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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887910


Pituitary metastasis,a rare kind of intracranial malignant tumor,is characterized by metastasis from all parts of the body to the pituitary.The common tumors metastatic to pituitary are abundant with blood supply,located in the posterior pituitary lobe and/or the pituitary stalk.The lesion shows infiltrative growth,and mainly demonstrates low signal on T1 weighted imaging and high signal on T2 weighted imaging.It is usually enhanced significantly after iodinated contrast administration.The metastatic tumor with poor blood supply is similar to pituitary macroadenoma on magnetic resonance image,which makes it difficult to be differentiated.We reported two cases of pathologically diagnosed pituitary metastasis with poor blood supply and reviewed related papers,aiming to provide the imaging differentiation points of hypovascular pituitary metastasis.

Contrast Media , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pituitary Diseases , Pituitary Gland , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e182745, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348007


The objective of this study was to determine the ability of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to induce ovulation and expression of PGE2 receptor (EP2 and EP4) and COX genes (COX-1 and COX-2) in the ovary and pituitary of prepubertal mice. The positive control consisted of the application of 5 µg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, n = 29); the negative control applied 0.5 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, n=31); the treatment tested the application of 250 µg of PGE2 (n = 29), making a total of 89 prepubertal mice (BALB/c). Mice were euthanized 14 to 15 h after treatments to detect ovulation and tissue collection. A Chi-square test was used to compare the proportion of animals ovulating. Gene expressions and number of ovulation were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test was used to compare means among groups. A greater proportion of mice (P < 0.001) ovulated after receiving GnRH (89.7%, 26/29) compared to PGE2 group (58.6%, 17/29). However, the proportion was higher compared to those treated with PBS (0%, 0/31). Ep2gene expression in the pituitary was > two-fold higher (P < 0.05) in the PGE2 group compared to the PBS and GnRH groups. Further, PGE2 stimulated Cox1 (2.7 fold, P < 0.05) while GnRH stimulated Cox2 expression (6.5 fold, P < 0.05) in the pituitary when compared to the PBS group. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that PGE2 can induce ovulation in prepubertal mice with a concomitant increase in Ep2 and Cox1 gene expression in the pituitary gland.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a capacidade da prostaglandina E2 (PGE2) em induzir a ovulação e expressão do receptor PGE2 (EP2 e EP4) e genes COX (COX-1 e COX-2) no ovário e na hipófise de camundongos pré-púberes. O controle positivo consistiu na aplicação de 5 µg de hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH, n = 29); o controle negativo aplicação 0,5 mL de tampão fosfato-salino (PBS, n=31); o tratamento testado aplicação de 250 µg de PGE2 (n = 29), perfazendo um total de 89 camundongos (BALB/c) pré-púberes. Os camundongos foram sacrificados 14 a 15 h após os tratamentos para detectar ovulações e coleta de tecido. O teste do qui-quadrado foi usado para comparar a proporção de animais ovulando. As expressões gênicas e o número de ovulação foram analisados por ANOVA e o teste de tukey foi usado para comparar as médias entre os grupos. Uma maior proporção de camundongos (P <0,001) ovulou após receber GnRH (89,7%, 26/29) em comparação com o grupo PGE2 (58,6%, 17/29). No entanto, a proporção foi maior em comparação com aqueles tratados com PBS (0%, 0/31). A expressão do gene Ep2 na hipófise foi duas vezes maior (P <0,05) no grupo PGE2 em comparação com os grupos PBS e GnRH. Além disso, a PGE2 estimulou a Cox1(2,7 vezes, P <0,05) enquanto o GnRH estimulou a expressão de Cox2 (6,5 vezes, P <0,05) na pituitária em comparação com o grupo PBS. Em conclusão, nossos resultados suportam a hipótese de que PGE2 é capaz de induzir ovulação em camundongos pré-púberes com aumento concomitante na expressão dos genes Ep2 e Cox1 na glândula pituitária.(AU)

Animals , Mice , Ovulation , Dinoprostone/analysis , Gene Expression , Mice/genetics , Pituitary Gland
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e175001, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1344777


