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1.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 20(supl.1): 4874-4883, Dec. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-769246

ABSTRACT

Objective. Due to the importance of controlling ectoparasites, associated with the necessity of technical knowledge on the safety of topical treatment with organophosphates, pyrethroids and piperonyl butoxide to the animal organism, this bioassay was carried out to evaluate the clinical safety of the association of dichlorvos (45%) + cypermethrin (5%) + piperonyl butoxide (25%) administered by spray on the skin of cattle, through the study of clinical parameters, biochemical, haematological and behavioral changes. Materials and methods. Sixteen crossbred animals with a mean age of 18 months, males and females grouped into two treatments with eight animals each: T1 (1:800 v/v) and T2 (1:200 v/v). Were collected blood samples at six different times: before treatment (BT), 24, 48, 72, 96 and 192 hours post treatment (HPT). Results. The antiparasitic association administered by spray on the skin did not result in changes in the enzymatic activity of ALT, AST, GGT and ALP, as well as in serum albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea and creatinine, demonstrating the safety of this antiparasitic compound for maintaining hepatic and renal functionality. The erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet studies showed no changes caused by treatments, and no clinical signs and behavioral changes were observed after treatment. Conclusions. These findings demonstrated good safety margin for spray treatment on the skin with this antiparasitic compound, even when administered at a dilution of 1:200 v/v, which is four times the dose recommended for ectoparasite control.


Objetivo. Debido a la importancia del control de ectoparásitos en bovinos, asociado a la necesidad de conocimientos técnicos sobre la seguridad del tratamiento tópico con organofosforados, piretroides y butóxido de piperonilo, se realizó este bioensayo para la evaluación de la seguridad clínica de la asociación de diclorvos (45%) + cipermetrina (5%) + butóxido de piperonilo (25%), administrado por aspersión en la piel del ganado bovino, a través del estudio de los parámetros clínicos, bioquímicos, hematológicos y comportamentales. Materiales y métodos. Dieciséis animales entre machos y hembras cruzados con edad media de 18 meses, agrupados en dos tratamientos de ocho animales cada uno: T1 (1:800 v/v) y T2 (1:200 v/v). Fueron colectadas muestras de sangre en seis momentos diferentes: antes del tratamiento (BT), 24, 48, 72, 96 y 192 horas post tratamiento (HPT). Resultados. La asociación antiparasitaria administrada por aspersión en la piel no alteró la actividad enzimática de ALT, AST, GGT y FA, así como la albúmina, triglicéridos, colesterol, urea y creatinina, que demuestra la seguridad de este compuesto antiparasitario en la función renal y hepática. El análisis de eritrocitos, leucocitos y plaquetas no mostraron cambios en los tratamientos, tampoco fueron observados signos clínicos y de comportamiento post tratamiento. Conclusiones. Estos resultados demostraron buen margen de seguridad en el tratamiento por aspersión en la piel con este compuesto antiparasitario, incluso cuando se administra en una dilución de 1:200 v/v, que es cuatro veces la dosis recomendada para el control de ectoparásitos.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Organophosphates , Piperonyl Butoxide , Pyrethrins , Sprinkle Irrigation
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(5): 579-582, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728904

ABSTRACT

Introduction The effects of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the toxicity of the organophosphate temephos (TE) and the role of esterases in the resistance of Aedes aegypti to this insecticide were evaluated. Methods A. aegypti L4 larvae susceptible and resistant to TE were pre-treated with PBO solutions in acetone at concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% for 24h and subsequently exposed to a diagnostic concentration of 0.02mg/L aqueous TE solution. The esterase activity of the larvae extracts pre-treated with varying PBO concentrations and exposed to TE for three time periods was determined. Results At concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2%, PBO showed a significant synergistic effect with TE toxicity. High levels of esterase activity were associated with the survival of A. aegypti L4 larvae exposed to TE only. Conclusions The results of the biochemical assays suggest that PBO has a significant inhibitory effect on the total esterase activity in A. aegypti larvae. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Aedes/enzymology , Esterases/physiology , Insecticide Resistance , Pesticide Synergists/pharmacology , Piperonyl Butoxide/pharmacology , Temefos/toxicity , Larva/drug effects , Organophosphates
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228095

