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Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(3): e37314, set. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1341562


Resumen: La secuencia de perfusión arterial reversa (TRAP) es una complicación muy poco frecuente y grave de los embarazos gemelares monocoriónicos. Generalmente ocurre cuando el corazón de un gemelo de apariencia normal sirve como bomba para uno o más gemelos dismórficos cuya cabeza, órganos torácicos y extremidades superiores no se desarrollan completamente o no se desarrollan en absoluto y, por lo tanto, carecen de actividad cardíaca. La arquitectura placentaria vascular anómala provoca un cambio en el flujo arterial hacia el gemelo acardíaco. Los mecanismos fisiopatológicos exactos que conducen a este fenómeno devastador no se conocen bien. Compartiremos el caso clínico de una paciente de 19 años, cursando un embarazo gemelar monocorial monoamniótico, en que realizamos diagnóstico de TRAPS, y realizamos la coagulación laser de la arteria nutricia del feto acárdico.

Abstract: Twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAPS) is rather an unusual and severe complication of monochorionic twin pregnancies. It usually occurs when the normal-appearance heart of a twin acts as a pump for one or more dysmorphic twins whose head, thoracic organs and upper limbs fail to totally develop or do not develop at all and thus, have no cardiac activity. The abnormal vascular architecture at the placenta changes the arterial flow towards the acardiac twin. The exact pathophysiological mechanisms that result in this devastating phenomenon are still unknown. The study presents the clinical case of a 19-year- old patient pregnant with monoamniotic, monochorionic twins and a diagnosis of TRAPS, treated by laser coagulation of the acardiac twin's umbilical cord.

Resumo: A seqüência reversa de perfusão arterial (TRAPS) é uma complicação muito rara e grave de gestações gemelares monocoriônicas. Geralmente ocorre quando o coração de um gêmeo de aparência normal serve como uma bomba para um ou mais gêmeos dismórficos cuja cabeça, órgãos torácicos e membros superiores não se desenvolvem totalmente ou não se desenvolvem e, portanto, não têm atividade cardíaca. A arquitetura vascular placentária anormal causa uma mudança no fluxo arterial para o gêmeo acardíaco. Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos exatos que levam a esse fenômeno devastador não são bem compreendidos. Descrevemos o caso clínico de uma paciente de 19 anos, portadora de gestação gemelar monocoriônica monoamniótica, na qual fizemos o diagnóstico de TRAPS e realizamos coagulação a laser da artéria nutritiva do feto acardíaco.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Laser Coagulation , Fetal Heart/abnormalities , Fetofetal Transfusion , Placenta/pathology , Umbilical Arteries/surgery , Pregnancy, Twin
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877687


INTRODUCTION@#Pregnant women are reported to be at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to underlying immunosuppression during pregnancy. However, the clinical course of COVID-19 in pregnancy and risk of vertical and horizontal transmission remain relatively unknown. We aim to describe and evaluate outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 in Singapore.@*METHODS@#Prospective observational study of 16 pregnant patients admitted for COVID-19 to 4 tertiary hospitals in Singapore. Outcomes included severe disease, pregnancy loss, and vertical and horizontal transmission.@*RESULTS@#Of the 16 patients, 37.5%, 43.8% and 18.7% were infected in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. Two gravidas aged ≥35 years (12.5%) developed severe pneumonia; one patient (body mass index 32.9kg/m2) required transfer to intensive care. The median duration of acute infection was 19 days; one patient remained reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive >11 weeks from diagnosis. There were no maternal mortalities. Five pregnancies produced term live-births while 2 spontaneous miscarriages occurred at 11 and 23 weeks. RT-PCR of breast milk and maternal and neonatal samples taken at birth were negative; placenta and cord histology showed non-specific inflammation; and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific immunoglobulins were elevated in paired maternal and umbilical cord blood (n=5).@*CONCLUSION@#The majority of COVID-19 infected pregnant women had mild disease and only 2 women with risk factors (obesity, older age) had severe infection; this represents a slightly higher incidence than observed in age-matched non-pregnant women. Among the women who delivered, there was no definitive evidence of mother-to-child transmission via breast milk or placenta.

Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cohort Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Live Birth/epidemiology , Maternal Age , Milk, Human/virology , Obesity, Maternal/epidemiology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Singapore/epidemiology , Umbilical Cord/pathology , Young Adult
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(1): 22-29, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989289


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between inflammatory cytokines, placental weight, glycated hemoglobin and adverse perinatal outcomes (APOs) in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Subjects and methods: This was a prospective, longitudinal and observational study conducted from April 2004 to November 2005 in Bauru, Brazil. Included patients had singleton pregnancies and performed a 100 g OGTT and had the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, TNF alfa and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) determined at 24-28th gestation weeks. Results: A total of 176 patients were included, of whom 78 had the diagnosis of GDM (44.3%). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that HbA1c, age, body mass index (BMI) and previous history of GDM were independent predictors for GDM diagnosis. ROC curve indicated that HbA1C levels ≥ 5.1% at 24-28 weeks gestation were associated with GDM. No difference was found in IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and CRP serum levels in women with and without GDM. Multivariate analysis showed that placental weight was significantly associated with APOs (p < 0.005), with a cut-off value of 610 grams as demonstrated by the ROC curve. Conclusion: Placental weight ≥ 610 grams and HbA1C ≥ 5.1% were found to be associated with APOs and GDM, respectively, and their evaluation should be part of prenatal care routine.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Placenta/pathology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Pregnancy Outcome , Biomarkers/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1183-1192, Dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975679