This study aimed to evaluate the role of prostaglandin F2α (PGF) on ovulation. In Experiment 1, cows were randomly allocated to two treatments to receive 150 µg of d-Cloprostenol (PGF Group, n = 12) or 2 mL of NaCl 0.9% (Control Group, n = 11) and CIDRs, were removed 4 days later. No cow ovulated in Control and PGF groups. In Experiment 2, cows were randomly separated into two experimental groups to receive 4 injections of 150 µg of d-Cloprostenol (n = 9) or 2 mL of NaCL 0.9% (n = 9). In this experiment, ovulation was not observed in any cows. In Experiment 3, ovariectomized cows receive three injections of 300µg of PGF analog (PGF Group, n = 5), 100µg of Lecirelin (GnRH Group, n = 5) or 2 mL of PBS (Control Group, n = 4). The LH concentration was higher (P <0.0001) in cows from the GnRH group than in the PGF and Control groups. In experiment 4, cows with preovulatory follicles (>11.5 mm) were treated with Saline (Control Group, n = 6); Lecirelin (GnRH Group, n = 7) or Cloprostenol Sodium (PGF Group, n = 6). There was a significant increase in the vascular area of follicles from 0 to 24 h in GnRH and PGF treatments. In conclusion, PGF was not able to induce ovulation in cows with high or low plasma progesterone concentration. Additionally, PGF alone was not able to induce LH release and follicle luteinization, but increased follicular vascularization.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o papel da prostaglandina F2α (PGF) na ovulação. No Experimento 1, as vacas foram alocadas aleatoriamente em dois tratamentos para receber 150 µg de d-Cloprostenol (Grupo PGF, n = 12) ou 2 mL de NaCl 0,9% (Grupo Controle, n = 11) e os CIDR, foram removidos 4 dias depois. Nenhuma vaca ovulou nos grupos Controle e PGF. No Experimento 2, as vacas foram separadas aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais para receber 4 injeções de 150 µg de d-Cloprostenol (n = 9) ou 2 mL de NaCL 0,9% (n = 9). Não foi observada ovulação em nenhum dos animais deste experimento. No Experimento 3, vacas ovariectomizadas receberam três injeções de 300µg de análogo de PGF (Grupo PGF, n = 5), 100µg de Lecirelina (Grupo GnRH, n = 5) ou 2 mL de PBS (Grupo Controle, n = 4). A concentração de LH foi maior (P <0,0001) nas vacas do grupo GnRH do que nos grupos PGF e Controle. No Experimento 4, vacas com folículos pré-ovulatórios (> 11,5 mm) foram tratadas com solução salina (Grupo Controle, n = 6), Lecirelina (Grupo GnRH, n = 7) ou Cloprostenol Sódico (Grupo PGF, n = 6). Houve um aumento significativo na área vascular dos folículos de 0 a 24h nos tratamentos com GnRH e PGF. Em conclusão, a PGF não foi capaz de induzir ovulação em vacas com alta ou baixa concentração plasmática de progesterona. Além disso, a PGF sozinha não foi capaz de induzir a liberação de LH e a luteinização do folículo, mas aumentou a vascularização folicular.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cattle , Prostaglandins, Synthetic , Cattle/embryology , Cattle/physiology , Luteinizing Hormone , Dinoprost/analysis , Ovulation , Pituitary Gland
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020228, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142405


Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that involves any organ. However, the primary pituitary tuberculosis is an extremely rare disease. Intracranial tuberculomas account for 0.15-5% of intracranial space-occupying lesions, of which, pituitary as the primary site is unusual, and easily misdiagnosed as pituitary adenoma. In this setting, the late diagnosis can result in permanent endocrine dysfunction. We report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented to the neurosurgery outpatient department with complaints of progressively increasing headache and diminished vision over the last year. On the clinical examination, the patient was conscious and oriented. The routine hematological and biochemical workup showed an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and increased prolactin levels. The radiological working diagnosis was consistent with pituitary macroadenoma. No other radiological and/or clinical clue that could elicit the suspicion of pulmonary or extrapulmonary lesions of tuberculosis was found. The transsphenoidal endonasal tumor excision was done. The histopathology showed numerous epithelioid cell granulomas, Langhans giant cells along with scant necrosis. Ziehl Neelsen staining demonstrated acid-fast bacilli, and the final diagnosis of pituitary tuberculoma was made. We report this rare case of pituitary lesion that may be included in the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions to avoid unnecessary surgical interventions, especially in regions where the disease is endemic.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pituitary Gland/pathology , Pituitary Neoplasms , Tuberculosis/pathology , Adenoma/pathology , Epithelioid Cells , Giant Cells, Langhans , Rare Diseases , Diagnosis, Differential , Granuloma/pathology
J. afr. imag. méd ; 13(1): 31-35, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1342864


Objectif :Décrire le profil épidémiologique et remnologique des pathologies retrouvées chez les patients adressés pour IRM hypophysaire dans le service d'imagerie médicale du CHU-B. Patients et Méthode :il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive, réalisée au service d'imagerie médicale du CHU de Brazzaville de janvier 2014 à décembre 2018. Tous les patients adressés pour IRM hypophysaire étaient inclus. Les examens ont été réalisés sur une IRM de haut champ de 1,5 Tesla sans et avec injection de produit de contraste. Les données épidémiologiques, l'indication et les résultats retrouvés ont été traitées avec le logiciel Microsoft Excel 2013. Résultats :Cinquante-huit IRM étaient retenues durant la période d'étude. L'âge moyen des patients était de 38,24 ± 11,52 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 12 à 74 ans et un âge médian de 36 ans. Le sexe ratio (F/H) était de 4,8 avec 48 femmes (82,76%). La galactorrhée était le motif de consultation le plus fréquemment retrouvé (21,88% des cas), suivie des aménorrhées (18,75%). L'adénome hypophysaire était la pathologie la plus fréquente devant les selles turciques vides et les kystes de la poche de Rathke. Conclusion :La pathologie hypophysaire est l'apanage du sujet jeune de sexe féminin. Son mode de révélation le plus fréquent est celui de troubles gynécologiques et/ou endocriniens. Les adénomes constituent la quasi-totalité de la pathologie hypophysaire avec une nette prédominance de macroadénome. L'IRM apporte des informations essentielles au diagnostic de cespathologies malgré son accessibilité et sa disponibilité qui restent encore limité.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pituitary Neoplasms , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Central Nervous System Cysts , Galactorrhea , Pituitary Gland , Congo
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e10274, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153553


