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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(10): 899-903, Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896302

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: Oral corticosteroids (OCS) are a mainstay of treatment for asthma exacerbations, and short-term OCS courses were generally considered to be safe. Nevertheless, frequent short-term OCS courses could lead to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction. Our study aimed at investigating the integrity of the HPA axis in children with persistent asthma or recurrent wheezing at the beginning of an inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) trial. Method: Morning basal cortisol was assessed just before the beginning of ICS, and 30, 60, and 90 days later, using Immulite® Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostic chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (Los Angeles, USA; 2006). Results: In all, 140 children (0.3-15 years old) with persistent asthma or recurrent wheezing have been evaluated and 40% of them reported short-term OCS courses for up to 30 days before evaluation. Out of these, 12.5% had biochemical adrenal suppression but showed adrenal recovery during a three-month ICS trial treatment. No significant differences were observed among children with or without adrenal suppression, neither in the number of days free of OCS treatment before cortisol evaluation (p=0.29) nor in the last OCS course duration (p=0.20). The number of short-term OCS courses reported in the year preceding the cortisol evaluation was also not different (p=0.89). Conclusion: Short-term systemic courses of corticosteroids at conventional doses can put children at risk of HPA axis dysfunction. ICS treatment does not impair adrenal recovery from occurring. Health practitioners should be aware of the risk of a blunted cortisol response upon exposure to stress during the follow-up of patients with persistent asthma or recurrent wheezing.


Resumo Introdução: A corticoterapia oral (CO) é um dos pilares do tratamento na exacerbação da asma, e cursos de curta duração são geralmente considerados seguros. No entanto, crianças submetidas a repetidos cursos estão sujeitas a disfunção do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal (HHA). Objetivo: Investigar a integridade do eixo HHA em crianças com asma persistente ou sibilância recorrente com indicação para corticoterapia inalatória (CI). Método: Avaliação do cortisol sérico basal antes da introdução da CI e 30, 60 e 90 dias após iniciado o tratamento, utilizando-se o imunoensaio ImmuliteÒ Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostic chemiluminescent (Los Angeles, EUA; 2006). Resultados: Das 140 crianças avaliadas (0,3 a 15 anos de idade) com asma persistente ou sibilância recorrente, 40% relataram ter recebido CO no último mês antes da avaliação. Cerca de 12,5% delas apresentaram supressão adrenal bioquímica e evoluíram com recuperação do eixo HHA durante os primeiros três meses em CI. O número de dias livres de CO e a duração do último curso antes da avaliação do cortisol não foram significativamente diferentes entre as crianças com ou sem supressão adrenal (p=0,29 e p=0,20, respectivamente). O número de cursos de curta duração relatados no ano anterior à avaliação também não esteve associado à supressão adrenal (p=0,89). Conclusão: A utilização dos corticosteroides nas doses convencionais, em cursos de curta duração, pode colocar as crianças em risco de disfunção do eixo HHA. A recuperação desse eixo é possível durante a CI. Profissionais de saúde devem estar atentos para a possibilidade de resposta inadequada ao estresse durante o acompanhamento de crianças com asma persistente ou sibilância recorrente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pituitary-Adrenal System/drug effects , Asthma/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/drug effects , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Reference Values , Asthma/physiopathology , Time Factors , Administration, Inhalation , Hydrocortisone/blood , Administration, Oral , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Disease Progression , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Luminescent Measurements
2.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(2): 230-239, feb. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845528

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans) are essential for numerous biological functions. Among critically ill patients, therapy with cortisol has gained strength in recent years, but clinical results have been mixed. A series of events, that may explain the diversity of clinical responses, occur from the synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal gland to the activation of the cortisol receptor by the hormone when it enters the nucleus of the target cell. Some of these events are revised; a proposition for identifying critically ill patients who may benefit with this therapy is suggested.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Hydrocortisone/physiology , Adrenal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology
3.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 82(5): 529-535, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828225

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The complex relationship between sleep disorders and hormones could lead to alterations in the production of cortisol and testosterone in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the diurnal trajectories of salivary free-testosterone, free-cortisol and their ratio (T/C). METHODS: Ten subjects newly diagnosed with OSA, based on nocturnal polysomnography evaluation and excessive daytime sleepiness, and seven matched controls were consecutively recruited. Cortisol and testosterone were measured in salivary samples collected upon awakening, at noon and in the evening. The psychometric evaluation of anxiety/depression and referred sexual function disturbances was performed to evaluate the presence of neuropsychological comorbidities. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The main finding was that OSA subjects displayed hypocortisolism upon awakening and a significant reduction in testosterone concentration in the evening in comparison with the control group, which has maintained the physiological testosterone and cortisol diurnal fluctuation, with higher hormone concentrations in the morning and lower concentrations in the evening. The use of data from multiple diurnal measurements rather than a single point allowed the detection of T/C ratio changes of opposite signs at the beginning and end of the day: the OSA subjects had a higher T/C ratio than the controls in the morning, while their T/C ratio was significantly lower than that of the controls in the evening. The imbalances in the anabolic-catabolic diurnal equilibrium suggest that OSA is associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, potentially an underlying cause of some of the neuropsychological comorbidities observed in OSA patients.


