalos quinzenais, em quatro foram realizadas a micropuntura associada ao ácido hialurônico e em uma realizou-se a micropigmentação. As participantes foram avaliadas por fotografias e paquímetro. Resultados: No pós-tratamento, observou-se uma melhora estética nas regiões de aplicação, o tecido tegumentar demonstrou-se mais uniforme, homogêneo e com maior jovialidade. Com redução na espessura das estrias e uma média de redução de 1,8 mm em relação ao pré-tratamento (média ± 3 mm). Conclusão: O protocolo Estriaderme demonstrou ter efeito positivo sobre a pele estriada, no que se refere a sua vascularização, vitalidade, pigmentação, relevo cutâneo, espessura e quantidade. (AU)


Introduction: Stretch marks are alterations in the integumentary tissue, mainly in the elastin and collagen fibers. They are often accompanied by psychosocial and selfesteem problems. Several techniques are used, such as micro-needling, which stimulates collagen production and dermopigmentation, which camouflages stretch marks by pigmenting the area. Objective: To verify the influence of micropuncture associated with micropigmentation on female striae alba. Methods: A Striaderm protocol was performed on three women of skin phototype II to V according to Fitzpatrick, mean age 27 ± 0.3 years with gluteus alba striae. The protocol consisted of 5 sessions at biweekly intervals, four underwent micropuncture associated with hyaluronic acid and one underwent micropigmentation. The participants were evaluated by photographs and caliper. Results: Post-treatment showed an aesthetic improvement in the application regions, the integumentary tissue was more uniform, homogeneous, and more youthful. With reduction in stretch marks and an average reduction of 1.8 mm compared to pretreatment (mean ± 3 mm). Conclusion: The Striaderme protocol has been shown to have a positive effect on striated skin with respect to its vascularity, vitality, pigmentation, skin relief, thickness, and quantity. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pigmentation , Striae Distensae , Physical Therapy Modalities , Guidelines as Topic
4.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(4): e210116, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356548

ABSTRACT

A new species of Satanoperca is described from the Rio Araguaia, Rio Tocantins basin, Brazil, and non-native records are available in the upper Rio Paraná basin. It differs from congeneric species by color pattern characters, such as head and flank marks. It is included in the Satanoperca jurupari species group, characterized by the absence of black rounded blotches on the flank, and low meristic values. A description of the ontogeny of melanophore marks of the S. jurupari species group revealed two different types of arrangement on the flank and numerous melanophore marks on the head. A discussion on morphologically diverse assemblages in the S. jurupari species group is also provided.(AU)


Uma nova espécie de Satanoperca é descrita do rio Araguaia, bacia do rio Tocantins, Brasil, e registros não-nativos estão disponíveis para a bacia do alto rio Paraná. Pode ser diagnosticada de suas congêneres por caracteres do padrão de colorido como marcas na cabeça e flanco. É incluída no grupo Satanoperca jurupari pela ausência de máculas pretas arredondadas no flanco e menores valores de contagens. Uma descrição da ontogenia das marcas melanofóricas do grupo S. jurupari revelou dois tipos diferentes de arranjos no flanco e várias marcas melanofóricas na cabeça. Uma discussão sobre assembleias morfologicamente diversas no grupo S. jurupari também é fornecida.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Perciformes/anatomy & histology , Perciformes/classification , Pigmentation
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887901

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that dermal papilla cells(DPCs)act as the organizing center to induce the cyclic hair regeneration.On one hand,DPCs secrete cytokines or growth factors to regulate the differentiation,proliferation,and migration of epithelial stem cells(EpSCs)and melanocyte stem cells(MeSCs)residing in the bulge region.On the other hand,DPCs manipulate the microenvironment(also termed as niche)for both EpSCs and MeSCs,such as the size of dermal papilla,the distance between dermal papilla and the bulge region,and the lymphatic drainage and sympathetic nerve innervation surrounding the bulge region,thereby orchestrating the cycling hair growth.Recent studies have demonstrated at least four subpopulations existing in dermal papillae,which induce the unilineage transit-amplifying epithelial cells to form the concentric multilayers of hair shafts and sheaths.In addition,emerging study has indicated that sustained psychological stress potentially leads to hyperactivation of the sympathetic nerves that innervate the bulge region.The large amount of norepinephrine released by the nerve endings forces MeSCs to rapidly and abnormally proliferate,resultantly causing the depletion of MeSC pool and the loss of hair pigment.Understanding the molecular regulation of hair growth and pigmentation by DPCs holds substantial promise for the future use of cultured DPCs


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Dermis , Hair Follicle , Pigmentation
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1986-1997, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887776

ABSTRACT

Since synthetic pigments are potentially harmful to human health, natural ones such as bixin, one of the carotenoids, are favored. As the second widely used natural pigment in the world, there is significant interest in the biosynthetic pathway of bixin which has not been fully elucidated. This review summarizes the chemical properties, extraction methods, biosynthetic pathway and application of bixin. In addition, we compared the difference between traditional extraction methods and new extraction techniques. Moreover, we described the genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of bixin and the effects of abiotic stress on the biosynthesis of bixin, and discussed the application of bixin in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. However, the researches on bixin biosynthesis pathway are mostly carried out at the transcriptome level and most of the gene functions have not been elucidated. Therefore, we propose to characterize the entire bixin biosynthetic pathway using techniques of genomics, bioinformatics, and phytochemistry. This will help facilitate the synthetic biology research of bixin and development of bixin into new drugs.


