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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3287-3293, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981466

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to study the chemical constituents from the root bark of Schisandra sphenanthera. Silica, Sephadex LH-20 and RP-HPLC were used to separate and purify the 80% ethanol extract of S. sphenanthera. Eleven compounds were identified by ~1H-NMR, ~(13)C-NMR, ESI-MS, etc., which were 2-[2-hydroxy-5-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methoxyphenyl]-propane-1,3-diol(1), threo-7-methoxyguaiacylglycerol(2),4-O-(2-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethylethyl)-dihydroconiferylalcohol(3), morusin(4), sanggenol A(5), sanggenon I(6), sanggenon N(7), leachianone G(8),(+)-catechin(9), epicatechin(10), and 7,4'-dimethoxyisoflavone(11). Among them, compound 1 was a new compound, and compounds 2-9 were isolated from S. sphenanthera for the first time. Compounds 2-11 were subjected to cell viability assay, and the results revealed that compounds 4 and 5 had potential cytotoxicity, and compound 4 also had potential antiviral activity.


Subject(s)
Schisandra , Plant Bark , Antiviral Agents , Biological Assay , Catechin , Phenols
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2203-2211, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981351

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of alcohol extract of root and root bark of Toddalia asiatica(TAAE) on collagen-induced arthritis(CIA) in rats through phosphatidylinoinosidine-3 kinase/protein kinase B(PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. To be specific, CIA was induced in rats, and then the rats were treated(oral, daily) with TAAE and Tripterygium Glycoside Tablets(TGT), respectively. The swelling degree of the hind leg joints was scored weekly. After 35 days of administration, the histopathological changes were observed based on hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was employed to detect the levels of cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin(IL)-6)]. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL) staining was performed to detect the apoptosis of synoviocytes in rats. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2)-associated X(Bax), Bcl-2, and caspase-3 and pathway-related proteins phosphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3K), phosphorylated(p)-PI3K, protein kinase B(Akt), and p-Akt. RT-qPCR was conducted to examine the mRNA levels of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β and pathway-related proteins PI3K, p-PI3K, Akt, and p-Akt. TAAE can alleviate the joint swelling in CIA rats, reduce serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, improve synovial histopathological changes, promote apoptosis of synoviocytes, and inhibit synovial inflammation. In addition, RT-qPCR and Western blot results showed that TAAE up-regulated the level of Bax, down-regulated the level of Bcl-2, and activated caspase-3 to promote apoptosis in synoviocytes. TAAE effectively down-regulated the protein levels of p-PI3K and p-Akt. In this study, TAAE shows therapeutic effect on CIA in rats and reduces the inflammation. The mechanism is that it suppresses PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and promotes synoviocyte apoptosis. Overall, this study provides a new clue for the research on the anti-inflammatory mechanism of TAAE and lays a theoretical basis for the better clinical application of TAAE in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Caspase 3/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Plant Bark , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Experimental/chemically induced , Inflammation/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Apoptosis
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21762, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429954

ABSTRACT

Abstract The hydroelectrolytic beverages segment has been expading its market and introducing new flavors in order to meet the demand for new products. However, experimental studies find concerns about the chemical compositions of these drinks. The aim of this study was to develop a drink without synthetic coloring or flavoring, with functional attributes based on the bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.) peel extract. Two hydroelectrolytic drinks were developed, one hypotonic and the other isotonic, containing 0.5 and 1.0% of bacaba peel extract. Physicochemical characterization, determination of total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity were perfomed, in addition to color evaluation, as well as sensory analysis by means of preference tests. The developed formulations showed potential antioxidant activity and natural red coloring due to the phenolic compounds and anthocyanins present in the beverages. The sensory evaluation indicated positive acceptance by the tasters regarding the addition of the bacaba peel extract to the beverage formulations. The developed formulations demonstrated that the use of the bacaba peel is a viable option for the production of sports drinks, acting as a natural dye and offering health benefits due to its bioactive compounds.


