Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 332
Filter
1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935238

ABSTRACT

The risk of plague epidemics and relapse of various types of plague foci persists in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. For Marmota sibirica plague foci, the animal plague has not been found but antibody has been detected positive. Nowadays, Marmota sibirica has been increasing in population and distribution in China. In bordering countries Mongolia and Russia, the animal plague has been continuously prevalent. For Spermophilus dauricus plague foci, the animal plague has been taken place now and then. Compared to the above foci, the animal plague is most prevalent in Meriones unguiculatus plague foci and frequently spread to humans. Due to higher strain virulence and historical disaster in Marmota sibirica plague foci and Spermophilus dauricus plague foci, plague prevention and control should be strengthened on these foci. In addition to routine surveillance, epidemic dynamics need to be further monitored in these two foci, in order to prevent their relapse and spread to humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , China/epidemiology , Epidemics , Humans , Plague/prevention & control , Prevalence , Sciuridae , Yersinia pestis
2.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogota) ; 19(Especial de pandemias): 1-23, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367479

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la epidemia de covid-19 ha dejado en evidencia una serie de problemas de desigualdad en el acceso a la salud pública en Perú, especialmente en las provincias alejadas de la capital, donde se observa precariedad tanto en infraestructura como en personal sanitario. Este artículo analiza cómo el Gobierno y la población han hecho frente a epidemias en el sur de Perú, usando como casos de estudio el covid-19 y la peste bubónica ocurrida en 1903 y 1905, con el fin de entender continuidades en el manejo de la crisis epidémica y su respuesta a ellas. Desarrollo: se estudia la epidemia de la peste bubónica en las ciudades de Arequipa y Mollendo en 1903 y 1905 y el covid-19, con un enfoque en el funcionamiento del sistema de salud local y nacional, en la infraestructura sanitaria disponible para enfrentar epidemias y, finalmente, en las respuestas sociales de la población respecto al escepticismo de las medidas impuestas por las autoridades y al incremento de la automedicación. Conclusiones: la epidemia del covid-19 en el sur de Perú presenta importantes similitudes con la epidemia de peste bubónica que afectó a la región a inicios del siglo xx: desorden de responsabilidades, falta de previsión para hacer frente a enfermedades epidémicas, infraestructura precaria y una población con alto grado de desconfianza frente a las recomendaciones de las autoridades civiles y sanitarias


Introduction: The covid-19 epidemic has revealed a series of inequality problems in the access to public health services in Peru, especially in provinces far from the capital where precariousness in both infra-structure and sanitary personnel is observed. In this study, we analyzed how the population and author-ities in southern Peru faced epidemics, using covid-19 epidemic and bubonic plague in 1903 and 1905 as case studies to understand continuities in the management of epidemic crises and social response to them. Development: We studied the bubonic plague epidemic in the cities of Arequipa and Mollendo in 1903 and 1905 as well as the covid-19 epidemic, focusing on the functioning of local and national health systems, health infrastructure available to face epidemics, and finally, the social response of the population, paying particular attention to the skepticism of the population toward measures imposed by the authorities and increase in self-medication. Conclusions: The covid-19 epidemic in southern Peru pres-ents important similarities with the bubonic plague epidemic that affected the region at the beginning of the 20th century, including a disorder of responsibilities, lack of foresight to face epidemic diseases, insufficient infrastructure, and a population with a high degree of distrust in the recommendations given by the civil and health authorities