Subject(s)
Bixaceae/genetics , Carotenoids , Humans , Pigmentation , Transcriptome
7.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2021. 116 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1362020

ABSTRACT

Os objetivos deste estudo foram comparar três materiais bioativos a uma resina bulk fill convencional (controle), quanto à adesão bacteriana e alterações ópticas, quando expostos a solução corante e escovação simulada; como também, avaliar o esmalte adjacente a restaurações com esses materiais, quando submetidas ao envelhecimento térmico e a desafio cariogênico. Para determinação da adesão bacteriana (fase 1), foram confeccionadas 10 amostras de cada grupo: AB: Activa Bioactive Restorative (PulpdentTM Corporation, USA); BB: Beautifil Bulk (Shofu inc., Kyoto, Japan); EQ: Equia Forte (GC América Inc., Illinois, EUA) e FBC: Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE, Saint Paul, Minessota, EUA 3M). Após a polimerização, as amostras foram armazenadas por 48h e então expostas a cepa padrão de Streptococcus mutans (UA 159) e determinado o número de unidades formadoras de colônia (UFC/ml). Foram então autoclavadas e submetidas diariamente a ciclos de pigmentação por café e escovação simulada, durante 30 dias, seguidos de uma segunda adesão bacteriana. Alterações de cor e translucidez foram avaliadas após esses ciclos. Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA dois fatores e teste de Tukey (5%). Para avaliação do esmalte (fase 2), foram utilizadas as faces vestibulares e linguais de 50 terceiros molares humanos distribuídas aleatoriamente em 5 grupos (n=20): grupo EH: esmalte hígido (controle) e, 4 grupos que receberam preparos cavitários padronizados restaurados com os mesmos materiais utilizados na fase 1. Os espécimes foram expostos à termociclagem (10.000 ciclos) e desafio cariogênico. A microdureza do esmalte foi medida inicialmente, após termociclagem e após o desafio cariogênico. Os dados foram submetidos a ANOVA dois fatores de medidas repetidas e teste de Tukey (5%). Os resultados apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos para as adesões bacterianas; sendo que na primeira, o grupo AB (6,2 log) apresentou o menor valor. Na segunda adesão, o grupo FBC manteve seu crescimento estável (7,5 log). Os grupos AB e EQ (9,4 e 9,2 log) apresentaram médias superiores as da primeira adesão (6,2 e 7,6 log respectivamente). O grupo BB (6,7 log) mostrou a menor adesão bacteriana. Diferenças na cor não foram estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos, no entanto, todos materiais mostraram alteração de cor perceptível (∆E> 2,7) após os ciclos de exposição ao café e escovação. A translucidez foi estatisticamente diferente entre os grupos, mas não foi influenciada pelos ciclos. A microdureza do esmalte diminuiu para todos os grupos após a termociclagem. Os grupos FBC e EH apresentaram as menores médias de microdureza (178,78/ 202,83 kgf); os grupos AB e BB (240,82/ 265,34 kgf), foram estatisticamente semelhantes; e o grupo EQ apresentou a maior média (274,18 kgf). Uma diminuição da microdureza aconteceu após o desafio cariogênico, exceto para o grupo EQ (244,73 kgf). Os grupos FBC e EH (117,18/ 112,97 kgf), não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre eles, com as menores médias de microdureza; e, os grupos BB e AB (211,32/ 171,14 kgf) apresentaram diferenças estatísticas em relação aos demais grupos. Podemos concluir que: os materiais bioativos interferiram na adesão bacteriana por Streptococcus mutans, e foram susceptíveis aos ciclos de pigmentação e escovação; a imersão no café e escovação simulada alteraram a cor, mas não a translucidez de todos os materiais; a termociclagem reduziu a dureza superficial do esmalte adjacente a todas as restaurações nesse estudo; e que, o desafio cariogêncio reduziu a dureza do esmalte exceto para o grupo EQ, que apresentou manutenção da sua dureza, mostrando seu potencial de influenciar a resistência do esmalte à desmineralização.