Prolactin (PRL) plays critical roles in regulation of biological functions with the binding of specific prolactin receptor (PRLR). Revealing the expression patterns of PRLR at different developmental stages is beneficial to better understand the role of PRL and its mechanism of action in striped hamsters. In this study, the cDNA sequence of PRLR (2866-base-pairs) was harvested from the pituitary of mature female striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) that contains an 834-base-pair 5′-untranslated region (1-834 bp), a 1848-base-pair open reading frame (835-2682 bp), and a 184-base-pair 3′-untranslated region (2683-2866). The 1848-base-pair open reading frame encodes a mature prolactin-binding protein of 592 amino acids. In the mature PRLR, two prolactin-binding motifs, 12 cysteines, and five potential Asn-linked glycosylation sites were detected. Our results showed that the PRLR mRNA quantity in the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovaries, or testis was developmental-stage-dependent, with the highest level at sub-adult stage and the lowest level at old stage. We also found that PRLR mRNAs were highest in pituitary, medium level in hypothalamus, and lowest in ovaries or testis. PRLR mRNAs were significantly higher in males than in females, except in the hypothalamus and pituitary from 7-week-old striped hamsters. Moreover, the PRLR mRNAs in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries or testis were positively correlated with the expression levels of GnRH in the hypothalamus. These results indicated that the PRLR has conserved domain in striped hamster, but also possesses specific character. PRLR has multiple biological functions including positively regulating reproduction in the striped hamster.

Animals , Male , Female , Prolactin/genetics , Receptors, Prolactin/genetics , Receptors, Prolactin/metabolism , Pituitary Gland/metabolism , Cricetinae , Sequence Analysis , DNA, Complementary/genetics
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(1): 15-35, mar. 2020. ilus, grafs
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1151244


Introducción: Los tumores de hipófisis representan aproximadamente un 10% de los tumores intracraneales. Los adenomas hipofisarios son ampliamente la lesión selar más frecuente. Es fundamental que se conformen equipos capaces de tratar holísticamente esta patología en las distintas regiones de nuestro vasto territorio. El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar nuestra experiencia en el manejo quirúrgico de los adenomas hipofisarios en el Noroeste Argentino. Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes operados por adenomas selares, desde enero de 2013 hasta abril de 2019, en la provincia de Tucumán, por el autor Senior. Resultados: Se analizaron 211 pacientes operados de adenomas pituitarios. En el 75% (n=158) las resecciones fueron totales y en el 25% (n=53) fueron resecciones subtotales. De los 88 pacientes con macroadenomas no funcionantes y déficit visual, el 94% (n=83) presentó mejoría visual en el postoperatorio. De los 52 pacientes con acromegalia, un 75% (n=39) presentó remisión bioquímica completa postquirúrgica. De los 26 pacientes con enfermedad de Cushing, un 81% (n=21) presentó remisión bioquímica completa postquirúrgica. De los 21 pacientes con prolactinomas, un 71% (n=15) normalizaron los niveles de prolactina en el postoperatorio. Conclusión: Los resultados en el tratamiento quirúrgico de los adenomas hipofisarios de la presente serie son comparables a los reportados por centros especializados internacionales. Debemos formar equipos capaces de tratar esta patología en las distintas regiones de la Argentina.

Background: Pituitary tumors account for 10% of intracranial tumors. Pituitary adenomas are the most common selar lesion. It is essential that teams be formed capable of treating this pathology holistically in the different regions of our vast territory. The purpose of this article is to present our experience in the surgical management of pituitary adenomas in the Northwest of Argentine. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was done studding patients operated from pituitary adenomas, from January 2013 to April 2019, in Tucumán, by the Senior Author. Results: We analyzed 211 patients operated from pituitary adenomas, of which 75% (n=158) had gross total resections and 25% (n=53) had subtotal resections. Of the 88 patients with non-functioning macroadenomas and visual deficit, 94% (n=83) presented visual improvement after surgery. Of the 52 patients with acromegaly, 75% (n=39) presented complete biochemical remission after surgery. Of the 26 patients with Cushing's disease, 81% (n=21) presented complete biochemical remission after surgery. Of the 21 patients with prolactinomas, 71% (n=15) normalized prolactin levels after surgery. Conclusion: Our results in the surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas are comparable to those reported by international specialized centers. We must form teams capable of treating this pathology in the different regions of Argentina

Adenoma , Pituitary Gland , Pituitary Neoplasms , Skull , Neuroendocrinology
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(1): e190092, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098404


Cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi and bloodfin tetra Aphyocharax anisitsi are two species of characids with high trade value as ornamental fish in South America. Although both species inhabit middle water layers, cardinal neon exhibits a tropical distribution and bloodfin tetra a subtropical one. Generally, these species are difficult to grow, so it becomes essential to know some key components of the neuroendocrine system to achieve their reproduction in captivity. Considering the importance of deepening the knowledge of the reproductive physiology through functional morphology, for the first time in this work we performed an anatomical, morphological and immunohistochemical analysis of the pituitary gland of these two species. In both species, a leptobasic type pituitary is found in the ventral zone of the hypothalamus and it is characterized by a neurohypophysis which has a well-developed pituitary stalk and a globular adenohypophysis. The pituitary components, characterized by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, shows a distribution pattern of cells types similar to other teleost species, with only slight differences in the distribution of βFSH and βLH for P. axelrodi.(AU)

El cardenal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi y el tetra Aphyocharax anisitsi son dos especies de carácidos con alto valor comercial como peces ornamentales en América del Sur. Aunque ambas especies habitan en las capas medias de agua, el neón cardenal exhibe una distribución tropical, mientras que el tetra cola roja una distribución subtropical. En general estas especies son difíciles de cultivar, por lo que es esencial conocer algunos componentes clave de los sistemas neuroendocrinos para lograr su reproducción en cautiverio. Considerando la importancia de profundizar en el conocimiento de la fisiología reproductiva a través de la morfología funcional, en este trabajo realizamos, por primera vez, un análisis anatómico, morfológico e inmunohistoquímico de la glándula pituitaria de estas dos especies. En ambas especies, la hipófisis, del tipo leptobásica, se encontró en la zona ventral del hipotálamo y se caracteriza por una neurohipófisis con un tallo hipofisario bien desarrollado y una adenohipófisis globular. Los componentes hipofisarios, caracterizados por la histoquímica y la inmunohistoquímica, mostraron un patrón de distribución de tipos de células similares a otras especies de teleósteos, con solo pequeñas diferencias en la distribución de βFSH y βLH para P. axelrodi.(AU)

Animals , Pituitary Gland/enzymology , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Characiformes/anatomy & histology , Characiformes/immunology , Histology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760650


OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the association between clinical and laboratory characteristics and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in young female patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). METHODS: We retrospectively investigated a series of 74 female patients (age range, 14–42 years) with normoprolactinemic HH who underwent pituitary MRI. Pubertal milestones and hormonal features of patients with small pituitary glands (PGs) and space-occupying lesions were compared with those of patients with normal PGs. RESULTS: The overall frequency of abnormal PGs was 35.1%, with space-occupying lesions observed in 8 patients (10.8%), and small PG observed in 18 patients (24.3%). The mean serum gonadotropin level was not different between patients with and without pituitary MRI abnormalities (P>0.05). Space-occupying lesions were not associated with low gonadotropin levels, type of amenorrhea, or presence of secondary sex characteristics. The frequency of space-occupying lesions was higher in patients with interrupted puberty (25.0%) than in patients who did not go through puberty (4.8%) or had a normal puberty (9.8%), but were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Small PG was associated with low gonadotropin levels and type of amenorrhea (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Clinically significant space-occupying lesions were not associated with low gonadotropin levels, type of amenorrhea, or presence of secondary sex characteristics. However, the frequency of space-occupying lesions was higher in patients with interrupted puberty than in patients who did not go through puberty or who with normal puberty.

Adolescent , Amenorrhea , Female , Gonadotropins , Humans , Hypogonadism , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pituitary Gland , Puberty , Puberty, Delayed , Retrospective Studies , Sex Characteristics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762588


Deletion on the short arm of chromosome 18 is a rare disorder characterized by intellectual disability, growth retardation, and craniofacial malformations (such as prominent ears, microcephaly, ptosis, and a round face). The phenotypic spectrum is wide, encompassing a range of abnormalities from minor congenital malformations to holoprosencephaly. We present a case of a 2-year-old girl with ptosis, a round face, broad neck with low posterior hairline, short stature, and panhypopituitarism. She underwent ventilation tube insertion for recurrent otitis media with effusion. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an ectopic posterior pituitary gland and a shallow, small sella turcica with poor visualization of the pituitary stalk. Cytogenetic and chromosomal microarray analysis revealed a de novo deletion on the short arm of chromosome 18 (arr 18p11.32p11.21[136,227–15,099,116]x1). She has been treated with recombinant human growth hormone (GH) therapy since the age of 6 months after diagnosis of GH deficiency. Her growth rate has improved without any side effects from the GH treatment. This case expands the phenotypic spectrum of 18p deletion syndrome and emphasizes the positive impact of GH therapy on linear growth in this syndrome characterized by growth deficiency. Further studies are required to define the genotype-phenotype correlation according to size and loci of the deletion in 18p deletion syndrome and to predict prognosis.