Introdução: a epidemia de covid-19 expôs uma série de problemas de desigualdade no acesso à saúde pública no Peru, especialmente nas províncias distantes da capital onde há precariedade tanto de infraestrutura quanto de pessoal de saúde. Este artigo analisa como o governo e a população têm enfren-tado epidemias no sul do Peru, utilizando o covid-19 e a peste bubônica ocorrida em 1903 e 1905 como estudos de caso, a fim de compreender as continuidades na gestão da crise epidêmica e suas respostas. Desenvolvimento: são estudadas as epidemias de peste bubônica nas cidades de Arequipa e Mollendo em 1903 e 1905 e a covid-19, enfocando no funcionamento do sistema de saúde local e nacional, a infraes-trutura de saúde disponível para enfrentar as epidemias e, por fim, as respostas da população, com particular atenção para o ceticismo em relação às medidas impostas pelas autoridades e ao aumento da automedicação. Conclusões: a epidemia de covid-19 no sul do Peru apresenta semelhanças importantes com a epidemia de peste bubônica que afetou a região no início do século XX: desordem de responsabili-dades, falta de previsão para enfrentar as doenças epidêmicas, infraestrutura precária e uma população com alto grau de desconfiança em relação às recomendações das autoridades civis e sanitárias


Subject(s)
Humans , Epidemics , Peru , Plague , Health Infrastructure , Health Systems , Public Health , Health Personnel
3.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(2): 159-165, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281118

ABSTRACT

La sistematización de una historia de vida requiere una rigurosa selección de la información proveniente de diversas fuentes. Este breve estudio cualitativo utiliza el método biográfico y su objetivo es describir la figura de Bartolomé Coronel, considerado uno de los primeros médicos de niños y su aporte a la sociedad asuncena de principios del siglo XX, fallecido en plena pandemia de la peste Bubónica, en 1911. Se toman diversas fuentes desde la semblanza realizada por la insigne educadora Celsa Speratti de Garcete, cartas familiares, datos de su biografía aportados por un familiar cercano, discursos alusivos al sujeto de estudio y otros textos que permiten elaborar una mirada colectiva hacia el mismo. En conclusión, el contexto actual de Covid19 y el de la peste Bubónica presenta el mismo riesgo y escasas medidas de bioseguridad a pesar del avance de la ciencia y la medicina en nuestros días. La figura del Dr. Bartolomé Coronel presenta una riqueza de matices y merece ser rescatado con la memoria del olvido.


Life story systematization requires a rigorous selection of information from various sources. This brief qualitative study uses the biographical method and its objective is to describe the figure of Bartolomé Coronel. Considered one of the first children doctors and his contribution to Asuncion society at the beginning of the 20th century, who died in the Bubonic plague pandemic, in 1911. Various sources are taken: from the profile made by the distinguished educator Celsa Speratti de Garcete, family letters, details of her biography provided by a familiar, speeches allusive to the subject of study and other texts that allow a collective view of him. In conclusion, the current context of Covid19 and the Bubonic plague in the past present the same risk and scarce biosecurity measures taked despite the advancement of science and medicine in our days. The figure of Dr. Bartolomé Coronel presents a wealth of nuances and deserves to be rescued with the memory of oblivion.


Subject(s)
Plague , Containment of Biohazards , Fixation, Ocular , Methods
4.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(5): e3687, sept.-oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149960

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las epidemias han puesto en riesgo a nuestra especie desde la antigüedad al presente y seguramente continuarán desafiándonos en el futuro. Por ello resulta razonable hurgar en la historia de estas amenazas para encontrar las claves de su origen y desarrollo. Objetivo: Encontrar en las grandes epidemias del pasado las claves que ayuden a interpretarlas. Material y Métodos: Histórico-lógico con aplicación de criterios de pandemia a eventos documentados. Desarrollo: Se analizaron 10 pandemias bien documentadas siguiendo la secuencia histórica comenzando por la Peste de Atenas (430 aC) y terminando con la COVID 19. En siete de ellas se precisaron la enfermedad y el germen. En las tres restantes no hay certeza absoluta del germen. Entre los factores que facilitaron el contagio se encontraron: desastres, cambios de clima, guerras, vías comerciales, hacinamiento, hambruna y falta de higiene. Se hallaron antecedentes de las medidas de aislamiento, cuarentena e higiene cuyo no cumplimento tuvo experiencias fatales en el pasado. Todas las epidemias influyeron en cambios de la sociedad postepidemia. Conclusiones: El enfrentamiento racional a las epidemias conlleva a la integración de los conocimientos de la enfermedad y el contagio con otros factores. Es de utilidad el estudio del pasado para obtener antecedentes y experiencias de las medidas más eficaces y para evitar errores que se han reiterado(AU)


