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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246825, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285634

ABSTRACT

Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Piper nigrum (black pepper) leaf extract on on the growth performance, proximate composition, hematological parameters, and immune response of Labeo rohita fingerlings with an average weight of 22.14 ± 0.98g. Aftrer acclimation for two weeks, fish (n=25) were randomly selected and placed in four glass aquaria (T0, T1, T2 and T3) at constant water temperature (30.0 ± 1.0 °C), pH (7.50 ± 0.5) and total hardness (200 ± 2.0 mgL,-1) for a period of 12 weeks, with three replicates each. Fish were fed with P. nigrum leaf extract supplemented feed @ 0.0%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% in T0, T1,T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experiment, five fish were randomly selected from each aquaria for proximate composition, gut and skin microbial load, hematological parameters. Total proteins, albumins, and globulins were also recorded to evaluate immunological memory. The result revealed that fish in T2 showed better growth performance with an average weight gain of 56.11 ± 0.51 g. Thus, it had been concluded that Piper nigrum, a medicinal plant, can also be used to enhance the growth performance and immune response of Labeo rohita as attractive alternatives against antibiotics and vaccines and has shown no negative side effects on fish health as well as on its environment.


Resumo Um estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito do extrato da folha de Piper nigrum (pimenta-do-reino) sobre o desempenho de crescimento, composição centesimal, parâmetros hematológicos e resposta imune de alevinos de Labeo rohita com peso médio de 22,14 ± 0,98g. Após aclimatação por duas semanas, os peixes (n = 25) foram selecionados aleatoriamente e colocados em quatro aquários de vidro (T0, T1, T2 e T3) em temperatura constante da água (30,0 ± 1,0 °C), pH (7,50 ± 0,5) e dureza total (200 ± 2,0 mgL-1) por um período de 12 semanas, com três repetições cada. Os peixes foram alimentados com ração suplementada com extrato de folha de P. nigrum @ 0,0%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 3,0% em T0, T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, cinco peixes foram selecionados aleatoriamente de cada aquário para composição centesimal, carga microbiana intestinal e cutânea e parâmetros hematológicos. Proteínas totais, albuminas e globulinas também foram registradas para avaliar a memória imunológica. O resultado revelou que os peixes em T2 apresentaram melhor desempenho de crescimento com ganho de peso médio de 56,11 ± 0,51 g. Assim, concluiu-se que Piper nigrum, uma planta medicinal, também pode ser usado para melhorar o desempenho de crescimento e resposta imunológica de Labeo rohita como alternativas atraentes contra antibióticos e vacinas e não mostrou efeitos colaterais negativos na saúde dos peixes, bem como sobre seu ambiente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyprinidae , Piper nigrum , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , Diet
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-10, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364028

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Evaluation of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts of C. longa, P. nigrum and C. cyminum. In addition to proposing a quantum-mechanical model to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Methods: The aqueous extracts were prepared using roots of the Curcuma longa L., seeds of the Piper nigrum L. and seeds of Cuminum cyminum. The extracts were subjected to tests to detect and quantify phenolic compounds and to assess their antioxidant capacity by different methods. Furthermore, to investigate the electronic nature of the antioxidant activity of the main compounds present in these extracts, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) were obtained by the DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. Results: After statistical analysis of the results, a greater number of phenolic compounds and better antioxidant activity was identified in the aqueous extracts of cumin (C. cyminum) in all three assays performed, when compared to the other extracts tested. The theoretical model based on the Pietro method is in agreement with the experimental results. Conclusion: This study has an innovative proposal with the trivial antioxidant activity combined with theoretical quantum-mechanical calculations that can serve to reduce costs and time and to predict the antioxidant activity of subsequent studies.


Objetivos: avaliar os compostos fenólicos e atividades antioxidantes dos extratos aquosos de C. longa, P. nigrum e C. cyminum bem como propor um modelo quanto-mecânico para avaliar a atividade antioxidante. Métodos: os extratos aquosos foram preparados por meio da utilização de raízes de Curcuma longa L., sementes de Piper nigrum L. e sementes de Cuminum cyminum. Os extratos foram submetidos a ensaios para detectar e quantificar compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante por diferentes métodos. Além disso, com objetivo de investigar a natureza eletrônica da atividade antioxidante dos principais compostos presentes nesses extratos, orbitais moleculares de fronteira (OMFs) foram obtidos pelo nível de teoria DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p). Resultados: após as análises estatísticas dos resultados, a maior quantidade de compostos fenólicos com maior atividade antioxidante foi identificada no extrato aquoso do cominho (C. cyminum) em todos os ensaios realizados, quando comparados com os outros extratos testados. O modelo teórico baseado no método de Pietro está concordante com os resultados experimentais. Conclusão: este estudo possui uma proposta inovadora com a atividade antioxidante trivial combinada com cálculos quanto-mecânicos que podem servir para reduzir custos e tempo para predizer a atividade antioxidante de estudos futuros.


