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1.
Biol. Res ; 57: 6-6, 2024. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The monthly regeneration of human endometrial tissue is maintained by the presence of human endometrial mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (eMSC), a cell population co-expressing the perivascular markers CD140b and CD146. Endometrial regeneration is impaired in the presence of intrauterine adhesions, leading to infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss and placental abnormalities. Several types of somatic stem cells have been used to repair the damaged endometrium in animal models, reporting successful pregnancy. However, the ability of endometrial stem cells to repair the damaged endometrium remains unknown. METHODS: Electrocoagulation was applied to the left uterine horn of NOD/SCID mice causing endometrial injury. Human eMSC or PBS was then injected into the left injured horn while the right normal horn served as controls. Mice were sacrificed at different timepoints (Day 3, 7 and 14) and the endometrial morphological changes as well as the degree of endometrial injury and repair were observed by histological staining. Gene expression of various inflammatory markers was assessed using qPCR. The functionality of the repaired endometrium was evaluated by fertility test. RESULTS: Human eMSC successfully incorporated into the injured uterine horn, which displayed significant morphological restoration. Also, endometrium in the eMSC group showed better cell proliferation and glands formation than the PBS group. Although the number of blood vessels were similar between the two groups, gene expression of VEGF-α significantly increased in the eMSC group. Moreover, eMSC had a positive impact on the regeneration of both stromal and epithelial components of the mouse endometrium, indicated by significantly higher vimentin and CK19 protein expression. Reduced endometrial fibrosis and down-regulation of fibrosis markers were also observed in the eMSC group. The eMSC group had a significantly higher gene expression of anti-inflammatory factor Il-10 and lower mRNA level of pro-inflammatory factors Ifng and Il-2, indicating the role of eMSC in regulation of inflammatory reactions. The eMSC group showed higher implantation sites than the PBS group, suggesting better endometrial receptivity with the presence of newly emerged endometrial lining. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest eMSC improves regeneration of injured endometrium in mice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Mice , Uterine Diseases/metabolism , Uterine Diseases/pathology , Uterine Diseases/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Placenta/pathology , Fibrosis , Mice, SCID , Mice, Inbred NOD , Endometrium/metabolism , Endometrium/pathology
2.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 8-13, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the cause of inconsistency between the results of trisomy 7 by expanded non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT-PLUS) and trisomy 18 by prenatal diagnosis.@*METHODS@#A pregnant woman who received genetic counseling at Jiaozuo Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital on July 5, 2020 was selected as the study subject. NIPT-PLUS, systematic ultrasound and interventional prenatal testing were carried out. The middle segment and root of umbilical cord, center and edge of the maternal and fatal surface of the placenta were sampled for the validation by copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq).@*RESULTS@#The result of NIPT-PLUS indicated that the fetus has trisomy 7. Systematic ultrasound has shown multiple malformations including atrioventricular septal defect, horseshoe kidney, and rocker-bottom feet. However, QF-PCR, chromosomal karyotyping analysis, and CNV-seq of amniotic fluid samples all showed that the fetus was trisomy 18. Validation using multiple placental samples confirmed that the middle segment of the umbilical cord contains trisomy 18, the center of the placenta contained trisomy 7, and other placental sites were mosaicism for trisomy 7 and trisomy 18. Notably, the ratio of trisomy 18 became lower further away from the umbilical cord.@*CONCLUSION@#The false positive results of trisomy 7 and false negative trisomy 18 by NIPT-PLUS was probably due to the existence of placental mosaicism. Strict prenatal diagnosis is required needed aneuploidy is detected by NIPT-PLUS to exclude the influence of placental mosaicisms.


Subject(s)
Child , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Trisomy/genetics , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Placenta , DNA Copy Number Variations , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Aneuploidy
3.
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 35: e23351382, jan. 31, 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513227

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Congenital syphilis is a serious public health problem that causes high rates of intrauterine morbidity and mortality, revealing flaws and weaknesses in the health system. Objective: to report a case of congenital syphilis in a university hospital in the Center-South Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Case report: A pregnant woman, aged between 19 and 23 years old, carrying a Pregnant Woman's Handbook with a record of seven prenatal consultations and a note of the serological reaction for positive syphilis, but without any treatment, hospitalized at the University Hospital of Vassouras (RJ), in labor, gave birth to a newborn (NB) with a clinical picture and serological test of congenital syphilis. The NB required care in an intensive care unit and was discharged 28 days after birth. Scraping of skin lesions of the NB and placenta was performed for analysis by molecular biology (PCR in house) and genetic material of Treponema pallidum was detected. Conclusion: Congenital syphilis is a serious outcome of syphilis during pregnancy, consuming high financial resources and significant emotional distress for the mother, father, the whole family, as well as for the health teams. Our case report was the first that we are aware of in Brazil with a diagnosis by PCR for positive Treponema pallidum of skin scraping and placental fragment. It also showed poor quality prenatal care, a common factor in most cases of CS in our reality


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Young Adult , Placenta/microbiology , Syphilis, Congenital/diagnosis , Treponema pallidum/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Polymerase Chain Reaction
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e382023, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1439112