Introduction: Epidemics have placed our species at risk from ancient times to the present and will surely continue to challenge us in the future. Therefore, it is reasonable to look through the history of these threats to find the keys to their origin and development. Objective: To find the keys that help to interpret the major epidemics of the past. Method: Logical-historical method applying criteria related to pandemic to documented events. Development: A total of 10 well-documented pandemics were analyzed following the historical sequence, starting with the plague of Athens (430 BC) and ending with COVID-19. The disease and the germ were specified in seven of them. In the remaining three, there is no absolute certainty of the germ. The factors that facilitated the contagion included: disasters, climate changes, wars, trade routes, overcrowding, famine and lack of hygiene. Antecedents of isolation, quarantine and hygiene measures were found, whose non-compliance had fatal experiences in the past. All epidemics influenced on changes in post-epidemic society. Conclusions: Rational confrontation with epidemics encompasses the integration of knowledge of the disease and contagion with other factors. The study of the past is useful to obtain information about antecedents and experiences of the most effective measures and to avoid mistakes that have been repeated(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Plague , Quarantine/methods , Epidemics , Pandemics , History , Hygiene , Famine
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(4): 450-455, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138569

ABSTRACT

Resumen El Imperio Romano sufrió entre el siglo II y III dos grandes pestes, la Peste Antonina, de la cual existe bibliografía, y la Peste de Cipriano, que es menos conocida. Como una visión de conjunto, ambas pandemias se asemejan a la crisis que en el 2020 el coronavirus está generando en muchos aspectos de la vida humana. Este artículo se centra en el impacto que la peste de Cipriano tuvo en el contexto de la crisis del siglo III; su mortalidad se estima entre 10-20% de la población en los lugares afectados y finalmente sus efectos generaron varias de las condiciones necesarias para la transición del mundo antiguo al medieval. Se trata de comprender cómo el ciclo de pestes que va desde el siglo II al siglo III cambió la fisonomía del mundo romano y que lecciones nos entrega la historia 1700 años después.


Abstract Between the 2nd and 3rd centuries the Roman Empire suffered two great plagues, the Antonine Plague, of which there is a bibliography, and the lesser known Plague of Cyprian. As an overview, both pandemics resemble the crisis that in 2020 the Coronavirus is generating in many aspects of human life. This article focuses on the impact that the Cyprian plague had in the context of the crisis of the third century, its mortality is estimated between 10-20% of the population in the affected places, finally its effects generated several of the necessary conditions for the transition from the ancient to the medieval world. It is about understanding how the cycle of plagues that went from the 2nd century to the 3rd century changed the appearance of the Roman world and what lessons history gives us 1700 years later.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plague/history , Pandemics/history , Plague/epidemiology , Roman World , History, Ancient
6.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(3): e002089, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119835

ABSTRACT

Las épocas de pandemia han despertado y despiertan miedo en individuos y pánico en sus comunidades. En este artículo el autor repasa brevemente los hechos históricos ocurridos durante La Gran Plaga (pandemia de peste bubónica) que dieron lugar a la denominada Columna Infame de Milán, haciendo un paralelismo con algunas situaciones de criminalización de los enfermos e individuos afectados por la actual pandemia de SARS-Cov-2. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Communicable Diseases/history , Coronavirus Infections/history , History of Medicine , Plague/history , Communicable Diseases/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Communications Media/ethics , Pandemics , Social Networking
7.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(supl.1): e1183, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126787