Arm , Brain , Child, Preschool , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18 , Cytogenetics , Diagnosis , Ear , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Growth Hormone , Holoprosencephaly , Human Growth Hormone , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Microarray Analysis , Microcephaly , Neck , Otitis Media with Effusion , Pituitary Gland , Pituitary Gland, Posterior , Prognosis , Sella Turcica , Ventilation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762557


BACKGROUND: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a gonadotropin secreted by the pituitary gland, is a representative secondary sex hormone and an important indicator of reproductive function. The effects of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury on humans have been studied, but reports on their effects on sex hormone levels are lacking. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between heavy metal exposure and FSH levels in Korean men and postmenopausal women. METHODS: A total of 4,689 adults (2,763 men and 1,926 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or over) who participated in the Second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2012–2014) were included. We compared differences in serum FSH levels by demographic characteristics using the t-test and analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the blood levels of lead and mercury and the urine cadmium level, and serum FSH levels. RESULTS: On multiple linear regression analysis, lead exposure was positively associated with serum FSH concentrations in postmenopausal women (β = 2.929, p = 0.019). However, we found no significant association between serum FSH concentration and blood lead and mercury levels, or urine cadmium level, in men. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that lead exposure can affect the FSH level in postmenopausal women. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of low-dose long-term exposure to heavy metals on sex hormones.

Adult , Cadmium , Environmental Health , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Gonadotropins , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Metals, Heavy , Pituitary Gland
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739663


Idiopathic granulomatous hypophysitis (IGH), a rare disease, requires differentiation from more common mass lesions of the sella such as pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma, Rathke's cleft cyst, or pituitary tuberculoma. IGH usually presents with an insidious onset of visual defects and headaches. On the other hand, rapid onset of neurologic and visual symptoms in an IGH patient is exceptionally rare. Here, we present a biopsy-proven case of IGH with rapid onset and satisfactory outcome after high dose steroid treatment.

Adult , Autoimmune Hypophysitis , Craniopharyngioma , Endoscopy , Glucocorticoids , Hand , Headache , Humans , Pituitary Gland , Pituitary Neoplasms , Rare Diseases , Sella Turcica , Tuberculoma
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773483


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism by which doublecortin promotes the recovery of cytoskeleton in arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons in rats with electrical lesions of the pituitary stalk (PEL).@*METHODS@#Thirty-two SD rats were randomized into PEL group with electrical lesions of the pituitary stalk through the floor of the skull base (=25) and sham operation group (=7), and the daily water consumption (DWC), daily urine volume (DUV) and urine specific gravity (USG) of the rats were recorded. Four rats on day 1 and 7 rats on each of days 3, 7 and 14 after PEL as well as the sham-operated rats were sacrificed for detection of the expressions of β-Tubulin (Tuj1), doublecortin and caspase- 3 in the AVP neurons of the supraoptic nucleus using immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#After PEL, the rats exhibited a typical triphasic pattern of diabetes insipidus, with the postoperative days 1-2 as the phase one, days 3-5 as the phase two, and days 6-14 as the phase three. Immunofluorescent results indicated the repair of the AVP neurons evidenced by significantly increased doublecortin expressions in the AVP neurons following PEL; similarly, the expression of Tuj1 also increased progressively after PEL, reaching the peak level on day 7 after PEL. The apoptotic rates of the AVP neurons exhibited a reverse pattern of variation, peaking on postoperative day 3 followed by progressive reduction till day 14. Western blotting showed that the expressions of c-Jun and p-c-Jun were up-regulated significantly on day 3 ( < 0.05) and 7 ( < 0.01) after PEL, while an upregulated p-JNK expression was detected only on day 3 ( < 0.05), as was consistent with the time-courses of neuronal recovery and apoptosis after PEL.@*CONCLUSIONS@#JNK/c-Jun pathway is activated after PEL to induce apoptosis of AVP neurons in the acute phase and to promote the repair of neuronal cytoskeleton by up-regulation of doublecortin and Tuj1 expressions.

Animals , Apoptosis , Arginine Vasopressin , Pharmacology , Cytoskeleton , Metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Neurons , Cell Biology , Pituitary Gland , Cell Biology , Wounds and Injuries , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Regeneration , Tubulin , Metabolism
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766828


PURPOSE: To report a case of pituitary apoplexy presenting as isolated bilateral oculomotor nerve palsy. CASE SUMMARY: A 46-year-old male presented with bilateral ptosis and acute severe headaches for 6 days. He underwent head surgery and bilateral vitrectomy 12 years prior to his visit because of ocular and head trauma. He mentioned that previous visual acuities in both eyes were not good. The initial corrected visual acuity was finger counting in the right eye and 20/500 in the left eye. Ocular motility testing revealed the limitation of adduction, supraduction, and infraduction with complete bilateral ptosis in both eyes, and his left pupil was dilated. He was diagnosed with an isolated bilateral oculomotor nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated pituitary gland hemorrhage with a tumor, which was suspicious of pituitary apoplexy. The patient was treated intravenous with 1.0 g methylprednisolone to prevent the corticotropic deficiency. In addition, he underwent surgical decompression using a navigation-guided transsphenoidal approach and aspiration biopsy. He was confirmed with pituitary adenoma using a pathological examination. The patient's ocular movements began to dramatically improve by the third day postoperatively. At 4 months postoperative follow-up, his ocular movement and double vision were completely recovered. CONCLUSIONS: This was a rare case of pituitary apoplexy with bilateral isolated oculomotor nerve palsy, which was the first report in the Republic of Korea. A full recovery was achieved after early surgical treatment.