The aim of this study was to compare three bioactive materials to a conventional resin, regarding bacterial adhesion and optical changes, when exposed to dye solution and simulated brushing; as well as evaluate the enamel adjacent to restorations with these materials, when submitted to thermal aging and cariogenic challenge. To determine bacterial adhesion (phase 1), 10 samples of each material were prepared: AB: Activa Bioactive Restorative (Pulpdent™ Corporation, USA); BB: Beautifil Bulk (Shofu inc., Kyoto, Japan); EQ: Equia Forte (GC America Inc., Illinois, USA) and FBC: Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA 3M). After 48 hours the samples were exposed to a standard strain of Streptococcus mutans (UA 159) and the number of colony forming units (CFU/ml) determined. They were then autoclaved and submitted daily to coffee pigmentation and simulated brushing cycles, for 30 days, followed by a second bacterial adhesion. Color and translucency changes were assessed after these cycles. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (5%). For enamel evaluation (phase 2), buccal and lingual surfaces of 50 human third molars were randomly distributed into 5 groups (n=20): EH group: sound enamel (control) and 4 groups that received standardized cavity preparations restored with the same materials in phase. Specimens were exposed to thermocycling (10,000 cycles) and cariogenic challenge. Enamel microhardness was measured initially, after thermocycling and after cariogenic challenge. Data were submitted to Two-way Repeated Measures ANOVA and Tukey test (5%). Bacterial adhesion results showed statistically significant differences among groups; in the first adhesion, AB group (6.2 log) presented the lowest bacterial growth. In the second one, group FBC maintained its growth (7.5 log). AB and EQ groups (9.3 log) presented higher growth than before the treatments (6.2 and 7.6 log respectively). BB group (6.7 log) showed the lowest bacterial adhesion. Color differences were not statistically significant among groups; however, noticeable color change (∆E> 2.7) was seen for all materials after the coffee and brushing cycles. Translucency was statistically different among the groups but was not influenced by the cycles. Enamel microhardness decreased for all groups after thermocycling. FBC group and EH group, showed the lowest microhardness averages (178.78/202.83 kgf); AB and BB groups (240.82/265.34 kgf) were statistically similar; and EQ group had the highest average (274.18 kgf). A decrease in microhardness occurred after the cariogenic challenge for all materials, except for the EQ group (244.73 kgf). FBC and EH groups (117.18/112.97 kgf) did not present statistical differences between them, showing the lowest microhardness averages; and, groups BB and AB (211.32/ 171.14 kgf), were statistically different to the other groups. We can conclude that: bioactive materials interfered with bacterial adhesion by Streptococcus mutans, and were susceptible to pigmentation and brushing cycles; immersion in coffee and simulated brushing changed color, but not translucency for all materials; thermocycling reduced surface hardness of the enamel adjacent to all restorations in this study; and that cariogenic challenge also reduced enamel hardness, except for the EQ group, which maintained its hardness, showing its potential to influence enamel resistance demineralization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus mutans , Tooth Remineralization , Biocompatible Materials , Dental Caries , Resins, Synthetic , Pigmentation , Analysis of Variance , Color
8.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(2): e2119199, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249708

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aim: To assess the influence of elastomeric ligatures, subjected to a previous in vitro pigmentation process using different substances, on smile aesthetics during orthodontic treatment, from the perception of students and professionals. Methods: Eight elastomeric ligatures of five commercial brands (3M/Unitek, American Orthodontics, Morelli, Ortho Technology, and Orthometric) (n=8) were immersed in coffee, Coca-Cola, and red wine for one minute per day, for 28 days; and another group of ligatures was immersed in artificial saliva. All samples were photographed and subsequently analyzed using the Adobe Photoshop software, by the RGB method. Afterwards, the pigmented ligatures were inserted in a patient wearing orthodontic brackets, and zoomed photographs of the smile were taken and presented to 40 evaluators, who filled in a satisfaction scale sheet to express their opinion on the smile aesthetics of each photograph. The color data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests. Results: The substance with the highest pigmentation potential was coffee (p< 0.05) followed by red wine (p< 0.05). Comparison among the brands used in this study showed that American Orthodontics and Orthometric had the lowest degree of pigmentation when immersed in coffee and red wine (p< 0.05), respectively. However, the brand that showed the highest level of satisfaction among the evaluators was Ortho Technology. Conclusions: The presence of pigmented elastomeric ligatures affected smile aesthetics, when compared with the control group.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a influência das ligaduras elásticas submetidas a um processo prévio de pigmentação in vitro, com diferentes substâncias, na estética do sorriso durante o tratamento ortodôntico, segundo a percepção de alunos e profissionais. Métodos: Oito ligaduras elásticas de cinco marcas comerciais (3M Unitek, American Orthodontics, Morelli, Ortho Technology e Orthometric) (n = 8) foram imersas em café, Coca-Cola e vinho tinto por um minuto por dia, por 28 dias, e outro grupo de ligaduras foi imerso em saliva artificial. Todas as amostras foram fotografadas e posteriormente analisadas no software Adobe Photoshop, pelo método RGB. Em seguida, as ligaduras pigmentadas foram inseridas em um paciente com braquetes ortodônticos, e fotografias ampliadas do sorriso foram tiradas e apresentadas a 40 avaliadores, que preencheram uma escala de satisfação para representar sua opinião sobre a estética do sorriso de cada fotografia. Os dados de cor foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA) e testes de Tukey. Resultados: A substância com maior potencial de pigmentação foi o café (p< 0,05), seguido do vinho tinto (p< 0,05). A comparação entre as marcas utilizadas nesse estudo mostrou que a American Orthodontics e a Orthometric apresentaram o menor grau de pigmentação quando imersas em café e vinho tinto (p< 0,05), respectivamente. Porém, a marca que apresentou maior nível de satisfação entre os avaliadores foi a Ortho Technology. Conclusões: A presença de ligaduras elásticas pigmentadas afetou a estética do sorriso, quando comparada à do grupo controle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthodontic Brackets , Elastomers , Esthetics, Dental , Materials Testing , Pigmentation
9.
Arq. odontol ; 57: 229-235, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1348096