The most prevalent pathologies during pregnancy, such as hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), can determine modifications in macro- and microscopic morphological features of the placenta and its free chorionic villi. In the fetus it may be accompanied by pathological manifestations, with the embryo's future quality of life, and even its viability, at risk. The aim of this work is to perform a review of the morphological alterations that the placenta exhibits in pregnancies with GDM. A search on the topic in the scientific literature and specialized textbooks was carried out. The terms "placenta", "diabetes mellitus gestational" and "gestational diabetes mellitus" were used to define the search. Among the morphological modifications it was found that the placental weight/fetal weight ratio is higher in GDM and is associated mainly with histological changes. The distance between maternal and fetal circulation is increased because of an increase in the chorionic villi on the surface as well as greater thickness of the syncytiotrophoblast basal membrane due to an increased type IV collagen deposition. The stroma between the villi is edematous, which modifies the metabolic and endocrinal function of these placentas. Moreover, the capillary surface is enlarged due to the phenomena of vascular neoformation and a greater penetration of these vessels within the villi. Low oxygen partial pressure (pO2) was detected, which would produce a compensatory hyperplasia of terminal chorionic villi. In GDM the placenta undergoes alterations in its formation, structure, and function. According to the review, these alterations are related to an oxygenation deficiency in the fetus and changes in the transplacental transport of nutrients and other alterations, causing fetal overgrowth by increasing their availability in addition to other consequences to the developing fetus. In the case of high blood pressure during pregnancy, this produces accelerated maturation and rapid aging of the chorionic villi, with the risk of inducing a placental abruption. In addition, placental circulation is reduced by a third, decreasing oxygen saturation in the umbilical vessels and placing the health of the fetus at risk.

Las patologías de la gestación más prevalentes, como hipertensión, diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) y restricción del crecimiento uterino, pueden determinar modificaciones en las características morfológicas macro y microscópicas de la placenta y sus vellosidades coriales libres,y en el feto se puede acompañar de manifestaciones patológicas, con riesgo para su calidad de vida futura, e incluso su viabilidad. El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en realizar una revisión acerca de las alteraciones morfológicas que presenta la placenta en gestaciones con DMG. Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda sobre la temática en literatura científica y libros de texto especializados. Se utilizaron los términos "placenta", "diabetes mellitus gestacional" y "gestational diabetes mellitus" para orientar la búsqueda. Entre las modificaciones morfológicas se encontró que la relación peso placentario/peso fetal está aumentado en la DMG y se asocia principalmente a cambios histológicos. La distancia entre la circulación materna y la fetal está aumentada debido a un aumento de la superficie entre las vellosidades coriales, así como al mayor grosor de la membrana basal del sincitiotrofoblasto por un depósito elevado de colágeno tipo IV. El estroma entre las vellosidades se encuentra edematoso lo que va a modificar la función metabólica y endocrina de estas placentas. También hay aumento de la superficie capilar por fenómenos de neoformación vascular y una mayor penetración de estos vasos dentro de las vellosidades. Se detectó baja presión parcial de oxígeno (pO2), que produciría una hiperplasia compensatoria de vellosidades coriónicas terminales. En la DMG la placenta experimenta alteraciones en su formación, estructura y función. Según lo revisado, estas alteraciones están relacionadas con déficit en la oxigenación del feto, cambios en el transporte transplacentario de los nutrientes y otras alteraciones, ocasionando sobrecrecimiento fetal por aumento de su disponibilidad, entre otras consecuencias al feto en desarrollo. Y en el caso de la hipertensión arterial durante la gestación produce una maduración acelerada y envejecimiento rápido de las vellosidades coriales, con el riesgo de inducir un desprendimiento prematuro de placenta. Además se reduce la circulación placentaria en un tercio, disminuyendo la saturación de oxígeno en los vasos umbilicales del, poniendo en riesgo la salud del feto.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Placenta/pathology , Diabetes, Gestational/pathology , Hypertension/pathology , Chorionic Villi/pathology , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/pathology
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(4): 294-296, ago. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954998


Los corangiomas son los tumores placentarios no trofoblásticos más frecuentes; generalmente aparecen como hallazgos al momento del alumbramiento. La presencia de leiomiomas en las placentas también ha sido descripta esporádicamente, siendo por lo general tumores maternos uterinos incorporados a la placenta durante la gestación. En este trabajo se informa un caso muy inusual de lesión mesenquimática, localizada en la cara fetal placentaria, caracterizada por la combinación de rasgos histopatológicos e inmunohistoquímicos de corangioma y leiomioma. Se encontró un solo caso informado en la bibliografía científica internacional con estas características, denominado "corangioleiomioma". En nuestro conocimiento, el caso aquí expuesto es el primero comunicado en nuestro país.

Chorangiomas are the most common non-trophoblastic tumors, generally appearing as incidental findings at the moment of delivery. The presence of leiomyomas inside placental parenchyma has been also described sporadically. In these cases, leiomyomas were primary maternal uterine neoplasms incorporated into the placenta during pregnancy. This case report presents a very unusual case of mesenchymal lesion, located in the fetal surface of the placenta, characterized by combined histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of chorangioma and leiomyoma. A single case reported with these characteristics was found in the international scientific literature, named as "chorangioleiomyoma". To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in our country.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Placenta/pathology , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic/pathology , Trophoblastic Neoplasms/pathology , Hemangioma/pathology , Leiomyoma/pathology , Immunohistochemistry
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 551-556, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954153