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se describen las principales pandemias en la historia de la humanidad desde a.n.e. hasta la más reciente causada por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Objetivo: Examinar las principales pandemias en la historia de la humanidad y su repercusión en la salud pública, ámbito social y perspectivas de la actual pandemia de la COVID-19 en el desarrollo de la sociedad. Métodos: Se revisaron las publicaciones sobre el tema en español e inglés en bases de datos de PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO y Latindex desde el 2000 hasta al 25 de mayo 2020. Resultados: Se describen los aspectos más sobresalientes de las epidemias causadas por viruela, peste bubónica, cólera, VIH/sida. gripes y la actual producida por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, atendiendo a su aparición, duración en años, fallecidos, localización mundial, países más afectados e impacto en la sociedad y ámbito sanitario. Se exponen las perspectivas sociales determinadas por la pandemia de la COVID-19. Conclusiones: Se examinan los rasgos sobresalientes, en especial las pérdidas de vidas humanas en las principales pandemias que han azotado a la humanidad, desde a.n.e. hasta la más reciente causada por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. La sociedad en su momento actual se enfrenta a incertidumbres y retos sociales, económicos, culturales, éticos, sanitarios y existenciales, provenientes de las implicaciones que está teniendo la pandemia de la COVID-19, lo que determinará consecuencias para la salud y la vida humana. Esta pandemia es mucho más que una crisis sanitaria(AU)


Introduction: This work describes the major pandemics in the history of mankind from B.C. until the most recent caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Objective: To examine the major pandemics in the history of mankind and their impact on public health, social scopes and prospects of the current pandemic of COVID-19 in the development of mankind. Methods: There were reviewed publications on the subject in Spanish and English in databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO and Latindex from 2000 to 25 May, 2020. Results: There is a description of the most important aspects of epidemics caused by smallpox, bubonic plague, cholera, HIV/AIDS, influenzas and the current one produced by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, on the basis of their onsets, duration in years, amount of deceased, world location, most affected countries and impact on society and the health field. The social perspectives determined by the pandemic of COVID-19 are presented. Conclusions: There was an study on the outstanding features, especially the loss of human lives in the major pandemics that have plagued mankind, from B.C. until the most recent caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The global society at present time is facing uncertainties and challenges of social, economic, cultural, ethical, health and existential kind coming from the implications caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which will determine consequences for human health and life. This pandemic is much more than a health crisis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Plague/epidemiology , Cholera/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks
9.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 45(1)ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991126

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La peste bubónica afectó a gran parte del mundo en la primera mitad del siglo xx, causando desde pequeños brotes a grandes epidemias. En Cuba se presentó en dos oportunidades, en 1912 y en 1914, causando alguna morbimortalidad. Objetivo: Rescatar la historia de las epidemias de peste bubónica en Cuba. Metodología: Cualitativa, utilizando como métodos teóricos el histórico-lógico y el análisis documental. Se revisaron estadísticas en el Departamento de Estadísticas y Registros Médicos del Ministerio de Salud Pública, artículos de la época, directrices y planes de enfrentamiento a la epidemia orientados por el Departamento Nacional de Sanidad, de la Secretearía de Sanidad y Beneficencia, e informes redactados por los sanitaristas que trabajaron en su control. Resultados: En 1912 existieron brotes en La Habana, Santiago de Cuba y Pinar del Río, importada de las Islas Canarias. Durante la segunda epidemia en 1914, erradicada al año siguiente, se produjeron 68 casos y 23 fallecidos. Se diseñó una estrategia de lucha que incluyó, desde el ingreso y aislamiento de los sospechosos, vigilancia de los residentes en la zona, recogida de ratas, hasta desinfección, saneamiento y desratización de la zona afectada. Conclusiones: Las medidas tomadas fueron oportunas y eficientes, controlando la epidemia. No se produjeron más casos desde julio de 1915(AU)