Biopsy, Needle , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Craniocerebral Trauma , Decompression, Surgical , Diplopia , Fingers , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Headache , Hemorrhage , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone , Middle Aged , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases , Oculomotor Nerve , Pituitary Apoplexy , Pituitary Gland , Pituitary Neoplasms , Pupil , Republic of Korea , Visual Acuity , Vitrectomy
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1316-1325, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975702


The morphology of the hypophysis in Bactrian camel has not been described in the literature, despite it being the master of endocrine organs in vertebrates. In the present study, we examined the morphological features of the hypophysis in Bactrian camel by means of gross anatomy, light and electron microscope. Our findings showed that the gland was a protrusion of the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain with about 1.54 g in weight and 2 cm3 in volume. The hypophysis consists of two major parts: fully developed adenohypophysis and underdeveloped neurohypophysis, the adenohypophysis consists of pars distalis and pars intermedia. Seven type cells of the pars distalis could be distinguished with immunohistochemical techniques and electron micrographs: somatotroph, mammotroph, thyrotroph, corticotroph, gonadotroph, chromophobe and stellate cells which is in accordance with most mammals. Notably, the stellate cells could be obviously distinguished from chromophobe cells in histological oberservation. Moreover, the corpusculum neurosecretorium (Herring bodies) were rare in the external neurohypophysis, and mainly distributed in the internal neurohypophysis, this was different from most mammals. Results from this study would provide a necessary theoretical basis for ongoing investigations for Bactrian camels and their good adaptability in arid and semi-arid circumstances.

La morfología de la hipófisis en el camello bactriano no ha sido descrita en la literatura, a pesar de ser el maestro de los órganos endocrinos en los vertebrados. En el presente estudio, examinamos las características morfológicas de la hipófisis del camello bactriano por medio de anatomía general, microscocopía de luz y microscopía electrónica. Nuestros hallazgos mostraron que la hipófisis es una protuberancia ubicada en la porción inferior del hipotálamo, en la base del cerebro, con aproximadamente 1,54 g de peso y 2 cm3 de volumen. La hipófisis consta de dos partes principales: adenohipófisis, completamente desarrollada, y neurohipófisis, poco desarrollada; además, la adenohipófisis consta de una pars distalis y una pars intermedia. Con técnicas inmunohistoquímicas y micrografías electrónicas en la pars distalis se pudieron distinguir siete tipos de células: somatotrofas, mamotróficas, tirotrofas, corticotrofas, gonadotrofas, cromófobas y estrelladas, lo que es similar a la mayoría de los mamíferos. En la observación histológica las células estrelladas se pueden distinguir naturalmente de las células cromófobas. Además, es rara la presencia de corpusculum neurosecretorium (Cuerpos de Herring) en la neurohipófisis externa, hallándose distribuidos principalmente en la neurohipófisis interna, esto es diferente a lo encontrado en la mayoría de los mamíferos. Los resultados de este estudio proporcionarían una base teórica necesaria para las investigaciones en curso de los camellos bactrianos y su buena adaptabilidad en circunstancias áridas y semiáridas.

Animals , Pituitary Gland/ultrastructure , Camelus/anatomy & histology , Pituitary Gland/anatomy & histology , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(4): 420-423, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959265


Objective: The beneficial effects of psychopharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on the brain are not well understood. In a previous study, we found smaller pituitary volumes in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CBT on pituitary gland volume. Methods: A total of 81 patients with various anxiety disorders and the same number of healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging, and their pituitary gland volumes were compared at baseline. Pituitary gland volumes were also measured before and after CBT in the patient group. Results: OCD patients had smaller pituitary gland volumes at baseline than healthy controls (0.54±0.29 cm3 for OCD patients vs. 0.82±0.30 cm3 for healthy controls; p < 0.001). We found no significant changes in OCD patient pituitary gland volume after the 16-week treatment period, with mean pre- and post-treatment values of 0.54±0.29 cm3 and 0.56±0.32 cm3, respectively (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate an absence of post-CBT volumetric changes in the pituitary gland of OCD patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Pituitary Gland/anatomy & histology , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/instrumentation , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy , Organ Size/physiology , Pituitary Gland/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715509


BACKGROUND: Past decades of division have led to substantial differences in medical environments between South and North Korea. However, little is known about North Korea's medical status and research field, especially regarding endocrinology. In this study, we report the characteristics of North Korea's articles regarding endocrine-related diseases. METHODS: Among the nine medical journals, articles published in Internal Medicine between 2006 and 2015 were reviewed. A total of 2,092 articles were included; among them, 96 articles were associated with endocrinology. We analyzed these articles according to the disease categories they focused on and evaluated their features. RESULTS: Articles related to diabetes mellitus accounted for 55.2% (n=53) and those to thyroid disease accounted for 28.1% (n=27). Other disease categories, including adrenal gland (n=1), pituitary gland (n=1), and osteoporosis (n=3), comprised minor portions. Regarding diabetes mellitus, more than half the articles (n=33) focused on treatment and complications. Experimental studies were conducted with old hypoglycemic drugs or natural substances for the treatment of hyperglycemia. Regarding thyroid disease, articles related to hyperthyroidism were the most common (51.9%, n=14), followed by thyroid nodule/cancer (18.5%, n=5). Unique article features were short length, no figures, and less than five references. CONCLUSION: North Korea's endocrinology articles mainly focused on diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease. Persistent studies have been carried out in North Korea with dedication despite the poor medical environment. We hope that this study will be the beginning of mutual medical exchange and collaboration between North and South Korea.