Las patologías de la gestación como la hipertensión, diabetes mellitus gestacional, o restricción del crecimiento intrauterino, pueden determinar modificaciones en las características morfológicas macro y microscópicas de la placenta y sus vellosidades coriales libres, y en el feto se puede acompañar de manifestaciones patológicas, con riesgo para su calidad de vida futura, e incluso su viabilidad. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en describir aspectos morfométricos e histológicos de las vellosidades coriales libres en gestas normales, con diabetes e hipertensión arterial. Se utilizaron 30 placentas humanas y fueron separadas, según presencia o ausencia de patologías en el embarazo, en tres grupos: Normal (N), Síndrome Hipertensivo del Embarazo (SHE), Diabetes (D) y Restricción del Crecimiento Intrauterino (RCIU). Se usó ficha para registrar peso placentario y del recién nacido Todas las muestras fueron fijadas en formalina tamponada al 10 %. De cada una fueron extraídas 5 muestras, obteniendo 25 cortes por cada placenta. Posteriormente, fueron teñidas con H&E, Azul Alcián y Tricrómico de Masson. Además, se efectuó el análisis histológico y morfométrico (ImageJ®) de las vellosidades coriales. El análisis estadístico fue realizado utilizando ANOVA. Entre los cambios morfológicos, se encontró una relación peso placentario/peso del recién nacido aumentada en la Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional asociada a cambios histológicos. No hubo cambios morfométricos significativos entre placentas N, SHE y D. Hubo un aumento en el número de vasos coriales en placentas del grupo D (P < 0,05) y de la superficie entre las vellosidades coriales. En el grupo SHE hubo aumento moderado de nudos sinciciales y presencia de fibrina en el estroma. Las placentas con Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional experimentan alteraciones histológicas, como consecuencia de cambios estructurales y funcionales. Además, el aumento de vasos sanguíneos en placentas con diabetes se produce por neoformación vascular y mayor penetración de vasos sanguíneos dentro de las vellosidades. En el caso del SHE las alteraciones placentarias se relacionan con la gravedad de la enfermedad.

Gestational pathologies such as hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus and restriction of intrauterine growth can determine changes in the macro and microscopic morphological characteristics of the placenta and its free chorionic villi. In the fetus it can be accompanied by pathological manifestations with risk to its viability and future quality of life. The aim of this work was to describe morphometric and histological aspects of free chorionic villi in normal pregnancies associated with diabetes, hypertension and restriction of intrauterine growth. Thirty human placentas were used and were separated into three groups: Normal (N), Hypertensive Pregnancy Syndrome (SHE), Diabetes (D), and Restriction of Intrauterine Growth (RIG) according to evident pathologies or absence thereof during pregnancy. Tab was used to record placental and newborn weight. All samples were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin. From each, 5 samples were extracted, obtaining 25 cuts for each placenta. Subsequently, they were stained with H & E, Alcian Blue and Masson's Trichrome. In addition, histological and morphometric analysis (ImageJ®) of the chorion villus was carried out. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Among the morphological changes, an increased placental weight / weight ratio of the newborn was found in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus associated with histological changes. There were no significant morphometric changes between placentas N, SHE and D. There was an increase in the number of corial vessels in placentas of group D (P <0.05) and of the surface between the chorion villi. In the SHE group there was a moderate increase in syncytial nodes and presence of fibrin in the stroma. Placentas with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus experience histological alterations, as a consequence of structural and functional changes. In addition, the increase of blood vessels in placentas D is produced by vascular neoformation and increased penetration of blood vessels into the villi. In the case of SHE, placental alterations are related to the severity of the disease.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Chorionic Villi/pathology , Diabetes, Gestational/pathology , Fetal Growth Retardation/pathology , Hypertension/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 687-692, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954172


Evidence from the literature shows that well-controlled glucose levels during pregnancy are usually associated with normal placental morphology. The aim of this study was to identify the lacental changes attributed to maternal hyperglycemia. A total of 20 placentae were selected for study from a tertiary care medical center in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Out of 20, 10 placentae were from patients diagnosed with GDM based on IADSPG criteria, and 10 placentae were from patients with normal pregnancies without GDM. The morphometric measurements were recorded. The mean weight of GDM placentae were more than the normal placentae. Upon histopathology, significant changes such as syncytial knots, cytotrophoblastic cell proliferation, fibrinoid necrosis, stromal fibrosis, and hyalinized villi were observed in GDM placentae. GDM produces significant morphological alterations in the placentae, which might affect the developing fetus.

La evidencia de la literatura muestra que niveles de glucosa bien controlados durante el embarazo generalmente se asocian con una morfología placentaria normal. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar los cambios placentarios atribuidos a la hiperglucemia materna. Un total de 20 placentas fueron seleccionadas para un estudio en un centro médico de atención terciaria en la ciudad de La Meca, Arabia Saudita. De 20 placentas, 10 de estas fueron de pacientes diagnosticadas con diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) según los criterios de IADSPG, y 10 placentas fueron de pacientes con embarazos normales sin DMG. Las mediciones morfométricas fueron registradas. El peso medio de las placentas GDM fue mayor que la placenta normal. Tras la histopatología, se observaron cambios significativos tales como nudos sincitiales, proliferación celular citotrofoblástica, necrosis fibrinoide, fibrosis estromal y vellosidades hialinizadas en placenta con DMG. La DMG produce alteraciones morfológicas significativas en las placentas, que pueden afectar al desarrollo del feto.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Placenta/pathology , Diabetes, Gestational/pathology , Organ Size , Trophoblasts/pathology , Chorionic Villi/pathology
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 109-112, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893196


SUMMARY: Severe preeclampsia (HELLP syndrome) is a life-threatening pregnancy complication, usually a severe form of preeclampsia. In this study, we aimed to examine histopathologic changes and Endothelin-1 and KI-67 expression levels by immunohistochemical methods in severe preeclamptic placentas. Severe preeclampsia and obstetric characteristics and biochemical and hematological characteristics of healthy subjects were compared. Placenta sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological examination. In the histopathological examination of severe preeclamptic placenta, degeneration in synaptic and cytotrophoblastic cells, increase in insidious knots, fibrinoid necrosis, degeneration in endothelial cells, calcification and hyaline villous stains were observed. In the severe preeclampsia group, Ki-67 expression increased in decidua cells and inflammatory cells, while endothelial cells in the vessel wall and inflammatory cells in the villus and intervillous spaces increased. It is thought that angiogenetic and cellular proliferation is induced in a co-ordinated manner and significantly influences fetal development.