Subject(s)
Natural Resources Exploitation , Consumer Behavior , Arecaceae , Plant Bark/classification , Beverages/analysis , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e234476, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153484

ABSTRACT

The Brazilian Cerrado biome consists of a great variety of endemic species with several bioactive compounds, and Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg is a promising species. In this study, we aimed to perform phytochemical characterization and evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli of the hydroethanolic extract of A. peregrina stem bark. The barks were collected in the Botanical Garden of Goiânia, Brazil. The hydroethanolic extract was obtained by percolation and subjected to physicochemical screening, total phenolic content estimation, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting, and antioxidant (IC50 values were calculated for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay - DPPH) and antibacterial activity determination. The pH of the extract was 5.21 and density was 0.956 g/cm3. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of cardiac glycosides, organic acids, reducing sugars, hemolytic saponins, phenols, coumarins, condensed tannins, flavonoids, catechins, depsides, and depsidones derived from benzoquinones. The extract showed intense hemolytic activity. The total phenolic content was 6.40 g GAE 100 g-1. The HPLC fingerprinting analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin. We confirmed the antioxidant activity of the extract. Furthermore, the extract did not inhibit the growth of E. coli colonies at any volume tested, but there were halos around S. aureus colonies at all three volumes tested. These results contribute to a better understanding of the chemical composition of A. peregrina stem bark and further support the medicinal applications of this species.


O bioma Cerrado brasileiro apresenta em uma grande variedade de espécies endêmicas com diversos compostos bioativos, e Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg é uma espécie promissora. Neste estudo, objetivamos realizar a caracterização fitoquímica e avaliar as atividades antioxidantes e antibacterianas contra Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli do extrato hidroetanólico de cascas do caule de A. peregrina. As cascas foram coletadas no Jardim Botânico de Goiânia, Brasil. O extrato hidroetanólico foi obtido por percolação e submetido a triagem físicoquímica, estimativa de conteúdo fenólico total, impressão digital por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC) e determinação da atividade antioxidante (valores de IC50 foram calculados para o ensaio 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazil) e antibacteriana. O pH do extrato foi de 5,21 e a densidade foi de 0,956 g/cm3. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de glicosídeos cardíacos, ácidos orgânicos, açúcares redutores, saponinas hemolíticas, fenóis, cumarinas, taninos condensados, flavonóides, catequinas, depsídios e depsidonas derivados de benzoquinonas. O extrato mostrou intensa atividade hemolítica. O conteúdo fenólico total foi de 6,40 g de GAE 100 g-1. A análise por impressão digital por HPLC revelou a presença de ácido gálico, catequina e epicatequina. Confirmamos a atividade antioxidante do extrato. Além disso, o extrato não inibiu o crescimento de colônias de E. coli em nenhum volume testado, mas houve halos em torno das colônias de S. aureus nos três volumes testados. Estes resultados contribuem para uma melhor compreensão da composição química da casca de A. peregrina e apoia ainda mais as aplicações medicinais desta espécie.


Subject(s)
Plant Bark , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Phytochemicals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(5): 1048-1054, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1428436

ABSTRACT

A medida que a se avanza en el siglo XXI, los sistemas de energía deben alejarse de los combustibles fósiles y aumentar la capacidad de las energías renovables si se quieren cumplir los objetivos de temperaturas máximas del Acuerdo de París. Sin embargo, debido a los desafíos en la adopción de tecnologías bajas en carbono, ciertas áreas de los sistemas energéticos globales son difíciles de controlar y descarburar. Por otra parte, el compostaje es una de las prácticas de gestión de residuos orgánicos más importantes que se puede utilizar para lograr la sostenibilidad del suelo y del medio ambiente. El compost tiene un mínimo impacto en algunas emisiones, y puede ayudar a controlar la huella de carbono y limitar los efectos ambientales negativos de los métodos de eliminación de desechos más deficientes. La investigación tuvo por objetivo determinar la calidad de producir biogás y biometano a partir de la cáscara de plátano (Musa paradisiaca L.). Metodológicamente se desarrolló una investigación aplicada, con nivel de investigación de tipo experimental. Las cáscaras de plátano se colectaron de la planta de compostaje de la Municipalidad Provincial de Leoncio Prado, Perú. De la muestra se prepararon cinco sub muestras para la producción de biogás y cinco muestras adicionales para la producción de biometano. Los sistemas mostraron una producción de 0,067 m3 BG/Kg ST de biogás y 0,059 m3CH4/Kg ST de biometano, que generó subproductos como el biol y biosol. Estos resultados presentaron una baja toxicidad al ser sometidos a pruebas germinativas, concluyéndose que solo el 11,5% de la cáscara introducida al biorreactor se degrado y de esta fracción solo el 2,8% se convirtió en biogás(AU)