Adrenal Glands , Cooperative Behavior , Democratic People's Republic of Korea , Diabetes Mellitus , Endocrine System Diseases , Endocrinology , Hope , Hyperglycemia , Hyperthyroidism , Hypoglycemic Agents , Internal Medicine , Korea , Osteoporosis , Pituitary Gland , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1174-1180, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718494


PURPOSE: Growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) possess the ability to release growth hormone (GH) in the body. This study aimed to investigate the effects of MK-677, an orally active GHS, on somatic growth in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The serum levels of GH were measured after oral administration of MK-677 to confirm GH stimulatory effects. Body weight, body length, tibia length, epiphyseal plate width, and serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I were measured after oral administration of 4 mg/kg of MK-677 for 6 weeks to investigate growth-promoting effects. RESULTS: Oral administration of MK-677 at 4 mg/kg increased peak GH concentrations by 1.8-fold, compared to baseline. However, oral administration of MK-677 for 6 weeks did not increase body growth or serum levels of IGF-I. At 6 weeks after treatment, the GH response to MK-677 was abolished. Pituitary GH mRNA and hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone mRNA, and GH secretagogue receptor (GHSR) mRNA expression in the pituitary and hypothalamus did not differ between the control and treatment group. Somatostatin (SST) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus was markedly increased in the treatment group, whereas SST receptor (SSTR)-2 mRNA expression in the pituitary gland was decreased. Protein expression of hypothalamic GHSR, SST, and pituitary SSTR-2 showed patterns similar to those for mRNA expression. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that prolonged administration of MK-677 in rats does not promote growth despite the GH stimulatory effect of MK-677, which may be related to increased expression of SST in the hypothalamus. Further studies are needed to overcome the observed desensitization to GHS.

Administration, Oral , Animals , Body Weight , Growth Hormone , Growth Plate , Hypothalamus , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Pituitary Gland , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Somatostatin , Tibia
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(9): e7427, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951761


Genetic and functional aberrations of guanine nucleotide-binding protein, alpha stimulating (GNAS), aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP), and pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) are among the most prominent events in pituitary tumorigenesis. A cohort of Brazilian patients with somatotropinomas (n=41) and non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA, n=21) from a single tertiary-referral center were evaluated for GNAS and AIP mutations and gene expression of AIP and PTTG. Results were compared to the clinical and biological (Ki67 and p53 expression) characteristics of tumors and their response to therapy, if applicable. Genetic analysis revealed that 27% of somatotropinomas and 4.8% of NFPA harbored GNAS mutations (P=0.05). However, no differences were observed in clinical characteristics, tumor extension, response to somatostatin analog therapy, hormonal/surgical remission rates, Ki67 index, and p53 expression between mutated and non-mutated somatotropinomas patients. PTTG overexpression (RQ mean=10.6, min=4.39, max=11.9) and AIP underexpression (RQ mean=0.56, min=0.46-max=0.92) were found in virtually all cases without a statistically significant relationship with clinical and biological tumor features. No patients exhibited somatic or germline pathogenic AIP mutations. In conclusion, mutations in GNAS and abnormal PTTG and AIP expression had no impact on tumor features and treatment outcomes in this cohort. Our data support some previous studies and point to the need for further investigations, probably involving epigenetic and transcriptome analysis, to improve our understanding of pituitary tumor behavior.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pituitary Neoplasms/genetics , Adenoma/genetics , Germ-Line Mutation/genetics , Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/genetics , Pituitary Gland/pathology , Pituitary Neoplasms/pathology , Brazil , DNA, Neoplasm , Genetic Markers , Adenoma/pathology , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Cohort Studies , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/pathology , Carcinogenesis
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 54(4): 151-159, dic. 2017. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-957982