RESUMEN: La preeclampsia severa (síndrome de HELLP) es una complicación del embarazo potencialmente mortal, generalmente una forma grave de preeclampsia. En este estudio, nuestro objetivo fue examinar los cambios histopatológicos y los niveles de expresión de Endotelina-1 y Ki-67 mediante métodos inmunohistoquímicos en placentas preeclámpsicas graves. Se compararon la preeclampsia grave y las características obstétricas, además de las características bioquímicas y hematológicas de pacientes sanas. Las secciones de placenta se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina para examen histopatológico. En el examen histopatológico de placenta preeclampsia severa, se observó la degeneración en células sinápticas y citotrofoblásticas, un aumento de nudos insidiosos, necrosis fibrinoide, degeneración en las células endoteliales,calcificación y manchas vellosas hialinas. En el grupo de preeclampsia grave, la expresión de Ki-67 aumentó en células deciduas y células inflamatorias, mientras que las células endoteliales en la pared del vaso, y las células inflamatorias en las vellosidades y los espacios intervellosos aumentaron. Se cree que la proliferación angiogenética y celular se induce de forma coordinada y que influye significativamente en el desarrollo fetal.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Endothelin-1/metabolism , HELLP Syndrome/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Placenta/pathology , HELLP Syndrome/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Pre-Eclampsia/pathology
Clinics ; 72(5): 265-271, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840074


OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the placental weight and birth weight/placental weight ratio for intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of placentas from twin pregnancies. Placental weight and the birth weight/placental weight ratio were compared in intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins. The association between cord insertion type and placental lesions in intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins was also investigated. RESULTS: A total of 105 monochorionic (intrauterine growth restriction=40; non-intrauterine growth restriction=65) and 219 dichorionic (intrauterine growth restriction=57; non-intrauterine growth restriction=162) placentas were analyzed. A significantly lower placental weight was observed in intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic (p=0.022) and dichorionic (p<0.001) twins compared to non-intrauterine growth-restricted twins. There was no difference in the birth weight/placental weight ratio between the intrauterine growth restriction and non-intrauterine growth restriction groups for either monochorionic (p=0.36) or dichorionic (p=0.68) twins. Placental weight and the birth weight/placental weight ratio were not associated with cord insertion type or with placental lesions. CONCLUSION: Low placental weight, and consequently reduced functional mass, appears to be involved in fetal growth restriction in monochorionic and dichorionic twins. The mechanism by which low placental weight influences the birth weight/placental weight ratio in intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins needs to be determined in larger prospective studies.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Birth Weight/physiology , Chorion/physiology , Fetal Development/physiology , Fetal Growth Retardation/physiopathology , Placenta/anatomy & histology , Pregnancy, Twin/physiology , Gestational Age , Organ Size , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/physiopathology , Reference Values , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Twins, Dizygotic , Twins, Monozygotic
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 105-113, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-840940


El objetivo del estudio fue comparar el índice de madurez placentaria y las alteraciones histopatológicas en placentas de recién nacidos/óbitos con y sin defecto congénito (DC). Se realizó un estudio tipo casos y controles. Se incluyeron n=25 casos yn=50 controles sin DC. Los casos se clasificaron de acuerdo a la presencia de DC aislado (n=17) omúltiple (n=8). Se incluyeron recién nacidos/óbitos (RN) con una edad gestacional (EG) > 20 semanas. Se excluyeron embarazos gemelares. Se recolectó información sobre las características clínicas del producto y de la madre, antropometría del RN y su evaluación de APGAR. Se examinó la placenta, macroscópica y microscópicamente, para determinar la presencia y extensión de alteraciones histopatológicas. Se determinó el índice de madurez placentaria (IMP), calculado dividiendo el número de membranas vásculo sinciciales en 1 mm2 entre el grosor de las mismas (µ). El IMP (media ±DE) fue de 27.77±14 en el grupo de controles, 30.31±12 en el grupo de casos aislados y 16.76± 1 en el grupo de DC múltiple (p<0.05).El resto de las variables evaluadas no mostraron diferencias significativas entre grupos. En conclusión este trabajo muestra una menor madurez placentaria asociada con la presencia de DC múltiple.