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the role of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and angiogenetic factor endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in regulating hypoxia and placental development by routine histopathological methods. Methods: Twenty preeclamptic and normal placentas were used. Placenta tissue pieces were examined histopathologically after routine paraffin follow-ups. HIF-1α and ET-1 proteins were examined immunohistochemically, and placental tissues were examined ultrastructurally. Results: Increase in syncytial proliferation, endothelial damage in vessels, and increase in collagen were observed in preeclamptic placentas. As a result of preeclampsia, an increase was observed in HIF-1α and ET-1 protein levels in the placenta. Dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum and loss of cristae in mitochondria were observed in trophoblast cells in preeclamptic placental sections. Conclusion: High regulation of oxygen resulting from preeclampsia has been shown to be a critical determinant of placentagenesis and plays an important role in placental differentiation, changes in maternal and fetal blood circulation, trophoblastic invasion, and syncytial node increase. It has been thought that preeclampsia affects secretion by disrupting the endoplasmic reticulum structure and induces mitochondrial damage, and that ET-1 may potentially help in the induction of stress pathways as a result of hypoxia in preeclampsia.


Subject(s)
Placenta/physiopathology , Placenta Diseases , Pre-Eclampsia , Endothelins , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Immunohistochemistry
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244244, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448957

ABSTRACT

Com os avanços tecnológicos e o aprimoramento da prática médica via ultrassonografia, já é possível detectar possíveis problemas no feto desde a gestação. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prática do psicólogo no contexto de gestações que envolvem riscos fetais. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo sob formato de relato de experiência como psicólogo residente no Serviço de Medicina Fetal da Maternidade Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Os registros, feitos por observação participante e diário de campo, foram analisados em dois eixos temáticos: 1) intervenções psicológicas no trabalho em equipe em consulta de pré-natal, exame de ultrassonografia e procedimento de amniocentese; e 2) intervenções psicológicas em casos de bebês incompatíveis com a vida. Os resultados indicaram que o psicólogo nesse serviço é essencial para atuar de forma multiprofissional na assistência pré-natal para gravidezes de alto risco fetal. Ademais, a preceptoria do residente é relevante para sua formação e treinamento para atuação profissional no campo da psicologia perinatal.(AU)


Face to the technological advances and the improvement of medical practice via ultrasound, it is already possible to detect possible problems in the fetus since pregnancy. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychologist's practice in the context of pregnancies which involve fetal risks. It is a qualitative study based on an experience report as a psychologist trainee at the Fetal Medicine Service of the Maternity School of UFRJ. The records, based on the participant observation and field diary, were analyzed in two thematic axes: 1) psychological interventions in the teamwork in the prenatal attendance, ultrasound examination and amniocentesis procedure; and 2) psychological interventions in cases of babies incompatible to the life. The results indicated that the psychologist in this service is essential to work in a multidisciplinary way at the prenatal care for high fetal risk pregnancies. Furthermore, the resident's preceptorship is relevant to their education and training for professional performance in the field of Perinatal Psychology.(AU)


Con los avances tecnológicos y la mejora de la práctica médica a través de la ecografía, ya se puede detectar posibles problemas en el feto desde el embarazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la práctica del psicólogo en el contexto de embarazos de riesgos fetal. Es un estudio cualitativo basado en un relato de experiencia como residente de psicología en el Servicio de Medicina Fetal de la Escuela de Maternidad de la Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Los registros, realizados en la observación participante y el diario de campo, se analizaron en dos ejes temáticos: 1) intervenciones psicológicas en el trabajo en equipo, en la consulta prenatal, ecografía y los procedimientos de amniocentesis; y 2) intervenciones psicológicas en casos de bebés incompatibles con la vida. Los resultados señalaron como fundamental la presencia del psicólogo en este servicio trabajando de forma multidisciplinar en la atención prenatal en el contexto de embarazos de alto riesgo fetal. Además, la tutela del residente es relevante para su educación y formación para el desempeño profesional en el campo de la Psicología Perinatal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Psychosocial Intervention , Heart Defects, Congenital , Anxiety , Orientation , Pain , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Paternity , Patient Care Team , Patients , Pediatrics , Placenta , Placentation , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Maintenance , Prognosis , Psychoanalytic Theory , Psychology , Puerperal Disorders , Quality of Life , Radiation , Religion , Reproduction , Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena , General Surgery , Syndrome , Congenital Abnormalities , Temperance , Therapeutics , Urogenital System , Bioethics , Physicians' Offices , Infant, Premature , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Animal , Pregnancy Outcome , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Family , Abortion, Spontaneous , Child Rearing , Child Welfare , Mental Health , Family Health , Survival Rate , Life Expectancy , Cause of Death , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Chromosome Mapping , Parental Leave , Mental Competency , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive , Down Syndrome , Perinatal Care , Comprehensive Health Care , Chemical Compounds , Depression, Postpartum , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Disabled Children , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Gravidity , Crisis Intervention , Affect , Cytogenetic Analysis , Spirituality , Complicity , Value of Life , Humanizing Delivery , Death , Decision Making , Defense Mechanisms , Abortion, Threatened , Delivery of Health Care , Dementia , Uncertainty , Organogenesis , Qualitative Research , Pregnant Women , Early Diagnosis , Premature Birth , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Child Mortality , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Postpartum Period , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological , Ethanol , Ego , Emotions , Empathy , Environment , Humanization of Assistance , User Embracement , Ethics, Professional , Cell Nucleus Shape , Prenatal Nutrition , Cervical Length Measurement , Family Conflict , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications , Gestational Sac , Brief, Resolved, Unexplained Event , Fetal Death , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Multimodal Imaging , Mortality, Premature , Clinical Decision-Making , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Child, Foster , Freedom , Burnout, Psychological , Birth Setting , Frustration , Sadness , Respect , Psychological Distress , Genetics , Psychological Well-Being , Obstetricians , Guilt , Happiness , Health Occupations , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Maternity , Hospitals, University , Human Development , Human Rights , Imagination , Infections , Infertility , Anencephaly , Jurisprudence , Obstetric Labor Complications , Licensure , Life Change Events , Life Support Care , Loneliness , Love , Medical Staff, Hospital , Intellectual Disability , Morals , Mothers , Narcissism , Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities , Neonatology , Nervous System Malformations , Object Attachment
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3985-4003, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008007