Subject(s)
Piper nigrum , Curcuma , Phytochemicals , Border Areas , Phenolic Compounds , Density Functional Theory , Antioxidants
3.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 80(Único): e37287, dez. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1367628

ABSTRACT

Especiarias são produtos constituídos de partes de espécies vegetais com importante valor alimentício e diversos benefícios para a saúde. O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar adulterações na composição de cúrcuma (Curcuma longa Linnaeus), gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), noz-moscada (Myristica fragrans Houttuyn), páprica (Capsicum annuum Linnaeus), pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) e colorífico (mistura de urucum, Bixa orellana Linnaeus, com fubá). Foram analisadas 180 amostras adquiridas em municípios do estado de São Paulo. A investigação dos elementos histológicos foi feita por microscopia óptica, a análise dos corantes por cromatografia em papel e a quantificação da bixina por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Das amostras analisadas, 16,1% apresentaram elementos histológicos estranhos ao produto, sendo que nenhuma amostra apresentou corante orgânico artificial. A concentração de bixina nas amostras de colorífico variou entre 0,6 e 105,3 mg/100g, com média de 18,9 mg/100g e desvio padrão de 17,7 mg/100g. A avaliação microscópica revelou que a maioria das adulterações ocorre pela adição de amido de Zea mays. O colorífico não apresentou adulterações, porém foi constatada a necessidade de uma padronização da concentração de bixina. Este estudo demonstrou a necessidade da intensificação do monitoramento de adulterações em especiarias para que a comercialização de alimentos fidedignos seja garantida. (AU)


Spices are products made up of parts of plant species, with important nutritional value and many health benefits. The aim of this work was to evaluate adulterations in turmeric (Curcuma longa Linnaeus), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houttuyn), paprika (Capsicum annuum Linnaeus), black pepper (Piper nigrumLinnaeus) and colorific (mixture containing Bixa orellana with cornmeal). A total of 180 samples purchased in the municipalities of the state of São Paulo were analyzed. The investigation of the histological elements was performed by optical microscopy, the analysis of the dyes was carried out using paper chromatography and the quantification of the bixin was performance by high performance liquid chromatography. Of the 180 samples analyzed, 16.1% presented strange histological elements, classified as adulterations. Among the adulterated samples, none showed organic dye. Bixin analysis was carried out on colorific samples, ranging from 0.6 ­ 105.3 mg/100g, with an average of 18.9 mg/100g and standard deviation of 17.7 mg/100g, demonstrating the need to regulate the annatto extract concentration range added into the condiment. The evaluation demonstrated the necessity to monitor adulteration in spices, so that producers and merchants provide food with quality to the consumer. (AU)


Subject(s)
Food Contamination/analysis , Spices/analysis , Brazil , Capsicum , Chromatography , Ginger , Myristica , Piper nigrum , Curcuma , Colorant , Fraud , Microscopy
4.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 80(Único): e37291, dez. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1367543

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de matérias estranhas em noz-moscada, (Myristica fragrans Houttuyn), cúrcuma (Curcuma longa Linnaeus), gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), colorífico (mistura de urucum [Bixa orellana Linnaeus] com fubá), pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) e páprica (Capsicum annuum Linnaeus) conforme a legislação sanitária. Foram analisadas 180 amostras empregando os métodos preconizados pela AOAC International, de maio de 2018 a maio de 2020. A presença de ao menos uma matéria estranha foi observada em 80% das amostras. Pelos animais foram observados em todos os produtos e fragmentos de insetos foram encontrados na maioria das amostras. Ácaro, inseto inteiro, larva de inseto, bárbula e exúvia também foram encontrados, além de fibras sintéticas e fragmentos de microplásticos. Quanto à legislação, 47,8% das amostras estavam acima dos limites de tolerância, destas, 90,7% por conterem matérias estranhas indicativas de falhas na aplicação das boas práticas e 9,3% por matérias estranhas indicativas de risco à saúde. Os resultados obtidos denotam ineficiência da aplicação das medidas de boas práticas na cadeia produtiva e alertam para a intensificação da fiscalização direcionada ao cumprimento das normas sanitárias, além de provocarem a reflexão sobre a necessidade de alterações na legislação referente às matérias estranhas. (AU)


The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of foreign matter in nutmeg, (Myristica fragrans Houttuyn), turmeric (Curcuma longa Linnaeus), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), colorific (mixture of annatto [Bixa orellana Linnaeus] with cornmeal), black pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) and paprika (Capsicum annuum Linnaeus) according to the health legislation. A total of 180 samples were analyzed using the methods recommended by AOAC International, from May 2018 to May 2020. The presence of at least one foreign matter was observed in 80% of the samples. Animal's hairs were observed in all the evaluated products and insect's fragments were found in the most of the samples. Mites, whole insects, insect larvae, barbules and exuvia were also found, as wellas synthetic fibers and microplastic fragments. About legislation, 47.8% of the samples were above the tolerance limits, of these, 90.7% for containing foreign matters indicating failure of good practices and 9.3% for foreign matters indicating health risk. The results obtained show inefficiency in the application of good practice measures in production chain and advertise for the intensification of inspection directed to fulfillment of sanitary norms, besides provoking the reflection on the necessity of alterations in the legislation about foreign matter in foods. (AU)


Subject(s)
Food Contamination/analysis , Food Quality , Spices , Legislation, Food , Brazil , Food Contamination/legislation & jurisprudence , Ginger , Myristica , Piper nigrum , Curcuma , Colorant , Microscopy
5.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 79: 1-8, 31 mar. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1291814

ABSTRACT

A ausência de Boas Práticas de Fabricação durante a colheita, processamento e manuseio da pimenta-do-reino pode acarretar a contaminação do produto com sujidades microscópicas e microrganismos. Foram analisadas 227 amostras de pimenta-do-reino, comercializadas em Minas Gerais, coletadas entre 2008 e 2018, quanto à presença de fragmentos de pelo de roedor e de insetos, coliformes a 45°C ou Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp. Para verificar se havia correlação entre os contaminantes, foi empregado método estatístico de regressão linear múltipla. As análises microscópicas evidenciaram presença de fragmentos de pelo de roedor e de insetos em 26,0% e 30,5% das amostras, respectivamente, em valores superiores ao limite tolerado pela RDC 14/2014. Quanto às análises microbiológicas, 10% das amostras apresentaram coliformes a 45°C ou E. coli acima dos limites tolerados pela RDC 12/2001 e em 8,8% das amostras foi detectada presença de Salmonella spp. A avaliação estatística mostrou que houve correlação entre presença de fragmentos de insetos e de pelos de roedor e a contaminação por Salmonella spp. em pimenta-do-reino. Os resultados demonstraram a importância das análises microscópica e microbiológica simultaneamente para detecção dos contaminantes presentes bem como das possíveis relações existentes entre eles e a melhor compreensão dos fatores que favorecem as contaminações. (AU)