Resumo Introdução: A relação complexa entre os distúrbios do sono e os hormônios pode levar a alterações na produção de cortisol e testosterona em pacientes com Apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS). Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as curvas diurnas de testosterona e cortisol livres na saliva e sua proporção (razão T/C). Método: Dez indivíduos recém-diagnosticados com AOS com base na avaliação por polissonografia noturna e sonolência diurna excessiva e sete controles pareados foram recrutados, consecutivamente. Cortisol e testosterona foram medidos em amostras de saliva coletadas ao acordar, ao meio-dia e à noite. A avaliação psicométrica dos distúrbios de ansiedade/depressão e função sexual mencionados foi realizada para detectar a presença de comorbidades neuropsicológicas. Resultados: O achado principal foi que os indivíduos com AOS apresentam hipocortisolismo ao acordar e uma redução significante na concentração de testosterona à noite, em comparação com o grupo controle, que manteve a variação fisiológica diurna de testosterona e cortisol com concentrações hormonais mais elevadas pela manhã e concentrações mais baixas durante a noite. O uso de dados de várias mensurações diurnas, em vez de uma única mensuração, permitiu detectar as alterações na razão T/C de sinais opostos no início e no final do dia: os indivíduos com AOS apresentaram razão T/C maior que os controles na parte da manhã, enquanto que a razão T/C foi significantemente inferior à dos controles durante a noite. Conclusão: Os desequilíbrios no balanço anabólico-catabólico diurno sugerem que a AOS está associada a uma desregulação dos eixos hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal e hipotálamo-hipófise-gonadal, potencialmente a causa subjacente de algumas das comorbidades neuropsicológicas observadas em pacientes com AOS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Saliva/chemistry , Testosterone/metabolism , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/metabolism , Anxiety/physiopathology , Anxiety/metabolism , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Circadian Rhythm , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Depression/physiopathology , Depression/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Erectile Dysfunction/physiopathology , Erectile Dysfunction/metabolism
4.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 38(1): 11-16, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776491

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To compare hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in drug-naïve first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and healthy controls and to investigate the correlations between HCC and psychopathology. Methods: Twenty-four drug-naïve FEP patients and 27 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects were recruited. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-1) was used to confirm/rule out diagnoses, and the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) was used to assess symptom severity. Hair samples (2-3 cm long) obtained from the posterior vertex region of the scalp were processed in 1-cm segments considering a hair growth rate of 1 cm per month. The 1-cm segments were classified according to their proximity to the scalp: segment A was the closest to the scalp and referred to the month prior to inclusion in the study. Segments B and C referred to the 2nd and 3rd months prior to the time of evaluation respectively. Hair steroid extraction was performed using a known protocol. Results: Two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with gender and age as covariates revealed a group effect (F1.106 = 4.899, p = 0.029) on HCC. Between-segment differences correlated with total PANSS score and with PANSS General Psychopathology subscale and total score. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as assessed by long-term (3-month) cortisol concentration, is abnormal in the early stages of psychosis. The magnitude of changes in HCC over time prior to the FEP correlates to psychopathology. HPA axis abnormalities might begin prior to full-blown clinical presentation requiring hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Psychotic Disorders/metabolism , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Hair/metabolism , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology
5.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(6): 516-519, 06/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748183

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the association between objective short sleep duration in patients with insomnia and changes in blood parameters related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity.Method A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted in 30 middle-aged adults with chronic insomnia who were divided into 2 groups according to polysomnography (PSG) total sleep time (TST) (TST > 5h and < 5h). All patients underwent subjective analysis of sleep quality, anthropometric measurements, PSG, and determination off asting blood parameters.Results The results revealed lower sleep efficiency and higher sleep latency for those with a TST < 5h. The subjective sleep quality was worse in the TST < 5h. Significantly, higher glucose and cortisol levels were observed with a TST < 5h. Glucose, cortisol and ACTH levels were inversely correlated with the PSG total sleep time.Conclusion Patients with insomnia with objective short sleep duration had HPA-associated endocrine and metabolic imbalances chronically linked to increases in cardiovascular risk observed with this more severe insomnia phenotype.


Objetivo Avaliar a associação entre insônia com tempo de sono curto e alterações sanguíneas relacionados com a atividade do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal (HPA).Método Estudo piloto transversal, com 30 adultos de meia-idade, distribuídos em 2 grupos de acordo com o tempo total de sono (TTS) pela polisonografia (PSG) (TTS > 5h e < 5h). Os pacientes foram submetidos a análise subjetiva da qualidade do sono, medidas antropométricas, PSG e parâmetros sanguíneos em jejum.Resultados Revelaram baixa eficiência do sono e maior latência do sono para aqueles com TTS < 5h. A qualidade subjetiva do sono foi pior no TTS < 5h. Significativamente, os níveis de glicose e cortisol mais elevados foram observados no grupo com TTS < 5h. Os níveis de glicose, cortisol e ACTH foram inversamente correlacionados com o TTS da PSG.Conclusão Pacientes com insônia com tempo de sono curto apresentaram desequilíbrios endócrinos e metabólicos associados a atividade do eixo HPA, correlacionados ao aumento do risco cardiovascular observado neste fenótipo mais grave de insônia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/blood , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/blood , Body Mass Index , Blood Glucose/analysis , Chronic Disease , Epidemiologic Methods , Fasting , Growth Hormone/blood , Hydrocortisone/blood , Polysomnography , Reference Values , Time Factors
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(1): 69-76, ene. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742553