Introduction: The bubonic plague affected much of the world in the first half of the twentieth century, causing from small outbreaks to large epidemics. In Cuba, it appeared twice in 1912 and in 1914 causing some morbidity and mortality. Objective: To rescue the history of bubonic plague's epidemics in Cuba. Methodology: Qualitative, using as theoretical methods the historical- logic and the documentary analysis. Statistics were reviewed in the Department of Statistics and Medical Records of the Ministry of Public Health, in articles of the time, in guidelines and plans to confront the epidemic established by the National Department of Health of the Secretariat of Health and Charity, and also reports written by the health workers who participated in the control strategies of this disease. Results: In 1912, there were outbreaks in Havana, Santiago de Cuba and Pinar del Rio imported from the Canary Islands. In the second epidemic in 1914 that was eradicated in 1915, there were 68 cases and 23 deaths. A control strategy was designed, which included the entry and isolation of the suspects, surveillance of the residents in the area, collection of rats, disinfection, sanitation and deratization of the affected area. Conclusions: The measures taken were timely and efficient for controlling the epidemic. No more cases have occurred since July, 1915(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Plague/history , Plague/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cuba
10.
Infectio ; 23(1): 7-9, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-975555

ABSTRACT

Emerging and reemerging diseases are cause of concern for the World Health Organization (WHO). On February 2018, WHO releases its list of priority pathogens that have the potential to cause a public health emergency, given that for them there is no, or is insufficient, countermeasures, such as drugs and vaccines that help control outbreaks. Plague was discussed and considered for inclusion in the priority list, given the fact that poses major public health problem and further research and development is needed through existing major disease control initiatives, extensive R&D pipelines, existing funding streams, or established regulatory pathways for improved interventions. Experts recognized the need for improved diagnostics and vaccines for pneumonic plague.


Las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes son motivo de preocupación para la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). En febrero de 2018, la OMS publica su lista de patógenos prioritarios que tienen el potencial de causar una emergencia de salud pública, dado que para ellos no existen, o son insuficientes, las contramedidas, como los medicamentos y las vacunas que ayudan a controlar los brotes. Se debatió y consideró la posibilidad de incluir la peste en la lista de prioridades, dado que plantea un importante problema de salud pública y es necesario seguir investigando y desarrollando a través de las principales iniciativas de control de enfermedades existentes, los amplios canales de I+D, las vías de financiación existentes o las vías de regulación establecidas para mejorar las intervenciones. Los expertos reconocieron la necesidad de mejorar los diagnósticos y las vacunas para la peste neumónica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plague , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Vaccines , Communicable Disease Control
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764411

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Good oral health is important for systemic body health and quality of life. Spray oral cleansers are increasingly preferred because of their convenience of carrying and the ease of oral hygiene management. In addition, many kinds of oral cleanser products containing various ingredients with antibacterial, washing, and moisturizing effects are being manufactured. However, concerns about the safety and side effects of oral sprays are increasing, and there is very little information regarding the use and care of oral sprays is available to consumers. This study aimed to investigate the effects of oral spray on oral bacteria and tissue to elucidate the factors that need to be considered when using oral sprays. METHODS: The effects of oral spray on the growth of dental plaque bacteria was assessed using disk diffusion assays. Cytotoxicity and morphological changes in oral epithelial cells were observed by microscopy. The effects of oral spray on dental plaque growth were also confirmed on specimens from permanent incisors of bovines by Coomassie staining. RESULTS: The pH of spray products, such as Perioe Dental Cooling, Cool Sense, and Dentrix, were 3.65, 3.61, and 6.15, respectively. All tested spray products showed strong toxicity to dental plaque bacteria and oral epithelial cells. Compared with those on the control, dental plaque bacteria deposits on the enamel surface increased following the use of oral spray. CONCLUSION: Three types of oral spray, namely Perioe Dental Cooling, Cool Sense, and Dentrix, strongly inhibited the growth of dental plaque bacteria and oral epithelial cells. The oral spray ingredient enhanced dental plaque growth on the enamel surface. Users should be informed of precautions when using oral sprays and the need for oral hygiene after its use.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Dental Enamel , Dental Plaque , Diffusion , Epithelial Cells , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Incisor , Microscopy , Oral Health , Oral Hygiene , Oral Sprays , Plague , Quality of Life
12.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(3): 639-657, jul.-set. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-975428