The absence of Good Manufacturing Practices during harvesting, processing and handling of black pepper can lead to contamination of the product with microscopic dirt and microrganisms. Two hundred and twenty seven black pepper samples, commercialized in Minas Gerais, collected between 2008 and 2018, were analyzed for the presence of rodent and insect fragments, coliforms at 45°C or Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. To verify whether there was a correlation between the contaminants, a statistical method of multiple linear regression was used. Microscopic analysis showed the presence of rodent and insect fragments in 26.0% and 30.5% of the samples, respectively, in values above the limit tolerated by RDC14/2014. As for the microbiological analysis, 10% of the samples presented coliforms at 45°C or E.coli above the limits tolerated by the RDC 12/2001 and in 8.8% of the samples Salmonella spp. were detected. The statistical evaluation showed that there was a relationship between the presence of insect fragments and rodent hair and contamination by Salmonella spp. in black pepper. The results demonstrated the importance of simultaneous microscopic and microbiological analysis to detect the contaminants present, as well as the possible relationships between them and better understanding of the factors that favor contamination. (AU)


Subject(s)
Salmonella , Food Quality , Piper nigrum , Food Analysis , Food Microbiology , Rodentia , Correlation of Data
6.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 255-260, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760563

ABSTRACT

Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae), which is a well-known food seasoning, has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia in Korea, China and Japan. Methanol extract from the fruit of P. nigrum was successively partitioned as n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and H₂O soluble fractions. Among those fractions the ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed the most potent DPPH radical scavenging activity, and piperine was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. To know the antioxidant activity of piperine, we tested the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase together with oxidative stress tolerance and intracellular ROS level in Caenorhabditis elegans. To investigate whether piperine-mediated increased stress tolerance was due to regulation of stress-response gene, we quantified SOD-3 expression using transgenic strain including CF1553. Consequently, piperine enhanced SOD and catalase activities of C. elegans, and reduced intracellular ROS accumulation in a dose–dependent manner. Moreover, piperine-treated CF1553 worms exhibited significantly higher SOD-3::GFP intensity.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Abdominal Pain , Anorexia , Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis , Catalase , China , Diarrhea , Fruit , Japan , Korea , Medicine, Traditional , Methanol , Methylene Chloride , Oxidative Stress , Piper nigrum , Piper , Seasons , Superoxide Dismutase , Vomiting
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 463-470, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951805

ABSTRACT

Abstract Employing Illumina Hiseq whole genome metagenome sequencing approach, we studied the impact of Trichoderma harzianum on altering the microbial community and its functional dynamics in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). The metagenomic datasets from the rhizosphere with (treatment) and without (control) T. harzianum inoculation were annotated using dual approach, i.e., stand alone and MG-RAST. The probiotic application of T. harzianum in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper impacted the population dynamics of rhizosphere bacteria, archae, eukaryote as reflected through the selective recruitment of bacteria [Acidobacteriaceae bacterium (p = 1.24e-12), Candidatus koribacter versatilis (p = 2.66e-10)] and fungi [(Fusarium oxysporum (p = 0.013), Talaromyces stipitatus (p = 0.219) and Pestalotiopsis fici (p = 0.443)] in terms of abundance in population and bacterial chemotaxis (p = 0.012), iron metabolism (p = 2.97e-5) with the reduction in abundance for pathogenicity islands (p = 7.30e-3), phages and prophages (p = 7.30e-3) with regard to functional abundance. Interestingly, it was found that the enriched functional metagenomic signatures on phytoremediation such as benzoate transport and degradation (p = 2.34e-4), and degradation of heterocyclic aromatic compounds (p = 3.59e-13) in the treatment influenced the rhizosphere micro ecosystem favoring growth and health of pepper plant. The population dynamics and functional richness of rhizosphere ecosystem in black pepper influenced by the treatment with T. harzianum provides the ecological importance of T. harzianum in the cultivation of black pepper.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/growth & development , Trichoderma/growth & development , Viruses/growth & development , Piper nigrum/microbiology , Biodiversity , Fungi/growth & development , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Trichoderma/isolation & purification , Trichoderma/genetics , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Ecosystem , Piper nigrum/growth & development , Rhizosphere , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(3): 727-743, mai/jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966987

ABSTRACT

Spices are natural plant products, have been used not only as flavoring and coloring agents, but also as food preservatives and folk medicines throughout the world for thousands of years. Many spices also have been recognized by having both digestive stimulant and carminative actions and also antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic potential. Antioxidant and genotoxic potential of species commonly used in Brazil was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different methods, including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing power (FRAP), iron ion chelating power, inhibition of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), NO radical scavenging, and oxidative hemolysis inhibition. Furthermore, the antigenotoxic activity was evaluated through mitotic index and chromosome aberration in Allium cepa roots. Quantification of total phenols and flavonoids carried out. The results with the Ocimum basilicum spices in the DPPH test showed activity (82.01%), FRAP (321.12 uM ET and iron chelating activity (94.18) and for the Cinnamomum zeylanicum spice in the TBARS test (18.52%) evaluated by different methods and mechanisms of inactivation of free radicals and according to the evaluation of genotoxicity by the Allium cepa test the spices do not present genotoxic effects.