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: É mérito deste estudo avaliar a pigmentação de cerâmicas odontológicassubmetidas a diferentes tratamentos de superfície e imersasem soluções corantes.Métodos: Foram confeccionadas 60 amostras de cerâmica, divididas em seis grupos. Os grupos G1, G2 e G3 receberam aplicação prévia de glaze, enquanto G4, G5 e G6 foram submetidos a desgastes e polimento. Os grupos foram mantidos em água destilada, açaí e café por um período de 30 dias. Foram realizadas fotografias digitais, seguidas da mensuração de cor da superfície com o programa mColorMeter, com base no sistema CIELab, antes da imersão, após 15 e 30 dias. Para avaliação quantitativa da variação de cor foi utilizada fórmula de ∆E, onde foram obtidos média e desvio padrão de cada grupo. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística ANOVA de dois fatores. Resultados: Após a realização da análise estatística, foram estabelecidos as médias e desvios-padrão para variância de cor (∆E) e foi constatado que não houve resultado estatisticamente significativo, em que p ≤ 0,05, para pigmentação em nenhum dos grupos de cerâmicas. Conclusão: Nesse contexto, infere-se que as substâncias café e açaí não promoveram alterações de cor significativas, bem como o glaze e o polimento mostraram-se igualmente eficientes na manutenção da estabilidade de cor das cerâmicas.


Aim: The present study sought to evaluate the pigmentation of dental ceramics submitted to different surface treatments and immersed in staining solutions. Methods: Sixty ceramic samples were manufactured and divided into six groups. Groups G1, G2, and G3 received a prior glaze application, while groups G4, G5, and G6 were submitted to wear and polishing. The groups were maintained in distilled water, açaí, and coffee for a period of 30 days. Digital photographs were taken, followed by color measurement of the surface with the mColorMeter program, based on system CIELab, before immersion, after 15 and 30 days. For quantitative evaluation of color variation, a formula from ∆E was used, where mean and standard deviation of each group were obtained. The data were submitted to ANOVA statistical analysis of two factors. Result: After the statistical analysis, the means and standard deviations for color variance (∆E) were established, and it was found that there were no statistically significant results, with p ≤ 0.05, for pigmentation in any of the groups of ceramics. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be inferred that coffee and açaí substances did not promote significant color changes. Glaze and polishing also proved equally efficient in maintaining the color stability of the ceramics.


Subject(s)
Pigmentation , Ceramics/analysis , Cementation , Dental Prosthesis , Dental Materials/analysis , Coloring Agents/analysis , Coffee/adverse effects , Euterpe/adverse effects
10.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(4): 440-444, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132310

ABSTRACT

Abstract Posterior build-ups are auxiliary devices to orthodontic treatment which are made with resin-based or glass ionomer composites. Their removal requires care to protect the tooth surface, therefore, pigmented materials are preferred for a better visualization. This study proposed a pigmentation experimental technique of a regular composite resin, evaluating the microshear bond strength test (µ-SBT) of this experimental pigmented resin and comparing with a blue-colored polyacid-modified composite resin, used for posterior buildups. Forty-eight buccal and lingual surfaces of human teeth were used and randomly divided into 4 groups (n=12). The groups were divided into: C (control), regular composite resin; P, regular composite resin pigmented; UBL, Ultra Band Lok™; OB, Ortho Bite™. The composites were bonded using a matrix to obtain microcylinders and prepared for each experimental groups. The samples were then stored in distilled water for 24h at 37°C followed by a µ-SBT. The types of bond failures were evaluated using a stereoscopic magnifying glass (10×). The data were analyzed by ANOVA with Fisher post hoc and Dunnett´s test. Means of µ-SBT± standard deviation (MPa) were: C (39.98a±13.0), P (40.09a± 14.3); UBL (33.26ab±8.6); OB (28.70b±5.5). The most prevalent type of failure was adhesive (80.4%). Further, was not observed a statistically significant correlation between the bond strength values and failure patterns. The pigmentation of a commercially available resin did not alter the µ-SBT and exhibited similar adhesiveness as a polyacid-modified composite resin.


