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1.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020228, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142405

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that involves any organ. However, the primary pituitary tuberculosis is an extremely rare disease. Intracranial tuberculomas account for 0.15-5% of intracranial space-occupying lesions, of which, pituitary as the primary site is unusual, and easily misdiagnosed as pituitary adenoma. In this setting, the late diagnosis can result in permanent endocrine dysfunction. We report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented to the neurosurgery outpatient department with complaints of progressively increasing headache and diminished vision over the last year. On the clinical examination, the patient was conscious and oriented. The routine hematological and biochemical workup showed an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and increased prolactin levels. The radiological working diagnosis was consistent with pituitary macroadenoma. No other radiological and/or clinical clue that could elicit the suspicion of pulmonary or extrapulmonary lesions of tuberculosis was found. The transsphenoidal endonasal tumor excision was done. The histopathology showed numerous epithelioid cell granulomas, Langhans giant cells along with scant necrosis. Ziehl Neelsen staining demonstrated acid-fast bacilli, and the final diagnosis of pituitary tuberculoma was made. We report this rare case of pituitary lesion that may be included in the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions to avoid unnecessary surgical interventions, especially in regions where the disease is endemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pituitary Gland/pathology , Pituitary Neoplasms , Tuberculosis/pathology , Adenoma/pathology , Epithelioid Cells , Giant Cells, Langhans , Rare Diseases , Diagnosis, Differential , Granuloma/pathology
2.
Repert. med. cir ; 30(1): 13-21, 2021. Ilus., tab.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1281415

ABSTRACT

El gen AIP (proteína moduladora de la actividad del receptor de aril hidrocarburos) se localiza en la región 11q13.2 y codifica para una proteína de 330 aminoácidos que interactúa con el factor de transcripción AhR (receptor para aril hidrocarburos). Las mutaciones en este gen se han asociado con adenomas pituitarios aislados de tipo familiar (APAF). Se caracterizan por una presentación temprana (alrededor de 20 años), por lo regular producen hormona de crecimiento y/o prolactina, tienen un comportamiento clínico agresivo y poca respuesta a análogos de somatostatina.


The AIP gene (aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein) is located on chromosome 11q13.2 and encodes a 330 amino acid protein which interacts with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) transcription factor. Mutations in the AIP gene have been associated with familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). They characterize by an early-onset (around the age of 20 years old) and for being aggressive, growth hormone and/or prolactin-secreting tumors, with poor response to somatostatin analogues.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pituitary Neoplasms/genetics , Pituitary Neoplasms/metabolism , Adenoma/genetics , Adenoma/metabolism , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Pituitary Diseases/genetics , Pituitary Diseases/metabolism
3.
J. afr. imag. méd ; 13(1): 31-35, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1342864

ABSTRACT

Objectif :Décrire le profil épidémiologique et remnologique des pathologies retrouvées chez les patients adressés pour IRM hypophysaire dans le service d'imagerie médicale du CHU-B. Patients et Méthode :il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive, réalisée au service d'imagerie médicale du CHU de Brazzaville de janvier 2014 à décembre 2018. Tous les patients adressés pour IRM hypophysaire étaient inclus. Les examens ont été réalisés sur une IRM de haut champ de 1,5 Tesla sans et avec injection de produit de contraste. Les données épidémiologiques, l'indication et les résultats retrouvés ont été traitées avec le logiciel Microsoft Excel 2013. Résultats :Cinquante-huit IRM étaient retenues durant la période d'étude. L'âge moyen des patients était de 38,24 ± 11,52 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 12 à 74 ans et un âge médian de 36 ans. Le sexe ratio (F/H) était de 4,8 avec 48 femmes (82,76%). La galactorrhée était le motif de consultation le plus fréquemment retrouvé (21,88% des cas), suivie des aménorrhées (18,75%). L'adénome hypophysaire était la pathologie la plus fréquente devant les selles turciques vides et les kystes de la poche de Rathke. Conclusion :La pathologie hypophysaire est l'apanage du sujet jeune de sexe féminin. Son mode de révélation le plus fréquent est celui de troubles gynécologiques et/ou endocriniens. Les adénomes constituent la quasi-totalité de la pathologie hypophysaire avec une nette prédominance de macroadénome. L'IRM apporte des informations essentielles au diagnostic de cespathologies malgré son accessibilité et sa disponibilité qui restent encore limité.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pituitary Neoplasms , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Central Nervous System Cysts , Galactorrhea , Pituitary Gland , Congo
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887910

ABSTRACT

Pituitary metastasis,a rare kind of intracranial malignant tumor,is characterized by metastasis from all parts of the body to the pituitary.The common tumors metastatic to pituitary are abundant with blood supply,located in the posterior pituitary lobe and/or the pituitary stalk.The lesion shows infiltrative growth,and mainly demonstrates low signal on T1 weighted imaging and high signal on T2 weighted imaging.It is usually enhanced significantly after iodinated contrast administration.The metastatic tumor with poor blood supply is similar to pituitary macroadenoma on magnetic resonance image,which makes it difficult to be differentiated.We reported two cases of pathologically diagnosed pituitary metastasis with poor blood supply and reviewed related papers,aiming to provide the imaging differentiation points of hypovascular pituitary metastasis.