As progress is being made in the 21st century, energy systems must move away from fossil fuels and increase the capacity of renewable energies if you want to meet the maximum temperatures objectives of the Paris Agreement. However, due to the challenges in the adoption of low carbon technologies, certain areas of global energy systems are difficult to control and decarbure. On the other hand, composting is one of the most important organic waste management practices that can be used to achieve soil and environmental sustainability. The compost has a minimum impact on some emissions, and can help control the carbon footprint and limit the negative environmental effects of the most deficient waste removal methods. The research aimed to determine the quality of producing biogas and biomethane from the banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.). Methodologically, an applied investigation was developed, with experimental research level. The banana peels were collected from the composting plant of the Provincial Municipality of Leoncio Prado, Peru. From the sample, five sub samples were prepared for the production of biogas and five additional samples for biomethane production. The systems showed a production of 0.067 m3 bg/kg ST of biogas and 0.059 m3ch4/kg ST of biomethane, which generated by -products such as biol and biosol. These results presented a low toxicity when they were subjected to germinative evidence, concluding that only 11.5% of the shell introduced into the bioreactor was degraded and of this fraction only 2.8% became biogas(AU)


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Musa/metabolism , Biofuels/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Composting , Anaerobic Digestion , Musa/chemistry , Plant Bark/chemistry , Renewable Energy
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420479

ABSTRACT

Abstract Herein the chemical constituents and the anti-pain properties of the essential oil from the stem bark of Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Casuarinaceae) grown in Nigeria were evaluated. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method in an all glass Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The hot plate method was used to determine the anti-nociceptive property whereas the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced and formalin experimental models. The pale-yellow essential oil was obtained in yield of 0.21% (v/w), calculated on a dry weight basis. The main constituents of the essential oil were methyl salicylate (30.4%), a-zingiberene (15.5%), (E)-anethole (9.5%), b-bisabolene (8.6%), b- sesquiphellandrene (6.9%), and ar-curcumene (6.2%). In the anti-nociceptive study, the rate of inhibition increases as the doses of essential oil increases with optimum activity at the 30th and 60th min for all tested doses. The essential oil displayed anti-nociceptive activity independently of reaction time at the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg). The essential oil of C. equisetifolia moderately reduced pain responses in early and late phases of the formalin test. The oil inhibited the paw licking in the neurogenic phase (60-63%) compared to the late phase of the formalin test. The carrageenan- induced oedema model revealed the suppression of inflammatory mediators within the 1st - 3rd h. Thus, C. equisetifolia essential oil displayed both anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities independent of the dose tested. The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of C. equisetifolia essential oil are herein reported for the first time


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Stems/anatomy & histology , Plant Bark/classification , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Carrageenan/adverse effects , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3066-3075, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888045

ABSTRACT

Lycii Cortex, the dry root bark of Lycium barbarum(Solanaceae), is rich in chemical compositions with unique structures, such as organic acids, lipids, alkaloids, cyclopeptides and other components, and plays an important role in traditional Chinese medicine. It has the effect of cooling blood and removing steam, clearing lung and reducing fire. It is mainly used in the treatment of hot flashes due to Yin deficiency, hectic fever with night sweat, cough, hemoptysis and internal heat and diabetes. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that the crude extract or monomer of Lycii Cortex has a variety of pharmacological activities, such as hypoglycemic, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. In this paper, the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Cortex Lycii were reviewed in order to further clarify its effective substances, promote the development of medical undertakings, and ensure the "Healthy China" plan.