ABSTRACT

Background: There is debate about the advantages of different protocols usefulness of tilt test for the diagnosis of vasovagal collapse. Aim: To compare the sensitivity, specificity, adverse reactions, complications and time requirements of two different Tilt test protocols. Material and Methods: A Tilt test using isoproterenol in progressive doses (2 μg for 10 min and 5 μg for 5 min posteriorly was performed in 159 patients aged 9 to 84 years (59 males). Another Tilt test using sublingual nitroglycerine in doses of 0.3 mg was performed in 201 patients aged 8 to 87 years (62 males). Also, 20 healthy volunteers were tested. Results: The positivity rates of the tests using isoproterenol and nitroglycerin were 75.5 and 77.6% respectively (NS). The figures for sensitivity were 98.4 and 99.3% (NS). The figures for specificity were 93.2 and 98.4% (NS). The test using isoproterenol requires 15 more minutes. As adverse reactions, 38% of participants experienced palpitations with isoproterenol and 22% experienced headache with nitroglycerin. Conclusions: The Tilt test with nitroglycerin is shorter, simpler, painless, with less personnel involved and has the same diagnostic accuracy than the test with isoproterenol.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Depression/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Genome-Wide Association Study , Hydrocortisone , Secretory Pathway/genetics , Depression/etiology , Depression/metabolism , Depression/physiopathology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetics, Population , Genotype , Hydrocortisone/genetics , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/physiology , Risk Factors
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(12): 1102-1106, 12/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727665

ABSTRACT

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that significantly impacts life quality, being associated with stress and mental disorders. We investigated whether the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was associated with psoriasis severity, daily life stress and anxiety, and depressive symptoms. In this ancillary study, which was part of the CALIPSO (coronary artery calcium in psoriasis) study, saliva was collected from 102 patients with psoriasis immediately upon awakening, 30, and 60 min after awakening, at 2:00 pm and at bedtime (five time points) to determine salivary cortisol levels. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient to evaluate the association of clinical and psychopathological variables with HPA activity. We found a direct correlation between bedtime cortisol and psoriasis severity evaluated by the psoriasis area severity index (PASI; r=0.39, P<0.001). No correlations between other clinical and psychopathological variables or with other cortisol assessments were observed. The findings indicated that HPA dysfunction may be present in psoriasis, as bedtime cortisol was correlated with psoriasis severity. Our study is limited by the lack of a control group; therefore, we were not able to explore whether these cortisol values were different compared with a concurrent, healthy sample.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hydrocortisone , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/pathology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Psoriasis/physiopathology , Activities of Daily Living/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Depression/psychology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Information Systems , Psoriasis/metabolism , Psoriasis/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors , Saliva/chemistry , Stress, Psychological/psychology
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(6): 767-774, jun. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-722927

ABSTRACT

How psychological stress gets under the skin and contributes to increase the odds for the onset and progression of chronic diseases has been object of abundant research. In this literature review, evidence about the role that both acute (natural phenomenon, marital conflict, a social evaluative task) and chronic stress (stress at work, and the perception of being discriminated) as well as interpersonal stress have on physical health, is examined. Behavioral (lack of physical activity, smoking, lack of adherence) and physiological (dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis, immune system and inflammatory response) mechanisms through which psychological stress may contribute to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease (altering blood pressure, heart rate reactivity, hemoconcentration and pro-coagulation function), and two key processes involved in cancer progression (angiogenesis and metastasis) are discussed. Finally, how social support may moderate the association among psychological stress and physical health is described.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/psychology , Neoplasms/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Chronic Disease , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Neoplasms/physiopathology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 102(3): 270-278, 03/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-705710

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: O hipertireoidismo (Hi) exerce um amplo leque de influências em diversos parâmetros fisiológicos. Seu efeito perturbador sobre o sistema cardiovascular é um de seus impactos mais importantes. Além disso, o Hi foi clinicamente associado com o estresse induzido pela hiperativação do eixo hipotalâmico-pituitário-adrenal. Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto do Hi de curto prazo sobre o desempenho cardíaco e a atividade adrenal de ratos. Métodos: A indução de Hi em ratos Wistar através de injeções de T3 (150 μg/kg) por 10 dias (grupo com hipertireoidismo - GH) ou veículo (grupo controle). O desempenho cardiovascular foi avaliado por: ecocardiograma (ECO); razão peso do coração/peso corporal (mg/gr); contratilidade de músculos papilares isolados (MPI) e mensuração direta da pressão arterial. A atividade adrenal foi avaliada pela razão peso adrenal/ peso corporal (mg/gr) e níveis de 24 horas de corticosterona fecal (CF) no 1º, 5º e 10º dias de tratamento com T3. Resultados: No GH, o ECO mostrou redução dos Volumes Finais Sistólico e Diastólico, Tempos de Ejeção, Relaxamento Isovolumétrico e Diastólico Total, Áreas Sistólicas e Diastólica e razão E/A. Aumentaram a frequência cardíaca, a fração de ejeção e o débito cardíaco. A razão peso corporal/peso do coração foi maior. Da mesma forma, nos MPI, a taxa máxima de degradação da força durante o relaxamento foi maior em todas as concentrações extracelulares de cálcio. Os níveis de pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) foram maiores. (p ≤ 0,05). Por outro lado, não houve diferença na razão peso das adrenais/peso corporal ou níveis de 24 horas de CF. ...