The objective of the study was to compare the placental maturity index (PMI) and pathohistological alterations of placentas from newborn/stillborns (NB) with or without congenital defects (CD). A case control study was carried out. N=25 CD cases and n=50 controls without CD were included. Cases were classified according to the presence of simple (n=17) or multiple (n=8) CD. Newborn/stillborns with gestational age >20 weeks were included. Twin pregnancies were excluded. We collected information on clinical characteristics of the NB and the mother, NB anthropometry and APGAR score. The placenta was macro and microscopically examined to determine the presence and extension of histological alterations. The PMI was obtained by dividing the number of vasculo-syncytial membranes in 1 mm2, by their thickness (µ). The PMI (Mean ± SD) was 27.77 ± 14 in the control group, 30.31 ± 12 in the group diagnosed with simple CD, and 16.76 ± 1 in the group diagnosed with multiple CD (p<0.05. The rest of the assessed variables did not show significant difference between groups. In conclusion, this work shows a lower placental maturity associated with the presence of multiple CD.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Congenital Abnormalities/epidemiology , Placenta/pathology , Case-Control Studies
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(7): 687-690, Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829523


Summary Introduction: Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy is a recently described placental alteration with varying degrees of involvement and often associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. The diagnosis is made histologically and therefore is postnatal, which makes it a challenge in clinical practice. Method: Case report and review of literature on the subject. Results: The present case refers to a pregnant woman presenting fetal growth restriction, with poor obstetrical past, and sent late to our service. Even with weekly assessments of fetal vitality (fetal biophysical profile and Doppler velocimetry) and prenatal care, the patient progressed with fetal death at 36 weeks and 1 day. There was no association with inherited and acquired thrombophilia. Pathological examination of the placenta revealed fetal thrombotic vasculopathy. Conclusion: The fetal thrombotic vasculopathy may be associated with adverse perinatal outcomes including fetal death, but much remains to be studied regarding its pathogenesis. Diagnosis during pregnancy is not possible and there is still no proven treatment for this condition. Future studies are needed so that strategies can be developed to minimize the impact of fetal thrombotic vasculopathy.

Resumo Introdução: a vasculopatia trombótica fetal é uma alteração placentária recentemente descrita, com espectro variado de acometimento e, muitas vezes, associada a resultado perinatal adverso. Trata-se de diagnóstico histopatológico e, portanto, pós-natal, o que a torna um desafio para a prática clínica. Método: apresentação de um relato de caso e revisão da literatura. Resultados: o caso apresentado é de uma gestante com restrição do crescimento fetal, encaminhada tardiamente ao serviço, com histórico obstétrico ruim. Apesar da avaliação semanal da vitalidade fetal (perfil biofísico fetal e dopplervelocimetria) e dos cuidados pré-natais, o caso evoluiu a óbito fetal com 36 semanas e 1 dia. Não houve associação com trombofilias hereditárias e adquiridas. O anatomopatológico da placenta revelou vasculopatia trombótica fetal. Conclusão: sabe-se que a vasculopatia trombótica fetal pode estar associada a resultado perinatal adverso, incluindo óbito fetal. Ainda há muito a ser estudado acerca de sua etiopatogenia. Não é possível o diagnóstico durante a gestação e não existe ainda qualquer tratamento comprovado para essa condição. Estudos futuros são necessários para que estratégias que minimizem o impacto da vasculopatia trombótica fetal sejam desenvolvidas.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Placenta/blood supply , Placenta/pathology , Gestational Age , Fetal Growth Retardation/pathology , Perinatal Death
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 14(3): 317-323, July-Sept. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796963


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the frequency and risk factors of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a high-risk maternity. Methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional, and case-control study, conducted in a public tertiary care maternity hospital. Data from 998 newborns and their mothers were collected through interviews and review of medical records and prenatal care cards. Some placentas underwent histopathological analysis. The variables of small-for-gestational-age and non-small-for-gestational-age newborns and of their mothers were statistically compared by means of Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio. The significance level used was 0.050. Results: There was a 17.9% frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns. The statistically significant factors associated with the birth of these babies were female sex (p=0.012); positive history of another small-for-gestational-age child (p=0.006); inadequate prenatal care (p=0.019); smoking (p=0.003); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (p=0.007); placental bleeding (p=0.009) and infarction (p=0.001). Conclusion: In the population studied, the frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns was high and associated with sex, inappropriate prenatal care, presence of maternal diseases and addictions, and placental abnormalities.

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a frequência e os fatores de risco de recém-nascidos pequenos para idade gestacional em uma maternidade de alto risco. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo observacional, transversal e caso-controle, realizado em maternidade pública de nível terciário. Foram levantados dados de 998 recém-nascidos e de suas respectivas mães por meio de entrevista e análise de prontuários e de cartões do pré-natal. Algumas placentas foram submetidas à análise anatomopatológica. As variáveis dos recém-nascidos pequenos e não pequenos para idade gestacional e de suas respectivas mães foram comparadas estatisticamente pelo teste paramétrico t de Student, pelo teste exato de Fisher e por odds ratio. O nível de significância adotado foi de 0,050. Resultados: A frequência de recém-nascidos pequenos para idade gestacional foi de 17,9%. Os fatores com significado estatístico associados ao nascimento desses bebês foram sexo feminino (p=0,012); história positiva para filho anterior pequeno para idade gestacional (p=0,006); realização de pré-natal inadequado (p=0,019); tabagismo (p=0,003); doença hipertensiva específica da gestação (p=0,007); hemorragia (p=0,009) e infarto (p=0,001) placentários. Conclusão: Na população estudada, a frequência de recém-nascidos pequenos para idade gestacional foi elevada e relacionada ao sexo, à inadequação do pré-natal, à presença de doenças e vícios maternos e às alterações placentárias.