As especiarias são produtos vegetais naturais, que foram utilizados não só como agentes aromatizantes e colorantes, mas também como conservantes de alimentos e medicamentos populares em todo o mundo há milhares de anos. Muitas especiarias também foram reconhecidas por ter estimulantes digestivos e ações carminativas e também potencial antimicrobiano, anti-inflamatório, antimutagênico e anticarcinogênico. O potencial antioxidante e genotóxico das espécies comumente utilizadas no Brasil foi avaliado. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada utilizando diferentes métodos, incluindo a atividade de eliminação de radicais DPPH, poder de redução férrica (FRAP), poder quelante de íons de ferro, inibição da peroxidação lipídica (TBARS), eliminação de radicais NO e inibição da hemólise oxidativa. Além disso, a atividade antigenotóxica foi avaliada através do índice mitótico e aberração cromossômica nas raízes do Allium cepa. Quantificação de fenóis totais e flavonoides realizados. Os resultados mostraram que as especiarias (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Origanum vulgare, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale e Ocimum basilicum) apresentaram atividade antioxidante avaliada por diferentes métodos e mecanismos de inativação de radicais livres e de acordo com a avaliação de genotoxicidade pelo teste Allium cepa as especiarias não apresentam efeitos genotóxicos.


Subject(s)
Spices , Cooking , Genotoxicity , Antioxidants , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Ocimum basilicum , Ginger , Piper nigrum , Origanum
9.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 22(1)ene.-mar. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901507

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Piper tuberculatum Jacq., popularmente conhecida como pimenta-longaou pimenta-d'Arda, é utilizada empiricamente no tratamento de doenças respiratórias (asma, bronquite e tosse) e digestivas (dores abdominais e diarreias). Na literatura é descrita com importantes atividades anti-inflamatória, antimicrobiana, antileucêmico e anti-helmíntica. Objetivos: avaliar a atividade moduladora do óleo essencial dos frutos de P. tuberculatum (OEPT) em associação com diferentes antibióticos frente à Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e Pseudomona aeruginosa. Metodos: Os frutos (frescos) de P. tuberculatum foram coletados em Barbalha/CE e submetidos à hidrodestilação em aparelho tipo Clevenger para ser extraído o óleo essencial, após a extração o óleo essencial foi tratado com sulfato de sódio anidro para eliminação da umidade residual. A avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e modulação (em resistência bacteriana) frente às cepas de S. aureus (SA358), E. coli (EC27) e P. aeruginosa (PA03) foram determinadas pelo método de microdiluição para identificar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), realizada em triplicata. CIM de ≤ 256 µg/mL foi considerado clinicamente relevante. Resultados: a atividade antibacteriana do OEPT exibiu um CIM de ≥ 1024 µg/mL contra as cepas de bactérias de padrão resistente a múltiplas drogas. Na avaliação da atividade moduladora, o OEPT antagonizou o efeito da amicacina contra E. coli e S. aureus, mas teve efeito sinérgico contra P. aeruginosa. Combinado com a getamicina o óleo exibiu antagonismo frente a E. coli, no entanto não apresentou resultado relevante contra S. aureas e P. aeruginosa. A associação do OEPT com o antibiótico imipenem resultou efeito mais relevante, apresentando sinergismo para todas as bactérias avaliadas, por outro lado, em associação com ciprofloxacino não apresentou efeito significante em relação ao controle. Conclusão: O OEPT apresentou uma melhor atividade quando associado ao imipenem frente todas as bactérias avaliadas, mostrando ser uma possível alternativa no desenvolvimento de novos fármacos com atividade antibacteriana advindos de produtos fitoterápicos(AU)


Introducción: Piper tuberculatum Jacq. popularmente conocida como pimenta-longa o pimenta-d'Arda, se utiliza empíricamente en el tratamiento de enfermedades respiratorias (asma, bronquitis y tos) y digestivas (dolor abdominal y diarrea). En la literatura es describe con importantes actividades antiinflamatorias, antimicrobianas, antileucémicas y antihelmínticas. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad moduladora de los aceites esenciales de frutos de P. tuberculatum (AEPT) en asociación con diferentes antibióticos contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli y Pseudomona aeruginosa. Metodología: los frutos (frescos) de P. tuberculatum fueron recolectados en Barbalha/CE y sometidos a hidrodestilación en un equipo Clevenger, para extraer el aceite essencial (AEPT), el cual, una vez extraído, fue tratado con sulfato de sodio anhidro para eliminar la humedad residual. Se evaluó su actividad antibacteriana contra las cepas de S. aureus (SA358), E. coli (EC27) y P. aeruginosas (PA03). Empleando el método de microdilución se determinó la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM), con tres réplicas por cada tratamiento. Un valor de CIM ≤ 256 µg/mL se considera clínicamente relevante. Resultados: la actividad antibacteriana del AEPT exhibió una CIM ≥ 1024 µg/mL contra las cepas estándar de bacterias resistentes a múltiples fármacos. En efecto, la actividad AEPT antagoniza el efecto de amikacina contra E. coli y S. aureus, pero tenía un efecto sinérgico contra P. aeruginosa. Combinado con la getamicina el aceite exhibió antagonismo contra E. coli, sin embargo no presentó resultado relevante ante S. aureus y P. aeruginosa. La asociación de AEPT con el antibiótico imipenem resultó el efecto más relevante, mostrando sinergismo frente a todas las bacterias evaluadas. Por el contrario, en asociación con ciprofloxacina no mostró ningún efecto significativo con respecto al control. Conclusión: el AEPT presentó una mejor actividad cuando se asoció a imipenem, frente todas las bacterias evaluadas, demostrando ser una posible alternativa en el desarrollo de nuevos fármacos con actividad antimicrobiana, a partir de productos herbarios(AU)