ABSTRACT

Listeria monocytogenes is recognized as a significant foodborne pathogen, capable of causing listeriosis in humans, which is a global public health concern. This pathogen is particularly dangerous for pregnant women, as it can lead to invasive listeriosis in fetuses and neonates, posing a significant threat to both maternal and fetal health. Therefore, establishing suitable in vitro and in vivo models for L. monocytogenes placenta infection, as well as analyzing and exploring the infection process and its pathogenic mechanism, are important approaches to prevent and control L. monocytogenes infection in mothers and infants. In this study, we reviewed the in vitro and in vivo placental models used for studying the infection of L. monocytogenes in maternal and infant, summarized and discussed the advantages and limitations of each model, and explored the potential of in vitro cell models and organoids for the study of L. monocytogenes infection. This paper aims to support the study of the infection pathway and pathogenesis of listeriosis and provide scientific references for the prevention and control of L. monocytogenes infection.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Listeria monocytogenes , Listeriosis/prevention & control , Placenta/pathology , Public Health
7.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 1015-1027, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007878

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to compare 9 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSA) with carbon chain lengths (C4-C12) to inhibit human placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (3β-HSD1), aromatase, and rat 3β-HSD4 activities.@*METHODS@#Human and rat placental 3β-HSDs activities were determined by converting pregnenolone to progesterone and progesterone secretion in JEG-3 cells was determined using HPLC/MS-MS, and human aromatase activity was determined by radioimmunoassay.@*RESULTS@#PFSA inhibited human 3β-HSD1 structure-dependently in the order: perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS, half-maximum inhibitory concentration, IC 50: 9.03 ± 4.83 μmol/L) > perfluorodecanesulfonic acid (PFDS, 42.52 ± 8.99 μmol/L) > perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid (PFHpS, 112.6 ± 29.39 μmol/L) > perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) = perfluoropentanesulfonic acid (PFPS) = perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) = perfluorododecanesulfonic acid (PFDoS) (ineffective at 100 μmol/L). 6:2FTS (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctanesulfonic acid) and 8:2FTS (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanesulfonic acid) did not inhibit human 3β-HSD1. PFOS and PFHpS are mixed inhibitors, whereas PFDS is a competitive inhibitor. Moreover, 1-10 μmol/L PFOS and PFDS significantly reduced progesterone biosynthesis in JEG-3 cells. Docking analysis revealed that PFSA binds to the steroid-binding site of human 3β-HSD1 in a carbon chain length-dependent manner. All 100 μmol/L PFSA solutions did not affect rat 3β-HSD4 and human placental aromatase activity.@*CONCLUSION@#Carbon chain length determines inhibitory potency of PFSA on human placental 3β-HSD1 in a V-shaped transition at PFOS (C8), with inhibitory potency of PFOS > PFDS > PFHpS > PFBS = PFPS = PFHxS = PFDoS = 6:2FTS = 8:2FTS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Female , Rats , Animals , Placenta , Progesterone/pharmacology , Aromatase/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Fluorocarbons , Alkanesulfonic Acids , Structure-Activity Relationship , Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases/pharmacology
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 714-726, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007786

ABSTRACT

Preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) of the fetus are the two most common pregnancy complications worldwide, affecting 5%-10% of pregnant women. Preeclampsia is associated with significantly increased maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Hypoxia-induced uteroplacental dysfunction is now recognized as a key pathological factor in preeclampsia and IUGR. Reduced oxygen supply (hypoxia) disrupts mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function. Hypoxia has been shown to alter mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and induce ER stress. Hypoxia during pregnancy is associated with excessive production of ROS in the placenta, leading to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress occurs in a number of human diseases, including high blood pressure during pregnancy. Studies have shown that uterine placental tissue/cells in preeclampsia and IUGR show high levels of oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both the complications. This review summarizes the role of hypoxia-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and ER stress in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia/IUGR and discusses the potential therapeutic strategies targeting oxidative stress to treat both the pregnancy complications.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Placenta , Fetal Growth Retardation/etiology , Pre-Eclampsia/pathology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Hypoxia/pathology , Pregnancy Complications/pathology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
9.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1461-1465, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009322