Subject(s)
China , Hypoglycemic Agents , Lycium , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Bark
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18972, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350227

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effect of Punica granatum peel aqueous extract (PGE), on pulmonary inflammation and alveolar degradation induced by intratracheal administration of Elastase in Sprague Dawley rats. Lung inflammation was induced in rats by intratracheal instillation of Elastase. On day 1 and 2, animals received an intraperitoneal injection of PGE (200 mg/mL), three hours later, they were intratracheally instilled with 25U/kg pancreatic porcine Elastase. Animals were sacrificed 7 days later. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were collected and cellularity, histology and mRNA expression of Monocyte chemotactic protein 1(MCP-1), Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were studied. In addition, activity of TNF- α, IL-6 and MCP-1 on BAL were also analyzed by ELISA Kit. Elastase administration increased: BAL cellularity, neutrophils recruitment and BAL MCP1, IL-6 expressions. It also increased lung TNF-α, MCP-1, MMP-2 expressions, platelets recruitment, histological parameters at 7th day of elastase treatment. Intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg of PGE reduced, significantly, BAL cellularity, and neutrophils recruitment. However, in animal treated with PGE, MCP-1, MMP-2 and IL-6 on day 7, were similar to the Sham group. Treatment with PGE (200 mg/ kg) also significantly reduced lung TNF-α, and MCP-1 expression. This study reveals that PGE Punica granatum protects against elastase lung inflammation and alveolar degradation induced in rats


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Pancreatic Elastase/classification , Plant Bark , Pomegranate/adverse effects , Pneumonia/classification , Pulmonary Edema/classification , Emphysema/classification
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2237-2244, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879183

ABSTRACT

In this study, HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC methods were established to explore the differences in the main chemical components and content of Mori Cortex with(mulberry root bark) and without(Mori Cortex) the phellem layer from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The HPLC-ESI-MS method was used for quality analysis in positive and negative ion modes, and 33 compounds were identified in mulberry root bark, 22 compounds in Mori Cortex, and 26 compounds in phellem layer; mulberry root bark and Mori Cortex shared 22 components, and mulberry root bark has 11 unique compounds; Mori Cortex and its phellem layer shared 15 components, while Mori Cortex has 7 unique compounds. HPLC method was used to simultaneously determine 7 major constituents, including mulberroside A, chlorogenic acid, dihydromorin, oxyresveratrol, moracin O, kuwanon G, and kuwanon H, and the developed method showed good linearity(r>0.998 9) within the concentration range and the recoveries varied from 99.88% to 103.0%, and the RSD was 1.7%-2.9%. The HPLC results showed that the contents of the 7 compounds have great differences in 13 batches samples, compared with mulberry root bark, the contents of mulberroside A, chlorogenic acid, dihydromorin and moracin O of Mori Cortex were increased, while the contents of oxyresveratrol, kuwanon G and kuwanon H were decreased after peeling process. These results can provide a basis for the rationality and quality control of Mori Cortex required to remove the phellem layer.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Mass Spectrometry , Morus , Plant Bark
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): e17178, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951912

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Antioxidants from natural sources hold high values regarding their indispensible roles in the development of nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products. Oroxylum indicum L. is a common medicinal plant with a wide range of therapeutic properties, including a notable antioxidant potency that was reported, yet has not been subjected to more detailed studies. The present study evaluated the potency of Oroxylum indicum methanol stem bark extract, along with its hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol fractions, three flavones including baicalein, oroxylin A and chrysin using DPPH assay. In terms of IC50 values, the crude extract (65,48 µg/mL) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity which was as half potent as that of its ethyl acetate fraction (32,94 µg/mL). This fraction was also superior to the methanol and hexane fractions, as their IC50 were 57,19 and 137,95 µg/mL respectively. Remarkably, a yellow powdery sub-fraction consisted of isolated compounds showed powerful activity (32,89 µg/mL) compared to those of its components, revealing the intriguing effect of synergism while giving evidence for the theory of structure-activity relationship between some flavones and their antioxidant capability. Perpetual search for new radical scavenging agents in Oroxylum indicum is emboldened considering its partially exploited potential in this study