Background: Hyperthyroidism (Hy) exerts a broad range of influences on a variety of physiological parameters. Its disruptive effect on cardiovascular system is one of its most remarkable impacts. Moreover, Hy has been clinically associated with stress - induced hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Objective: Evaluate the impact of short-term Hy on cardiac performance and adrenal activity of rats. Methods: Induction of Hy in Wistar rats through injections of T3 (150 µg/kg) for 10 days (hyperthyroid group - HG) or vehicle (control group). The cardiovascular performance was evaluated by: echocardiography (ECHO); heart weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio; contractility of isolated papillary muscles (IPM) and direct measurement of blood pressures. Adrenal activity was evaluated by adrenal weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio and 24-hour fecal corticosterone (FC) levels on the, 5th and 10th days of T3 treatment. Results: In HG, the ECHO showed reduction of the End Systolic and End Diastolic Volumes, Ejection, Total Diastolic and Isovolumic Relaxation Times, Diastolic and Systolic Areas and E/A ratio. Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and Cardiac Output increased. The heart weight/body weight ratio was higher. Similarly, in IPM, the maximum rate of force decay during relaxation was higher in all extracellular calcium concentrations. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels were higher. (p ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, there was no difference in the adrenal weight/body weight ratio or in the 24-hour FC levels. Conclusions: Hy induces positive inotropic, chronotropic and lusitropic effects on the heart by direct effects of T3 and increases SBP. Those alterations are not correlated with changes in the adrenal activity. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Adrenal Glands/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Hyperthyroidism/complications , Hyperthyroidism/physiopathology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Corticosterone/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Echocardiography , Heart Rate/physiology , Papillary Muscles/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Time Factors , Thyroxine/analysis , Triiodothyronine/analysis
10.
Rev. psiquiatr. clín. (São Paulo) ; 40(1): 20-27, 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-666272

ABSTRACT

Nas últimas décadas, têm surgido evidências sugerindo que a patogênese de desordens psiquiátricas, tais como a esquizofrenia, pode envolver perturbações no eixo hipotalâmico-pituitário-adrenal (HPA). Variações na manifestação desses efeitos poderiam estar relacionadas a diferenças em sintomas clínicos entre os indivíduos afetados, assim como a diferenças na resposta ao tratamento. Tais efeitos podem também ser originados de complexas interações entre genes e fatores ambientais. Aqui, revisamos os efeitos do estresse maternal em anormalidades na regulação do eixo HPA e desenvolvimento de desordens psiquiátricas, incluindo a esquizofrenia. Estudos nessa área podem gerar o aumento do nosso entendimento da natureza multidimensional da esquizofrenia. Posterior pesquisa nesse campo poderia, em última instância, levar ao desenvolvimento de melhores diagnósticos e novas abordagens terapêuticas para essa debilitante condição psiquiátrica


Over the last few decades, evidence has been emerging that the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia can involve perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Variations in the manifestation of these effects could be related to the differences in clinical symptoms between affected individuals as well as to differences in treatment response. Such effects can also arise from the complex interaction between genes and environmental factors. Here, we review the effects of maternal stress on abnormalities in HPA axis regulation and the development of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Studies in this area may prove critical for increasing our understanding of the multi-dimensional nature of schizophrenia. Further research in this area could ultimately lead to the development of improved diagnostics and novel therapeutic approaches for treating this debilitating psychiatric condition


Subject(s)
Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Biomarkers , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology
11.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 34(supl.2): s233-s245, Oct. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662769

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is accumulating evidence that the limbic system is pathologically involved in cases of psychiatric comorbidities in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. Our objective was to develop a conceptual framework describing how neuropathological, neurochemical and electrophysiological aspects might contribute to the development of psychiatric symptoms in TLE and the putative neurobiological mechanisms that cause mood disorders in this patient subgroup. METHODS: In this review, clinical, experimental and neuropathological findings, as well as neurochemical features of the limbic system were examined together to enhance our understanding of the association between TLE and psychiatric comorbidities. Finally, the value of animal models in epilepsy and mood disorders was discussed. CONCLUSIONS:TLE and psychiatric symptoms coexist more frequently than chance would predict. Alterations and neurotransmission disturbance among critical anatomical networks, and impaired or aberrant plastic changes might predispose patients with TLE to mood disorders. Clinical and experimental studies of the effects of seizures on behavior and electrophysiological patterns may offer a model of how limbic seizures increase the vulnerability of TLE patients to precipitants of psychiatric symptoms.


OBJETIVO: Há evidências crescentes do envolvimento do sistema límbico nas comorbidades psiquiátricas associadas à epilepsia do lobo temporal (ELT). Nosso objetivo foi descrever o panorama atual das alterações neuropatológicas, neuroquímicas e eletrofisiológicas que podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento de sintomas psiquiátricos na ELT e explorar possíveis mecanismos neurobiológicos que podem levar ao aparecimento das desordens de humor nesse subgrupo de pacientes. MÉTODOS: Achados clínicos, de modelos experimentais e neuropatológicos foram revistos, assim como características neuroquímicas do sistema límbico foram examinadas em conjunto para auxiliar nossa compreensão sobre a associação entre ELT e transtornos de humor. CONCLUSÕES: A ELT e os sintomas psiquiátricos coexistem numa frequência muito maior do que o acaso poderia sugerir. Alterações e desregulação de redes anatômicas essenciais, além de mudanças plásticas aberrantes ou deficientes, podem predispor o cérebro de pacientes com ELT a transtornos de humor. Estudos experimentais e clínicos sobre o efeito das crises no comportamento e nos padrões eletrofisiológicos podem oferecer um modelo de como as crises límbicas aumentam a vulnerabilidade a sintomas psiquiátricos em pacientes com ELT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/physiopathology , Mood Disorders/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Depressive Disorder, Major/physiopathology , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/epidemiology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Models, Animal , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology , Neurotransmitter Agents/physiology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Suicide
12.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 48(4): 307-318, dic. 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-582988

ABSTRACT

Classically stress is defined as a threatening of homeostasis to which the organism, in order to survive, responds with a large number ofadaptative responses implicating the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Acute stress response involves several brain regions (e.g. prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus) where sex differences have been evidenced both in structure and function; limbic andforebrain regions are extremely sensitive to hormones released during stress, especially glucocorticoids. Chronic stress, on the other hand, causes adaptive plasticity in the brain, in which local neurotransmitters as well as systemic hormones interact to produce structural as well as functional changes. Stress-induced structural/functional changes in brain regions may contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. It is suggested that gonadal hormone influences provide complex contributions to sex differences in vulnerabilities to stress-related diseases.