Introduction: Piper tuberculatum Jacq., commonly known as pimenta-longa or pimenta-d'Arda, is empirically used to treat respiratory conditions (asthma, bronchitis and coughing) and digestive disorders (abdominal pain and diarrhea). Reference may be found in the literature to outstanding antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antileukemic and antihelmintic activity. Objective: Evaluate the modulatory activity of essential oils from fruits of P. tuberculatum (AEPT) combined with various antibiotics againstStaphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomona aeruginosa. Methods: Fresh fruits of P. tuberculatum were collected in Barbalha, CE, and subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger set to extract the essential oil (AEPT). The oil extracted was then treated with anhydrous sodium sulfate to eliminate residual humidity. Antibacterial activity was evaluated against strains of S. aureus (SA358), E. coli (EC27) and P. aeruginosas (PA03). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution method, with three replications for each treatment. A MIC ≤ 256 µg/mL was considered to be clinically relevant. Results: Antibacterial activity of AEPT displayed a MIC of ≥1024 µg/mL against standard strains of multi-drug resistant bacteria. In fact, activity of AEPT antagonized the effect of amikacin against E. coli and S. aureus, but had a synergic effect against P. aeruginosa. Combined with gentamicin, the oil exhibited antagonism against E. coli, but no relevant result was obtained against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Combination of AEPT with the antibiotic imipenem had the most relevant effect, displaying synergism against all the bacteria evaluated. However, in combination with ciprofloxacin it did not show any significant effect with respect to the control. Conclusion: AEPT displayed better activity against all the bacteria evaluated when combined with imipenem, proving to be a possible alternative for the development of new herbal drugs with antimicrobial activity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Imipenem/therapeutic use , Piper nigrum/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 3(2): 149-156, jul.-dic. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-882973

ABSTRACT

Las especies del género Quercus son de importancia ecológica y económica dentro de los bosques donde se desarrollan. Pueden encontrarse desde zonas cálidas y secas hasta selvas lluviosas. Estos bosques, también son reconocidos por presentar alto grado de endemismo y gran número de interacciones ecológicas. Sin embargo, en Guatemala las especies de encino han sido poco estudiadas y están fuertemente amenazadas; a pesar de poseer un alto potencial para aprovechamiento, manejo y uso en la restauración de ecosistemas. Este estudio se orientó hacia la actualización de la riqueza y distribución geográfica de las especies de encino para Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz y Petén, a partir de la revisión de registros en herbarios nacionales, bases de datos en línea de herbarios extranjeros y colectas de campo. Se registraron 19 especies de encinos en Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz y Petén, nueve especies más de las reportadas previamente, actualizándose los rangos de distribución departamental de 18 especies a excepción de Quercus sapotifolia Liebm. De las especies registradas, 16 se encuentran con algún grado de amenaza, según el Listado de Especies Amenazadas y listas rojas de UICN. También se identificaron vacíos de información acerca de la distribución de estas especies dentro de remanentes boscosos importantes en los departamentos evaluados. Se espera que a partir de este estudio se incrementen los esfuerzos por comprenden la riqueza y distribución de las especies de encino para Guatemala.


Quercus species represent one of the genera with ecological and economic importance within the forests where they develop, since these can be found from warm and dry zones to rain forests. Oak forests also exhibit high endemism levels and a large number of ecological interactions. However, oak species in Guatemala have been briefly studied, although they represent a genus highly threatened and with a high potential for use, handling and ecosystem restoration. This study was oriented towards the actualization of richness and geographical distribution of the oak species in Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz and Peten from reviewing records in National Herbariums, online databases of foreign Herbariums and field collection. A total of 19 oak species in Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz and Peten were recorded, nine more species of those previously reported, updating the departmental distribution ranges of 18 species except Quercus sapotifolia Liebm. Of the species recorded, 16 were listed with some degree of threat according to the national List of Threatened Species and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Our results evidenced that the oak species were located in important forest remnants in all of the departments evaluated. It is expected from this study to increase the efforts to understand the oak species richness and species distributions patterns for Guatemala.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Pest Control , Phaseolus/growth & development , Agricultural Pests , Piper nigrum
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(6): 687-692, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829677

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The significant increase in dengue, Zika, and chikungunya and the resistance of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to major insecticides emphasize the importance of studying alternatives to control this vector. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled-release device containing Piper nigrum extract and to study its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. METHODS: Piper nigrum extract was produced by maceration, standardized in piperine, and incorporated into cotton threads, which were inserted into hydrogel cylinders manufactured by the extrusion of carrageenan and carob. The piperine content of the extract and thread reservoirs was quantified by chromatography. The release profile from the device was assessed in aqueous medium and the larvicidal and residual activities of the standardized extract as well as of the controlled-release device were examined in Aedes aegypti larvae. RESULTS The standardized extract contained 580mg/g of piperine and an LC50 value of 5.35ppm (24h) and the 3 cm thread reservoirs contained 13.83 ± 1.81mg of piperine. The device showed zero-order release of piperine for 16 days. The P. nigrum extract (25ppm) showed maximum residual larvicidal activity for 10 days, decreasing progressively thereafter. The device had a residual larvicidal activity for up to 37 days. CONCLUSIONS: The device provided controlled release of Piper nigrum extract with residual activity for 37 days. The device is easy to manufacture and may represent an effective alternative for the control of Aedes aegypti larvae in small water containers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Aedes/drug effects , Piper nigrum/chemistry , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems , Delayed-Action Preparations , Dengue/transmission , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
12.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(1): 35-43, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789077