Resumo Levantes de mordida posterior são dispositivos para o tratamento ortodôntico confeccionados com resinas compostas ou materiais ionoméricos. Cuidado com a remoção destes se faz necessário para proteção da superfície dentária; para tanto, materiais pigmentados são preferidos por proporcionar melhor visualização. Este estudo propõe uma técnica de pigmentação experimental de resinas compostas convencionais, avaliando a resistência ao microcisalhamento (µ-SBT) na interface de união da resina experimental e superfície de esmalte dental e comparando-a com materiais comercialmente disponíveis para a confecção de levantes de mordida. Quarenta e oito superfícies de dentes humanos foram selecionadas aleatoriamente e divididos em quatro grupos (n=12), de acordo com o material adesivo utilizado: C (Controle, resina composta convencional); P (pigmentação experimental da resina composta convencional); UBL (Ultra Band Lok®); OB (Ortho Bite®). Microcilindros foram preparados para cada tipo de compósito utilizando uma matriz de silicone. As amostras foram mantidas em água destilada por 24h a 37°C, antes da realização do µ-SBT. Os padrões de fratura foram avaliados através de uma lupa estereoscópica com magnificação de 10x. ANOVA com pós teste de Fisher e teste de Dunnett foram utilizados para avaliar os dados. As médias obtidas do µ-SBT ± desvio padrão (MPa) foram: C (39.98a±13.0), P (40.09a± 14.3); UBL (33.26ab±8.6); OB (28.70b±5.5). O tipo de fratura mais prevalente foi a adesiva (80.4%). Além disso, não foi observada correlação estatisticamente significante entre os valores de resistência de união e os padrões de fratura. A técnica de pigmentação experimental não alterou os resultados de µ-SBT da resina composta convencional e mostrou adesividade semelhante à dos compósitos modificados por poliácidos utilizados neste estudo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Bonding , Composite Resins , Materials Testing , Pigmentation , Resin Cements , Glass Ionomer Cements
11.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(2): e190120, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135376

ABSTRACT

Organisms with source-populations restricted to the subterranean biotope (troglobites) are excellent models for comparative evolutionary studies, due to their specialization to permanent absence of light. Eye and dark pigment regression are characteristics of most troglobites. In spite of the advance in knowledge on the mechanisms behind eye regression in cave fishes, very little is known about pigmentation changes. Studies were focused on three species of the genus Pimelodella. Exemplars of the troglobitic P. spelaea and P. kronei were compared with the epigean (surface) P. transitoria, putative sister-species of the latter. Melanophore areas and densities are significantly lower in the troglobitic species. Evaluating the in vitro response of these cells to adrenaline, acetylcholine and MCH, we observed a reduced response in both troglobites to adrenaline. The same trend was observed with MCH, but not statistically significant. No response to acetilcholine was detected in all the three. Contrary to expectations, even though eye-regression in P. spelaea was much lower than in P. kronei, pigmentation regression was more advanced. Multiple mechanisms of loss showing a mosaic of traits in troglobitic fishes are discussed here.(AU)


Organismos com populações-fonte restritas ao biótopo subterrâneo (troglóbios) são excelentes modelos para estudos evolutivos comparativos, devido à especialização resultante do isolamento sob um regime seletivo particular, com ênfase na permanente falta de luz. A regressão do olho e da pigmentação são características dos troglobites. Apesar do avanço do conhecimento sobre os mecanismos subjacentes à regressão ocular em peixes de caverna, pouco se sabe sobre mudanças de pigmentação. Os estudos foram focados em três espécies do gênero Pimelodella. Exemplares das espécies troglóbias P. spelaea e P. kronei foram comparados com a epígea P. transitoria, provável espécie-irmã dessa última. As áreas e densidades dos melanóforos são significativamente menores nas espécies troglóbias. Avaliando a resposta in vitro dessas células à adrenalina, acetilcolina e MCH, observamos uma resposta reduzida em ambos os troglóbios à adrenalina. A mesma tendência foi observado com o MCH, mas não estatisticamente. Nenhuma resposta à acetilcolina foi detectada três. Contrariamente às expectativas, embora a regressão ocular em P. spelaea seja bem menor do que em P. kronei, a regressão na pigmentação foi mais acentuada. Múltiplos mecanismos de regressão, mostrando um mosaico de características em peixes troglóbios, são discutidos aqui.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/physiology , Pigmentation , Color , Neurotransmitter Agents , Hormones , Fishes
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 139-147, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827074

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence suggests that stress may induce changes in hair color, with the underlying mechanism incompletely understood. In this study, female C57BL/6 mice subjected to electric foot shock combined with restraint stress were used to build chronic stress mouse model. The melanin contents and tyrosinase activity were measured in mouse skin and B16F10 melanoma cells. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the content of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin- 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the mouse skin. The content of nuclear factor κB (NFκB)/p65 subunit in mouse skins was valued by immunofluorescence staining. The results demonstrated that under chronic stress, the fur color turned from dark to brown in C57BL/6 mice due to the decrease of follicle melanocytes and tyrosinase activity in C57BL/6 mouse skin. Simultaneously, inflammatory responses in skins were detected as shown by increased NFκB activity and TNF-α expression in stressed mouse skin. In cultured B16F10 melanoma cells, TNF-α reduced the melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicate that chronic stress induces fur color change by decreasing follicle melanocytes and tyrosinase activity in female C57BL/6 mice, and TNF-α may play an important role in stress-induced hair color change.