ABSTRACT

The use of psychotropic medications in lactating women is controversial. Despite widely accepted advantages of human milk, patients and professionals hesitate to use medications during breastfeeding. Package inserts written by manufacturers routinely discourage breastfeeding to prevent law suits. Here we conducted a review to help professionals to decide medication for lactating women on an evidence-based risk-benefit analysis. First, we reviewed lactational pharmacology. The relative infant dose (RID) was defined to give an objective measure for infant exposure to medication, and drugs with RID lesser than 10% were considered quite safe. Subsequently, we reviewed each category of psychotropic medications which were commonly used in mental illness. We provided information for each drug such as Dr. Hale's lactation risk category, RID, half-life, and time to peak plasma level as references for the risk analysis. There was no contraindicated psychotropic medication during breastfeeding, but for lithium, close monitoring of infant serum levels is warranted. In conclusion, most of medications used to treat mental illness in lactating women were usually safe. Nevertheless, medication use in lactating women should always be considered on an individualized risk-benefit analysis, and untoward adverse effects on the infant should be monitored.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Drug Combinations , Female , Half-Life , Humans , Infant , Jurisprudence , Lactation , Lithium , Milk, Human , Piperonyl Butoxide , Plasma , Product Labeling , Pyrethrins
4.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 28(2): 245-250, mar./apr. 2012. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-912561

ABSTRACT

Este estudo avaliou a eficácia antiparasitária da associação de cipermetrina (5%) + diclorvos (45%) + butóxido de piperonila (25%) contra H. irritans em bovinos naturalmente infestados. Para tal, foram utilizados 60 bovinos, fêmeas da raça nelore, com idade média de 50 meses, distribuídos em quatro grupos com 15 repetições cada. Após a randomização dos animais pelo número de moscas, os grupos foram sorteados e constituíram os seguintes tratamentos: T1 = Controle; T2 e T4= Tratados com a associação em estudo nas concentrações de 1:400 e 1:800, respectivamente; T3 = tratados com cipermetrina 15% +clorpirivos 25% + citronela 1% (Controle Positivo) na concentração de 1:800. As contagens de moscas foram efetuadas 3, 7, 14 e 21 dias após o tratamento (DPT). No terceiro DPT, os tratamentos T2, T3 e T4 apresentaram eficácia acima de 98%. No sétimo DPT, verificou-se nos animais tratados com a associação contendo butóxido de piperonila eficácia de 95,61 e 97,3% no controle de moscas nas doses de 1:800 e 1:400, respectivamente. Enquanto, bovinos do grupo T3 demonstraram eficácia de 93,82%. A eficácia antiparasitária permaneceu acima de 95% no 14° DPT em ambos os grupos T2 e T4. Neste mesmo dia experimental, bovinos do grupo T3 apresentaram eficácia de 88,24%. No 21° DPT, apenas o grupo T2 apresentou diminuição significativa (P<0,05) no número de moscas quando comparado aos demais tratamentos. Portanto, verificou-se neste estudo, o efeito sinergista do butóxido de piperonila sobre a atividade antiparasitária de piretróides e organofosforados, justificando o emprego terapêutico desta associação como uma alternativa eficaz em programas sanitários dos bovinos para controle da mosca dos chifres.


This study evaluated the effectiveness of cypermethrin (5%) associated to Dichlorvos (45%) and piperonyl butoxide (25%) against Haematobia irritans in naturally infested cattle. 60 Nelore females, aging about 50 months, were separated into four groups with 15animals each. After randomization by the number of flies, the groups were divided in the following treatments: T1 = control, T2 and T4 = treated with the association under study at concentrations of 1:400 and 1:800, respectively, T3 = treated with cypermethrin 15% + clorpirivos 25% + citronella 1% (positive control) at a concentration of 1:800. Counst of flies were taken 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post treatment (DPT). In the third DPT, treatments T2, T3 and T4 showed efficacy over 98%. At the seventh day, it was found in animals treated with the compound containing piperonyl butoxide efficacy of 95.61 and 97.3% in the control of flies at dose of 1:800 and 1:400, respectively. While cattle in the T3 group demonstrated efficacy of 93.82%. The effectiveness of antiparasitic remained above 95% at 14 ° DPT in both groups T2 and T4. In the same experimental day, animals of group T3 showed effectiveness of 88.24%. At 21 ° DPT, only the T2 group, was significantly decreased (P <0.05) in the number of flies when compared to other treatments. Therefore, it was found in this study, the synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide on the antiparasitic activity of synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphates, representing an effective alternative in the chemotherapy control by the parasitism for horn flies in cattle.