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pituitary Diseases , Pituitary Gland , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
5.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(6): 409-412, nov.-dez. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156156

ABSTRACT

Resumo Os tumores de hipófise representam aproximadamente 15% de todos os tumores cerebrais e dependendo do tamanho, pressionam o quiasma óptico, resultando em comprometimento da função visual que se manifesta como defeitos no campo visual, diminuição da acuidade visual e da visão das cores. O objetivo do presente estudo foi relatar um caso de macroadenoma de hipófise com compressão do quiasma óptico e defeito no campo visual, tratado inicialmente como glaucoma, levando a um diagnóstico e tratamento tardio.


Abstract Pituitary tumors represent approximately 15% of all brain tumors and depending on size, pressure optic chiasma, resulting in impaired visual func-tion that manifests itself as defective in the visual field, decreased acuity visual and color vision. The ob-jetive of the present study was to report a case of pitui-tary macroadenoma with compression of optical chiasma and visual field de-fect, initially treated as glaucoma, leading to a late diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Optic Chiasm/physiopathology , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Visual Acuity , Visual Fields , Adenoma/diagnosis , Color Vision
6.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 30(2): 159-166, 31 de agosto del 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145229

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de tiroides es la neoplasia endocrina más frecuenteyel Carcinoma Papilar de tiroides representa el 80% de los casos. Por otro lado, la acromegalia es un trastorno poco diagnosticado con una incidencia estimada anual de 4 casos por millón de personas. Presentamos un caso en el que se presentan las dos entidades al mismo tiempo en un paciente y la discusión del posible nexobio químico. Caso clínico: Mujer de 23 años, con masa nodular pétrea de 3 centímetros, en polo superior de lóbulo derecho de tiroides; sometida a tiroidectomía radical y linfadenectomía cervical bilateral, reporte histopatológico de carcinoma papilar. Evoluciona con cambios visuales en ojo izquierdo, cefalea, amenorrea de 1 año, galactorrea negativa, características morfo-anatómicas de acromegalia, campimetría hemianopsia homónima izquierda. IRM de cerebro lesión sellar y suprasellar hiperintensa en T2 en relación a macroadenoma hipofisario. Bioquímicos: Prolactina 131.20, GH 2.7, ACTH 18.5, IGF1 434, IGFBP 35.8, TTOG para GH que se informa: GH 0 min: 10.7, GH 30 min: 9.24, GH 60 min: 7.9. Evolución: La paciente fue sometida a hipofisectomía transesfenoidal endoscópica parcial. En tratamiento con cabergolina 0.5 mg bisemanal, levotiroxina 225 mcg día y octreótide 20 mg mensual. Conclusión: Se concluye que siendo la acromegalia una enfermedad rara se asocia a cáncer de tiroides, implicando posibles mutaciones en la subunidad α de la proteína G.


Introduction:Thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine neoplasia and Papillary thyroid carcinoma represents 80% of cases. On the other hand, acromegaly is a poorly diagnosed disorder with an estimated annual incidence of 4 cases per million people. We present a case in which the two entities occur at the same time in a patient and the discussion of the possible biochemical link. Clinical case: 23-year-old woman, with a 3 cm stone nodular mass in the upper pole of the right thyroid lobe; submitted to radical thyroidectomy and bilateral cervical lymphadenectomy, histopathological report of papillary carcinoma. It evolves with visual changes in the left eye, headache, 1-year amenorrhea, negative galactorrhea, morpho-anatomical characteristics of acromegaly,left homonymous hemianopia campimetry. T2 hyperintense seal and suprasellar lesion brain MRI in relation to pituitary macroadenoma. Biochemicals: Prolactin 131.20, GH 2.7, ACTH 18.5, IGF1 434, IGFBP 35.8, TTOG for reported GH: GH 0 min: 10.7, GH 30 min: 9.24, GH 60 min: 7.9. Evolution: The patient underwent partial endoscopic transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. In treatment with cabergoline 0.5 mg twice weekly, levothyroxine 225 mcg day and octreotide 20 mg monthly. Conclusion: It is concluded that, being acromegaly a rare disease, it is associated with thyroid cancer, involving possible mutations in the α subunit of the G protein.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Gland , Acromegaly , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Pituitary Neoplasms , Case Reports , Thyroid Neoplasms
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(2): 181-184, abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125063

ABSTRACT

La mayoría de los adenomas hipofisarios son esporádicos, pero un 3-5% puede ocurrir en un contexto familiar y hereditario. Este es el caso de la neoplasia endocrina múltiple de tipo 1 (NEM1), complejo de Carney (CNC) y adenomas hipofisarios aislados familiares (FIPA). El FIPA es una condición infrecuente, que ocurre en un contexto familiar, no asociada a NEM t ipo1 ni CNC. Los FIPA pueden ser homogéneos (todos los adenomas tienen el mismo fenotipo) o heterogéneos (diferente fenotipo tumoral). Describimos una familia congolesa en la que dos hermanas y una prima fueron diagnosticadas a los 29, 32 y 40 años, respectivamente, con un prolactinoma (FIPA homogéneo). Las pacientes presentaron macroadenomas no invasivos al momento del diagnóstico, con buena respuesta biológica y tumoral al tratamiento con cabergolina hasta una dosis máxima de 1.5 mg/semanal. De las dos hermanas, una cursó un embarazo sin complicaciones. Durante el seguimiento de 12 años, ninguna de ellas presentó elementos clínicos o biológicos compatibles con NEM1 o CNC, por lo que dichos genes no se estudiaron. El análisis genético en dos de las pacientes permitió descartar la posibilidad de una mutación germinal del gen aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP). Se considera que el 80% de los pacientes con FIPA no presentan mutación del gen AIP, por lo que se requieren futuros estudios en este tipo de familias, para poder determinar otros genes afectados involucrados en su fisiopatología.