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out genetic analysis for a fetus with confined placental mosaicism (CPM) for trisomy 2 (T2) in conjunct with fetal uniparental disomy (UPD).@*METHODS@#Amniocentesis and chromosomal karyotyping was carried out for a pregnant woman with a high risk for chromosome 2 anomalies indicated by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) and trio-whole exome sequencing (Trio-WES) were carried out. Ultrasonography was used to closely monitor the fetal growth. Multifocal sampling of the placenta was performed after delivery for copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq).@*RESULTS@#The fetus was found to have a normal chromosomal karyotype. SNP-array has revealed multiple regions with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 2. Trio-WES confirmed the presence of maternal UPD for chromosome 2. Ultrasonography has revealed intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios. Intrauterine fetal demise had occurred at 23+4 weeks of gestation. Pathological examination had failed to find salient visceral abnormality. The placenta was proved to contain complete T2 by CNV-seq.@*CONCLUSION@#T2 CPM can cause false positive result for NIPT and may be complicated with fetal UPD, leading to adverse obstetric outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction, oligohydramnios and intrauterine fetal demise.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Amniocentesis , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Fetal Death , Fetal Growth Retardation/genetics , Fetus , Mosaicism , Oligohydramnios , Placenta , Trisomy/genetics , Uniparental Disomy/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 922-927, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To validate a fetus with high risk for trisomy 13 suggested by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT).@*METHODS@#The fetus was selected as the study subject after the NIPT detection at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences on February 18, 2019. Clinical data of the pregnant woman was collected. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), chromosomal karyotyping analysis and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) were carried out on amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood and the couple's peripheral blood samples. Copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) was also performed on the placental and amniotic fluid samples following induced labor.@*RESULTS@#The pregnant woman, a 38-year-old G4P1 gravida, was found to have abnormal fetal development by prenatal ultrasonography. NIPT test suggested that the fetus has a high risk for trisomy 13. Chromosomal karyotyping analysis of fetal amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood were 46,XN,add(13)(p10). The result of CMA was arr[hg19]1q41q44(223937972_249224684)×3, with the size of the repeat fragment being approximately 25.29 Mb, the fetal karyotype was thereby revised as 46,XN,der(13)t(1;13)(q41;p10). Chromosomal karyotyping analysis and CMA of the parents' peripheral blood samples showed no obvious abnormality. The CNV-seq analysis of induced placenta revealed mosaicisms of normal karyotype and trisomy 13. The CNV-seq test of induced amniotic fluid confirmed a duplication of chr1:22446001_249220000 region spanning approximately 24.75 Mb, which was in keeping with the CMA results of amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood samples.@*CONCLUSION@#NIPT may yield false positive result due to placenta mosaicism. Invasive prenatal diagnosis should be recommended to women with a high risk by NIPT test. And analysis of placenta can explain the inconsistency between the results of NIPT and invasive prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Trisomy 13 Syndrome/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Placenta , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Fetus , Amniotic Fluid , Chromosome Aberrations , Trisomy/genetics
11.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 215-221, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969869

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze associated factors and adverse pregnancy outcomes of postpartum hemorrhage in the caesarean section of puerperae with different types of placenta previa. Methods: This retrospective research was a case-control study. Puerperae with cesarean section of placenta previa from January 2019 to December 2020 in Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University were collected and divided into the<1 000 ml control group or ≥1 000 ml postpartum hemorrhage group according to the amount of blood loss during cesarean section. Differences in continuous variables were analyzed by t-test and categorical variables were analyzed by χ2 test. The risk factors of postpartum hemorrhage were analyzed by logistic multivariate regression. Results: A total of 962 puerperae were enrolled with 773 cases in the control group and 189 cases in the postpartum hemorrhage group. The incidence of gestational weeks, gravidity, parity, induced abortion, placental accreta and preoperative hemoglobin<110 g/L was significantly different between two groups in different types of placenta previa (P<0.001). Logistic multivariate regression model analysis showed that the independent risk factors of postpartum hemorrhage in the caesarean section of low-lying placenta included placental accreta (OR=12.713, 95%CI: 4.296-37.625), preoperative hemoglobin<110 g/L (OR=2.377, 95%CI: 1.062-5.321), and prenatal vaginal bleeding (OR=4.244, 95%CI: 1.865-9.656). The independent risk factors of postpartum hemorrhage in the caesarean section of placenta previa included once induced abortion (OR=2.789, 95%CI:1.189-6.544), induced abortion≥2 (OR=2.843, 95%CI:1.101-7.339), placental accreta (OR=6.079, 95%CI:3.697-9.996), HBsAg positive (OR=3.891, 95%CI:1.385-10.929), and placental attachment to the anterior uterine wall (OR=2.307, 95%CI:1.285-4.142). The rate of postpartum hemorrhage and premature delivery in puerperae with placenta previa was higher than that in puerperae with low-lying placenta (P<0.001). Conclusions: The associated factors of postpartum hemorrhage in puerperae with different types of placenta previa are different. Placenta accreta is the common risk factor of postpartum hemorrhage in puerperae with low-lying placenta and placenta previa.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Cesarean Section , Postpartum Hemorrhage/surgery , Pregnancy Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Case-Control Studies , Placenta Previa/surgery , Placenta , Risk Factors
12.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 208-214, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969868