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/analysis , Bignoniaceae/classification , Methanol/analysis , Antioxidants/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Stems/adverse effects , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Plant Bark/adverse effects , Flavones
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4869-4877, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771558

ABSTRACT

Nineteen compounds, including kihadanin D (1), obacunone (2), kihadanin A (3), kihadanin B (4), kihadanin C (5), limonin (6), evodol (7), fraxinellone (8), furo[2,3-b]quinolin-4-ol (9), preskimmianine (10), ifflaiamine (11), dictamnol (12), naringenin (13), diosmetin (14), wogonin (15), scopoletin (16), cleomiscosin A (17), apocynin (18), and methyl pyroglutamate (19), were isolated from the methanol extract of the root barks of Dictamnus dasycarpus by using various column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were extensively determined on basis of UV, IR, NMR, MS, and CD spectroscopic data analyses. Among them, 1 is a new limonoid, 9 was isolated from plant kingdom for the first time, 11, 13-14 and 17-19 were obtained from the genus Dictamnnus for the first time. Cytotoxicities of compounds 1-18 were tested, and the results indicated that 1 exhibited cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, A549 and HT29 with IC₅₈ values of 16.22, 21.72 and 31.06 μmol·L⁻¹, respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Dictamnus , Molecular Structure , Plant Bark , Plant Extracts , Plant Roots
12.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 946-950, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776913

ABSTRACT

Two new limonoids, 12-ethoxynimbolinins G and H (compounds 1 and 2), and one known compound, toosendanin (Chuanliansu) (compound 3), were isolated from the bark of Melia toosendan. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and X-ray techniques. The absolute configuration of toosendanin (3) was established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five tumor cell lines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Limonins , Melia , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Plant Bark , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , X-Ray Diffraction
13.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 946-950, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812335

ABSTRACT

Two new limonoids, 12-ethoxynimbolinins G and H (compounds 1 and 2), and one known compound, toosendanin (Chuanliansu) (compound 3), were isolated from the bark of Melia toosendan. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and X-ray techniques. The absolute configuration of toosendanin (3) was established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five tumor cell lines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Limonins , Melia , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Plant Bark , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , X-Ray Diffraction
14.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 358-366, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691054

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Myanmar has a long history of using medicinal plants for treatment of various diseases. To the best of our knowledge there are no previous reports on antiglycation activities of medicinal plants from Myanmar. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant, antiglycation and antimicrobial properties of 20 ethanolic extracts from 17 medicinal plants indigenous to Myanmar.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In vitro scavenging assays of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (SO) radicals were used to determine the antioxidant activities. Folin-Ciocalteu's method was performed to determine the total phenolic content. Antiglycation and antimicrobial activities were detected by bovine serum albumin-fluorescent assay and agar well diffusion method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Terminalia chebula Retz. (Fruit), containing the highest total phenolic content, showed high antioxidant activities with inhibition of 77.98% ± 0.92%, 88.95% ± 2.42%, 88.56% ± 1.87% and 70.74%± 2.57% for DPPH, NO, SO assays and antiglycation activity respectively. It also showed the antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans with inhibition zone of 19, 18, 17, 25 and 15 mm, respectively. Garcinia mangostana Linn. showed the strongest activities for SO and antiglycation assays with inhibition of 93.68% ± 2.63% and 82.37% ± 1.78%. Bark of Melia sp. was the best NO radical scavenger with inhibition rate of 89.39%± 0.60%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results suggest that these plants are potential sources of antioxidants with free radical-scavenging and antiglycation activities and could be useful for decreasing the oxidative stress and glycation end-product formation in glycation-related diseases.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents , Pharmacology , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Bacteria , Biphenyl Compounds , Metabolism , Candida albicans , Fruit , Garcinia , Chemistry , Glycation End Products, Advanced , Metabolism , Magnoliopsida , Chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Melia , Chemistry , Myanmar , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Phenols , Pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Picrates , Metabolism , Plant Bark , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Superoxides , Terminalia , Chemistry
15.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(5): 471-485, sept. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-912584