Most pituitary adenomas are sporadic, but 3-5% can occur in a family and hereditary context. This is the case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Carney complex (CNC) and familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). FIPA is an infrequent condition that occurs in a family context, not associated with MEN type1 or CNC. FIPA kindred can be homogeneous (all adenomas affected in the family having the same tumor phenotype) or heterogeneous (different tumor phenotypes in the affected members). We describe a Congolese family in which two sisters and a cousin were diagnosed with a prolactinoma (homogenous FIPA) at the ages of 29, 32 and 40 years, respectively. The patients presented with macroadenomas at the time of diagnosis, non-invasive tumors and good biological response to cabergoline treatment (maximum dose of 1.5 mg/weekly). Of these two sisters, one went through a pregnancy without complications. Because no MEN1 and CNC clinical and biochemical features were detected during the 12-year follow-up, these genes were not investigated. The genetic analysis of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) was normal. As nearly 80% of patients with FIPA do not have a mutation in the AIP gene, future studies in these families are required to identify other affected genes involved in their physiopathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pituitary Neoplasms/genetics , Adenoma/genetics , Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary/diagnosis , Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary/genetics , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Adenoma/diagnosis , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1/genetics , Mutation
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(2): 165-170, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137151

ABSTRACT

Abstract The 2020 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, COVID-19, had its headquarters in China. It causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and presents a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from entirely asymptomatic through severe acute respiratory failure and death. Presuming a significant quantity of ventilator-dependent patients, several institutions strategically delayed elective surgeries. Particularly procedures performed involving the nasal mucosa, such as a transsphenoidal approach of the pituitary gland, considering the tremendous level of viral shedding. Nevertheless, critical cases demand expeditious resolution. Those situations are severe pituitary apoplexy, declining consciousness level, or risk of acute visual loss. This case presents a successful urgent perioperative management of a 47 year-old male COVID-19 positive patient who presented to the Emergency Department with a left frontal headache that culminated with diplopia, left eye ptosis, and left visual acuity loss after 5 days. Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy was uneventfully performed, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day four. It additionally describes in detail the University of Mississippi Medical Center airway management algorithm for patients infected with the novel coronavirus who need emergent surgical attention.


Resumo A pandemia de 2020 causada pelo novo coronavírus, COVID-19, teve seu epicentro na China. Causa Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave pelo Coronavírus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) e apresenta um amplo espectro de manifestações clínicas, que vão desde nenhum sintoma a insuficiência respiratória aguda grave e óbito. Com a expectativa de um número significativo de pacientes dependentes de ventilador, várias instituições estrategicamente adiaram cirurgias eletivas. Esse é o caso principalmente de procedimentos envolvendo a mucosa nasal, como a via transesfenoidal para a hipófise, devido ao nível imenso de disseminação de material viral. Não obstante, casos críticos requerem resolução acelerada. Essas situações são grave apoplexia hipofisária, diminuição do nível de consciência ou risco de perda visual aguda. O presente caso relata o manejo perioperatório bem sucedido de urgência de paciente do sexo masculino de 47 anos de idade com COVID-19 que chegou ao Pronto Socorro com cefaleia frontal à esquerda que culminou com diplopia, ptose do olho esquerdo e perda de acuidade visual à esquerda após 5 dias. A hipofisectomia transesfenoidal ocorreu sem intercorrências e o paciente recebeu alta do hospital no quarto dia do pós-operatório. Adicionalmente, descrevemos em detalhe o algoritmo de manejo de via aérea da University of Mississippi Medical Center para pacientes infectados pelo novo coronavírus e que necessitam de atenção cirúrgica de emergência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pituitary Neoplasms/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Airway Management/methods , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome , Perioperative Care , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Middle Aged
9.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(1): 15-35, mar. 2020. ilus, grafs
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1151244

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los tumores de hipófisis representan aproximadamente un 10% de los tumores intracraneales. Los adenomas hipofisarios son ampliamente la lesión selar más frecuente. Es fundamental que se conformen equipos capaces de tratar holísticamente esta patología en las distintas regiones de nuestro vasto territorio. El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar nuestra experiencia en el manejo quirúrgico de los adenomas hipofisarios en el Noroeste Argentino. Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes operados por adenomas selares, desde enero de 2013 hasta abril de 2019, en la provincia de Tucumán, por el autor Senior. Resultados: Se analizaron 211 pacientes operados de adenomas pituitarios. En el 75% (n=158) las resecciones fueron totales y en el 25% (n=53) fueron resecciones subtotales. De los 88 pacientes con macroadenomas no funcionantes y déficit visual, el 94% (n=83) presentó mejoría visual en el postoperatorio. De los 52 pacientes con acromegalia, un 75% (n=39) presentó remisión bioquímica completa postquirúrgica. De los 26 pacientes con enfermedad de Cushing, un 81% (n=21) presentó remisión bioquímica completa postquirúrgica. De los 21 pacientes con prolactinomas, un 71% (n=15) normalizaron los niveles de prolactina en el postoperatorio. Conclusión: Los resultados en el tratamiento quirúrgico de los adenomas hipofisarios de la presente serie son comparables a los reportados por centros especializados internacionales. Debemos formar equipos capaces de tratar esta patología en las distintas regiones de la Argentina.