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the role of methylation of placental glucocorticoid response gene in the association between pregnancy-related anxiety in the third trimester and birth outcomes. Methods: Based on a prospective cohort study, singleton live births and their mothers from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study (MABC) were included as participants in this study. The maternal pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms in the third trimester of pregnancy were evaluated by using the Pregnancy-related Anxiety Questionnaire. The neonatal birth outcomes were collected from medical records. The placental tissues from 300 pregnant women with pregnancy-related anxiety and 300 without pregnancy-related anxiety were collected to detect the methylation of FKBP5, NR3C1 and HSD11B2 genes using the Methyl Target approach. The methylation factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis. Linear regression or logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between pregnancy-related anxiety in the third trimester, methylation factor scores, and birth outcomes. The mediating role of methylation factors in the association between pregnancy-related anxiety in the third trimester and birth outcomes was analyzed by using the Process procedure. Results: The mean age of 2 833 pregnant women was (26.60±3.60) years old. After adjusting for confounding factors, pregnancy-related anxiety in the third trimester increased the risk of small-for-gestational-age (OR=1.32, 95%CI:1.00-1.74). A total of 5 methylation factors were extracted, and the factor 5 was loaded with FKBP5 CpGs 18-21. Pregnancy-related anxiety in the third trimester was negatively correlated with the factor 5 (β=-0.24,95%CI:-0.44--0.05). The factor 5 was positively correlated with the gestational age (β=0.17, 95%CI:0.06-0.27). In addition, the factor 2 (β=0.02,95%CI:0.00-0.04) and factor 3 (β=0.03,95%CI:0.01-0.05) were positively correlated with 5-min Apgar score after delivery. However, this study did not found the mediating role of the scores of the factor characterized by FKBP5 in the relationship between pregnancy-related anxiety and birth outcomes. Conclusion: Pregnancy-related anxiety in the third trimester may reduce the methylation level of FKBP5 CpGs 18-21 in placental tissues and is associated with the risk of small-for-gestational-age.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Placenta , Glucocorticoids/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Methylation , Factor V/metabolism , Anxiety/genetics
13.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 546-550, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981992

ABSTRACT

A boy, aged 3 hours, was admitted due to a prenatal diagnosis of fetal hydrops at 3 hours after resuscitation for birth asphyxia. Prenatal examination at 5 months of gestation showed massive ascites in the fetus, and after birth, the boy had the manifestations of systemic hydroderma, massive ascites, coarse face, and hepatomegaly. Genetic testing revealed heterozygous mutations in the SLC17A5 gene, and there was a significant increase in urinary free sialic acid. Placental pathology showed extensive vacuolization in villous stromal cells, Hofbauer cells, cytotrophoblast cells, and syncytiotrophoblast cells in human placental chorionic villi. The boy was finally diagnosed with free sialic acid storage disorders (FSASDs). This is the first case of FSASDs with the initial symptom of fetal hydrops reported in China. The possibility of FSASDs should be considered for cases with non-immune hydrops fetalis, and examinations such as placental pathology and urinary free sialic acid may help with early diagnosis and clinical decision making.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Male , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Hydrops Fetalis/genetics , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Placenta/pathology , Ascites
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3022-3031, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981432