ABSTRACT

Some known flavonols from the outer bark polar fraction of the native species Croton polycarpus Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) were isolated and quercetin, quercitrin and rutin were identified as the most abundant constituents. From this sample, a clean TLC non polar sub- fraction (A-1) obtained by CC, afforded several isomeric compounds, which were characterized by GC-MS/EI and its results conduct to a group of eighteen sesquiterpenoids with a unique Rf value in TLC; among them, one sesquiterpene hydrocarbon with molecular weight (MW) of 200 g/mol (C15H20), two with MW 202 g/mol,(C15H22), thirteen with a MW of 204 g/mol (C15H24) and two sesquiterpenols with MW 220 g/mol (C15H24O) were determined. From its fresh leaves essential oil obtained by two methods, hydro-distillation and supercritical CO2 extraction, other terpenoids were identified, where the first one process was more efficient (1.5% DM yield) than the last one, and it was selected for a pilot study. This is the first report about chemical composition of the native species C. polycarpus, and the analysis of sesquiterpene isomerism is very important to recognize its structural diversity and similar chemical behavior.


De la fracción polar de la corteza de la especie nativa Croton polycarpus, (Euphorbiaceae) se separaron algunos flavonoles y quercetina, quercitrina y rutina se identificaron como los constituyentes más abundantes. Desde una fracción apolar de esta muestra, se obtuvo por CC una fracción limpia en CCD (C-2), cuyo fraccionamiento por análisis por CGAR-EM/IE permitió determinar un grupo de 18 sesquiterpenoides mayoritarios los cuales presentan un valor único de Rf; entre estos se detectó un hidrocarburo de PM 200 (C15H20), dos derivados de PM 202 (C15H22), trece son hidrocarburos isómeros con PM 204 g/mol (C15H24) y dos terpenoles de PM 220 uma (C15H24O). De igual forma, de las hojas frescas se extrajo el aceite esencial, por dos métodos: hidrodestilación y extracción con CO2 supercrítico (SFE), y el primero de ellos fue el más eficiente (1,5% rendimiento en peso seco) por lo cual se seleccionó para el desarrollo de experimentos a escala de planta piloto. Este informe es la primera contribución al conocimiento de la composición química y la bioactividad de las hojas y corteza de la especie arbórea nativa Croton polycarpus (Euphorbiaceae) y el análisis de mezclas de sesquiterpenos isómericos es muy importante para reconocer la diversidad estructural y su similitud en polaridad y comportamiento químico.


Subject(s)
Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Croton/chemistry , Plant Bark/chemistry , Isomerism , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
16.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2423-2432, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886812

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Myracrodruon urundeuva is a plant native to Brazil, which is used by the indigenous population for the treatment of candidiasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antifungal activity of extract against human vaginal Candida species and evaluate the possible toxicological activities of M. urundeuva. Initially, ethanol extracts, ethyl acetate fractions, and hydroalcoholic fractions of the bark and leaf of M. urundeuva were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The extracts that showed antifungal activity were characterized by liquid chromatography and subjected to toxicity assessment. Toxic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic testing were performed using Allium cepa and Ames assays with the ethanol extracts of the bark and leaves. Hemolytic activity was evaluated in erythrocytes and acute toxicity in rats. The ethanol bark extracts showed best activity against Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis ATCC (4-512 µg/mL). Chemical characterization indicated the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Hemolytic activity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity were not observed. The results of the Ames and A. cepa tests were also in agreement, ethanol bark extracts and ethanol leaf extracts of M. urundeuva showed absence of mutagenic activity. Similar results were observed in the A. cepa assay and acute toxicity test in rats. M. urundeuva bark extracts showed potential for the treatment of vaginal infections caused Candida species, as a topical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Rats , Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Tannins/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Bark/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(4): e17077, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039032