Background: Pituitary tumors account for 10% of intracranial tumors. Pituitary adenomas are the most common selar lesion. It is essential that teams be formed capable of treating this pathology holistically in the different regions of our vast territory. The purpose of this article is to present our experience in the surgical management of pituitary adenomas in the Northwest of Argentine. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was done studding patients operated from pituitary adenomas, from January 2013 to April 2019, in Tucumán, by the Senior Author. Results: We analyzed 211 patients operated from pituitary adenomas, of which 75% (n=158) had gross total resections and 25% (n=53) had subtotal resections. Of the 88 patients with non-functioning macroadenomas and visual deficit, 94% (n=83) presented visual improvement after surgery. Of the 52 patients with acromegaly, 75% (n=39) presented complete biochemical remission after surgery. Of the 26 patients with Cushing's disease, 81% (n=21) presented complete biochemical remission after surgery. Of the 21 patients with prolactinomas, 71% (n=15) normalized prolactin levels after surgery. Conclusion: Our results in the surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas are comparable to those reported by international specialized centers. We must form teams capable of treating this pathology in the different regions of Argentina


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Pituitary Gland , Pituitary Neoplasms , Skull , Neuroendocrinology
10.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 33-39, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055365

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate body dissatisfaction and distorted body self-image in women with prolactinoma. Methods: Body dissatisfaction and distorted body self-image were evaluated in 80 women with prolactinoma. All patients were in menacme, 34% had normal body mass index (BMI), and 66% were overweight. Most patients (56.2%) had normal prolactin (PRL) levels and no hyperprolactinemia symptoms (52.5%). The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to assess the patients' dissatisfaction with and concern about their physical form, and the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS) was used to assess body dissatisfaction and distorted body self-image. The patients were divided according to PRL level (normal vs. elevated) and the presence or absence of prolactinoma symptoms. Results: The normal and elevated PRL groups had similar incidences of body dissatisfaction and distorted body self-image. However, symptomatic patients reported a higher incidence of dissatisfaction than asymptomatic patients. Distorted body self-image was less common among symptomatic patients. Conclusion: Symptomatic patients showed higher body dissatisfaction, but lower body self-image distortion. The presence of symptoms may have been responsible for increased body awareness. The perception of body shape could have triggered feelings of dissatisfaction compared to an ideal lean body. Therefore, a distorted body self-image might not necessarily result in body dissatisfaction in women with prolactinomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Pituitary Neoplasms/psychology , Hyperprolactinemia/psychology , Prolactinoma/psychology , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/psychology , Pituitary Neoplasms/blood , Prolactin/blood , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Reference Values , Body Image/psychology , Hyperprolactinemia/drug therapy , Hyperprolactinemia/blood , Prolactinoma/blood , Body Mass Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dopamine Agonists/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 28-33, Jan. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088982

ABSTRACT

Abstract Prolactin (PRL) secreting adenomas are associated with high incidence of headache. The role of hyperprolactinemia in the headache context is not clear, nor is the effect of its treatment on headache. Methods: The present longitudinal study evaluated hyperprolactinemic patients (69), in terms of presence and characteristics of headache before and after hyperprolactinemia treatment. Results: Headache was reported by 45 (65.2%) patients, independent of the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. The migraine phenotype was the most prevalent (66.6%). Medications used in the treatment of headache not changed during the study. The first line of treatment of hyperprolactinemia was dopaminergic agonists. In the last reevaluation, PRL level under treatment was within the reference range in 54.7% of the cases, and it was observed complete or partial resolution of the headache in 75% of the cases. The median PRL at this time in patients with complete headache resolution was 17 ng/mL, in those who reported partial recovery was 21 ng/mL, and in those in whom the headache did not change was 66 ng/mL, with a significant difference between the group with complete headache resolution vs. the group with unchanged headache (p=0.022). In the cases with complete headache resolution, the median fall on PRL levels was 89% and in those cases with partial headache resolution 86%, both significantly different (p<0.001) from the fall in the cases with an unchanged headache. Conclusion: Data allow us to conclude that, in this series, in the majority of cases the reduction in the level of PRL was followe3d by cessation or relief of the pain.