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of arctigenin(ARC) in the treatment of vascular endothelial injury in rats with pregnancy-induced hypertension(PIH). Fifty SD rats pregnant for 12 days were randomly assigned into a control group, a model group, an ARC group, a rapamycin(RAP, autophagy inducer) group, and an ARC+3-methyladenine(3-MA, autophagy inhibitor) group, with 10 rats in each group. The rats in the other groups except the control group were intraperitoneally injected with nitrosyl-L-arginine methyl ester(50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) to establish the PIH model on the 13th day of pregnancy. On the 15th day of pregnancy, the rats in ARC, RAP, and ARC+3-MA groups were intraperitoneally injected with ARC(50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), RAP(1 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and 3-MA(15 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1))+ARC(50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), respectively. The pregnant rats in the control group and the model group were intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of normal saline. The blood pressure and 24 h urine protein(24 h-UP) of pregnant rats in each group were measured before and after intervention. Cesarean section was performed to terminate pregnancy on day 21, and the body weight and body length of fetal rats were compared among groups. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was employed to observe the pathological changes of placenta. The expression of endothelin-1(ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS) in placenta was detected by immunohistochemistry. The serum levels of ET-1 and nitric oxide(NO) were determined with corresponding kits. The expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3), Beclin-1, NOD-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with CARD domain(ASC), caspase-1, interleukin(IL)-1β, and IL-18 was determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. The level of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in placenta was measured by fluorescence staining. The results showed that on day 12 of pregnancy, the blood pressure and 24 h-UP had no significant differences among groups. On days 15, 19, and 21, the blood pressure and 24 h-UP in the model group were higher than those in the control group(P<0.05). On days 19 and 21, the blood pressure and 24 h-UP in ARC group and RAP group were lower than those in the model group(P<0.05), and they were higher in the ARC+3-MA group than in the ARC group(P<0.05). On day 21, the model group had lower body weight and body length of fetal rats(P<0.05), higher serum level of ET-1, and lower serum level of NO(P<0.05) than the control group. Moreover, the placental tissue showed typical pathological damage, down-regulated expression of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1 and eNOS(P<0.05), up-regulated expression of ET-1, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18(P<0.05), and elevated ROS level. Compared with the model group, ARC and RAP groups showed increased body weight and body length of fetal rats(P<0.05), lowered serum level of ET-1, elevated serum level of NO(P<0.05), reduced pathological damage of placental tissue, up-regulated expression of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1, and eNOS(P<0.05), down-regulated expression of ET-1, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18(P<0.05), and lowered ROS level. Compared with ARC group, 3-MA reversed the effects of ARC on the above indicators. In conclusion, ARC can inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and mitigate vascular endothelial damage in PIH rats by inducing autophagy of vascular endothelial cells.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Animals , Rats , Humans , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/drug therapy , Endothelial Cells , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Beclin-1 , Cesarean Section , Reactive Oxygen Species , Placenta , Caspase 1 , Autophagy
15.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 18-24, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To identify the perinatal risk factors for the occurrence of singleton apparently stillborn infants.@*METHODS@#This was a case-control study. A total of 154 singleton neonates with gestational age ≥28 weeks and Apgar score of 0-1 who were subsequently successfully resuscitated in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University from January 2006 to December 2015 were enrolled as the case group (apparently stillborn group). A total of 616 singleton infants born from January 2006 to December 2015 (1-minute Apgar score >1) were randomly selected in a 1:4 ratio as the control group. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the perinatal risk factors for the occurrence of apparently stillborn infants.@*RESULTS@#The gestational age and birth weight in the apparently stillborn group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The incidences of fetal hydrops, cord prolapse, grade III meconium-stained amniotic fluid, placental abruption, breech presentation, severe pre-eclampsia, maternal general anesthesia at delivery, abnormal antenatal fetal heart monitoring and decreased fetal movement were significantly higher in the apparently stillborn group than those in the control group (P<0.05). The multivariate logistic analysis showed that the mother had general anesthesia at delivery (OR=34.520), decreased antenatal fetal movement (OR=28.168),placental abruption (OR=15.641), grade III meconium-stained amniotic fluid (OR=6.365), abnormal antenatal fetal heart monitoring (OR=5.739), and breech presentation (OR=2.614) were risk factors for the occurrence of apparently stillborn infants (P<0.05), while higher gestational age was a protective factor (OR=0.686, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Attention needs to be paid to mothers with abnormal prenatal fetal heart monitoring, decreased fetal movement, preterm labor, placental abruption, breech presentation, grade III meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and general anesthesia. Preparations for resuscitation should be done to rescue apparently stillborn infants.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Abruptio Placentae/epidemiology , Apgar Score , Breech Presentation , Case-Control Studies , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Stillbirth
16.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 357-361, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986861

ABSTRACT

Placental transmogrification of the lung (PTL) is a very rare benign lung lesion. There are only about 40 cases reported in the literature. The imaging and histological features of PTL cases in the publication are various, most of which are cystic and a few of which are solid. Being extremely rare, the solid PTL is unknown to major pathologists and surgeons. We reported a case of solid PTL in the anterior mediastinum. The patient was a 52-year-old male with no history of smoking and without symptoms. During physical examination, chest CT revealed a circular low-density lesion with a maximum diameter of 2.9 cm beside the spine in the posterior basal segment of the left lower lobe of the lung. The wedge resection was performed by video-assisted thoracoscopy. Grossly, a round nodule was located underneath the visceral pleura. It was about 3.0 cm×3.0 cm×1.6 cm and the cut surface was grey-red, soft and spongy. Microscopically, the nodule was constituted of papillare, which resembled placental villi at low magnification. The axis of papillae was edema, in which some mild round cells with clear cytoplasm and CD10 positive staining aggregated and transitioned to immature adipocytes and amorphous pink materials deposited with a few of inflammatory cells infiltration. The surface of papillae was covered with disconti-nuous alveolar epithelium. Combined with the typical morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics of CD10 positive, the diagnosis was PTL. The patient was followed up for 1 year without recurrence and discomfort. So far, the pathogenesis of PTL is unclear. The major hypotheses include hamartoma, variant of emphysema and clonal hyperplasia of stromal cells. Based on the study of our case and publication, we speculate that the hyperplasia of stromal cells located in the alveolar septa might be the first step to form the solid PTL. With the progression of the disease, a typical unilateral cystic nodule develops as a result of secondary cystic degeneration due to the occlusive valve effect. Surgery is the only option for diagnosis and treatment of PTL. The clinician should make an individualized operation plan according to the clinical manifestations, location and scope of the lesion, and preserve the surrounding normal lung tissue as much as possible while completely removing the lesion. There is a favorable prognosis.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Middle Aged , Hyperplasia/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pulmonary Emphysema/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
17.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 480-485, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985704