El síndrome de interrupción del tallo pituitario (PSIS) se caracteriza por la demostración neurorradiológica de un tallo pituitario ausente, interrumpido o hipoplásico, adenohipófisis aplásica/hipoplásica o neurohipófisis ectópica. Este síndrome se ha relacionado con formas severas de hipopituitarismo congénito (HPC), asociado a múltiples deficiencias de hormonas pituitarias (MPHD). Evaluamos a pacientes con HPC y PSIS, analizando los signos y los síntomas neonatales al diagnóstico, relacionándolos con las deficiencias hormonales pituitarias y signos neurorradiológicos presentes. Estudiamos retrospectivamente a 80 pacientes asistidos en el Hospital de Niños de Córdoba, con diagnóstico de HPC, de los cuales 42 (52%) presentaron PSIS; 22 mujeres y 20 varones, EC: 5 días-9,5 años. El 62% presentó MPHD y el 38% insuficiencia somatotrófica aislada (IGHD). El análisis de las variables perinatales demostró antecedentes de parto natural en el 52% (11/21) de las MPHD vs. 13% (2/15) de las IGHD. Cuatro pacientes, 2 con MPHD y 2 con IGHD presentaban antecedentes obstétricos consistentes en presentación podálica y transversa respectivamente, todos ellos resueltos mediante operación cesárea. Los signos y los síntomas perinatales fueron hipo- glucemia: 61% en MPHD vs. 19% en IGHD, p: 0,0105; ictericia: 38% en MPHD vs. 25% en IGHD; micropene: 77% en MPHD y colestasis: 19% en MPHD. Convulsiones neonatales se presentaron en el 75% de los niños con MPHD e hipoglucemia. EC media de consulta: 2,1 años en MPHD (30% en el período neonatal, 70% antes de 2 años) y 3,6 años en IGHD (44% en menores de 2 años). Los pacientes con MPHD presentaban: tallo no visible 81% (n: 21/26) vs. tallo hipoplásico: 19% (n: 5/26), p: 0,0001; en IGHD 56% (n: 9/16) vs. 44% (n: 7/16), p: 0,5067, respectivamente. El 100% de los neonatos con HPC tenían tallo pituitario ausente. Concluimos que la demostración de PSIS en niños con HPC proporciona información valiosa como predictor de la severidad fenotípica, la presencia de MPHD y de la respuesta al tratamiento. La baja frecuencia de antecedentes obstétricos posicionales potencialmente distócicos, como parte de los mecanismos fisiopatogénicos responsables de PSIS, indicaría la necesidad de analizar la importancia de posibles factores genéticos y epigenéticos involucrados. El diagnóstico precoz de HPC debe sospecharse en presencia de signos y síntomas clínicos, tales como hipoglucemia, colestasis, micropene y defectos asociados en la línea media facial. La resonancia magnética cerebral debe formar parte de los estudios complementarios en pacientes con esta presunción diagnóstica, especialmente a edades tempranas. El reconocimiento tardío de esta entidad puede aumentar la morbilidad y la mortalidad con efectos potenciales deletéreos y permanentes.

Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is characterised by the combination of an interrupted or thin pituitary stalk, absent or ectopic posterior pituitary, and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. It is manifested as isolated (IGHD) or combined pituitary hormone deficiencies (CPHD) of variable degrees and timing of onset, with a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes. PSIS may be an isolated morphological abnormality or be part of a syndrome. A retrospective evaluation is presented of clinical signs and symptoms present at early life stages, as well as an analysis of their relationship with hormone laboratory tests and diagnostic imaging in children with congenital hypopituitarism (CHP), and PSIS. This study was performed in a single centre on a sample of 42 children out of a total of 80 CHP patients, with a chronological age range between 5 days and 9.5 years from a database analysed over a period of 26 years. The study included 26/42 (62%) with CPHD and 16/42 (38%) with IGHD. The analysis of perinatal variables showed a natural delivery in 52% (11/21) of CPHD vs 13% (2/15) of IGHD. Four patients, two with CPHD and two IGHD had breech and transverse presentation respectively. All of them were resolved by caesarean section. The perinatal histories showed hypoglycaemia (61% CPHD vs 19% IGHD, P=.0105), jaundice (38% CPHDvs25% IGHD), micropenis (75%CPHD), hypoglycaemic seizures (75% CPHD), and cholestasis (19% CPHD). The mean CA of consulting for CPHD patients was 2.1 years, 30% in neonatal period and 70% before 2 years. The mean chronical age (CA) was 3.6 years in IGHD patients, with 44% of them less than 2 years. MRI showed that 81% of CPHD patients had absence of pituitary stalk vs 19% with thin pituitary stalk (P=.0001); Patients with IGHD presented 56% absence of pituitary stalk vs 44% with thin pituitary stalk (P=.5067). All (100%) of the patients diagnosed in the neonatal stage had absent pituitary stalk. The characterisation of GH deficient patients by presence and type of hypothalamic-pituitary imaging abnormality provides valuable information as a predictor of phenotypic severity, treatment response, and the potential to develop additional hormonal deficiencies. We conclude that demonstrating PSIS in children with HPC provides valuable information as a predictor of phenotypic severity, presence of MPHD, and response to treatment. The low frequency of potentially dysfunctional positional obstetric history, as part of the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for PSIS, would indicate the need to analyse the importance of possible genetic and epigenetic factors involved. Early diagnosis of HPC should be suspected in the presence of clinical signs and symptoms, such as hypoglycaemia, cholestasis, micropenis, and associated facial midline defects. MRI should be part of complementary studies in patients with this diagnostic suspicion, especially at an early age. Late recognition of this entity may increase morbidity and mortality with potential permanent deleterious effects.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pituitary Gland/abnormalities , Pituitary Gland/physiopathology , Hypopituitarism/congenital , Growth Hormone/deficiency , Cholestasis/etiology , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Hypopituitarism/diagnosis