Resumo Os adenomas secretores de prolactina (PRL) estão associados à alta incidência de cefaleia. O papel da hiperprolactinemia no contexto da dor de cabeça não está claro, nem o efeito da redução dos níveis da PRL na cefaleia. Métodos: O presente estudo longitudinal avaliou pacientes hiperprolactinêmicos (69), quanto à presença e às características da cefaleia antes e após o tratamento da hiperprolactinemia. Resultados: Cefaleia foi relatada por 45 (65,2%) pacientes, independente da etiologia da hiperprolactinemia. O fenótipo de enxaqueca foi mais prevalente (66,6%). Os medicamentos usados ​​no tratamento da cefaleia não foram alterados durante o estudo. A primeira linha de tratamento da hiperprolactinemia foram os agonistas dopaminérgicos. Na última reavaliação, o nível de PRL sob tratamento estava dentro da faixa de referência em 54,7% dos casos, observando-se resolução completa ou parcial da cefaleia em 75% dos casos. A mediana de PRL neste momento em pacientes com resolução completa da cefaleia foi de 17 ng/mL, nos que relataram recuperação parcial foi de 21 ng/mL, e naqueles em que a cefaleia não se alterou foi de 66 ng/mL, com uma diferença significativa entre o grupo com resolução completa da cefaleia versus o grupo com cefaleia inalterada (p=0,022). Nos casos com resolução completa da cefaleia, a queda mediana nos níveis de PRL foi de 89% e nos casos com resolução parcial de cefaleia de 86%, ambos significativamente diferentes (p<0,001) da queda nos casos com cefaleia inalterada. Conclusão: Os dados permitem concluir que, nesta série, na maioria dos casos, a redução do nível de PRL foi seguida pela cessação ou alívio da dor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Prolactin/blood , Hyperprolactinemia/therapy , Headache/prevention & control , Headache/blood , Pituitary Neoplasms/complications , Pituitary Neoplasms/therapy , Reference Values , Hyperprolactinemia/complications , Adenoma/complications , Adenoma/therapy , Analysis of Variance , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dopamine Agonists/therapeutic use , Headache/etiology
12.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(3): 98-101, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116920

ABSTRACT

Los adenomas pituitarios son los tumores hipofisarios más frecuentes siendo una entidad rara cuando se trata de adenomas ectópicos, es decir, sin conexión con la glándula pituitaria. Se cree que derivan de células residuales del tracto de migración embriológico desde la bolsa de Rathke. Su presentación clínica es muy variable porque depende de la producción hormonal y del efecto masa en estructuras adyacentes. Generalmente suponen un reto diagnóstico debido a su baja frecuencia, la clínica variable de presentación y que no presentan características específicas en las pruebas de imagen. Generalmente el diagnóstico se realiza de manera retrospectiva tras la resección quirúrgica. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 56 años que se presentó con unos valores de prolactina de 6647.5 ng/ml (2.2-17.7) con clínica de hipogonadismo aislada que se resolvió con tratamiento médico sin precisar resección quirúrgica, con una disminución de la densidad radiológica y estabilización del tamaño y sin clínica compresiva ni alteración visual.


Pituitary adenomas are the most common hypophyseal tumors being a rare entity when they are ectopic, without connection to the pituitary gland. They are thought to arise from residual cells in the migration tract from Rathke´s pouch. Its clinical presentation is variable depending on the hormonal production and the pressure effect on adjacent structures. They usually are a diagnostic challenge due to their low frequency, wide range of clinical presentation and not showing specific features on imaging techniques. The diagnosis is made usually retrospectively after surgical resection. We report the case of a 56 years old male that presented with a prolactine value of 6647.5 ng/ml (2.2-17.7) and isolated hypogonadism symptoms that resolved with medical treatment without surgery, diminishing the radiological density and stabilizing the size without having compresive symptoms nor visual disturbances.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prolactinoma/diagnosis , Skull Base Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cranial Fossa, Posterior , Pituitary Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prolactinoma/drug therapy , Adenoma , Skull Base Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cabergoline/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(4): 150-153, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123620

ABSTRACT

Los adenomas hipofisarios ectópicos (EPA) constituyen un reto diagnóstico, dada su escasa prevalencia y variada presentación en la que puede incluirse un síndrome de hipersecreción de hormonas hipofisarias. La clínica suele ser larvada e inespecífica, no presentan ninguna característica radiológica diferencial y el diagnóstico habitualmente es anatomopatológico. Sin embargo, a pesar de ser tumores benignos, pueden presentar un comportamiento agresivo, con invasión ósea y difícil resección completa, por lo que un diagnóstico de sospecha precoz podría resultar en un tratamiento más eficaz y con un menor número de complicaciones. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con un adenoma hipofisario ectópico silente en el seno esfenoidal con inmunohistoquímica positiva para Hormona de crecimiento (GH) y prolactina que presentaba restos tumorales tras la intervención quirúrgica y ha sido manejada con tratamiento médico conservado, con buenos resultados.


Ectopic pituitary adenomas constitute a diagnostic challenge, given their low prevalence and varied presentation in which a pituitary hormone hypersecretion syndrome may be included. Clinical symptoms are usually latent and nonspecific, they have no differential radiological characteristics and the diagnosis is usually anatomopathological. However, despite being benign tumors, they can exhibit aggressive behavior, with bone invasion and difficult complete resection, so a diagnosis of early suspicion could result in more effective treatment and fewer complications. We present the case of a patient with a silent ectopic pituitary adenoma in the sphenoid sinus with positive immunohistochemistry for Growth Hormone (GH) and prolactin who had tumor remnants after surgery and was managed with conservative medical treatment, with good results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pituitary Neoplasms/drug therapy , Sphenoid Sinus , Adenoma/diagnosis , Adenoma/drug therapy , Postoperative Period , Prolactin/metabolism , Growth Hormone/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Radionuclide Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Dopamine Agonists/therapeutic use , Cabergoline/therapeutic use
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876132

