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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e237412, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355854


Abstract Only few studies have focus on animals that received Pilocarpine (Pilo) and did not develop behavioral status epilepticus (SE) and, whether they may become epileptic in the model's chronic phase. Previews works observed mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus of Non-SE (NSE) rats, while others observed spontaneous and recurrent seizures (SRS) 6 - 8 months after animals received Pilo. It is known that neuronal excitability is influenced by female hormones, as well as, the occurrence of SE in castrated and non-castrated female rats. However, it is not known whether females that received Pilo and did not show SE, may have SRS. The aim of this work was to investigate whether castrated and non-castrated female rats that did not show behavioral SE after Pilo, will develop SRS in the following one-year. For that, animals received 360 mg/kg of Pilo and were video monitored for 12 months. SE females from castrated and non-castrated groups became epileptic since the first month after drug injection. Epileptic behaviors were identified watching video monitoring recordings in the fast speed. Castrated and Non-castrated NSE animals showed behaviors resembling seizures described by Racine Scale stages 1 - 3. Motor alterations showed by NSE groups could be observed only when recordings were analyzed in slow speed. In addition, behavioral manifestations as, rhythmic head movements, sudden head movements, whole body movements and immobility were also observed in both, SE and NSE groups. We concluded that NSE female rats may have become epileptic. Adding to it, slow speed analysis of motor alterations was essential for the observation of NSE findings, which suggests that possibly many motor alterations have been underestimated in epilepsy experimental research.

Resumo Poucos são os estudos com foco em animais que receberam Pilocarpina (Pilo) e não desenvolveram status epilepticus (SE) comportamental e, se os mesmos se tornarão epilépticos na fase crônica do modelo. Autores observaram o brotamento das fibras musgosas no hipocampo de ratos Não-SE (NSE), enquanto outros observaram crises espontâneas e recorrentes (CER) 6 - 8 meses após receberam a droga. A excitabilidade neuronal é influenciada pelos hormônios femininos e, da mesma forma, a ocorrência de SE em ratas castradas e não-castradas. Entretanto, não é sabido se as fêmeas que não apresentam SE terão CER. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar se fêmeas castradas e não castradas que não tiveram SE comportamental após a injeção de Pilo desenvolverão CER dentro de um ano. Para isto, os animais receberam 360 mg/kg de Pilo e foram videomonitorados por 12 meses. As fêmeas SE castradas e não-castradas se tornaram epilépticas desde o primeiro mês pós Pilo. O comportamento epiléptico foi identificado assistindo as gravações na velocidade rápida. As fêmeas NSE castradas e não-castradas apresentaram comportamentos similares aos estágios 1 - 3 da Escala de Racine. As alterações motoras nestes grupos (NSE) foram observadas apenas quando as videomonitoração foi analisada na velocidade lenta. Além destas, manifestações comportamentais como movimentos rítmicos da cabeça, movimentos súbitos da cabeça, movimentos de todo o corpo e imobilidade também foram observadas em ambos grupos, SE e NSE. Concluímos que as fêmeas NE podem ter se tornado epilépticas. Adicionado a isto, a análise das alterações motoras na velocidade lenta foi essencial para a observação dos achados das fêmeas NSE, o que sugere que possivelmente muitas alterações motoras têm sido subestimados na pesquisa em epilepsia experimental.

Animals , Female , Rats , Pilocarpine/toxicity , Seizures/chemically induced , Status Epilepticus/chemically induced , Rats, Wistar , Muscarinic Agonists/toxicity , Models, Theoretical
Rev. invest. clín ; 71(2): 116-123, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289677


Abstract Background Adenosine A1 receptor (AA1R) is widely present in the central nervous system, exerting brain protective antiepileptic effects, mainly by binding corresponding G proteins. We evaluated the neuroprotective effects of AA1R on hippocampal neuronal injury after lithium chloride-pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in rats. Materials and Methods A total of 60 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 15/group): normal control, epilepsy, epilepsy + AA1R antagonist (DPCPX), and epilepsy + AA1R agonist (2-CAdo). An epilepsy model was established through kindling by lithium chloride-pilocarpine. The four groups were observed on days 1, 14, and 30. Pathological and morphological changes of hippocampal neurons were observed by HE staining; apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. Caspase-3 and GABA receptor expressions were detected by Western blot. Results In the hippocampal CA3 area of the epilepsy group, the cellular structure was not neatly arranged, and some neurons were swelling, thick, and incomplete. Compared with the epilepsy group at the same time point, cells in the epilepsy + DPCPX group had an increased distortion, disorganization, edema, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and degeneration. In the epilepsy + 2-CAdo group, cell arrangement was regular and orderly, and structural damages were lessened. Compared with the normal control group at the same time point, the epilepsy group underwent evident neuronal apoptosis, with a significantly higher apoptotic index (AI) (p < 0.05). Compared with the epilepsy group, the neuronal apoptosis of the epilepsy + DPCPX group was boosted, and the AI significantly increased (p < 0.05). The neuronal apoptosis of the epilepsy + 2-CAdo group was inhibited, and the AI significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Compared with the epilepsy group, the caspase-3 expression levels of the epilepsy + DPCPX group on days 14 and 30 were significantly upregulated (p < 0.05), but those of the epilepsy + 2-CAdo group were significantly downregulated (p < 0.05). Conclusions AA1R abated cell edema and reduced apoptosis, exerting neuroprotective effects on hippocampal neuronal injury after lithium chloride-pilocarpine-induced epilepsy.