Subject(s)
Organophosphorus Compounds , Piperonyl Butoxide , Pyrethrins , Cattle , Muscidae , Cattle Diseases , Parasitic Diseases
5.
Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. 2012; 17 (3): 91-101
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-155802

ABSTRACT

German cockroach [Blattella germanica, Blattodea:Blattellidae] is considered one of the common pests in hospitals, hotels, households and dormitories which can transfer different pathogenic fungi, viruses and bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance mechanisms to bendiocarb and carbaryl in German cockroache, in vivo. In this study, German cockroach strains were collected from several hospitals and dormitories in Tehran and transferred to insectarium. The strains were reared under the same laboratory conditions. At first the discriminative doses of bendiocarb and carbaryl were determined by surface contact method. Then the susceptibility level and types of resistance mechanisms to bendiocarb and carbaryl, in the strains were studied by using PBO and DEF as synergists. Simultaneous use of DEF as synergist, with bendiocarb and carbaryl led to the breakdown of resistance in all strains. But use of PBO instead of DEF did not overcome the resistance in the strains collected from Mofid, Alvand and Vali Asr hospitals and Shariati dormitory. In general, the effect of DEF in breaking the resistance was more than that of PBO. Complete breakdown of resistance after simultaneous use of DEF with bendiocarb and carbaryl insecticides, indicated the essential role of esterase enzymes in producing resistance to bendiocarb and carbaryl in the strains. But PBO did not break the resistance completely in most wild strains, which may be due to other possible mechanisms of resistance such as reduction of cuticle penetration or insensitivity to acetyl cholinesterase enzyme


Subject(s)
Insecta , Phenylcarbamates , Carbaryl , Insecticide Resistance , Organothiophosphates , Piperonyl Butoxide
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81824

ABSTRACT

In this paper, Acousto-Optical tomography is modeled by a linear integral equation and an inverse problem involving a diffusion equation in n-spatial dimensions. We make two-step mathematical model. First, we solve a linear integral equation. Assuming the optical energy fluence rate has been recovered from the previous equation, the absorption coefficient micro is then reconstructed by solving an inverse problem. Numerical experiments are presented for the case n=2. The traditional gradient descent method is used for the numerical simulations. The result of the gradient descent method produces the blurring effect. To get rid of the blurring effect, we suggest the total variation regularization for the minimization problem.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Diffusion , Drug Combinations , Models, Theoretical , Piperonyl Butoxide , Pyrethrins
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52164

ABSTRACT

It is well known that Rhododendron sclippenbashii contains the toxic material grayanotoxin. So, Koreans do not eat it, but they do eat azalea although it contains grayanotoxin. That is why there have been no reports about Rhododendron sclippenbashii intoxication after ingesting it intentionally, not accidentally. In this case, the patient was admitted to the emergency room with several toxic symptoms after intentionally consuming 50 blossoms of Rhododendron sclippenbashii to get rid of thirst. Treatment with saline infusion and atropine was successful and the outcome was favorable enough in this case to produce a complete cure without any sequelae at discharge. But toxic symptoms were seen for 24 hours, although the symptoms usually fade in 9 hours. Therefore, we should carefully treat and observe, for over 24 hours, the patient who intentionally ingests about 50 blossoms of Rhododendron sclippenbashii.


Subject(s)
Adult , Atropine , Bradycardia , Drug Combinations , Emergencies , Flowers , Humans , Intention , Piperonyl Butoxide , Pyrethrins , Rhododendron , Thirst
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725966

ABSTRACT

The goal of osmidrosis operation is not only to be free from odor, but also to leave a minimal operation scar. In practice, however, many patients suffer from unfavorable axillary operation scars. Therefore, we herein report various postoperative axillary scars which we experienced. From January 1991 to December 2006, a total of 270 patients(74 men and 196 women) whose axillary osmidrosis had been treated by various methods more than once were included. We observed pre-existing operation scars of recurred patients who wanted revisional operation. Among the total patients, 118 patients had been treated once, 138 patients less than 5 times, and 14 patients more than 5 times. Previous treatment methods included excision in 216 cases, laser in 188 cases, subdermal excision in 63 cases, ultrasonic liposuction in 25 cases, Kobayashi insulated needles in 29 cases, and botulinum toxin injection in 1 case. We observed irregular scar, wide spread scar, hypertrophic scar, postburn scar, depressed scar, and pigmented scar. Pre-existing operation scars were not improved enough by revisional operation. We propose that it is important to select a proper method to effectively get rid of an axillary odor, leaving a minimal operation scar, because axillary area is not optimal for scar revision.