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the pathological changes of placenta in pregnant women with aortic dissection/aneurysm and their relationship with clinical features. Methods: The placental samples of 14 pregnant women with aortic dissection/aneurysm diagnosed from January 2012 to October 2021 and 10 normal placental samples of pregnant women from January 2021 to December 2021 at Beijing Anzhen Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing, China were selected. Routine H&E staining and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the histological features under light microscope. The clinical data were also analyzed. Results: The age of 14 pregnant patients with aortic dissection/aneurysm for placental examination ranged from 22 to 38 years (median, 28 years). The gestational ages ranged from 22 to 39 weeks (median, 34 weeks). The pregnancy of second trimester was noted in 2 cases, and the third trimester in 12 cases. All cases were singleton pregnancy. Seven cases were Stanford type A aortic dissection, 6 cases were Stanford type B aortic dissection, and one case was aortic root aneurysm. Four of the pregnant women underwent aortic dissection surgery after caesarean section, three underwent caesarean section after aortic dissection surgery, and seven underwent both caesarean section and aortic dissection procedures. Among the newborns, 2 cases were full-term birth, and 12 cases were premature birth. Twelve cases had alive newborns, and 2 cases stillbirths. Fetal/placental weight ratio (FPR)<10th percentile was in 5 cases and FPR>90th percentile in one case. Compared with the normal group, accelerated villus maturation and distal villus dysplasia were more frequently found in pregnancy with aortic dissection group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in villi infarction and decidua vascular lesions between the two groups (P>0.05), nor was there correlation between the type of aortic dissection and distal villus dysplasia and accelerated villus maturation of placentas (P>0.05). The number of villous interstitial blood vessels in the placentas of pregnancy with aortic dissection group was significantly fewer than that in the normal control group (P<0.01). Conclusions: There are considerable pathological changes in the placentas of pregnant women with aortic dissection/aneurysm. The main histological features are accelerated villus maturation and distal villus dysplasia, which are manifestations of villous ischemia and hypoxia, and also a part of the placental pathological manifestations of maternal vascular dysperfusion.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Infant , Young Adult , Adult , Placenta/pathology , Cesarean Section , Aortic Dissection/surgery , Gestational Age , Aortic Aneurysm/pathology
18.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 489-494, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985668

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the maternal and fetal outcomes of expectant treatment and early termination of pregnancy in pregnant women with suspected invasive placenta accreta spectrum disorders (PAS) in the second trimester. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 51 pregnant women with suspected invasive PAS (ultrasound score ≥10) evaluated by ultrasound with gestational age <26 weeks and confirmed as invasive PAS by intraoperative findings or postoperative pathology in Peking University Third Hospital from January 2015 to January 2022. According to the informed choice of pregnant women and their families, they were divided into expectant treatment group (37 cases) and mid-term termination group (14 cases). The general clinical data and outcome indexes of the two groups were analyzed by χ2 test, Mann-Whitney U rank sum test, logistic regression and linear regression. Results: (1) General clinical data: among 51 pregnant women who were assessed as suspected invasive PAS by ultrasonography in the second trimester, invasive PAS was finally diagnosed by intraoperative findings and postoperative pathology, among which 46 cases (90%) were placenta percreta and 5 cases (10%) were placenta increta. (2) Outcome indicators: univariate analysis showed that there were no statistically significant differences in the intraoperative blood loss (median: 2 200 vs 2 150 ml), the proportion of blood loss >1 500 ml [73% (27/37) vs 9/14], the hysterectomy rate [62% (23/37) vs 8/14], the rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission [78% (29/37) vs 9/14] between the expectant treatment group and the mid-term termination group (all P>0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the rate of intraoperative blood loss >1 500 ml (aOR=0.481, 95%CI: 0.017-13.958; P=0.670), hysterectomy (aOR=0.264, 95%CI: 0.011-6.569, P=0.417) and ICU admission (aOR=1.327, 95%CI: 0.048-36.882, P=0.867) between the two groups showed no statistical differences. (3) Outcome analysis: all 37 cases in the expectant treatment group had live births and no early neonatal death. Five pregnant women (14%, 5/37) in the expectant treatment group underwent emergency cesarean section in the course of expectant treatment. In the mid-term termination group, all pregnancies were terminated by operation, including 9 cases of hysterectomy and 5 cases of placental hysterectomy. There was 1 fetal survival (gestational age of termination: 27+4 weeks) and 13 fetal death in the mid-term termination group. Conclusions: Pregnant women who are diagnosed as suspected invasive PAS, especially those with placenta percreta, have the risk of uterine rupture and emergency surgery in the course of expectant treatment. However, early termination of pregnancy does not reduce the risk of intraoperative blood loss and hysterectomy.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Infant , Placenta Accreta/surgery , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Pregnant Women , Cesarean Section , Retrospective Studies , Blood Loss, Surgical , Placenta , Abortion, Induced , Hysterectomy
19.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 430-441, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985664