ABSTRACT

Resumo Para se compreender a fundação, em 1900, e os primeiros trabalhos científicos do Instituto Soroterápico Federal, é necessário analisar a circulação de conhecimento e a disputa internacional envolvendo os soros antipestosos e as vacinas antipestosas. O artigo discute a criação do primeiro soro antipestoso, em Paris, e os testes realizados a partir de 1897 na Índia. Paralelamente, examina a invenção da vacina antipestosa na mesma época em Bombaim e a oposição construída entre ela e o soro antipestoso francês. Em seguida, observa os diferentes caminhos pelos quais esses objetos chegaram ao Brasil e como questões locais se conectaram à disputa científica internacional e justificaram, no Rio de Janeiro, reconfigurações em torno desses dois objetos.


Abstract In order to understand the 1900 establishment of the Federal Serum Therapy Institute of Manguinhos and its earliest scientific work, we must analyze the circulation of knowledge and international disputes surrounding antiplague serums and vaccines. This article discusses the development of the first antiplague serum, in Paris, and the trials conducted in India, which started in 1897. It also examines the invention of an antiplague vaccine in Bombay around the same time and the ensuing controversy involving it and the French serum. The article then explores the pathways by which these objects reached Brazil and also looks at how local issues there meshed with the international scientific dispute, ultimately justifying reconfigurations of the two objects in Rio de Janeiro.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Plague/history , Plague Vaccine/history , Laboratories/history , Plague/prevention & control , Brazil , Serum , India
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 128-137, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889212

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of Y. pestis by targeting the 3a sequence on chromosome. All 11 species of the genus Yersinia were used to evaluate the specificity of LAMP and PCR, demonstrating that the primers had a high level of specificity. The sensitivity of LAMP or PCR was 2.3 or 23 CFU for pure culture, whereas 2.3 × 104 or 2.3 × 106 CFU for simulated spleen and lung samples. For simulated liver samples, the sensitivity of LAMP was 2.3 × 106 CFU, but PCR was negative at the level of 2.3 × 107 CFU. After simulated spleen and lung samples were treated with magnetic beads, the sensitivity of LAMP or PCR was 2.3 × 103 or 2.3 × 106 CFU, whereas 2.3 × 105 or 2.3 × 107 CFU for magnetic bead-treated liver samples. These results indicated that some components in the tissues could inhibit LAMP and PCR, and liver tissue samples had a stronger inhibition to LAMP and PCR than spleen and lung tissue samples. LAMP has a higher sensitivity than PCR, and magnetic bead capture of DNAs could remarkably increase the sensitivity of LAMP. LAMP is a simple, rapid and sensitive assay suitable for application in the field or poverty areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plague/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Magnetics/methods , Yersinia pestis/isolation & purification , Yersinia pestis/classification , Yersinia pestis/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Immunomagnetic Separation , DNA Primers/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Magnetics/instrumentation
14.
Salvador; EdUNEB; 2018. 212 p. ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005790

ABSTRACT

Os textos tratam da história da saúde na Bahia. Os temas aqui tratados se voltam para as políticas de saúde e assistência, instituições, doenças e para trajetórias. Aborda a história e saúde no Recôncavo e nos sertões da Bahia.