ABSTRACT

@#We describe three cases of primary hypothyroidism which presented initially to neurosurgery department with pituitary hyperplasia. We have found a novel pattern of ‘dome-shaped’ enlargement of pituitary in MRI of these patients. Out of these 3 patients, in two of them, the planned surgery was deferred when endocrinologists were consulted and the pituitary hyperplasia completely resolved with levothyroxine treatment. In the third case, pituitary surgery was already performed before endocrinology consultation and histopathology revealed thyrotroph hyperplasia. The hyperplastic lesions described typically have a homogenous symmetrical ‘dome’ shaped architecture unlike the non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), which usually might often be of varying shapes and homogeneity. Analysis of pituitary images from similar case reports published in literature, also showed this typical ‘dome’ shaped pituitary enlargement. This imaging characteristic can be a clue to look for underlying hormone deficiency, especially in primary hypothyroidism. Therefore, a thorough endocrine evaluation especially looking for primary hypothyroidism in such dome-shaped pituitary lesions are mandatory to prevent unwarranted neuro-surgical intervention as treatment of primary hypothyroidism may result in resolution of the abnormal enlargement.


Subject(s)
Pituitary Neoplasms , Adenoma , Hyperplasia , Pituitary Diseases
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acromegaly is a rare disease primarily caused by growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, and its treatment is costly. Moreover, some patients are unresponsive to treatment. Hence, there are increasing efforts to develop new drugs with improved effectiveness for this disease. BIM23B065 is a novel chimeric molecule that acts on both somatostatin and dopamine receptors. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BIM23B065 compared with those of a somatostatin receptor analog and a dopamine agonist.METHODS: The effects of BIM23B065 on the proliferation, GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) phosphorylation of GH3 cells were investigated with MTS assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting, respectively. The dosage and treatment duration of BIM23B065 were tested in animal models of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. The effect of BIM23B065 (3 mg/kg/day) on changes in IGF-1 levels before and after treatment was further investigated.RESULTS: In vitro, BIM23B065 treatment decreased GH release in the culture media and downregulated ERK 1/2 and CREB phosphorylation to 22% and 26%, respectively. In vivo, IGF-1 expression decreased to 50 % after 4 weeks of treatment with BIM23B065 using an osmotic pump implant. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging results showed that the tumor size decreased significantly following treatment with BIM23B065 for 4 weeks.CONCLUSION: The novel chimeric molecule was effective in decreasing IGF-1 and GH levels and may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for acromegaly.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Blotting, Western , Culture Media , Cyclic AMP , Dopamine Agonists , Dopamine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Growth Hormone , Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Models, Animal , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Pituitary Neoplasms , Rare Diseases , Receptors, Dopamine , Receptors, Somatostatin , Response Elements , Somatostatin
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(5): 419-423, oct. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056744

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de una paciente que, durante los estudios por búsqueda de fertilidad y posterior embarazo, mostraba un perfil tiroideo alterado con niveles elevados de T4 libre y TSH normal. Luego de descartar un adenoma tirotropo y ante la ausencia de sintomatología clínica de hipertiroidismo, se investigó la posibilidad de interferencias analíticas en los inmunoensayos utilizados para la medición de las hormonas. Se han descrito interferencias causadas por anticuerpos heterófilos, macro TSH, anticuerpos anti-tiroideos, biotina, y en menor medida anticuerpos anti-estreptavidina y anti-rutenio. Los análisis de la paciente se realizaron en autoanalizador cuya plataforma emplea el sistema estreptavidina-biotina que es muy susceptible a varios interferentes. Un algoritmo propuesto incluye una serie de pruebas simples de realizar e interpretar que permiten detectar o descartar la presencia de interferentes. De acuerdo al mismo, se efectuó la comparación con una plataforma analítica diferente (que no utiliza el sistema estreptavidina-biotina), diluciones seriadas, precipitación con polietilenglicol 6000 y tratamiento con micropartículas recubiertas con estreptavidina. Los resultados obtenidos confirmaron la presencia de anticuerpos anti-estreptavidina en el suero de la paciente. Ante discordancias entre las manifestaciones clínicas y los resultados de laboratorio, se debe investigar la posibilidad de interferencias metodológicas para evitar el riesgo iatrogénico potencial que implica una interpretación bioquímica errónea.


We present the case of a patient who, during studies for fertility and subsequent pregnancy, showed an altered thyroid profile with elevated levels of free T4 and normal TSH. After ruling out a thyrotropic adenoma and in the absence of clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism, the possibility of analytical interference in the immunoassays used to measure hormones was investigated. Interferences caused by heterophile antibodies, macro TSH, anti-thyroid antibodies, biotin, and to a lesser extent anti-streptavidin and anti-ruthenium antibodies have been described. The analysis of the patient was carried out in a self-analyzer whose platform uses the streptavidin-biotin system that is very susceptible to several interferents. A proposed algorithm includes a series of simple tests to perform and interpret that allow detecting or ruling out the presence of interferents. Accordingly, a comparison was made with a different analytical platform (which does not use the streptavidin-biotin system), serial dilutions, precipitation with polyethylene glycol 6000 and treatment with microparticles coated with streptavidin. Results obtained confirmed the presence of anti-streptavidin antibodies in the patient's serum. In the case of disagreements between clinical manifestations and laboratory results, the possibility of methodological interferences should be investigated in order to avoid the potential iatrogenic risk involved in an erroneous biochemical interpretation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenoma/diagnosis , Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/immunology , Streptavidin/immunology , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Pituitary Neoplasms/immunology , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood , Thyrotropin/blood , Adenoma/immunology , Diagnostic Errors , Hyperthyroidism/immunology
17.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 385-393, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019354