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (amla) is used in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine and its major constituent is vitamin C which has effective free radical scavenging property. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity and the bioavailability profile of vitamin C in amla and its combinations with piperine and ginger in comparison to synthetic vitamin C using New Zealand rabbits. In vitro antioxidant activity studies of synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger were carried out using different models such as 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Nitric Oxide, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods, Total reductive capability and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity estimation. The study results showed that synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger possess significant in vitro antioxidant activity. For bioavailability studies, synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger 100 mg/kg, were administered orally and the serum samples were analyzed by HPLC at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. Bioavailability studies revealed that amla with piperine combination has higher concentration of vitamin C when compared to synthetic vitamin C. This is probably due to presence of piperine, which is a bioavailability enhancer. The present study supports the fact that amla with piperine combination can be an alternative to synthetic vitamin C.


RESUMO Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (amla) é utilizada na medicina Ayurveda, medicina da Índia antiga e seu principal constituinte é a vitamina C, que possui propriedade sequestrante de radicais livres. O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antioxidante in vitro e o perfil de biodisponibilidade da vitamina C na amla e suas combinações com piperina e gengibre em comparação com a vitamina C sintética, utilizando coelhos da Nova Zelândia. Os estudos de atividade antioxidante in vitro de vitamina C sintética, amla, amla com piperina e amla com gengibre foram realizados utilizando-se diferentes modelos para sequestrantes, como 2,2-difenil-1-picrilidrazil, óxido nítrico, peróxido de hidrogênio, capacidade redutiva total e a estimativa da capacidade de absorvância do radical oxigênio. Os resultados do estudo mostraram que vitamina C sintética, amla, amla com piperina e amla com gengibre possuem atividade antioxidante in vitro significativa. Para os estudos de biodisponibilidade, administraram-se oralmente vitamina C sintética, amla, amla com piperina e amla com gengibre 100 mg/kg e as amostras de soro foram analisadas por CLAE em 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 e 24 horas. Os estudos de biodisponibilidade revelaram que a associação de amla com piperina tem maior concentração de vitamina C, quando comparada com a vitamina C sintética. Este efeito é provavelmente devido à presença de piperina, que é intensificador de biodisponibilidade. O presente estudo apoia o fato de que a associação de amla e piperina pode ser uma alternativa para a vitamina C sintética.


Subject(s)
Rabbits , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Phyllanthus emblica , Piper nigrum , Antioxidants/pharmacokinetics , Ginger
13.
Hamdard Medicus. 2014; 57 (2): 38-49
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166483

ABSTRACT

In various Unani pharmacopoeias thousands of formulations are present which have been formulated by eminent physicians of Unani System of Medicine. The majority of these formulations are based on plant origin drugs and their efficacy may get altered as a result of seasonal variation, use of different drying methods, their storage conditions and microbiai contamination. To avoid these alterations, standardization of drugs is necessary especially in case of compound formulations the use of Standard Operating Procedures [SOPs] for their manufacturing is essential. It will help to prepare a formulation repeatedly with the same quality. The present study was designed to develop the SOP of a Unani pharmacopoeial formulation i.e., Habbc Gule Aak [HG]. Total eight batches of HG were prepared with different conditions i.e., binder, particle size, time of drying and temperature of drying'. All the eight batches of HG were evaluated thrice for the hardness, friability and disintegration time. The batch with minimum friability, hardness nearest to standard value and minimum disintegration time as per pharmacopoeias was selected as final batch and all conditions regarding powder size, binder, temperature of drying and time of drying used in the preparation of frnal batch were fixed as its Standard Operating Procedure. Out of eight batches the Batch No. 2 with 150 micron particle size [100 mesh sieve], mucilage of 30% w/w samaghe arabi [binder], dried at 80°C for 150 minutes was selected as final batch. The final batch showed minimum friability [0.05 +/- 0.01], hardness nearest to the standard value [4.59 +/- 0.30] and considerable disintegration time [33.67 +/- 0.33]. The resulting SOP will be helpful in setting the pharmacopoeial standards of HG and the methodology of the work will help in the development of SOPs for other Unani formulations too


Subject(s)
Calotropis , Phytotherapy , Piper nigrum , Ginger , Complex Mixtures , Medicine, Unani
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1785-1791, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-298010