Clásicamente el estrés se define como una amenaza a la homeostasis, frente a la cual el organismo, para sobrevivir, reacciona con un gran número de respuestas adaptativas que implican la activación del sistema nervioso simpático y el eje hipotalámico-pituitario-adrenal. La respuesta al estrés agudo incluye varias regiones cerebrales (ej. cortex prefrontal, amígdala, hipocampo, hipotálamo) donde se han evidenciado las diferencias sexuales, tanto en la estructura como en la función; las regiones límbicas y cerebrales anteriores son extremadamente sensibles a las hormonas liberadas durante el estrés, especialmente los glucocorticoides. Por otra parte, el estrés crónico causa plasticidad adaptativa en el cerebro, en el cual los neurotransmisores locales, como también las hormonas sistémicas, interactúan para producir cambios estructurales y funcionales. Los cambios estructurales/funcionales en las regiones cerebrales inducidos por el estrés pueden contribuir al desarrollo de desórdenes psiquiátricos, tales como depresión y trastorno por estrés postraumático. Se ha sugerido que las influencias de la hormona gonadal proporcionan complejas contribuciones a las diferencias sexuales en las vulnerabilidades a las enfermedades relacionadas con el estrés.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/metabolism , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Neurobiology , Sex Characteristics , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism
13.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 53(8): 1012-1019, nov. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-537039

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a função hipofisária-gonadal nos pacientes vítimas de TCE graves ocorridos na Grande Florianópolis, entre 2000 e 2004. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 30 pacientes, sendo 22 homens e 8 mulheres, submetidos à avaliação clínica e laboratorial em seguimento médio de 4 anos após a data do traumatismo. RESULTADOS: Os homens possuíam em média 38 anos no ano da avaliação, enquanto as mulheres, 42 anos. A maioria dos traumatismos está relacionada aos acidentes de trânsito (63,3 por cento). Três pacientes (10 por cento) estavam com valores de FSH abaixo do normal e apenas 1 paciente (3,3 por cento) apresentou LH alterado. Nas mulheres avaliadas, os níveis de estradiol foram normais. Na população masculina, foi evidenciado nível de testosterona baixo em 2 pacientes (9,1 por cento). Todos os pacientes apresentavam normoprolactinemia. CONCLUSÃO: Dois casos de hipogonadismo masculino (9,1 por cento) foram diagnosticados neste estudo. Isso indica a necessidade de atenção aos pacientes sobreviventes de TCE grave para realizar diagnóstico precoce de hipogonadismo.


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate pituitary function impairment in order to verify the prevalence of sex hormone deficiency and to analyze the profile of TBI population. METHODS: Thirty patients were studied, 22 were male and 8 were female. All patients had their gonadal function assessed and they were evaluated at a median of 4 years post-trauma. RESULTS: The average age of the men was 38 years at the time of the evaluation, while the mean age of women was 42 years. The majority of TBI was related to traffic accidents (63.3 percent). Three patients (10 percent) had low FSH and only 1 patient (3.3 percent) had low LH. There was no biochemical evidence of hypogonadism in women. Two male patients presented low testosterone (9.1 percent) and were diagnosed with hypogonadism. Prolactin levels were normal in all patients. CONCLUSION: Two cases of hypogonadism (9.1 percent) were diagnosed among men in this study. It is therefore necessary that medical professionals involved in the management of TBI patients are aware of hypogonadism as a complication of TBI, in order to diagnose it early.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Brain Injuries/complications , Gonadotropins, Pituitary/blood , Hypogonadism/etiology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Survivors , Accidents, Traffic , Brain Injuries/blood , Brain Injuries/physiopathology , Epidemiologic Methods , Gonads/physiopathology , Hypogonadism/blood , Pituitary Gland/physiopathology , Testosterone/blood , Young Adult
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135914

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Parathormone (PTH) and calcium, both have been shown to stimulate adrenal steroidogenesis in animal models and in vitro experiments. This is attributed to structural similarity between 15-25 amino acid region of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1-11 amino acid region of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). However, there are no in vivo human data regarding the effect of PTHcalcium axis on adrenocortical function. Materials: Ten patients with primary hyperparathyroidism underwent evaluation for cortisol dynamics including 0800 h and 2000 h plasma cortisol on day 1, cortisol response to insulin induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) on day 2, and 1 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (ONDST) on day 4. Serum aldosterone was also measured at 0800 h in fasting state on salt ad libitum for three days. These parameters were repeated 3 months after curative parathyroidectomy. Results: Basal plasma cortisol level at 0800 h and 2000 h were within upper normal range and loss of circadian rhythm in cortisol secretion was observed in half and forty per cent of patients had nonsuppressibility with ONDST. The defined peak cortisol response to insulin induced hypoglycaemia (>550 nmol/l) was achieved in all and nearly one third of patients had exaggerated response (>2000 nmol/l). After curative parathyroidectomy, the abnormalities in circadian rhythm and non-suppressibility with ONDST continued to prevail in 40 per cent of patients. The peak cortisol response to IIH showed a decrement but remained higher than normal. No correlation was observed between circulating parathyroid hormone and calcium with cortisol levels. Serum aldosterone was in upper normal range pre - and postoperatively, though it decreased postoperatively, but it could not attain a statistical significance (p = 0.5). Interpretation & conclusion: Abnormalities in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in primary hyperparathyroidism do occur, however these are inconsistent and do not recover in majority of patients even after 3 months of curative parathyroidectomy.