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Hospitals, Maternity/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Placenta/pathology , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Smoking/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Gestational Age , Pregnancy, High-Risk
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163461


The dimension of delivered placentae mirrors the cumulative growth of the placenta from conception to parturition. Placental weight is the gross summary of fetal growth under the influence of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Hence, the present study evaluated the influence of gestation, sex of the newborn, and parity on feto-placental ratio. The study was conducted on 391 placentae of singleton newborn from a teaching hospital of North Karnataka, India. Data was collected from August 2012 to January 2013 by using standard operating procedures. The Mean and standard deviations of placental morphometry, weight and birth weight are 440 ± 100gm and 2700±500 gm respectively. In gestational age 28 to 32 weeks, the feto-placental ratio was 5.61:1; this increased consistently up to 6.19:1 with increasing gestation group 37 weeks and above. Feto-placental ratio increased with increasing groups of gestational age. Feto-placental ratio in <37 weeks of gestation was in favor of primipara (6.0:1) whereas, the similar figures in term babies was more in multipara (6.3:1). The paritywise feto-placental ratio direction changed from preterm to term babies, but the differences were not statistically significant. However, irrespective of gestation, multipara had higher feto-placental ratio (6.2:1) as compared to primipara (6.1:1). However, irrespective of gestation, males had higher feto-placental ratio (6.2:1) as compared to females (6.1:1). Feto-placental ratio is influenced by variates of pregnancy like gestation, sex of the newborn and parity. Hence, variations in any of these factors lead to adverse pregnancy outcome by deviation of feto-placental ratio.

Female , Fetal Weight/etiology , Gestational Age , Humans , Male , Placenta/anatomy & histology , Placenta/growth & development , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(7): 583-587, 07/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751347


We report the case of a father and son diagnosed with atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). Both patients harbored SETBP1 mutations, which are present in 24.3% of aCML patients. Moreover, both shared the variant encoding p.Pro737His, but the aCML severity was greater in the son because of the presence of two other missense mutations causing p.Asp868Asn and p.Ser885Arg alterations. SETBP1 mutations may be associated with an adverse prognosis, so their detection would help in the diagnosis of aCML and the determination of a patient's prognosis.

Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Chromosome Aberrations/statistics & numerical data , Embryo Culture Techniques , Genomic Imprinting , Placenta Diseases/genetics , Placenta/metabolism , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/adverse effects , Blastocyst/cytology , Chromosome Aberrations/embryology , Embryo, Mammalian , Epigenesis, Genetic , Embryo Culture Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/statistics & numerical data , Stochastic Processes
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184033


Conflicting results on the influences of histologic chorioamnionitis (HC) on neonatal morbidities might be partly originated from using different definition of HC. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between HC and neonatal morbidities using definition of HC that reflects the site and extent of inflammation. This was a retrospective cohort study of 261 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants admitted at a tertiary academic center. Based on the site of inflammation, HC was categorized: any HC; amnionitis; funisitis; amnionitis+funisitis. The extent of inflammation in each site was reflected by sub-defining high grade (HG). The incidences of morbidities in infants with and without HC were compared. The bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) rate was significantly higher in infants with amnionitis and the severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) rate was significantly higher in infants with any HC and funisitis. After adjustment for both gestational age and birth weight, the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) rate was significantly lower in infants with all categories of HC except for HG amnionitis and HG funisitis, which are not associated with lower RDS rate. HG amnionitis was significantly associated with increased BPD rate but the association of HC with severe ROP disappeared. In conclusion, HC is significantly associated with decreased RDS and HG amnionitis with increased BPD while lacking association with other neonatal morbidities in VLBW infants. The association with HC and neonatal morbidities differs by the site and extent of chorioamnionitis.

Adult , Birth Weight , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/complications , Chorioamnionitis/classification , Cohort Studies , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Neutrophil Infiltration/immunology , Placenta/pathology , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/complications , Retinopathy of Prematurity/complications , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
Int. j. morphol ; 32(2): 426-431, jun. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714286


Diazepam (DZ) is a benzodiazepine that belongs to the group of minor tranquilizers with myo-relaxing and anticonvulsant properties. DZ and its metabolites cross the placental barrier in human, monkey, hamster, and mouse, and accumulate in the placenta. Our aim was to investigate, through histological techniques, and semifine sections if DZ induces morphological changes in the placenta. Twenty female mice of the ICR strain were distributed randomly in two groups. One group (DZ) was treated from days 6 to 17 of gestation with a single daily subcutaneous (sc) dose of DZ of 2.7 mg/kg/ (bw); the second, control group (C) was treated with saline solution. All females (10 DZ and 10 C) were killed by decapitation. Placentas were extracted and fixed in phosphates-buffered 10% formaldehyde, pH 7.3, dehydrated, and embedded in paraffin to obtain 3 µm thick sections or fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde, post-fixed in 1% OsO4, embedded in epoxy resin. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or Weigert´s iron hematoxylin. Semifine sections were stained with toluidine blue. All sections were observed under comparative light microscopy. The DZ-group showed thinned placental barrier with multiple vacuoles. Nuclei of trophoblast cells (TCs) and trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) presented heterochromatin in coarse granules, atypically distributed in the karyolymph and conspicuous nucleoli. The cytoplasm of the TGCs was vacuolated and chromatin had a similar appearance to that observed in TCs. The total area of the placental barrier was measured in µm2/µm2; the area in the DZ group was reduced as compared with the C group (P<0.001). Alterations of TGCs could be due to an interaction of DZ with peripheral type benzodiazepine receptors involved in progesterone biosynthesis. Administration of DZ in mice alters the placental barrier and TGCs which could affect their physiology and causes teratogenic effects on the ovary and testis involved in steroid hormones biosynthesis.