Subject(s)
Animal Fur , Animals , Color , Female , Melanins , Melanocytes , Melanoma, Experimental , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Metabolism , Pigmentation , Skin , Stress, Physiological
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 678-692, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827001

ABSTRACT

As water-soluble, natural pigments, anthocyanins are responsible for the red, purple and blue colors of many flowers, which attract pollinators to spread pollen. The colors of flowers are also essential for plants to survive in the nature and become one of the most significant characteristics of ornamental plants. In the booming floriculture industry, to produce various flower colors could increase the richness of natural colors, but it is still difficult to breed flowers with coveted blue color. The diversity of flower color is mainly determined by the types and contents of anthocyanins and their derivatives. The synthesis of delphinidin pigments is the key factor for breeding blue flowers. However, there are no structural genes in many plants to biosynthesize delphinidin pigments. Blue flowers are successfully created by genetic engineering in recent years. In this paper, using common ornamental plants as examples, we review the mechanism of plant flower coloration from the aspects of the key factors affecting the synthesis of delphinidin pigment and the production strategies of blue flowers based on the regulation of anthocyanin metabolism. Different strategies of molecular breeding could provide opportunities to improve colors of other floriculture plants and to develop anthocyanin-rich economic crops, such as colored cotton with blue fibers.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins , Metabolism , Flowers , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genetic Engineering , Pigmentation , Genetics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882005

ABSTRACT

@#INTRODUCTION: Lichen Planus Pigmentosus (LPP) is a pigmentary disorder of unknown etiology, presenting with CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 32-year-old healthy male with widespread lichen planus pigmentosus, treated with clobetasol dipropionate 0.05% ointment, tacrolimus 0.1% ointment, and lowdose isotretinoin (0.1 to 0.2 mkd) showing a decrease in the progression and hyperpigmentation of patches and plaques after six months. CONCLUSION: Based on our case and recent studies, low-dose oral isotretinoin, in combination with topical tacrolimus and topical corticosteroids, may show promising outcomes in treating cases of widespread lichen planus pigmentosus.


Subject(s)
Isotretinoin , Dermoscopy , Pigmentation
16.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 49: e20200073, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1156803

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Blue covarine is a pigment that promotes optical changes in dental surfaces, providing whitening. Objective: To evaluate in vitro the effect of bleaching dentifrices containing Blue covarine in nanoparticulate composite resin subjected to artificial darkening. Material and method: One hundred sixty (160) specimens (PBs) of FILTEK Z350XT nanoparticulate composite resin were randomly divided into two experiments: Experiment I - 8 groups (n=10) submitted to brushing with an electric toothbrush for 1 month; Experiment II - 8 groups (n=10) submitted to simulated brushing for 6, 12 and 24 months. Groups were distributed according to the solution/dentifrice tested: CG (distilled water) and 7 test groups (GT1- Coltene Herjos, GT2- Colgate Total 12 Clean Mint, GT3- Colgate Luminous White Brilliant Mint, GT4- Oral B 3D White Perfection, GT5- Close Up White Now Glacier Fresh, GT6- Close Up White Attraction Diamond and GT7- Sorriso Xtreme White Evolution). Result In Experiment I, there was greater ∆E in GT6 in relation to CG, GT2, GT4 and GT5, with no differences among them. In Experiment II, after 24 months of brushing, there was greater ∆E in groups GT6 and GT7. After 24 months of simulated brushing, there was no change in roughness or loss of mass in any group. Conclusion: The whitening effect promoted by dentifrices containing the agent Blue covarine seems to be related to the association of this agent with the abrasives present in the formulations of whitening dentifrices.


Introdução: O Blue covarine é um pigmento que promove alterações ópticas nas superfícies dentárias proporcionando o seu branqueamento. Objetivo: Avaliar in vitro o efeito de dentifrícios branqueadores contendo Blue covarine em resina composta nanoparticulada submetida a escurecimento artificial. Material e método: 160 corpos de prova (CPs) de resina composta nanoparticulada FILTEK Z350XT foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois experimentos: Experimento I- 8 grupos (n=10) submetidos a escovação com escova elétrica por 1 mês; Experimento II- 8 grupos (n=10) submetidos a escovação simulada por 6, 12 e 24 meses. Os grupos foram distribuídos de acordo com a solução/dentifrício testado: GC (água destilada) e 7 grupos teste (GT1-Coltene Herjos, GT2- Colgate Total 12 Clean Mint, GT3- Colgate Luminous White Brilliant Mint, GT4- Oral B 3D White Perfection, GT5- Close Up White Now Glacier Fresh, GT6- Close Up White Attraction Diamond e GT7- Sorriso Xtreme White Evolution). Resultado: No experimento I, houve maior ∆E no GT6 com relação ao GC, GT2, GT4 e GT5, que não diferiram entre si. No experimento II, após 24 meses de escovação houve maior ∆E nos grupos GT6 e GT7. Após 24 meses de escovação simulada não houve alteração da rugosidade nem perda de massa em nenhum grupo. Conclusão: O efeito branqueador promovido pelos dentifrícios contendo o agente Blue covarine parece estar relacionado à associação deste agente com os abrasivos presentes nas formulações dos dentifrícios branqueadores.