Subject(s)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/blood , Adult , Aldosterone/blood , Animals , Dexamethasone/metabolism , Female , Glucocorticoids/metabolism , Humans , Hydrocortisone/blood , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/physiopathology , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/surgery , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Parathyroid Hormone/genetics , Parathyroid Hormone/metabolism , Pilot Projects , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Young Adult
15.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 31(supl.2): S41-S48, out. 2009.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-532732

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: A meta deste artigo foi a de estudar as relações ente maus-tratos na infância e psicopatologia no adulto, como reflexo de uma disfunção do eixo hipotálamo-pituitária-adrenal. MÉTODO: Uma revisão seletiva da literatura relevante foi feita para identificar achados-chave e ilustrativos. RESULTADOS: Existe atualmente um volume significativo de achados científicos pré-clínicos e clínicos derivados de paradigmas experimentais, que demonstram que o estresse precoce está relacionado à função do eixo hipotálamo-pituitária-adrenal e a estados psicológicos no indivíduo adulto, e como esta relação pode ser modulada por outros fatores. DISCUSSÃO: O risco para o desenvolvimento de psicopatologia no adulto e disfunções do eixo hipotálamo-pituitária-adrenal está relacionado à complexa interação de múltiplos fatores vivenciais, assim como a genes que levam a uma susceptibilidade, que interagem com estes fatores. Embora as respostas agudas do eixo hipotálamo-pituitária-adrenal sejam geralmente adaptativas, as respostas excessivas podem levar a efeitos deletérios. O estresse precoce pode alterar a função do eixo hipotálamo-pituitária-adrenal assim como o comportamento, porém, o padrão da disfunção do eixo hipotálamo-pituitária-adrenal e a evolução psicológica na vida adulta refletem ambas as características do estressor e outros fatores modificadores. CONCLUSÃO: A pesquisa atual identificou múltiplos determinantes da disfunção do eixo hipotálamo-pituitária-adrenal encontrados em adultos com história de maus-tratos na infância ou outros estressores precoces. Trabalhos futuros são necessários para estabelecer se as anormalidades do eixo hipotálamo-pituitária-adrenal neste contexto podem ser usadas para o desenvolvimento de endofenótipos de risco para doenças físicas ou psiquiátricas.


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to examine the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult psychopathology, as reflected in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction. METHOD: A selective review of the relevant literature was undertaken in order to identify key and illustrative research findings. RESULTS: There is now a substantial body of preclinical and clinical evidence derived from a variety of experimental paradigms showing how early-life stress is related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and psychological state in adulthood, and how that relationship can be modulated by other factors. DISCUSSION: The risk for adult psychopathology and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction is related to a complex interaction among multiple experiential factors, as well as to susceptibility genes that interact with those factors. Although acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress are generally adaptive, excessive responses can lead to deleterious effects. Early-life stress alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and behavior, but the pattern of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal dysfunction and psychological outcome in adulthood reflect both the characteristics of the stressor and other modifying factors. CONCLUSION: Research to date has identified multiple determinants of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction seen in adults with a history of childhood maltreatment or other early-life stress. Further work is needed to establish whether hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis abnormalities in this context can be used to develop risk endophenotypes for psychiatric and physical illnesses.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Anxiety/etiology , Child Abuse/psychology , Depression/etiology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Anxiety/physiopathology , Depression/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology
16.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 1(4): 234-237, oct. 2008. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-612479

ABSTRACT

The study of hypothalamic, pituitary adrenal axis function requires complex tests. However, themeasurement of basal morning serum cortisol levels may be a simple measure to evaluate this axis. AIM: To determine if an isolated morning measurement of basal serum cortisol levels in the absence of stress, may predict the indemnity of the hypothalamic, pituitary adrenal axis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Morning cortisol levels in the basal period and 30 minutes after the injection of 50 ug ACTH were measured in 76 patients with a mean age of 52 years (48 females), operated of a pituitary tumor, without cushing syndrome and not using steroids or oral estrogens. Twenty healthy volunteers with a mean age of 30 years (11 males) were studied as controls. In this last group, the lower limit of normal stimulated cortisol levels was defined as the mean value less two standard deviations and corresponded to 17 ug/dL. RESULTS: Based on stimulated cortisol levels, 15 percent of operated patients had a hypothalamic, pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction. Using cut-off levels of less than 5, 7.5 and 10 ug/dL, basal cortisol levels had a sensitivity for the diagnosis of hypothalamic, pituitaryadrenal axis dysfunction of 64, 81 and 100 percent, respectively. The figures were 100, 95 and 66 percent for specificity respectively, 100, 75 and 34 percent for positive predictive value and 94, 97 and 100 percent for negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: A basal morning cortisol value over 10 ug/dL discards the presence of hypothalamic, pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction and a value lower than 5 ug/dL confirmed alteration in all of the cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Hydrocortisone/blood , Adrenal Insufficiency/diagnosis , Adrenal Insufficiency/blood , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Hydrocortisone , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Luminescent Measurements , Sensitivity and Specificity , Predictive Value of Tests
17.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 84(3): 192-202, May-June. 2008. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-485275

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada e prática sobre como efetuar de forma segura a retirada da corticoterapia. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura utilizando os bancos de dados MEDLINE e LILACS (1997-2007), selecionando os artigos mais atuais e representativos do tema. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Três situações clínicas podem ocorrer durante a retirada da corticoterapia prolongada: insuficiência adrenal secundária à supressão do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal, síndrome de retirada ou deprivação dos corticóides e reativação da doença de base. Embora não exista consenso sobre o melhor esquema para descontinuar a terapia prolongada com corticóides, existe concordância quanto ao fato desta retirada ser gradual. Este artigo atualiza o pediatra quanto ao reconhecimento desses problemas e fornece orientações para a suspensão do tratamento prolongado com corticóide. Uma breve revisão da farmacologia dos corticóides também é descrita. CONCLUSÃO: Não existe teste com bom valor preditivo para antecipar o risco de insuficiência adrenal nos pacientes que receberam terapia crônica com corticóide. São necessários estudos prospectivos para avaliar a real incidência desse problema e assim propor estratégias racionais para sua prevenção. No momento, a menos que a integridade do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal esteja estabelecida por testes dinâmicos, recomenda-se a administração de corticóide em situações de estresse nos pacientes que fizeram uso de corticoterapia crônica e/ou em doses elevadas.