Subject(s)
Plague , Tuberculosis , Delivery of Health Care , History, 20th Century , Disease Prevention , Health Policy
15.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 141-146, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691073

ABSTRACT

Chinese tongue diagnosis was initially developed to quickly and efficiently diagnose and prescribe medicine, while at the same time allowing the doctor to have minimal contact with the patient. At the time of its compiling, the spread of Yersinia pestis, often causing septicaemia and gangrene of the extremities, may have discouraged doctors to come in direct contact with their patients and take the pulse. However, in recent decades, modern developments in the field of traditional Chinese medicine, as well as the spread of antibiotics in conjunction with the advancements of microbiology, have overshadowed the original purpose of this methodology. Nevertheless, the fast approaching post-antibiotic era and the development of artificial intelligence may hold new applications for tongue diagnosis. This article focuses on the historical development of what is the world's earliest tongue diagnosis monograph, and discusses the directions that such knowledge may be used in future clinical research.


Subject(s)
China , Diagnosis, Differential , History, Ancient , Humans , Medicine in Literature , History , Plague , Diagnosis , History , Microbiology , Therapeutics , Tongue , Chemistry , Yersinia pestis , Physiology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690665

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to define the taxonomic status of Spermophilus in the plague area of Dingbian County in Shaanxi Province, China, through the two-factor variance analysis of morphological characteristics, DNA barcoding, and chromosome karyotype analysis. The Spermophilus samples collected from Dingbian and Zhengxiang Baiqi Counties exhibited significant differences in their morphological measurements. All Spermophilus samples form two distinct branches in neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. One branch included the Spermophilus samples collected from Inner Mongolia, and the other branch included samples collected from the plague foci of Shaanxi Province and the Ningxia Region. The Spermophilus samples collected from Dingbian County had a chromosome number of 2n = 38 in 84.40% of all their cells. The Spermophilus species collected from the plague area of Dingbian County was categorized as Spermophilus alashanicus (S.alashamicus). The findings reported in this study are epidemiologically significant for monitoring plague in this region of west-central China.


Subject(s)
Animals , China , Cytochromes b , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Electron Transport Complex IV , Karyotype , Plague , Microbiology , Sciuridae , Classification , Genetics
17.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 113-115, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772725

ABSTRACT

Pneumonic plague that originated in Russian Siberia broke out in Northeast China in October 1910-March 1911. On the basis of field visits, autopsy, bacteriological identification, and close collaboration with local authorities and international colleagues, Dr. Wu Lien-Teh implemented a series of efficient antiplague measures, which successfully controlled the development of an extraordinary epidemic plague. In his subsequent work, Dr. Wu demonstrated the respiratory transmission of pneumonic plague and tarbagans' role in this spread. Dr.Wu's academic and cultural contributions are valuable in the medical progress in China.


Subject(s)
China , Epidemiology , History , History, 20th Century , Humans , Plague , History , Mortality
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(6): 620-626, Nov.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888922

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: The plague, which is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, still threatens many populations in several countries. The worldwide increase in human plague cases and the potential use of the bacteria as a biological weapon reinforce the need to study the immunity that is induced by potential vaccine candidates. To determine the immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the F1 protein and the total extract from Y. pestis, we assessed the role of these antigens in inducing an immune response. Methods: The immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the Y. pestis (YP) total extract and the Y. pestis fraction 1 capsular antigen protein (F1) was determined in Swiss-Webster mice immunized with 40 µg or 20 µg for each preparation. Immunophenotyping was performed by flow cytometry. Results: Animals immunized with the YP total extract did not elicit detectable anti-F1 antibodies (Ab) in the hemaglutination/inhibition (HA/HI) test. Animals immunized with 40 µg or 20 µg of the F1 protein produced anti-F1 Abs, with titres ranging from 1/16 to 1/8132. The average of CD3+-CD4+ and CD3+-CD8+ T cells did not differ significantly between the groups. Neither YP total extract nor F1 protein induced a significant expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 in CD4+ T lymphocytes. In addition, F1 failed to induce IFN-γ expression in CD8+ T cells, unlike the YP total extract. Conclusion: The results showed that F1 protein is not an immunogenic T cell antigen, although the YP total extract (40 µg dose) favoured CD8+ T cell-mediated cellular immunity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Spleen/immunology , Yersinia pestis/immunology , Plague Vaccine/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Plague/prevention & control , Spleen/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology , CD4-CD8 Ratio , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Flow Cytometry , Immunity, Cellular
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 769-776, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897037