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Gigantism is a rare pediatric disease characterized by increased production of growth hormone (GH) before epiphyseal closure, that manifests clinically as tall stature, musculoskeletal abnormalities, and multiple comorbidities. Materials and methods Case series of 6 male patients with gigantism evaluated at the Endocrinology Service of Hospital de San José (Bogotá, Colombia) between 2010 and 2016. Results All patients had macroadenomas and their mean final height was 2.01 m. The mean age at diagnosis was 16 years, and the most common symptoms were headache (66%) and hyperhidrosis (66%). All patients had acral changes, and one had visual impairment secondary to compression of the optic chiasm. All patients underwent surgery, and 5 (83%) required additional therapy for biochemical control, including radiotherapy (n = 4, 66%), somatostatin analogues (n = 5, 83%), cabergoline (n = 3, 50%), and pegvisomant (n = 2, 33%). Three patients (50%) achieved complete biochemical control, while 2 patients showed IGF-1 normalization with pegvisomant. Two patients were genetically related and presented a mutation in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene (pathogenic variant, c.504G>A in exon 4, p.Trp168*), fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of familial isolated pituitary adenoma. Conclusions This is the largest case series of patients with gigantism described to date in Colombia. Transsphenoidal surgery was the first-choice procedure, but additional pharmacological therapy was usually required. Mutations in the AIP gene should be considered in familial cases of GH-producing adenomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Pituitary Neoplasms/therapy , Adenoma/therapy , Gigantism/therapy , Pedigree , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Growth Hormone/blood , Adenoma/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Sex Distribution , Colombia , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/genetics , Gigantism/diagnosis , Mutation/genetics
18.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(3): 162-164, jul. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006497

ABSTRACT

La acromegalia, originada por un exceso de producción de Hormona de crecimiento (Gh), se caracteriza por crecimiento somático exagerado, alto riesgo cardio-metabólico, así como reducción de la expectativa de vida. Tiene una incidencia de 3-4 casos por millón de habitantes. El diagnóstico se retrasa hasta 10 años aumentando la morbi-mortalidad. Las alternativas terapéuticas incluyen medicamentos y cirugía, que van encaminados a reducir los efectos de masa tumoral, normalizar los parámetros bioquímicos y resolver las manifestaciones clínicas. En casos muy infrecuentes, el tumor hipofisario que la origina se asocia a silla turca vacía.


Acromegaly, caused by an excess production of growth hormone (Gh), it is characterized by exaggerated somatic growth, high cardio-metabolic risk, as well as reduction of life expectancy. It has an incidence of 3-4 cases per million population. The diagnosis is delayed up to 10 years increasing morbidity and mortality. The therapeutic alternatives include medications and surgery, which are aimed at reduce the effects of tumor mass, normalize biochemical parameters and resolve clinical manifestations. In very infrequent cases, the pituitary tumor that originates it is associated with empty sella syndrome. Key words: Acromegaly, Empty sella syndrome, Pituitary tumor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Pituitary Neoplasms/complications , Acromegaly/complications , Acromegaly/diagnosis , Empty Sella Syndrome/complications , Sella Turcica/pathology , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Growth Hormone/analysis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Glucose Tolerance Test
19.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(3): 191-196, June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020058

ABSTRACT

Clinical presentation, treatment and its results were evaluated during long-term follow-up of 37 patients older than 65 years with pituitary adenomas. Causes of death were also evaluated. It was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. Prevalence of incidentalomas was 43% (16), macroadenomas 70.3% (26) and giant adenomas 16.2% (6). The most frequent tumor phenotype was the non-functioning adenoma (76%). The prevalence of visual field defects and neurological symptoms was 56% and 57%, respectively. We found normal pituitary function in 54%, partial deficiency in 30% and panhypopituitarism in 16%. Thirty-two patients were treated, 5 were lost to follow-up without receiving treatment. Surgery was indicated in 18. Of those operated by trans-sphenoidal approach, 23% had postsurgical complications and 54% improved the visual field. By trans-craneal approach, 50% had post-surgical complications and 33% visual field improvement. During follow-up (55.1 ± 48.7 months) no tumor regrowth was observed, except in a giant adenoma. Four operated patients died, two due to causes related to tumor. Fourteen were not operated, 11 with non-functioning adenomas and normal visual field were periodically controlled, and 3 with secreting adenomas received medical treatment. No tumor growth was observed during follow-up (43.7 ± 38.1 months). We did not observe tumor progression in elderly patients with non-functioning adenomas and normal visual field, so we suggest watchful approach and periodic control. When there are visual field defects, trans-sphenoidal surgery can be considered safe and effective. In secreting adenomas and depending on the associated comorbidities, medical treatment would be the appropriate approach.