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the expression profile of circular RNA (circRNA) in placenta of pre-eclampsia (PE) pregnant women by high-throughput sequencing, and to construct the circRNA-microRNA (miRNA)-messenger RNA (mRNA) interaction network, so as to reveal the related pathways and regulatory mechanisms of PE. Methods: The clinical data and placentas of 42 women with PE (PE group) and 30 normal pregnant women (control group) who delivered in West China Second University Hospital from November 2019 to June 2021 were collected. (1) High-throughput sequencing was used to establish the differentially expressed circRNA profiles in placental tissues of 5 pairs of PE group and the control group. (2) Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to verify the expression levels of 6 differentially expressed circRNAs in placental tissues of PE group and control group. (3) Bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the target miRNA and analyze the co-expressed mRNA to construct a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network. The differentially expressed circRNAs were analyzed by Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways. (4) Logistic regression analysis, Pearson correlation and Kendall's tau-b correlation analysis were used to test the correlation between the three differentially expressed circRNAs and the risk of PE and clinical characteristics. (5) circRNA_05393 was selected for subsequent functional study. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and overexpression plasmid were used to knock down or increase the expression level of circRNA_05393 in trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo cells, respectively. Transwell assay was used to detect the migration and invasion ability of the trophoblasts in vitro. Cell counting kit-8 assay was used to detect the proliferation ability of the trophoblasts. Results: (1) Seventy-two differentially expressed circRNAs were identified by high-throughput sequencing, of which 35 were up-regulated and 37 were down-regulated. (2) qRT-PCR showed that compared with the control group, circRNA_00673 (1.306±0.168 vs 2.059±0.242; t=2.356, P=0.021) and circRNA_07796 (1.275±0.232 vs 1.954±0.230; t=2.018, P=0.047) were significantly increased, while circRNA_05393 (1.846±0.377 vs 0.790±0.094; t=3.138, P=0.002) was significantly decreased. (3) The circRNA-miRNA-mRNA interaction network contained 3 circRNAs, 8 miRNAs and 53 mRNAs. GO functional annotation analysis showed that the biological process was mainly enriched in iron ion homeostasis, membrane depolarization during action potential and neuronal action potential. In terms of cellular components, they were mainly enriched in cytoskeleton and membrane components. In terms of molecular function, they were mainly enriched in the activity of voltage-gated sodium channel and basic amino acid transmembrane transporter. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that mRNAs in the interaction network were mainly enriched in complement and coagulation cascade, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, p53 signaling pathway and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPAR) signaling pathway. (4) Logistic regression analysis showed that down-regulation of circRNA_05393 expression was a risk factor for PE (OR=0.044, 95%CI: 0.003-0.596; P=0.019). Correlation analysis showed that circRNA_05393 was significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in PE pregnant women (both P<0.05). (5) Knock down or overexpression of circRNA_05393 significantly reduced or increased the migration and invasion abilities of HTR-8/SVneo cells (all P<0.05), but had no significant effect on the ability of tube formation and proliferation (all P>0.05). Conclusions: The construction of circRNA expression profile in placenta and the exploration of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA interaction network provide the possibility to reveal the regulatory mechanism of specific circRNA involved in PE. Inhibition of circRNA_05393 may induce the progression of PE by reducing the migration and invasion of trophoblasts.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , MicroRNAs/metabolism , RNA, Circular/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Gene Expression Profiling
20.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 423-429, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985663

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the key points for preventing and reducing severe pre-eclampsia (SPE) and its severe complications in the tertiary medical referral system of a second-tier city by analyzing the clinical characteristics of SPE. Methods: The clinical data of 341 patients with SPE who terminated pregnancy in Women and Children's Hospital, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, from January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2022 were retrospectively analyzed, and the pre-eclampsia (PE) risk factors, clinical characteristics and severe complications of SPE between the patients referred from primary hospitals (referral group) and the patients received regular prenatal care in the tertiary referral center (central group) were compared, as well as the influence of the referral timing on the maternal and perinatal outcomes. Results: Among the 341 cases of SPE, 92 cases were in the referral group and 249 cases were in the central group. (1) Analysis of PE risk factors: there was no statistical difference in the proportion of risk factors of PE between these two groups [75.0% (69/92) vs 71.9% (179/249); χ2=0.328, P=0.567]. (2) Analysis of clinical features: the gestational ages at the PE early warning factors onset, at the PE first symptom onset and at SPE diagnosed, pregnancy terminated and onset of SPE severe complications in the referral group were significantly earlier than those in the central group (all P<0.05), the proportions of terminating pregnancy before 32 weeks of gestation, between 32 and 34 weeks of gestation, intensive care unit (ICU), neonatal ICU hospitalization and fetal growth restriction in single pregnancies were higher than those in the central group, while the live birth rate was lower than that in the central group (all P<0.05). (3) Analysis of SPE severe complications: the rates of SPE severe complications in the referral group was higher than that in the central group [28.3% (26/92) vs 13.7% (34/249); χ2=9.885, P=0.002]. Among them, the rates of placental abruption [7.6% (7/92) vs 2.8% (7/249); χ2=3.927, P=0.048] and still birth [6.5% (6/92) vs 0.4% (1/249); χ2=9.656, P=0.002] in the referral group were significantly higher than those in the central group. (4) Analysis of referral timings: the timings included referral after onset of SPE severe complications (9.8%, 9/92), referral after SPE diagnosed (63.0%, 58/92), referral after detection of SPE early warning signs (20.7%, 19/92) and referral after detection of PE risk factors (6.5%, 6/92). The gestational ages at SPE diagnosed and pregnancy terminated in group of referral after onset of SPE severe complications and group of referral after SPE diagnosed were significantly earlier than those in group of referral after detection of PE early warning signs and group of referral after detection of PE risk factors (P<0.05). The earlier the referral, the higher the live birth rates (P<0.05). Conclusions: The tertiary referral center of the second-tier city plays an important role in reducing the maternal and perinatal damage of PE. The timing of referral in primary medical institutions is the key point of reducing the occurrence of SPE severe complications and maternal, perinatal damage of PE. It is necessary for medical institutions of all levels in all regions to improve the ability of early identification and early intervention for PE, to enhance the awareness of SPE and its severe complications prevention and control. Primary medical institutions should especially pay attention to raise the consciousness of PE risk factors and early warning signs, and to improve the ability of PE risk factors and early warning signs screening.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Child , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Placenta , Prenatal Care , Gestational Age , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology
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