OBJECTIVE: To present an up-to-date and practical review of how to safely withdraw glucocorticosteroid therapy. SOURCES: A review of the published literature identified by searching the MEDLINE and LILACS databases (1997-2007), selecting the most representative articles on the subject. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Three clinical situations may occur during glucocorticoid withdrawal: adrenal insufficiency secondary to negative feedback on the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, steroid withdrawal syndrome and relapse of the disease for which the glucocorticoids were prescribed. Although there is no consensus on how to best discontinue prolonged glucocorticosteroid therapy, there is agreement that this withdrawal should be gradual. This article updates pediatricians on how to recognize these problems and provides recommendations on how to safely suspend glucocorticosteroid therapy. A brief review of the pharmacology of glucocorticoids is also presented. CONCLUSION: There is no good predictive test for predicting the risk of adrenal insufficiency in patients who have been on corticosteroid therapy chronically. There is a need for prospective studies to assess the true incidence of this problem and to propose rational strategies for preventing it. The current recommendation is that patients who have been on chronic and/or high dose glucocorticoids should be administered glucocorticoids during stress situations unless the integrity of the HPA axis has been established by dynamic tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Drug Administration Schedule , Pituitary-Adrenal System/drug effects , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Time Factors
18.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 51(8): 1272-1279, nov. 2007. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-471743

ABSTRACT

Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS) is attracting increasing interest since the serendipitous discovery of an adrenal mass has become a rather frequent event owing to the routine use of sophisticated radiologic techniques. Cortical adenoma is the most frequent type of adrenal incidentaloma accounting for approximately 50 percent of cases in surgical series and even greater shares in medical series. Incidentally discovered adrenal adenomas may secrete cortisol in an autonomous manner that is not fully restrained by pituitary feedback, in 5 to 20 percent of cases depending on study protocols and diagnostic criteria. The criteria for qualifying subclinical cortisol excess are controversial and presently there is no consensus on a gold standard for the diagnosis of this condition. An increased frequency of hypertension, central obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes and hyperlipemia has been described in patients with subclinical CS; however, there is still no clear demonstration of the long-term complications of this condition whose management remains largely empirical. Either adrenalectomy or careful observation associated with treatment of the metabolic syndrome have been suggested as treatment options.


A síndrome de Cushing subclínica (SCS) tem atraído interesse cada vez maior desde que a descoberta casual de uma massa adrenal se tornou um evento freqüente devido ao emprego rotineiro de técnicas sofisticadas de imagem. O adenoma cortical é o tipo mais freqüente de incidentaloma adrenal, correspondendo a cerca de 50 por cento dos casos em séries cirúrgicas e até mais do que isso em séries médicas. Adenomas adrenais descobertos incidentalmente podem secretar cortisol de maneira autônoma ou não controlada totalmente pelo feedback hipofisário, em 5 a 20 por cento dos casos, dependendo do protocolo de estudo e dos critérios diagnósticos. Os critérios para qualificar um excesso subclínico de cortisol são controversos e atualmente não existe consenso a respeito de "padrão ouro" para o diagnóstico dessa condição. Em pacientes com SCS, tem sido descrita uma freqüência elevada de hipertensão, obesidade central, intolerância à glicose, diabetes e hiperlipemia; entretanto, ainda não existe uma evidente demonstração de complicações a longo prazo dessa condição, cujo manejo permanece amplamente empírico. Tanto a adrenalectomia como a observação cuidadosa, associada com o tratamento da síndrome metabólica, têm sido sugeridos como opções terapêuticas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cushing Syndrome/diagnosis , Adrenalectomy , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/complications , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/surgery , Adrenocortical Adenoma/complications , Adrenocortical Adenoma/surgery , Cushing Syndrome/etiology , /diagnosis , /epidemiology , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Incidental Findings , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology
19.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 51(8): 1362-1372, nov. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-471753

ABSTRACT

We review the clinical and biochemical criteria used for evaluation of the transsphenoidal pituitary surgery results in the treatment of Cushing's disease (CD). Firstly, we discuss the pathophysiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in normal subjects and patients with CD. Considering the series published in the last 25 years, we observed a significant variation in the remission or cure criteria, including the choice of biochemical tests, timing, threshold values to define remission, and the interference of glucocorticoid replacement or previous treatment. In this context we emphasize serum cortisol levels obtained early (from hours to 12 days) in the postoperative period without any glucocorticoid replacement or treatment. Our experience demonstrates that: (i) early cortisol < 5 to 7 µg/dl, (ii) a period of glucocorticoid dependence > 6 mo, (iii) absence of response of cortisol/ACTH to CRH or DDAVP, (iv) return of dexamethasone suppression, and circadian rhythm of cortisol are appropriate indices of remission of CD. In patients with undetectable cortisol levels early after surgery, recurrence seems to be low. Finally, although certain biochemical patterns are more suggestive of remission or surgical failure, none has been proven to be completely accurate, with recurrence observed in approximately 10 to 15 percent of the patients in long-term follow-up. We recommended that patients with CD should have long-term monitoring of the CRH-ACTH-cortisol axis and associated co-morbidities, especially hypopituitarism, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disturbances, and osteoporosis.