Animals , Male , Rats , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Pilocarpine/toxicity , Time Factors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Lithium Chloride/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/pathology , Neurons/pathology
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Jan; 53(1): 31-35
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154989


Argemone mexicana (L.) has a role in the treatment of epileptic disorders in Indian traditional system of medicine. We studied its effect on induced status epilepticus (SE) and oxidative stress in rats. SE was induced in male albino rats by administration of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, ip) 24 h after injection of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg, ip). Different doses of the ethanol extract of A. mexicana were administered orally 1 h before the injection of pilocarpine. The severity of SE was observed and recorded every 15 min for 90 min and thereafter at every 30 min for another 90 min, using the Racine scoring system. In vivo lipid peroxidation of rat brain tissue was measured utilizing thiobarbiturate-reactive substances. Both in vitro free radical nitric oxide and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl scavenging activities of the extract were also determined. The SE severity was significantly reduced following oral administration of the extract at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses. None of the animals from groups 3 to 5 (with A. mexicana extract) have exhibited forelimb clonus of stage 4 seizure. The extract also exhibited both in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities.

Animals , Argemone/chemistry , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Lithium Compounds/toxicity , Male , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pilocarpine/toxicity , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Status Epilepticus/chemically induced , Status Epilepticus/prevention & control
Bulletin of Alexandria Faculty of Medicine. 2006; 42 (1): 207-213
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-165950


Excitotoxic brain lesions, such as epilepsy, lead to increasing destruction of neurons, in the course of few hours after the insult. The deadly cascade of events possibly involves detrimental actions by free radicals, proinflammatory cytokines and the activation of pro-apoptotic transcription factors, which finally result in neuronal destruction. Several reports suggest that the level of some trace elements play a vital role in seizure conditions to prevail. The aim of the present study was to assess the possible modulatory role of the trace elements, selenium and zinc on pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in rats.The study was carried out on 40 male albino rats, weighing 150-200 grams that were divided into the following groups each of 10 rats: Group I: control rats that received intraperitoneal [i.p.] saline, Group II: pilocarpine induced epilepsy, Group 111: selenium pretreated for 3 weeks before pilocarpine injection and Group IV: zinc pretreated for 3 weeks before pilocarpine injection. The seizure latency and severity for each rat was recorded. Twenty four hours following pilocarpine injection, rats were exsanguinated and the following parameters were determined: cerebral caspase-3 activity [as a marker of apoptosis], interleukin-lbeta [IL-ljB], reduced glutathione [GSH] and malondialdehyde [MDA] concentrations, serum neuron specific enolase[NSE] concentration [as a marker of brain injury].Intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine in rats resulted in progression to limbic seizures with progressing behavioural scores at various time intervals [recorded every 30 minutes up to 2 hours]. Latency to forelimb clonus was 51.86 +/- 1.89 min. The results of the present study demonstrated significantly increased cerebral MDA concentration together with significant decrease in cerebral GSH concentration in non-treated pilocarpine injected rats compared to normal control rats. A significant increase in cerebral caspase-3 activity, and in cerebral 1L-1/beta as well as in serum NSE concentrations could be observed in non-treated pilocarpine-injected rats compared to normal control rats. Pretreatment with selenium or zinc reduced the severity of pilocarpine- induced seizures. In addition, both trace elements decreased the latency to attain the forelimb clonus [score 4]. A significant decrease in cerebral MDA and IL-1/beta, serum NSE concentrations could be observed in selenium and zinc-treated rats compared to non-treated pilocarpine-injected rats. A significant' increase in cerebral GSH concentration was observed in zinc-treated, but not in selenium-treated ones.The results of the present study confirm the role of the trace elements, selenium and zinc, in mitigating epilepsy. Further human studies to evaluate the role of trace elements in epilepsy are recommended. Furthermore, since antiepileptic drugs [AEDs] are reported to induce zinc and selenium deficiency,thus combining these trace elements with AEDs are worthy to be evaluated

Animals, Laboratory , Selenium , Zinc , Pilocarpine , Pilocarpine/toxicity , Rats