Subject(s)
Tooth Abrasion , Tooth Bleaching , In Vitro Techniques , Pigmentation , Composite Resins , Coloring Agents , Toothbrushing , Dentifrices
17.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 49: e20200045, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1139419

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Considering the increased search for esthetic procedures, questions emerge about the maintenance and regression of color, especially regarding the need to restrict dark foods during bleaching procedures or their influence on the stability and effectiveness of the treatment. Objective: To assess the influence of staining agents on tooth enamel during immediate bleaching treatment with 35% hydrogen peroxide. Material and method: Sixty bovine teeth were divided into six groups (G) (n=10): G1: distilled water (control); G2: coffee; G3: cola soft drink; G4: wine; G5: mate tea; and G6: industrialized açaí. The samples were subjected to immediate bleaching using 35% hydrogen peroxide for 21 days (three applications of 15 minutes per session, every seven days) and pigment immersion between each session for 15 minutes. The color was assessed before starting bleaching and after 21 days, using a spectrophotometer. The data obtained were subjected to one-way ANOVA and heteroscedasticity analysis by the Welch and Brown-Forsythe tests. The Tamhane test was used for group comparison. Result: The color change was visible to the naked eye, considering the mean ΔE in all groups tested was higher than 3.7. However, there was no statistical difference between the control group and the groups assessed. Conclusion: The contact of staining agents on bovine tooth enamel did not affect the final result of the immediate tooth bleaching.


Introdução: Com o aumento da procura por procedimentos estéticos, dúvidas surgem quanto à manutenção e regressão de cor, especialmente, no que tange a necessidade de restrição quanto à alimentos escuros durante o procedimento clareador ou a sua influência quanto à estabilidade e eficácia do tratamento. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência de agentes pigmentantes sobre o esmalte dental durante o tratamento clareador imediato com peróxido de hidrogênio a 35%. Material e método: 60 dentes bovinos foram divididos em 6 grupos (G) (n=10): G1: água destilada (controle), G2: café, G3: refrigerante à base de cola, G4: vinho, G5: chá-mate, e G6: açaí industrializado. As amostras foram submetidas ao clareamento imediato utilizando peróxido de hidrogênio a 35% durante 21 dias (3 aplicações de 15 minutos por sessão a cada 7 dias) e submetidas à imersão dos pigmentos entre cada sessão durante 15 minutos. A avaliação da cor foi realizada antes do inicio do clareamento e após 21 dias, mediante o uso do espectrofotômetro. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao ANOVA one-way e análise de heterocedasticidade pelos testes de Welch e Brown-Forsythe. O teste de Tamhane foi utilizado para a comparação entre os grupos. Resultado: Houve alteração de cor visível ao olho nu, uma vez que a média de ΔE em todos os grupos testados foi maior que 3,7. Contudo, não houve diferença estatística entre o grupo controle em relação aos grupos avaliados. Conclusão: O contato de agentes pigmentantes no esmalte dental bovino não influenciou o resultado final do clareamento dental imediato.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Tooth Bleaching , Pigmentation , Cattle , Spectrophotometers , Dental Enamel , Coloring Agents , Hydrogen Peroxide , Analysis of Variance , Color
18.
Arq. odontol ; 56: 1-8, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1087806

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:O objetivo do estudo foi verificar, in vitro, a alteração de cor da resina composta Beautiful-Bulk®, exposta aos líquidos pigmentantes. Métodos:Foram confeccionados 60 espécimes da resina (15,0 mm de diâmetro e 1,0 mm de espessura, n = 5) nas cores A2, B2 e C2. Os espécimes foram mantidos em uma sala escura por sete dias, em ambiente seco, a 37 °C e, em seguida, foram fotografados com aparelho celular iPhone 6S®. Os espécimes foram divididos aleatoriamente e submetidos a ciclos de imersão em quatro líquidos: água destilada (controle), suco de açaí, Coca-Cola® e molho de tomate. As imersões foram realizadas em sete e quatorze dias de forma cíclica, após a confecção dos espécimes, três vezes ao dia, durante 20 minutos. Ao fim de cada ciclo, novas fotografias foram realizadas. As imagens foram analisadas no programa Adobe Photoshop® e os dados convertidos em L*a*b através de um histograma. A variação de cor (∆E) foi analisada pela escala CIE-Lab. Resultados:A análise dos resultados (One-way ANOVA, Teste de Tukey, p < 0,05) demonstrou que o grupo controle produziu maior alteração de cor (p < 0,05) em sete e quatorze dias na cor A2. A cor B2, no ciclo de quatorze dias, apresentou maior alteração de cor (p < 0,05) para os espécimes imersos em molho de tomate sem diferença estatística (p > 0,05) do controle. Para a cor C2, os espécimes imersos em molho de tomate tiveram maior alteração de cor (p < 0,05) em sete dias. Conclusão:Conclui-se que todas as substâncias pigmentantes e a água destilada foram capazes de produzir grandes alterações de cor na resina Beautifil Bulk®. Existe uma interação significativa entre a cor da resina e agentes pigmentantes.