El diazepam (DZ) es una benzodiazepina que forma parte de los tranquilizantes menores con propiedades miorrelajantes y anticonvulsivantes. El DZ y sus metabolitos atraviesan la barrera placentaria en el humano, mono, hámster y ratón, y se acumula en ésta. Nuestro propósito fue investigar a través de técnicas histológicas y en cortes semifinos si el DZ induce cambios morfológicos en la placenta de ratón. Hembras de ratón de la cepa ICR se distribuyeron al azar en dos grupos. Un grupo (DZ) fue tratado del día 6 al 17 de la gestación con dosis únicas diarias subcutáneas (sc) de DZ de 2.7 mg/kg (pc); el segundo grupo control (C) se trató con solución salina. Todas las hembras (10 DZ y 10 C), se sacrificaron por decapitación. Se extrajeron las placentas y se fijaron en formaldehido al 10% amortiguado con fosfatos pH 7.3, se deshidrataron y se incluyeron en parafina para obtener cortes de 3 µm, o se fijaron en glutaraldehido al 2.5%, se posfijaron en OsO4 al 1% y se embebieron en resina epóxica. Los cortes histológicos se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina o con hematoxilina férrica de Weigert. Los cortes semifinos se tiñeron con azul de toluidina. Todos los cortes se observaron en un microscopio óptico de comparación. El grupo DZ presentó en la barrera placentaria múltiples vacuolas. Los núcleos de las células del trofoblasto y las células trofoblásticas gigantes (TGCs) presentaron heterocromatina en grumos gruesos, distribuidos atípicamente en la cariolinfa y nucléolos conspicuos. El citoplasma de las TGCs estaba vacuolizado y la cromatina tenía una apariencia similar a la observada en las células trofoblásticas. El área total de la barrera placentaria se midió en µm2/mm2; el área en el grupo DZ era reducida en comparación del grupo C (P<0.001). Las alteraciones de las células trofoblásticas y de las TGCs podrían deberse a la interacción del DZ con los receptores benzodiazepínicos de tipo periférico involucrados en la biosíntesis de progesterona. La administración de DZ en el ratón altera la barrera placentaria y las TGCs que podrían afectar su fisiología y causar efectos teratogénicos en el ovario y el testículo involucrados en la biosíntesis de las hormonas esteroides.

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Mice , Placenta/drug effects , Diazepam/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Muscle Relaxants, Central/toxicity , Placenta/pathology , Trophoblasts/drug effects , Mice, Inbred ICR
Clin. biomed. res ; 34(2): 84-86, 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-997734


Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental abnormality. We report a case of PMD associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), which was diagnosed by an ultrasound scan during the second trimester of pregnancy. A 36-year-old primiparous woman with signs of placental chorioangioma was referred to our hospital at the 23th gestational week. An ultrasonography revealed a small-for-gestational-age fetus with a large multicystic placenta. A serial Doppler sonographic assessment of umbilical and uterine artery blood flow showed a compromised fetus. A female, small-for-gestational-age baby was delivered by c-section at 28 weeks, and PMD was histopathologically confirmed

Humans , Female , Adult , Placenta Diseases/diagnosis , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Fetal Growth Retardation , Placenta/pathology , Prenatal Care , Diagnosis, Differential , Fetal Growth Retardation/etiology
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 79(4): 311-314, 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-724832


La displasia mesenquimal placentaria es una entidad poco conocida, de etiología incierta y subdiagnosticada. Frecuentemente, es confundida con enfermedad trofoblástica gestacional debido a que se presenta con hallazgos ultrasonográficos caracterizados por una placenta engrosada, con quistes e imágenes hipoecogénicas y niveles de gonadotrofina coriónica humana normales o levemente aumentados. El feto es frecuentemente viable y puede manifestar retraso del crecimiento intrauterino, prematurez o asociarse al síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann. Se presenta el caso de una mujer joven con un parto pretérmino con placentomegalia, sospecha de mola hidatidiforme parcial y un recién nacido pequeño para la edad gestacional.

The placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a not well known entity, with an uncertain etiology and under diagnosed. It is frequently confused with gestational trophoblastic disease because of its ultrasonographic features of a thick placenta, cysts and hypoechogenic images, with normal or slightly increased levels of human chorionic gonadotrophic hormone. The fetus is often viable and can manifest intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity or be associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. We present a case report of a young woman with a preterm delivery, placentomegaly, suspicious of a partial hydatidiform mole and a low growth newborn.

Humans , Adult , Placenta Diseases/diagnosis , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Mesoderm/pathology , Hydatidiform Mole/diagnosis , Placenta/pathology
Int. j. morphol ; 31(4): 1210-1215, Dec. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-702295


A toxic metal, cadmium (Cd), can accumulate in human organs. Placenta is usually used as indicator organ for Cd exposure. Therefore, we aim to investigate the different of placental morphology between the low- and high-Cd accumulated placentas. The samples were collected from 14 pregnant women who resided in low-Cd contaminated (L-Cd group) and high-Cd contaminated (H-Cd group) areas. The concentrations of Cd in blood (B-Cd), urine (U-Cd) and placentas (P-Cd) were measured by ICP-MS and AAS. The morphological appearance of placentas was examined by using routine paraffin section and H & E staining. The results showed that levels of B-Cd, U-Cd and P-Cd were significantly higher in H-Cd group than in L-Cd group (p= 0.001). Moreover, the B-Cd was positively correlated with U-Cd (rs= 0.823, p= 0.000) and P-Cd concentrations (rs= 0.854, p= 0.000). The appearances of syncytial knot (STK) and fibrinoid deposit (Fd) were obviously greater in H-Cd group than in L-Cd group (p= 0.007, p= 0.026). The STK was positively correlated with both Fd (rs= 0.572, p= 0.032) and P-Cd concentration (rs= 0.766, p= 0.001). Although the chorioamnitis and decidual inflammation features were found in both groups but the appearance in H-Cd group seems to be more severe than in L-Cd group. From these results, we suggested that high Cd level in placenta may be involved in morphological changes, especially STK and Fd increasing and probably disturb the connection between maternal and fetal circulation.