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of intravenous administration of Berberis vulgaris root bark aqueous extract (BRBD) on the cardiovascular and renal functions of healthy normotensive rats. The different doses of BRBD 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg were administered intravenously (i.v) in normal rats. Blood pressure, diuretic activity and serum renal profile were analyzed. Intravenous injection of BRBD at the different doses of 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg showed a dose-dependent reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (P<0.001). At different doses of 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg, the hypotensive effect remained for more than one hour. Single dose administration of BRBD at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg caused a significant increase in urine output (P<0.001) as compared to the control rats. Serum renal profile test (albumin, Urea, Uric Acid, creatinine and BUN) did not show any significant alteration. The authors conclude that the BRBD is a potent hypotensive and possesses diuretic potential


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Berberis vulgaris/adverse effects , Administration, Intravenous/instrumentation , Plant Bark , Arterial Pressure/drug effects
18.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 505-514, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812087

ABSTRACT

Considering the great potential of natural products as anticancer agents, the present study was designed to explore the molecular mechanisms responsible for anticancer activities of Mesua ferrea stem bark extract against human colorectal carcinoma. Based on MTT assay results, bioactive sub-fraction (SF-3) was selected for further studies using HCT 116 cells. Repeated column chromatography resulted in isolation of less active α-amyrin from SF-3, which was identified and characterized by GC-MS and HPLC methods. α-amyrin and betulinic acid contents of SF-3 were measured by HPLC methods. Fluorescent assays revealed characteristic apoptotic features, including cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and marked decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in SF-3 treated cells. In addition, increased levels of caspases-9 and -3/7 levels were also observed in SF-3 treated cells. SF-3 showed promising antimetastatic properties in multiple in vitro assays. Multi-pathway analysis revealed significant down-regulation of WNT, HIF-1α, and EGFR with simultaneous up-regulation of p53, Myc/Max, and TGF-β signalling pathways in SF-3 treated cells. In addition, promising growth inhibitory effects were observed in SF-3 treated HCT 116 tumour spheroids, which give a hint about in vivo antitumor efficacy of SF-3 phytoconstituents. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that anticancer effects of SF-3 towards colon cancer are through modulation of multiple molecular pathways.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Colorectal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , ErbB Receptors , Genetics , Metabolism , HCT116 Cells , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Genetics , Metabolism , Magnoliopsida , Chemistry , Neoplasm Metastasis , Plant Bark , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Wnt Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
19.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 584-596, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812078

ABSTRACT

Stress and emotion are associated with several illnesses from headaches to heart diseases and immune deficiencies to central nervous system. Terminalia arjuna has been referred as traditional Indian medicine for several ailments. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of T. arjuna bark extract (TA) against picrotoxin-induced anxiety. Forty two male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into six experimental groups (n = 7): control, diazepam (1.5 mg·kg), picrotoxin (1 mg·kg) and three TA treatemt groups (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg). Behavioral paradigms and PCR studies were performed to determine the effect of TA against picrotoxin-induced anxiety. The results showed that TA supplementation increased locomotion towards open arm (EPM) and illuminated area (light-dark box test), and increased rearing frequency (open field test) in a dose dependent manner, compared to picrotoxin (P < 0.05). Furthermore, TA increased number of licks and shocks in Vogel's conflict. PCR studies showed an up-regulation of several genes, such as BDNF, IP, DL, CREB, GABA, SOD, GPx, and GR in TA administered groups. In conclusion, alcoholic extract of TA bark showed protective activity against picrotoxin in mice by modulation of genes related to synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitters, and antioxidant enzymes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Antioxidants , Metabolism , Anxiety Disorders , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Psychology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Genetics , Metabolism , Dopamine Agents , GABA Agents , Glutathione Peroxidase , Genetics , Metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neuronal Plasticity , Neurotransmitter Agents , Metabolism , Phytotherapy , Picrotoxin , Plant Bark , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Serotonin Agents , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Terminalia , Chemistry
20.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 680-683, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812068

ABSTRACT

Two new phragmalin-type limonoids orthoesters, encandollens A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from the stem barks of Entandrophragma candollei collected in Ghana. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of HR-ESI-MS, H and C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY data. Compound 1 was a rare C-15 enolic acyl phragmalin-type limonoid orthoester. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited weak inhibitory effects on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Limonins , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Macrophages , Metabolism , Meliaceae , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Plant Bark , Chemistry
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