Aim: This study sought to verify, in vitro, the color change of the nanoparticle composite resin, Beautiful Bulk®, exposed directly to pigmented liquids. Methods: Sixty test specimens were made in a Metal matrix (15.0 mm X 1.0 mm) using composite resin (n = 5) in colors A2, B2, and C2. The specimens were photographed with a smartphone (iPhone 6S®) seven days after the preparation. The specimens were kept in the dark for seven days, dry, at 37°C. The specimens were then randomly divided and immersed in four liquids: distilled water (control), açaí juice, Coca-Cola®, and tomato sauce. The immersions were performed in seven and fourteen days cyclically, three times a day, for 20 minutes. At the end of each immersion cycle, new photographs were taken with the same smartphone. The images were analyzed in the Adobe Photoshop® program, and the data was converted to L* a* b* through a histogram. The color variation (∆E) was analyzed by the CIE-Lab scale. Results: Analysis of the results (Tukey's test, p < 0.05) showed that the control group produced a greater color change (p < 0.05) in seven and fourteen days in the A2 shade. The B2 shade, in fourteen days, showed a greater color change (p < 0.05) for the specimens immersed in tomato sauce with no statistical difference (p > 0.05) of the control. For the C2 shade, the specimens immersed in tomato sauce presented a greater color change (p < 0.05) at seven days. Conclusion: It could therefore be concluded that there is a significant interaction between the composite resin and pigment agents. All pigmented substances produced color changes in the composite resin.


Subject(s)
Resins, Synthetic , Pigmentation , Color , Composite Resins , Dental Materials , Immersion
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1497-1505, set.-out. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038655

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to microscopically re-evaluate the melanocytic lesions diagnoses established by the Animal Pathology Laboratory of the Federal University of Uberlândia, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, over a period of eleven years; in addition, to perform a comparative analysis between the conventional histopathological (CH) method and the use of the melanin bleaching (MB) technique with potassium permanganate, sulfuric acid, and oxalic acid solutions. The results of the MB method presented a disagreement in 24.32% of the diagnosis previously by CH, with low agreement (61.0%) and low Kappa coefficient (0.2267). Melanoma was the most frequent lesion, more frequent in elderly and non-breed female dogs. The most frequent melanoma location was in the cutaneous tissue. The presence or absence of a pagetoid spread in cutaneous samples, distribution of melanin, pattern of cell layout, cell morphology, degree of cellular atypia, and the number of mitoses verified after MB were the most important criteria to confirm the diagnosis of malignancy or benignity of the lesions. Evaluating pathologists considered MB to be essential for the majority of diagnoses and an efficient complementary method for the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions, even in cases with a moderate degree of pigmentation.(AU)


Este estudo objetivou reavaliar microscopicamente os diagnósticos de lesões melanocíticas estabelecidos pelo setor de Patologia Animal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, em um período de 11 anos, e, com base nesse levantamento, realizar uma análise comparativa entre o método histopatológico convencional (HC) e o método de despigmentação de melanócitos (DM) com permanganato de potássio, ácido sulfúrico e ácido oxálico. A DM revelou discordância em 24,32% dos diagnósticos previamente estabelecidos por HC, apresentando baixa concordância (61,0%) e baixo valor de coeficiente Kappa (0,2267). A alteração mais frequente foi o melanoma, com maior ocorrência em cadelas idosas sem raça definida (SRD). A localização mais frequente dos melanomas foi cutânea. A presença ou ausência de disseminação pagetoide nos casos cutâneos, a forma de distribuição da melanina, o padrão de disposição das células, a morfologia celular, o grau de atipia celular e a quantidade de mitoses verificada após a despigmentação foram critérios de elevada importância para firmar o diagnóstico quanto à malignidade ou benignidade da lesão. A despigmentação foi considerada pelos patologistas avaliadores como essencial para o diagnóstico na maioria dos casos, o que leva a concluir que ela constitui um método complementar eficiente no diagnóstico das lesões melanocíticas, mesmo em casos com grau moderado de pigmentação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Potassium Permanganate/pharmacology , Pigmentation , Melanocytes/cytology , Melanocytes/pathology
20.
Medisan ; 23(2)mar.-abr. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002638

ABSTRACT

Se describe el caso clínico de una paciente de 28 años de edad, quien acudió a la consulta de atención integral de la Clínica Estomatológica Provincial Docente Mártires del Moncada de Santiago de Cuba por presentar cambio de color en un diente anterosuperior izquierdo. Se indicó radiografía periapical que mostró tratamiento pulpo radicular en ese diente. Se decidió realizar la técnica de blanqueamiento para discromía de origen orgánico en 3 o 4 sesiones. Se obtuvo el resultado esperado y la paciente quedó satisfecha.


The case report of a 28 year-old patient who went to the comprehensive care service of Mártires del Moncada Provincial Teaching Stomatological Clinic in Santiago de Cuba for presenting a change of color in the anterosuperior left tooth is described. Periapical X-ray was indicated that showed pulpar radicular treatment in that tooth. It was decided to carry out the blenching technique for dyschromia of organic origin for 3 or 4 sessions. The expected result was obtained and the patient was satisfied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Tooth Bleaching , Pigmentation , Esthetics, Dental , Fluorosis, Dental
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