ABSTRACT

This study is to explore the amelioration of piperine on chronic acute combining stress rat with depression-like behavior, visceral sensitivity, and its effect on the expression of serotonin (5-HT) and synaptophysin. Forty two SD rats were divided into seven groups: blank group, model group, piperine (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mgkg-1, ig) and imipramine (10 mgkg-1, ip) groups. The rat model of irritable bowel syndrome was established by chronic acute combining stress, and then to evaluate depression-like behavior and visceral sensitivity. The expressions of 5-HT and synaptophysin in the hippocampus and colon were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Western blotting, respectively. The duration of immobility of IBS rat in the forced swimming test had been significantly increased, the sucrose consumption of IBS rat had been reduced and visceral sensitivity was obviously elevated in the IBS model group as compared with those in the normal control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). As compared with those in the normal control group, the expression of 5-HT significantly decreased, 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio significantly increased in the hippocampus of IBS model group (P<0.05), but opposite presentations were noted in the colon (P<0.05). As compared with that in the normal control group, the synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus decreased significantly but obviously increased in the colon (P<0.05). Piperine improved the behavior of IBS rats, and reversed the levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA, and 5-HIAA/5-HT proportion in the hippocampus and colon (P<0.05); besides, they significantly reverse the synaptophysin level in the hippocampus and colon (P<0.05). The presence of depression and visceral sensitivity had been changed in IBS rats, with abnormal expression of 5-HT and synaptophysin in the brain-gut system. Piperine can ameliorate the changes of the behavior and regulation of serotonin and synaptophysin expression in IBS rat model.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Pharmacology , Animals , Benzodioxoles , Pharmacology , Colon , Metabolism , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid , Metabolism , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Metabolism , Male , Motor Activity , Piper nigrum , Chemistry , Piperidines , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Polyunsaturated Alkamides , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin , Metabolism , Synaptophysin , Metabolism
15.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 36-38, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-633740

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to validate the effectiveness of the ovicidal-larvicidal (OL) trap with the pelletized extracts of Piper nigrum L. in attracting female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes for oviposition and in reducing teh number of larvae hatched, thus preventing the emergence of adult mosquitoes. METHODS: The OL trap system containing the developed plant-based pellets from Piper nigrum L. was field tested in Marikina and Quezon City. Paired OL traps were installed outdoors in 150 selected houses in each city. The OL trap is composed of a black painted can, a small strip of lawanit (paddle) for oviposition and extracts of Piper nigrum L. as the ovicide-larvicide solution or plain water. Pelletized form of Piper nigrum L. was prepared by grinding the seeds then mixing it with 1% previously cooked starch solution at a ratio of 1:1 followed by extrusion and forming into pellets using a granulator then drying. The number of positive OL traps was recorded. Larval mortality and the Ovitrap Index were also determined. RESULTS: Four collections were made using the pelletized form in which 2,314 OL traps were collected. The OL traps with the pelletized form showed a 53.2% attraction which is significantly higher than that with water (p-value CONCLUSION: The overall results indicate that the developed OL trap system with Piper nigrum L. is effective in attracting Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The OL traps with extracts of Piper nigrum L. were also found to be lethal to larvae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes , Piper nigrum , Larva , Oviposition , Starch , Water , Cities , Desiccation , Seeds
16.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 71(1): 202-206, jan.-mar. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: lil-680433

ABSTRACT

Quatro tipos de condimentos, Bixa orellana L.(urucum), Cuminum cyminum L. (cominho), Curcumalonga L. (açafrão) e Piper nigrum L. (pimenta-do-reino), provenientes de feiras livres e de supermercados da cidade de Teresina-PI, Brasil, foram avaliados quanto à contaminação por fungos. Das 36 amostras analisadas, 28 (77,77%) apresentaram resultado positivo e 12 espécies fúngicas foram identificadas. Os valores das unidades formadoras de colônias por grama de produto (UFC/g) detectado nas amostras de condimentos comercializados nas feiras livres e industrializados foram maiores do que os do padrão federal de referência, variando de 8,6 × 103 a 1,3 × 105. Não houve diferença significativa entre esses valores. Aspergillus foi o gênero predominante, com seis espécies identificadas, seguido do gênero Penicillium (três espécies). Das amostras de corante, cominho e açafrão, provenientes das feiras livres, nos condimentos foram detectados os maiores valores de UFC/g, respectivamente, para as espécies Exserohilum mcginnisii, Absidia corymbifera e Aspergillus nidulans. Os condimentos analisados neste estudo mostraram a contaminação por fungos potencialmente patogênicos e produtores de micotoxinas, os quais podem constituir um risco para a saúde dos consumidores.


Subject(s)
Bixaceae , Condiments , Food Contamination , Cuminum , Piper nigrum
17.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 55-58, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-633789

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aqueous and pelletized admixture of Piper nigrum L. was evaluated for its oviposition response and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. METHODS: The aqueous and pelletized extract of Piper nigrum L. was prepared and first tested in the laboratory. Efficiency is evaluated using the mosquito-chamber test. A small-scale field test was also done to determine the oviposition response of the pepper extract to ovicidal-larvicidal (OL) traps. Larvicidal bioassay following the WHO standard protocols with slight modification at different concentrations was performed. RESULTS: Results of the mosquito chamber test in the laboratory showed that the aqueous solution exhibited an increasing rate of oviposition attraction of female Aedes aegypti to increasing rate of concentration with an average of 70% attraction at 1000 ppm as compared to 30% attraction to OL traps with water alone. The aqueous pepper-based solution and pelletized pepper solution at 1000 and 2000 ppm are considered attractants to Aedes mosquitoes. Both solutions have oviposition activity index (OAI) of > +0.3. It was also field tested on the 10 buildings within the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) compound. Results showed an oviposition ratio two times better in both the 1000 ppm concentration of the aqueous pepper-based solution and pelletized pepper solution as compared to the control. The positive ovitrap index was in the range of 78%-84% for both the aqueous pepper-based and pelletized pepper against water which is 70.0%. Larvicidal activity of the aqueous pepper-based solution against 3rd larval instars of Aedes aegypti at increasing dosages from 75mg/1 to 600 mg/I had an LCso of 127 mg/I and 395 mg/I for LC90 The LCso for the solution with pelletized pepper at the same dosing concentration is 117 mg/I with LC90 of 285 mg/1. The results also showed that these can be used to control larval instars of the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. CONCLUSION: The overall results indicate that the aqueous and pelletized extracts of Piper nigrum L. are effective in attracting the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes for oviposition and exhibit a larvicidal activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes , Piper nigrum , Larva , Oviposition , Water , Biological Assay
18.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(spe): 559-563, 2011. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-618331