Subject(s)
Botulinum Toxins , Cicatrix , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic , Drug Combinations , Humans , Lipectomy , Male , Needles , Odorants , Piperonyl Butoxide , Pyrethrins , Ultrasonics
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194188

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Delayed rupture of flexor pollicis longus as a sequelae of the plate inserted for distal radius fracture is a very rare. This is the first case reported and published in Korea. METHODS: A 48 years old female patient visited hospital, complaining flexor disturbance of interphalangeal joint of left thumb, which suddenly occurred without any external wound. We found that she had received operation of fixing plate for fracture of left distal radius 10 years ago. As operational opinion, we have checked that flexor pollicis longus tendon has been ruptured with oblique ways being stimulated by extended plate to palmar side over long period. RESULTS: Authors performed tenorrhaphy of flexor pollicis longus without tendon graft and presented a successful active flexion of the left thumb interphalangeal joint 1 year after the operation. CONCLUSION: If the extruded part of the end plate is observed during the operation or follow-up, it is considered to be necessary to get rid of the plate as early as possible after the fracture healing.


Subject(s)
Drug Combinations , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Joints , Piperonyl Butoxide , Pyrethrins , Radius , Radius Fractures , Rupture , Tendons , Thumb , Transplants
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193787

ABSTRACT

Microorganism survived in the root canal after root canal cleaning and shaping procedure is a main cause of root canal treatment failure. There are several mechanisms for the bacteria to survive in the root canal after chemomechanical preparation and root canal irrigation. Bacteria organized as biofilm has been suggested as an etiology of persistent periapical lesion. Recent studies were focus on removal of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm due to the report that the persistence of this bacteria after root canal treatment may be associated with its ability to form biofilm. Several investigations demonstrated that current root canal treatment protocol including use of NaOCl, EDTA and Chlorhexidine as irrigants is quite effective in eliminating E. faecalis biofilm. However, this microorganism still can survive in inaccessible areas of root canal system and evade host immune response, suppress immune activity and produce biofilm. Up to date, there is no possible clinical method to completely get rid of bacteria from the root canal. Once the root canal treatment failure occurred, and conventional treatment incorporating current therapeutic protocol has failed, periapical surgery or extraction should be considered rather than prolong the ineffected retreatment procedure.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Biofilms , Chlorhexidine , Clinical Protocols , Dental Pulp Cavity , Drug Combinations , Edetic Acid , Enterococcus , Enterococcus faecalis , Piperonyl Butoxide , Pyrethrins , Retreatment , Treatment Failure
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-112683

ABSTRACT

Development of insecticide resistance has been a challenging problem for a long time and new solutions are yet to emerge. In this regard, the use of synergist with the insecticide is thought to play a key role in reducing the resistance levels. Present study demonstrates the efficacy of PBO with deltamethrin against the field collected mosquito larvae of five species of Aedes, Anopheles and Culexfrom in and around Mysore.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culicidae/drug effects , Insect Control , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Pesticide Synergists/pharmacology , Piperonyl Butoxide/pharmacology , Pyrethrins/pharmacology
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-25395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Insecticide in the form of space spray as an ultra low volume (ULV) aerosol are used during epidemics of vector borne diseases. Deltacide, a formulation comprising of three chemicals viz., deltamethrin 0.5 per cent w/v, S-bio-allethrin 0.71 per cent w/v and piperonyl butoxide 8.9 per cent w/v is suitable for ULV application. As this combination is found to be effective in preventing resistance development tackling the population, which had already developed resistance and cause immediate mortality, its synergistic effect was tested in Peet Grady chamber, against three species of mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. METHODS: Blood fed females were exposed to ULV application of deltacide in a Peet Grady chamber at four dosages viz., 0.005, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 ml/m2 and examined for knockdown activity at 10 min interval for 60 min. Thereafter, the mosquitoes were removed from the chamber and maintained in another room having controlled temperature (28+/-2 degrees C) and humidity (60-75%) and observed for recovery, if any, and the per cent knockdown was calculated. Mortality rate after 24 h of holding period was also determined from moribund and dead adults. RESULTS: Pairwise comparison showed that the effect of deltacide spray varied significantly (P<0.001) among the three species tested. The effectiveness was significantly higher in Ae. aegypti, when compared with that of Cx. quiquefasciatus (P<0.001) and An. stephensi (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the efficacy of deltacide between Cx. quiquefasciatus and An. stephensi. All species of mosquitoes became inactive i.e., knocked down completely within 60 min of exposure at all the dosages tested and mortality observed was 100 per cent after 24 h of exposure. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Deltacide when tested in the form of ULV cold aerosol, the dosage 0.01 ml/m2 was effective against both Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi, and 0.02 ml/m2 against Cx. quiquefasciatus, causing 100 per cent mortality. The efficacy of ULV application of deltacide against vector mosquitoes needs to be assessed under field conditions.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Allethrins/administration & dosage , Animals , Culicidae/drug effects , Female , Humans , Insect Vectors , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Male , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Pesticide Synergists/administration & dosage , Piperonyl Butoxide/administration & dosage , Pyrethrins/administration & dosage
13.
Rev. bras. toxicol ; 14(2): 5-11, dez. 2001. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-305561