Se evaluó la presentación clínica, tratamiento y sus resultados durante el seguimiento prolongado de 37 pacientes mayores de 65 años con adenomas hipofisarios, y sus causas de muerte. El estudio fue retrospecti vo y transversal. La prevalencia de incidentalomas fue 43% (16), macroadenomas 70.3% (26) y adenomas gigantes 16.2% (6). El fenotipo tumoral más frecuente fue el adenoma no funcionante (76%). La prevalencia de alteraciones en el campo visual y síntomas neurológicos fue 56% y 57% respectivamente. El 54% tuvo función hipofisaria normal, deficiencia parcial el 30% y panhipopituitarismo el 16%. Fueron tratados 32, 5 se perdieron en el seguimiento sin recibir tratamiento. Indicamos cirugía en 18. De los operados por vía transesfenoidal, el 23% tuvo complicaciones postquirúrgicas y el 54% mejoría del campo visual. Por vía transcraneal el 50% sufrió complicaciones post quirúrgicas y el 33% mejoró el campo visual. Durante el seguimiento (55.1 ± 48.7 meses) no observamos recrecimiento tumoral, excepto en un adenoma gigante. Cuatro pacientes operados murieron, dos por causas al tumor. Catorce no fueron operados, 11 con adenomas no funcionantes y campo visual normal fueron controlados periódicamente y 3 con adenomas funcionantes recibieron tratamiento médico. No observamos crecimiento tumoral durante el seguimiento (43.7 ± 38.1 meses). No observamos crecimiento tumoral en adenomas no funcionantes y campo visual normal, por lo que sugerimos conducta expectante y control periódico. Cuando existe alteración del campo visual, la cirugía transesfenoidal es segura y efectiva. En los adenomas secretantes y dependiendo de las comorbilidades, sería apropiado optar por tratamiento médico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pituitary Neoplasms/therapy , Adenoma/therapy , Pituitary Hormones , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pituitary Neoplasms/mortality , Adenoma/surgery , Adenoma/diagnosis , Adenoma/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Cause of Death , Treatment Outcome
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(3): 191-196, June 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020057

ABSTRACT

Se evaluó la presentación clínica, tratamiento y sus resultados durante el seguimiento prolongado de 37 pacientes mayores de 65 años con adenomas hipofisarios, y sus causas de muerte. El estudio fue retrospectivo y transversal. La prevalencia de incidentalomas fue 43% (16), macroadenomas 70.3% (26) y adenomas gigantes 16.2% (6). El fenotipo tumoral más frecuente fue el adenoma no funcionante (76%). La prevalencia de alteraciones en el campo visual y síntomas neurológicos fue 56% y 57% respectivamente. El 54% tuvo función hipofisaria normal, deficiencia parcial el 30% y panhipopituitarismo el 16%. Fueron tratados 32, 5 se perdieron en el seguimiento sin recibir tratamiento. Indicamos cirugía en 18. De los operados por vía transesfenoidal, el 23% tuvo complicaciones postquirúrgicas y el 54% mejoría del campo visual. Por vía transcraneal el 50% sufrió complicaciones post quirúrgicas y el 33% mejoró el campo visual. Durante el seguimiento (55.1 ± 48.7 meses) no observamos recrecimiento tumoral, excepto en un adenoma gigante. Cuatro pacientes operados murieron, dos por causas al tumor. Catorce no fueron operados, 11 con adenomas no funcionantes y campo visual normal fueron controlados periódicamente y 3 con adenomas funcionantes recibieron tratamiento médico. No observamos crecimiento tumoral durante el seguimiento (43.7 ± 38.1 meses). No observamos crecimiento tumoral en adenomas no funcionantes y campo visual normal, por lo que sugerimos conducta expectante y control periódico. Cuando existe alteración del campo visual, la cirugía transesfenoidal es segura y efectiva. En los adenomas secretantes y dependiendo de las comorbilidades, sería apropiado optar por tratamiento médico.


Clinical presentation, treatment and its results were evaluated during long-term follow-up of 37 patients older than 65 years with pituitary adenoma. Causes of death were also evaluated. It was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. Prevalence of incidentalomas was 43% (16), macroadenomas 70.3% (26) and giant adenomas 16.2% (6). The most frequent tumor phenotype was the non-functioning adenoma (76%). The prevalence of visual field defects and neurological symptoms was 56% and 57% respectively. We found normal pituitary function in 54%, partial deficiency in 30% and panhypopituitarism in 16%. Thirty-two patients were treated, 5 were lost to follow-up without receiving treatment. Surgery was indicated in 18. Of those operated by trans-sphenoidal approach, 23% had postsurgical complications and 54% improved the visual field. By trans-craneal approach, 50% had post-surgical complications and 33% visual field improvement. During follow-up (55.1 ± 48.7 months) no tumor regrowth was observed, except in a giant adenoma. Four operated patients died, two due to causes related to tumor. Fourteen were not operated, 11 with non-functioning adenoma and normal visual field were periodically controlled and 3 with secreting adenomas received medical treatment. No tumor growth was observed during follow-up (43.7 ± 38.0 months). We did not observe tumor progression in elderly patients with non-functioning adenoma and normal visual field, so we suggest watchful approach and periodic control. When there are visual field defects, trans-sphenoidal surgery can be considered safe and effective. In secreting adenomas and depending on the associated comorbidities, medical treatment would be the appropriate approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pituitary Neoplasms/therapy , Adenoma/therapy , Pituitary Hormones , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pituitary Neoplasms/mortality , Adenoma/surgery , Adenoma/diagnosis , Adenoma/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Cause of Death , Treatment Outcome
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