Neste artigo, são revisados os principais critérios clínicos e hormonais utilizados para avaliação do tratamento cirúrgico da Doença de Cushing (DC). Inicialmente são comentados aspectos fisiopatológicos que orientam a avaliação hormonal e os principais fatores clínicos, laboratoriais, cirúrgicos e histológicos associados com melhores resultados, observados nas principais séries da literatura e em pacientes acompanhados prospectivamente pelos autores. Foram revisados, também, critérios adotados nas principais séries da literatura, nos últimos 25 anos, chamando-se atenção para as dosagens hormonais, o momento em que foram realizadas, a possibilidade de interferência de tratamentos prévios e da reposição glicocorticóide. À seguir, essas dosagens são discutidas salientando-se a importância do cortisol obtido seqüencialmente no pós-operatório e sem a interferência de reposição glicocorticóide. A experiência prospectiva dos autores, recentemente referendada na literatura, demonstra que valores de cortisol < 5 a 7 µg/dl associados com um período de dependência aos glicocorticóides > 6 meses, ausência de resposta do ACTH/cortisol ao DDAVP e/ou CRH, retorno da supressão à dexametasona e do ritmo circadiano, estão associados com remissão da DC. Em pacientes com cortisol indetectável após cirurgia transesfenoidal, a chance de recidiva parece ser menor do que naqueles em que se observa cortisol detectável. Finalmente, chamamos a atenção para que, mesmo adotando critérios rígidos de avaliação, a recidiva da DC pode ocorrer a longo prazo em até 15 por cento dos casos, recomendando-se, portanto, que esses pacientes sejam acompanhados por tempo indeterminado, com monitorização cuidadosa do eixo CRH-ACTH-cortisol e de suas co-morbidades, especialmente hipopituitarismo, diabete melito, hipertensão arterial, alterações cardiovasculares e osteoporose.


Subject(s)
Humans , ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Adenoma , Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion , Pituitary Neoplasms , ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/physiopathology , ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/surgery , Adenoma/physiopathology , Adenoma/surgery , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/blood , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/blood , Hypophysectomy , Hydrocortisone/blood , Hydrocortisone/urine , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Pituitary-Adrenal Function Tests , Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion/physiopathology , Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion/surgery , Pituitary Neoplasms/physiopathology , Pituitary Neoplasms/surgery , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome
20.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 29(supl.1): s3-s6, maio 2007.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-452225

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Este artigo discute a ativação diferencial do eixo hipotálamo-pituitária-adrenal no transtorno de ansiedade generalizada e no transtorno de pânico. MÉTODO: Resultados de recentes revisões da literatura são resumidos e discutidos. RESULTADOS: Os resultados de estudos experimentais que dosaram o hormônio adrenocorticotrópico, o cortisol e a prolactina mostram que ataques de pânico naturais, bem como os provocados por agentes panicogênicos seletivos - como lactato de sódio e dióxido de carbono -, não ativam o eixo hipotálamo-pituitária-adrenal. Agonistas do receptor de colecistocinina do tipo B, como o peptídeo colecistocinina-4 e a pentagastrina, elevam os hormônios de estresse, independentemente da ocorrência de um ataque de pânico, parecendo ativar diretamente o eixo hipotálamo-pituitária-adrenal. O antagonista benzodiazepínico flumazenil não eleva o nível dos hormônios de estresse; porém, este agente farmacológico não induz ataques de pânico de modo consistente. Agentes farmacológicos que aumentam a ansiedade em pacientes de pânico (cafeína, ioimbina, agonistas serotonérgicos), assim como em pessoas saudáveis, elevam o nível dos hormônios de estresse. CONCLUSÕES: Além das diferenças na sintomatologia e na resposta farmacológica, o transtorno de ansiedade generalizada e o transtorno de pânico afetam os hormônios de estresse de modo distinto. Enquanto a ansiedade antecipatória e o transtorno de ansiedade generalizada ativam tanto o eixo hipotálamo-pituitária-adrenal como o simpático-adrenal, o ataque de pânico causa acentuada ativação simpática; porém, afeta pouco o eixo hipotálamo-pituitária-adrenal.


OBJECTIVE: This article focuses on the differential activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder. METHOD: The results of recently reported reviews of the literature are summarized and discussed. RESULTS: The results of experimental studies that assayed adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol and prolactin show that real-life panic attacks, as well as those induced by selective panicogenic agents such as lactate and carbon dioxide, do not activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Agonists of the cholecystokinin receptor B such as the cholecystokinin-4 peptide and pentagastrin increase stress hormones regardless of the occurrence of a panic attack and, thus, seem to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis directly. The benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil does not increase stress hormones, but this agent does not reliably induce panic attacks. Pharmacological agents that increase anxiety in both normal people and panic patients (caffeine, yohimbine, serotonergic agonists) raise stress hormone levels. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the differences in symptomatology and pharmacological response, generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder affect stress hormones in distinct ways. While anticipatory anxiety and generalized anxiety disorder activate both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and the sympathoadrenal axes, panic attack causes major sympathetic activation, but has little effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Panic Disorder/physiopathology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/metabolism , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Panic Disorder/metabolism , Panic Disorder/psychology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism , Prolactin/metabolism , Stress, Psychological/metabolism
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