ABSTRACT

Resíduos do inseticida piretróide deltametrina em graõs de milho e milho pipoca e em alguns de seus produtos derivados (milho: farelo, canjica, farelinho e farinha; milho pipoca) foram estudados, com o objetivo de se avaliar a degradação/persistência deles nesses substratos alimentares. Os grãos foram tratados na dose recomendada de 0,35 mg/kg -1 (ppm) com o produto comercial K-Obiol 25 CE (25g de deltametrina + 250 g de butóxido de piperonila por litro) para controle de carunchos. As amostras foram tomadas aos zero, 15,30,60 e 90 dias após o tratmento. O método analítico constou da extração dos resíduos com uma mistura de hexano + éter etílico, limpeza do extrato por partição acetonitrila/hexano, seguida de eluição em coluna cromatográfica de sílica gel, com uma mistura de hexano/éter etílico 1:1, v/v. As determinações cromatográficas foram feitas por técnica de cromatografia em fase gasosa , usando-se detector de captura de elétrons. Foram analisadas 210 amostras (60 de grãos e 150 de produtos derivados). Os limites de quantificação variaram de 0,01 mg/kg -1 a 0,05 mg/kg -1, dependendo do substrato. Os resíduos deltametrina foram persistentes em ambos os tipos de grãos durante todo o período de armazenamento (90 dias). Nos produtos derivados de milho concentraram-se principalmente no farelo (quantidade 3,5 vezes maiores do que nos grãos); resíduos muito baixos foram encontrados no endosperma, do qual a canjica, o farelinho e a farinha são obtidos


Subject(s)
Edible Grain , Insect Control , Pesticide Residues , Piperonyl Butoxide , Zea mays , Chromatography, Gas
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1991 Apr; 29(4): 379-84
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59128

ABSTRACT

Role of mono-oxygenases as a mechanism of resistance to the synthetic pyrethroid, deltamethrin in the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Aedes aegypti L. and Anopheles stephensi Liston developed by laboratory selections with deltamethrin, DDT or deltamethrin and the synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in the ratio of 1:5, was investigated. There was a significant correlation with mono-oxygenase activity and larval LC50 to deltamethrin in various strains of all the three species. In addition, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the main NADPH generating enzyme for mono-oxygenases, also showed enhanced activity in deltamethrin and DDT-selected strains. The present data, therefore, clearly suggest that deltamethrin resistance in the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi is mainly due to the detoxification of deltamethrin by microsomal mono-oxygenases. High activity of G6PD observed in DDT-selected strains seems to be related to its role as a rate-limiting enzyme in GSH-dependent dehydrochlorination of DDT.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Animals , Anopheles , Culex , Culicidae/enzymology , Drug Resistance , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Insecticides/metabolism , Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism , Nitriles , Oxygenases/metabolism , Piperonyl Butoxide/pharmacology , Pyrethrins/metabolism
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32226

ABSTRACT

Field trials were conducted in two residential areas of Petaling Jaya Municipality to test the adulticidal and larvicidal effects of malathion 96% TG and Resigen on Aedes aegypti. Malathion is the currently used insecticide in Malaysia for the control of dengue. The Leco HD ULV machine was used throught the trials. For malathion the flow rate was 90 ml/minute at a vehicle speed of 8kph and for Resigen the flow rate was 200 ml/minute at the same vechicle speed. Malathion was more effective giving higher mortality rates when compared with Resigen. The mortality rate of adult Ae. aegypti outdoor was higher than in the living room and kitchen. Both insecticides did not show promising larvicidal effects.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Allethrins , Animals , Dengue/prevention & control , Humans , Malathion , Malaysia , Mosquito Control/methods , Piperonyl Butoxide , Pyrethrins
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