ABSTRACT

O estabelecimento de espécies usadas como porta-enxerto, importantes na olericultura, podem ser multiplicadas por meio da estaquia com auxílio de fitorreguladores. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência do AIB no estabelecimento de espécies nativas do gênero Piper com potencial de uso como porta-enxerto de Piper nigrum. Estacas de P. Arboreum, P. amplum e P. sp foram submetidas a diferentes dosagens de AIB (0, 2000, 4000, 6000 e 8000 mg.L-1) e mantidas em estufa agrícola com irrigação intermitente com temperatura e umidade controlados. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3x5 (3 espécies de Piper x 5 dosagens de AIB) e composto por 3 repetições por tratamento, sendo cada parcela composta por 10 estacas. A avaliação foi realizada aos 45 dias de transplantio e as variáveis analisadas foram: índice de sobrevivência, número médio de folhas, número médio de brotos e comprimento médio do maior broto. A espécie Piper arboreum apresentou bons resultados referentes ao crescimento da parte aérea independentemente da concentração de AIB empregada.


The establishment of species used as rootstock, which are important in horticulture crop scan may be multiplied, with the aid of growth regulators, by cutting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of IBA on the establishment of native species of the genus Piper with potential use as rootstock of Piper nigrum. Cuttings of P. arboreum, P. amplum and P. sp were treated with different concentrations of IBA (0 ,2000, 4000, 6000 and 8000mg.L-1) and maintained in a greenhouse with intermittent irrigation, with the temperature and humidity controlled. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 3x5 plan (3 Piper species x5 doses of IBA) and comprising of three repetitions per treatment, each plot consisting of 10 cuttings. The evaluation was performed at 45 days of transplanting and the analyzed variables were: survival rate, the number of leaves, the number of shoots and the length of the largest shoot. The Piper arboretum species showed the best growth results for the aerial part independent of the IBA concentration used.


Subject(s)
Piper nigrum/growth & development , Piperaceae/growth & development , Fusariosis/prevention & control , Piper/growth & development
19.
Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2011; 7 (2): 89-95
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110408

ABSTRACT

Trace metals in eight different medicinal plants commonly available in Karachi namely Azadirachta indica [Neem], Syzygium aromaticum [Clove], Murraya koenigii [Curry Leaves], Trachyspermum ammi [Ajowan], Foeniculum vulgare [Fennal], Brassica oleracea [Cabbage], Brassica rapa [Turnip], and Pipper nigrum [Black pepper] have been quantitatively analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Flame Photometry. A wet digestion procedure involving the use of H[2]SO[4] [95%] and H[2]O[2] [35%] has been adopted to digest medicinal plants. Nine heavy metals [Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn] and two alkali metals [K and Na] were chosen on the basis of their effects upon health. In general the order of concentration of toxic metals in medicinal plants was found to follow the order Pb> Ni> Cr> Co> Cd. Sodium and Potassium content was found to be very high in all the samples. Concentration of sodium were recorded to be the highest in roots of Brassica rapa and Murraya koenigii i.e., more than 1000 micro g/g. Postassium concentrations are around 9038 micro g/g in Foeniculum vulgare. Plante samples of Trachyspermum ammi, leaves of Brassica rapa, and Foeniculum vulgare, Brassica oleracea [Cabbage], contained comparatively higher amounts of Fe i.e., > 100 micro g/g. Out of all toxic metals Lead is present at noticeable levels in all the samples that indicates higher soil pollution. Concentrations of Na, K and Mn and Cu are found to be very high in Brassica rapa roots as compared to its leaves while Fe levels are found to be high in leaves


Subject(s)
Trace Elements , Plants, Toxic , Toxins, Biological , Plants , Metals, Heavy , Azadirachta , Eugenia , Murraya , Foeniculum , Carum , Brassica , Brassica rapa , Piper nigrum , Spectrophotometry, Atomic
20.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 68(1): 96-101, jan.-abr. 2009. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-542100

ABSTRACT

A pimenta do reino deve ser colhida, processada, embalada em condições ideais para evitar a presença de matérias estranhas. Com o objetivo de avaliar as condições higiênicas da pimenta do reino em pó, comercializada em São Paulo, foram analisadas 22 amostras por meio de duas diferentes técnicas no período de maio a setembro de 2006. Para a análise de sujidades leves foi utilizada a técnica de flutuação segundo AOAC e ensaio imunoenzimático – ELISA. Observou-se que 100% das amostras continham fragmentos de insetos e em várias amostras foram demonstrados mais de um tipo de matéria estranha; e 23% das amostras mostraram ser impróprias ao consumo em virtude da presença de pelos de roedor. Para realizar o ELISA, foram adicionados os padrões constituídos de 1, 2, 4, 8 e 10 insetos para estimar o número de insetos nas amostras em análise, por meio de valores de densidade óptica (DO). Verificou-se que 36,4% das amostras apresentaram valores de DO próximos aos correspondentes ao do padrão 8 insetos, 40,9% ao do padrão 4 insetos, 18,2% ao do padrão 10 e 4,5% ao do padrão 2 insetos. A técnica descrita na AOAC mostra ser mais apropriada, em função de sua eficiência de detecção de insetos, bem como de outras matérias estranhas, enquanto que o ELISA detecta especificamente a miosina presente no músculo dos insetos, cuja degradação ocorre com o passar do tempo.


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hygiene , Piper nigrum
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