Un metal tóxico, el cadmio (Cd), se puede acumular en órganos humanos. La placenta se utiliza, por lo general, como órgano indicador de la exposición a Cd. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar la diferente morfología placentaria entre las placentas con baja y alta acumulación de Cd. Las muestras fueron recolectadas de 14 mujeres embarazadas que residían áreas con alta (grupo H-Cd) y baja contaminación por Cd (grupo L-Cd). Las concentraciones de Cd en la sangre (B- Cd), orina (U-Cd) y placentas (P-Cd) se midieron por ICP-MS y AAS. La apariencia morfológica de las placentas fue examinada usando cortes histológicos teñidos con H-E. Los resultados mostraron que los niveles de B-Cd, U-Cd y P-Cd fueron significativamente mayores en el grupo H-Cd (p= 0,001). Por otra parte, el B-Cd se correlacionó positivamente con las concentraciones de U-Cd (rs= 0,854, p = 0,000 ) y P-Cd (rs= 0,823, p = 0,000). Las apariciones de nodos sinciciales (NS) y depósitos fibrinoides (Fd) fueron mayores en el grupo H-Cd (rs= 0,007, p= 0,026). Los ND se correlacionaron positivamente con los Fd (rs= 0,572, p= 0,032) y la concentración de P-Cd (rs= 0,766, p = 0,001). Aunque características de corioamnitis e inflamación de la decidua se encontraron en ambos grupos, su aparición en el grupo H-Cd pareció ser más grave que en el grupo L-Cd. A partir de estos resultados, sugerimos que el nivel alto de Cd en la placenta puede estar involucrado en los cambios morfológicos, especialmente el aumento de NS y Fd, los que probablemente alteran la relación entre la circulación materna y fetal.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cadmium/analysis , Cadmium/toxicity , Fibrin , Placenta/pathology
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 35(9): 407-412, set. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-690692


PURPOSE: In placentas from uncomplicated pregnancies, Hofbauer cells either disappear or become scanty after the fourth to fifth month of gestation. Immunohistochemistry though, reveals that a high percentage of stromal cells belong to Hofbauer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in morphology and density of Hofbauer cells in placentas from normal and pathological pregnancies. METHODS: Seventy placentas were examined: 16 specimens from normal term pregnancies, 10 from first trimester's miscarriages, 26 from cases diagnosed with chromosomal abnormality of the fetus, and placental tissue specimens complicated with intrauterine growth restriction (eight) or gestational diabetes mellitus (10). A histological study of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) sections was performed and immunohistochemical study was performed using the markers: CD 68, Lysozyme, A1 Antichymotrypsine, CK-7, vimentin, and Ki-67. RESULTS: In normal term pregnancies, HE study revealed Hofbauer cells in 37.5% of cases while immunohistochemistry revealed in 87.5% of cases. In first trimester's miscarriages and in cases with prenatal diagnosis of fetal chromosomal abnormalities, both basic and immunohistochemical study were positive for Hofbauer cells. In pregnancies complicated with intrauterine growth restriction or gestational diabetes mellitus, a positive immunoreaction was observed in 100 and 70% of cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Hofbauer cells are present in placental villi during pregnancy, but with progressively reducing density. The most specific marker for their detection seems to be A1 Antichymotrypsine. It is remarkable that no mitotic activity of Hofbauer cells was noticed in our study, as the marker of cellular multiplication Ki-67 was negative in all examined specimens.

OBJETIVO: Em placentas de gestações sem complicações, as células de Hofbauer desaparecem ou se tornam raras após o quarto ou quinto mês de gestação. Entretanto, a imunohistoquímica revela que uma alta porcentagem de células estromais pertencem às células de Hofbauer. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar as alterações da morfologia e densidade das células de Hofbauer em placentas de gestações normais e patológicas. MÉTODOS: Foram examinadas 70 placentas: 16 provenientes de gestações normais a termo, 10 de abortos espontâneos no primeiro trimestre, 26 de casos diagnosticados como anormalidade cromossômica do feto, e amostras de tecido placentário com complicações causadas pela restrição de crescimento intrauterino (8) ou pelo diabetes mellitus gestacional (10). Cortes corados com hematoxilina-eosina (HE) foram submetidos a estudo histológico e imunohistoquímico utilizando-se os seguintes marcadores: CD 68, lisozima, antiquimotripsina A1, CK-7, vimentina, e Ki-67. RESULTADOS: Em gestações normais a termo, o estudo HE revelou células de Hofbauer em 37,5% dos casos, enquanto a imunohistoquímica as revelou em 87,5% dos casos. Em abortos do primeiro trimestre e em casos de diagnóstico prenatal de anormalidades cromossômicas fetais, tanto o estudo básico como o estudo imunohistoquímico foram positivos para células de Hofbauer. Em gestações complicadas pela restrição de crescimento intrauterino ou pelo diabetes mellitus gestacional, imunoreação positiva foi observada respectivamente em 100 e 70% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: As células de Hofbauer estão presentes nos vilos placentários durante a gestação, embora com densidade progressivamente reduzida. O marcador mais específico para sua detecção parece ser a antiquimotripsina A1. Vale salientar que atividade mitótica de células de Hofbauer não foi detectada em nosso estudo, uma vez que o marcador de multiplicação celular Ki-67 foi negativo em todas as amostras examinadas.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Placenta/cytology , Pregnancy Complications/pathology , Chorionic Villi/pathology , Placenta/pathology