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, the plague is established in several foci located mainly in the northeastern part of the country, where it alternates between active and quiescent periods. These foci in the State of Ceará have high epidemiological importance. In addition to other plague detection activities, plague areas can be monitored through serological surveys of dogs and cats (domestic carnivores), which, following feeding on plague-infected rodents, can develop mild to severe forms of the disease and produce long-lasting antibodies. This study aimed to characterize the circulation dynamics and spatial distribution of Yersinia pestis antibodies in dogs and cats in plague foci areas of Ceará. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted to analyze the temporal series and spatial distribution of secondary data obtained from domestic carnivore serum surveillance in Ceará's plague areas from 1990 to 2014. RESULTS: Joinpoint analysis revealed that the overall trend was a reduction in antibody-positive animals. The mean proportion of antibody-positivity during the whole study period was 1.5% (3,023/203,311) for dogs, and 0.7% (426/61,135) for cats, with more than 4% antibody-positivity in dogs in 1997 and 2002. Antibody titers ranging from 1/16 to 1/64 were frequent. Despite fluctuations and a significant reduction, in recent years, there were antibody-positive animals annually throughout the study period, and the localities containing antibody-positive animals increased in number. CONCLUSION: Yersinia pestis is actively circulating in the study areas, posing a danger to the human population.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Plague/veterinary , Yersinia pestis/immunology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Plague/diagnosis , Plague/immunology , Plague/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/immunology , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203601

ABSTRACT

This paper examined whether the preventive measures taken by the Hong Kong's colonial authorities were legitimate during the 1894 Hong Kong plague epidemic, and illuminated the correlation between the plague epidemic and hospital space in Hong Kong in the late 19th century. The quarantine measures taken by the colonial authorities were neither a clear-cut victory for Western medicine nor for a rational quarantine based on scientific medical knowledge. Hong Kong's medical officials based on the miasma theory, and focused only on house-to-house inspections and forced quarantine or isolation, without encouraging people to wear masks and without conducting disinfection. Even after Hong Kong plague spread, the Hong Kong's colonial authorities were not interested in what plague bacilli were, but in where they were to be found and how to prevent and control an outbreak of the disease. The germ theory brought significant changes to the disease classification system. Until the 1890s, Hong Kong's colonial authority had classified cause of death mainly on the basis of symptoms, infectious diseases, parts of the body and diseases of systems. Microbiological analysis of the cause of death in Hong Kong was started by Hunter, a bacteriologist, in 1902. He used bacteriological tests with a microscope to analyze the cause of death. New disease recognition and medical recognition brought large changes to hospital space as well. In particular, from the 1880s to the early 1900s, Western medical circles witnessed shifts from miasma theory to the germ theory, thereby influencing Hong Kong's hospital spaces. As the germ theory took ground in Hong Kong in 1894, the bacteriological laboratory and isolation ward became inevitable facilities, and hospital space were reorganized accordingly. However, the colonial authorities and local elites' strategy was different. As a government bacteriologist, Hunter established a central facility to unify several laboratories and to manage urban space from ouside the hospital. On the contrary, the Tungwah Hospital tried to transform hospital space with isolation ward and Receiving Ward System as the eclectic form of Chinese and Western medicine. The 1894 Hong Kong plague promoted the introduction of germ theory and the reorganization of hospital space.


Subject(s)
Asians , Cause of Death , Classification , Communicable Diseases , Disinfection , Hong Kong , Humans , Masks , Plague , Quarantine
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL