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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(5): 471-485, sept. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-912584

ABSTRACT

Some known flavonols from the outer bark polar fraction of the native species Croton polycarpus Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) were isolated and quercetin, quercitrin and rutin were identified as the most abundant constituents. From this sample, a clean TLC non polar sub- fraction (A-1) obtained by CC, afforded several isomeric compounds, which were characterized by GC-MS/EI and its results conduct to a group of eighteen sesquiterpenoids with a unique Rf value in TLC; among them, one sesquiterpene hydrocarbon with molecular weight (MW) of 200 g/mol (C15H20), two with MW 202 g/mol,(C15H22), thirteen with a MW of 204 g/mol (C15H24) and two sesquiterpenols with MW 220 g/mol (C15H24O) were determined. From its fresh leaves essential oil obtained by two methods, hydro-distillation and supercritical CO2 extraction, other terpenoids were identified, where the first one process was more efficient (1.5% DM yield) than the last one, and it was selected for a pilot study. This is the first report about chemical composition of the native species C. polycarpus, and the analysis of sesquiterpene isomerism is very important to recognize its structural diversity and similar chemical behavior.


De la fracción polar de la corteza de la especie nativa Croton polycarpus, (Euphorbiaceae) se separaron algunos flavonoles y quercetina, quercitrina y rutina se identificaron como los constituyentes más abundantes. Desde una fracción apolar de esta muestra, se obtuvo por CC una fracción limpia en CCD (C-2), cuyo fraccionamiento por análisis por CGAR-EM/IE permitió determinar un grupo de 18 sesquiterpenoides mayoritarios los cuales presentan un valor único de Rf; entre estos se detectó un hidrocarburo de PM 200 (C15H20), dos derivados de PM 202 (C15H22), trece son hidrocarburos isómeros con PM 204 g/mol (C15H24) y dos terpenoles de PM 220 uma (C15H24O). De igual forma, de las hojas frescas se extrajo el aceite esencial, por dos métodos: hidrodestilación y extracción con CO2 supercrítico (SFE), y el primero de ellos fue el más eficiente (1,5% rendimiento en peso seco) por lo cual se seleccionó para el desarrollo de experimentos a escala de planta piloto. Este informe es la primera contribución al conocimiento de la composición química y la bioactividad de las hojas y corteza de la especie arbórea nativa Croton polycarpus (Euphorbiaceae) y el análisis de mezclas de sesquiterpenos isómericos es muy importante para reconocer la diversidad estructural y su similitud en polaridad y comportamiento químico.


Subject(s)
Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Croton/chemistry , Plant Bark/chemistry , Isomerism , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
2.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2423-2432, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886812

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Myracrodruon urundeuva is a plant native to Brazil, which is used by the indigenous population for the treatment of candidiasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antifungal activity of extract against human vaginal Candida species and evaluate the possible toxicological activities of M. urundeuva. Initially, ethanol extracts, ethyl acetate fractions, and hydroalcoholic fractions of the bark and leaf of M. urundeuva were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The extracts that showed antifungal activity were characterized by liquid chromatography and subjected to toxicity assessment. Toxic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic testing were performed using Allium cepa and Ames assays with the ethanol extracts of the bark and leaves. Hemolytic activity was evaluated in erythrocytes and acute toxicity in rats. The ethanol bark extracts showed best activity against Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis ATCC (4-512 µg/mL). Chemical characterization indicated the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Hemolytic activity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity were not observed. The results of the Ames and A. cepa tests were also in agreement, ethanol bark extracts and ethanol leaf extracts of M. urundeuva showed absence of mutagenic activity. Similar results were observed in the A. cepa assay and acute toxicity test in rats. M. urundeuva bark extracts showed potential for the treatment of vaginal infections caused Candida species, as a topical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Rats , Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Tannins/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Bark/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification
3.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(3): 395-403, July-Sep. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761966

ABSTRACT

Objective To describe and to characterize the relaxing effect of an extract of the bark of Combretum leprosum on isolated arterial rings from different animals.Methods Rings (3 to 4mm) from rabbit, rat, or porcine arteries rings were suspended in an organ bath (Krebs, 37°C, 95%O2/5%CO2) to record isometric contractions. After the stabilization period (2 to 3 hours) contractions were induced by the addition of phenylephrine (0.1 to 0.3µM) or U46619 (10 to 100nM), and Combretum leprosum extract was added on the plateau of the contractions. Experiments were performed to determine the potency, duration, reversibility, and to get insights on the potential mechanism involved in extract-induced relaxations.Results In all rings tested, Combretumleprosum extract (1.5μg/mL) was able to cause relaxations, which were strictly endothelium-dependent. In rabbit or rat thoracic aorta rings, the relaxations were reversed by vitamin B12a or L-NG-nitroarginine. In porcine right coronary arteries and rabbit abdominal aorta, extract caused both L-NG-nitroarginine-sensitive and L-NG-nitroarginine-resistant relaxations. In rabbit thoracic aorta, the extract was relatively potent (EC50=0.20µg/mL) and caused relaxations; intriguingly the endothelium continued to produce relaxing factors for a long period after removing the extract. The magnitude of extract-induced relaxations was significantly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+; in addition, the TRPs channels blocker ruthenium red (10µM) was able to revert extract-induced relaxations. Phytochemical analyses indicated that the extract was rich in polyphenol-like reacting substances.ConclusionsCombretum leprosum extract contains bioactive compounds capable of promoting Ca2+-dependent stimulation of endothelial cells which results in a prolonged production of relaxing factors.


Objetivo Descrever e caracterizar os relaxamentos induzidos por um extrato das cascas de Combretum leprosum em anéis de artérias de diferentes espécies de animais.Métodos Anéis (3 a 4mm) de artérias de coelho, rato e porco foram montados em cubas para órgão isolado (Krebs, 37°C, 95%O2/5%CO2) para registro das contrações isométricas. Após um período de estabilização (2 a 3 horas), as contrações foram induzidas com fenilefrina (0,1 a 0,3µM) ou U46619 (10 a 100nM); no platô dessas contrações, adicionamos o extrato Combretum leprosum. Diferentes protocolos foram realizados para determinar potência, duração, reversibilidade e mecanismo dos relaxamentos induzidos pelo extrato.Resultados Em todas as preparações testadas, o extrato de Combretum leprosum (1,5µg/mL) provocou relaxamentos dependentes de endotélio. Em aorta torácica de coelho ou rato, os relaxamentos foram revertidos pela vitamina B12a ou L-NG-nitro-arginina. Em anéis de aorta abdominal de coelho e de artérias coronárias de porco, o extrato causou relaxamentos sensíveis e resistentes à L-NG-nitro-arginina. Em aorta torácica de coelho, o extrato foi relativamente muito potente (EC50=0,20μg/mL) e quando causou relaxamentos; intrigantemente o endotélio continuou a produzir fatores relaxantes por um longo período após remoção do extrato. A magnitude dos relaxamentos induzidos pelo extrato foi significativamente reduzida em ausência Ca2+ extracelular; ademais, o vermelho de rutênio (10μM), um bloqueador de canais TRPs, foi capaz de reverter os relaxamentos induzidos pelo extrato. Análises preliminares indicaram que o extrato continha compostos com reatividade química semelhante à polifenóis.Conclusão O extrato de Combretum leprosum contem compostos bioativos capazes de promover estimulação dependente de Ca2+ das células endoteliais a qual resulta numa produção prolongada de fatores relaxantes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Guinea Pigs , Male , Mice , Rabbits , Combretum/chemistry , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/pharmacology , Muscle Relaxation/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Aorta, Abdominal/drug effects , Aorta, Abdominal/physiology , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Aorta, Thoracic/physiology , Carotid Artery, Common/drug effects , Carotid Artery, Common/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/drug effects , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/physiology , Muscle Relaxation/physiology , Plant Bark/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Swine , Time Factors
4.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-17, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Excessive production of free radicals causes direct damage to biological molecules such as DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates leading to tumor development and progression. Natural antioxidant molecules from phytochemicals of plant origin may directly inhibit either their production or limit their propagation or destroy them to protect the system. In the present study, Monodora myristica a non-timber forest product consumed in Cameroon as spice was screened for its free radical scavenging properties, antioxidant and enzymes protective activities. Its phenolic compound profile was also realized by HPLC. RESULTS: This study demonstrated that M. myristica has scavenging properties against DPPH',OH',NO', and ABTS'radicals which vary in a dose depending manner. It also showed an antioxidant potential that was comparable with that of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) and vitamin C used as standard. The aqueous ethanol extract of M. myristica barks (AEH); showed a significantly higher content in polyphenolic compounds (21.44 ± 0.24 mg caffeic acid/g dried extract) and flavonoid (5.69 ± 0.07 quercetin equivalent mg/g of dried weight) as compared to the other studied extracts. The HPLC analysis of the barks and leaves revealed the presence of several polyphenols. The acids (3,4-OH-benzoic, caffeic, gallic, O- and P- coumaric, syringic, vanillic), alcohols (tyrosol and OH-tyrosol), theobromine, quercetin, rutin, catechine and apigenin were the identified and quantified polyphenols. All the tested extracts demonstrated a high protective potential on the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and peroxidase activities. CONCLUSION: Finally, the different extracts from M. myristica and specifically the aqueous ethanol extract reveal several properties such as higher free radical scavenging properties, significant antioxidant capacities and protective potential effects on liver enzymes.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Spices , Annonaceae/chemistry , Polyphenols/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Peroxidases/drug effects , Picrates/metabolism , Sulfonic Acids/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Flavonoids/analysis , Biphenyl Compounds/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Cameroon , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Catalase/drug effects , Forests , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Hydroxyl Radical/metabolism , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Bark/chemistry , Benzothiazoles/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(6): 537-544, nov.2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-795824

ABSTRACT

Dermotophagoides farinae lives in the indoor environment of houses, where it is source of allergens; therefore its control is a priority in preventing respiratory allergies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity of essential oil of Croton malambo H. Karst bark and their components methyl-eugenol and methyl-isoeugenol against Dermatophagoides farinae. The essential oil was obtained through hydro-distillation assisted by microwave radiation and analyzed by GC-MS. Acaricidal activity was assessed by dose- response bioassay, at different times, using benzyl benzoate as a positive control. The relative amount of methyl-eugenol and methyl- isoeugenol in the essential oil was 68.4 percent and 4.9 percent, respectively. The acaricidal activity was: essential oil > methyl-eugenol > benzyl benzoate > methyl-isoeugenol. The acaricidal properties of essential oil of Croton malambo bark and methyl-eugenol against Dermatophagoides farinae were established...


Dermatophagoides farinae habita en el interior de las casas, donde es fuente importante de alérgenos, por tanto su control es una prioridad en la prevención de alergias respiratoria. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad acaricida del aceite esencial de la corteza de Croton malambo H. Karst y sus componentes metil-eugenol y metil-isoeugenol contra Dermatophagoides farinae. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por hidrodestilación asistida por radiación de microondas y se analizó por CG-EM. La actividad acaricida se evaluó mediante bioensayo de dosis-respuesta a diferentes tiempos, usando benzoato de bencilo como control. La cantidad relativa de metil-eugenol y metil-isoeugenol en el aceite fue 68.4 por ciento y 4.9 por ciento, respectivamente. La actividad acaricida fue: aceite esencial > metil-eugenol > benzoato de bencilo > metil-isoeugenol. Se establecieron las propiedades acaricidas del aceite esencial de la corteza de Croton malambo y metil-eugenol contra Dermatophagoides farinae...


Subject(s)
Humans , Acaricides/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Croton/chemistry , Dermatophagoides farinae , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anisoles/analysis , Plant Bark/chemistry , Eugenol/analysis , Eugenol/analogs & derivatives , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
6.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-13, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Zanthoxylum heitzii is a spice used to prepare several dishes and to treat tumors, syphilis, malaria, cardiac palpitations, urogenital infections in the west region of Cameroon, but the antitumor mechanisms and chemical composition are not yet investigated. This study was aimed to determine the antiproliferative effects of four extracts from the fruits and barks of Zanthoxyllum heitzii (Rutaceae) on apoptosis in human promyelocytic cells, their mechanisms and the chemical composition. The 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the fifty percent inhibition (IC50) concentration of the cell lines after treatment. The effect on morphology was observed using a light or fluorescence microscopy. The rate of apoptosis and the cell cycle were measured using flow cytometry (FCM). The phytochemical analysis of the extract was carried with HPLC/MS methods. RESULTS: The phytochemical analysis of the extracts indicated the presence of four known polyphenols (Syringic acid, Juglon, Luteolin and Myricetin) in both fruits and barks of Z. heitzii but in different quantities. Syringic acid and Myricetin concentrations were between 17-21 fold higher in the fruits than the stem bark. Rhamnetin (393.35 µg/mL) and Oleuropein (63.10 µg/mL) were identified only in the stem barks of Z. heitzii. Among the four extracts tested for cytotoxicity properties, only the methanol extract of fruits and barks significantly inhibited cell proliferation of HL-60 cells with IC50 value of 20 µg/mL and 12 µg/mL respectively. HL-60 cells treated with Z. heitzii extracts significantly produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) with concurrent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Modifications in the DNA distribution and enhanced of G1/G0 phase cell cycle arrest were observed in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: Polyphenols from Z. heitzii plant exert inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells through the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle destabilization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Plant Bark/chemistry , Zanthoxylum/chemistry , G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Fruit/chemistry , Mitochondria/physiology , Mass Spectrometry , Tetrazolium Salts , Thiazoles , Cameroon , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Spices/analysis , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , HL-60 Cells , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Polyphenols/analysis , Flow Cytometry , Microscopy, Fluorescence
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(8): 974-982, 6/dez. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697147

ABSTRACT

Infusions of Aspidosperma nitidum (Apocynaceae) wood bark are used to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon Region. Several species of this family are known to possess indole alkaloids and other classes of secondary metabolites, whereas terpenoids, an inositol and the indole alkaloids harmane-3 acid and braznitidumine have been described in A. nitidum . In the present study, extracts from the wood bark, leaves and branches of this species were prepared for assays against malaria parasites and cytotoxicity testing using human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cells. The wood bark extracts were active against Plasmodium falciparum and showed a low cytotoxicity in vitro, whereas the leaf and branch extracts and the pure alkaloid braznitidumine were inactive. A crude methanol extract was subjected to acid-base fractionation aimed at obtaining alkaloid-rich fractions, which were active at low concentrations against P. falciparum and in mice infected with and sensitive Plasmodium berghei parasites. Our data validate the antimalarial usefulness of A. nitidum wood bark, a remedy that can most likely help to control malaria. However, the molecules responsible for this antimalarial activity have not yet been identified. Considering their high selectivity index, the alkaloid-rich fractions from the plant bark might be useful in the development of new antimalarials.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Aspidosperma/chemistry , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plasmodium berghei/drug effects , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Antimalarials/isolation & purification , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/parasitology , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Aug; 51(8): 661-669
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149369

ABSTRACT

Administration of ethanol extract of stem bark from Z. rhoifolium (EEtOH-ZR) induced hypotension associated with a dual effect in heart rate in normotensive rats. This response was highlighted in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In rat superior mesenteric artery rings, the cumulative addition of EEtOH-ZR (0.1–750 µg/mL) on a phenylephrine-induced pre-contraction (10-5 M) promoted a vasorelaxant effect by a concentration-dependent manner and independent of vascular endothelium. A similar effect was obtained on KCl-induced pre-contractions (80 mM). EEtOH-ZR attenuated contractions induced by cumulative addition of CaCl2 (10-6–3 × 10-2 M) in depolarizing medium without Ca2+ only at 500 or 750 µg/mL. Likewise, on S-(–)-Bay K 8644-induced pre-contractions (10-7 M), the EEtOH-ZR-induced vasorelaxant effect was attenuated. EEtOH-ZR (27, 81, 243 or 500 µg/mL) inhibited contractions induced by cumulative addition of phenylephrine (10-9 - 10-5 M) in endothelium-denuded preparations or by a single concentration (10-5 M) in a Ca2+-free medium. The involvement of K+ channels was evaluated by tetraethylammonium (3 mM); the EEtOH-ZR-induced vasorelaxation was not attenuated. Thus, calcium influx blockade through voltage-operated calcium channels (CaVL) and inhibition of calcium release from intracellular stores are probably underlying EEtOH-ZR-induced cardiovascular effects.


Subject(s)
3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester/pharmacology , Animals , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Calcium Channel Agonists/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Calcium Chloride/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Ethanol/chemistry , Male , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Wistar , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Zanthoxylum/chemistry
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 11(4): 306-315, jul. 2012. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-648048

ABSTRACT

Context: Laurelia sempervirens (R. et P.) Tul., is an evergreen tree that growths in southern Chile, its leaves and bark are used in folk medicine as an infusion. Objective: The antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and ethyl acetate extract obtained from the bark of Laurelia sempervirens were investigated. Materials and methods: Ethyl acetate extract and essential oil were analyzed by GC- mass and the antimicrobial activity was investigated against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Results: The extract and essential oil showed a strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumanii, a relevant world nosocomial pathogen Discussion and conclusion: These findings demonstrate that the ethyl acetate extract and essential oil of L.sempervirens bark have excellent antimicrobial activities and thus have great potential as a source for natural health products.


Contexto: Laurelia sempervirens (R. et P.) Tul., es un árbol de hoja perenne que crece en el sur de Chile, sus hojas y corteza se utilizan en medicina popular como infusión. Objetivo: Investigar la actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial y el extracto de acetato de etilo obtenido de la corteza de Laurelia sempervirens. Materiales y métodos: El extracto de acetato de etilo y el aceite esencial se analizaron por GC-masa y la actividad antimicrobiana se analizó contra bacterias gram positivas y gram negativas. Resultados: El extracto y aceite esencial evidenció una fuerte actividad antimicrobiana frente a la bacteria, Acinetobacter baumanii patógeno que causa infecciones nosocomiales de relevancia mundial. Discusión y conclusiones: Estos hallazgos demuestran que el extracto de acetato de etilo y aceite esencial de corteza de L.sempervirens tienen excelentes actividades antimicrobianas y por lo tanto tienen un gran potencial como fuente de productos naturales para la salud.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Bacteria , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Laurus/chemistry , Acetates , Acinetobacter baumannii , Chile , Chromatography , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 11(4): 354-361, jul. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-648053

ABSTRACT

There is not much information on antimicrobial activity presented by several species traditionally used as medicinal plants in Tabasco. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and hexanic extracts from leaf and bark of guayaba agria (Psidium friedrichsthalianum L.), palo de sangre (Pterocarpus hayesii L.) chichimecate (Tynanthus guatemalensis L.) and ciruela (Spondias purpurea L.) was evaluated for against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 by the use of agar diffusion method. Results indicate that the hexanic extract of every one of the plant species presented antimicrobial activity on at least one of the evaluated microorganisms meanwhile bark hexanic extracts did not present activity against the three microorganisms tested. The extracts that presented a Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of < 7.50 mg mL-1 against B. cereus were both leaf ethanolic of P. friedrichsthalianum and S. purpurea and the T. guatemalensis leaf hexanic extract as well as P. friedrichsthalianum bark hexánico extract against S. aureus and S. typhimurium.


Existe poca información sobre la actividad antimicrobiana que pueden presentar varias plantas que han sido reportadas con uso medicinal tradicional en el Estado de Tabasco. Se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana de los extractos etanólico y hexánico de hoja y corteza de cuatro plantas utilizadas como medicinales: guayaba agria (Psidium friedrichsthalianum L.), palo de sangre (Pterocarpus hayesii L.), chichimecate (Tynanthus guatemalensis L.) y ciruela (Spondias purpurea L.). La actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó contra Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 y Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 mediante el método de difusión en agar. Los resultados indican que el extracto hexánico de cada una de las plantas presentaron actividad antimicrobiana al menos en uno de los microorganismos evaluados mientras que los extractos hexánicos de corteza no presentaron actividad contra ninguno de los tres microorganismos ensayados. Los extractos que presentaron una Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI) igual o menor de 7.50 mg mL-1 contra B. cereus fueron los etanólicos de hoja de P. friedrichsthalianum y S. purpurea y el hexánico de hoja de T. guatemalensis así como el extracto hexánico de corteza de P. friedrichsthalianum contra S. aureus y S. typhimurium.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Bacteria , Bignoniaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Psidium/chemistry , Pterocarpus/chemistry , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Bacillus cereus , Plant Bark/chemistry , Ethanol/pharmacology , Hexanes/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Mexico , Salmonella typhimurium , Staphylococcus aureus
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 11(3): 223-232, mayo 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-647661

ABSTRACT

This paper reports the identification of volatile components of the leaves, flowers, resin of the stem, and bark of the branches of the tree Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. collected from East Plains, Orinoquia, Colombia. The main constituents identified by GC-MS in the volatile fraction of the leaves were guaiol (14,4 percent), alpha-copaene (8,6 percent), 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (8,1 percent), beta-cariophyllene (5,7 percent), and gamma-cadinene (5,4 percent). Germacrene D (13,9 percent), germacrene B (13,4 percent), bicyclogermacrene (11,8 percent), and limonene (8,3 percent) were determined in the flowers, while p-cymene (30,1 percent), alpha-pinene (22,1 percent), and limonene (14,4 percent) were identified in the resin; finally, germacrene D (27,7 percent), 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (7,9 percent), guaiol (7,4 percent), and gamma-cadinene (6,9 percent) were found in the bark. The analysis of the resin showed a high percent of monoterpenes (- 60 percent); while the leaves presented a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (- 60 percent); flowers and bark showed a high composition of sesquiterpenes (40-50 percent).


En este trabajo se reporta la identificación de los componentes volátiles de hojas, flores, resina del tallo y corteza de las ramas del árbol Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. recolectado en los Llanos Orientales, Orinoquía, Colombia. Los constituyentes mayoritarios identificados por GC-MS en la fracción volátil de las hojas fueron guaiol (14,4 por ciento), alfa-copaeno (8,6 por ciento), 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (8,1 por ciento), trans-beta-cariofileno (5,7 por ciento) gamma -cadineno (5,4 por ciento). Germacreno D (13,9 por ciento), germacreno B (13,4 por ciento), biciclogermacreno (11,8 por ciento) y limoneno (8,3 por ciento) se determinaron en las flores, mientras que, p-cimeno (30,1 por ciento), alfa-pineno (22,1 por ciento) y limoneno (14,4 por ciento) se identificaron en la resina; finalmente, germacreno D (27,7 por ciento), 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (7,9 por ciento), guaiol (7,4 por ciento) gamma -cadineno (6,9 por ciento) se encontraron en la corteza. El análisis de la resina mostró un alto porcentaje de monoterpenos (- 60 por ciento); mientras que, las hojas presentaron una alta proporción de sesquiterpenos oxigenados (- 60 por ciento); las flores y la corteza mostraron una alta composición de sesquiterpenos (40-50 por ciento).


Subject(s)
Burseraceae/chemistry , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Resins/analysis , Colombia , Distillation , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13098

ABSTRACT

Control of inflammation is widely accepted as an important strategy for cancer chemoprevention. Anti-inflammatory effects of bark extracts of elm tree (BEE) have been amply reported. Therefore, BEE may be a good candidate cancer chemopreventive agent. Considering the high incidence of hepatic cancer and limited therapeutic approaches for treating this disease, it is important to develop liver cancer-specific chemopreventive agents. To evaluate the chemopreventive potential of BEE, we investigated the growth inhibition effect of BEE on the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. We performed a cell counting kit-8 assay to determine cell viability, and 4,6-diamino-2-phenylindole staining and flow cytometry to measure apoptotic cell death. Finally, the expression levels of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins were measured. BEE inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Pro-apoptotic activity was promoted via the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, as demonstrated by the activation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase as well as the down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results suggest that BEE may have potential use in hepatic cancer chemoprevention by suppressing cancer cell growth via pro-apoptotic activity.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Ulmus/chemistry , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135735

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus.


Subject(s)
Acetates/chemistry , Animals , Annona/chemistry , Anopheles/drug effects , Asteraceae/chemistry , Chrysanthemum/chemistry , Culex/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Insecticides/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Malaria/prevention & control , Methanol/chemistry , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
14.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(2): 557-566, June 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-589898

ABSTRACT

Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae), popularly known as "jequitibá-vermelho'', is a large Brazilian tree whose bark is used in infusion and decoction for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. This study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of Cariniana rubra methanolic stem bark extract (EM Cr) using experimental animals. Anti-inflammatory activity of EM Cr was tested on carrageenan and dextran-induced rat paw edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats and acetic acid-increase vascular permeability in mice. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests in mice, as well as brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The extract inhibitied carrageenan and dextran-induced edema, reduced exudate volume and leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy and on the vascular permeability increase induced by acetic acid. The EM Cr inhibited nociception on the acetic acid-induced writhing and in the second phase of formalin test, and decreased rectal temperature. It was, however, inactive against thermal nociception.Phytochemical analysis with EM Cr showed the occurrence of saponins, triterpenes, sterols and phenolic compounds. Phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol), pentacyclic triterpenes (α- and β-amyrin as a mixture), arjunolic acid, a phytosterol glycoside (sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside), and triterpenoid saponins (28-β-glucopyranosyl-23-O-acetyl arjunolic acid; 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl arjunolic acid and 28-O-[α-L-Rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-glucopyranosyl]-23- O-acetyl arjunolic acid) were the main identified compounds. It can be presumed that EM Cr caused their effects by inhibiting the liberation and/or action of different inflammatory mediators. These findings support the traditional use of Cariniana rubra preparations to treat inflammation.


Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae), popularmente conhecido como "jequitibá-vermelho'', é uma árvore brasileira de grande porte, cuja casca é utilizada nas formas de infusão e decocção para o tratamento de condições inflamatórias. Os efeitos antiinflamatório, antinociceptivo e antipirético do extrato metanólico da casca do caule de Cariniana rubra (EM Cr) foram avaliados em animais experimentais. A atividade antiinflamatória do EM Cr foi testada nos modelos de edema depata induzido por carragenina e dextrana em ratos, pleurisia induzida por carragenina em ratos e permeabilidade vascular aumentada por ácido acético em ratos. As atividades antinociceptiva e antipirética foram avaliadas utilizando os modelos de nocicepções induzidos por ácido acético e formalina, placa quente em camundongos e de pirexia, pela injeção de levedura de cerveja em ratos. O extrato inibiu o edema induzido porcarragenina e dextrana, reduziu o volume de exsudato e a migração de leucócitos na pleurisia induzida por carragenina eo aumento da permeabilidade vascular induzida por ácidoacético. O EM Cr inibiu a nocicepção nas contorções induzidas por ácido acético e na segunda fase do teste de formalina e diminuiu a temperatura retal. No entanto, foi inefetivo no teste da placa quente. A análise química por via úmida deu resultados positivos para saponinas, triterpenos, esteroides e compostos fenólicos. Fitosteróis e triterpenóides pentacíclicos (β-sitosterol, estigmasterol, α and β-amirinas em mistura e ácido arjunólico) e as saponinas triterpenoidais: 3-O-β-D-glucopiranosideo de sitosterol; ácido arjunólico 28-β-glucopiranosila-23-O-acetila; ácido arjunólico 3-O-β-glucopiranosila e ácido arjunólico 28-O-[α-L-rhamnopiranosil-(1→2)-β-D-glucopiranosila]-23-O-acetila. Pode-se presumir que os efeitos do EM Cr foram causados pela inibição da liberação e/ou ação de diversos mediadores inflamatórios. Estes resultados validam o uso tradicional das preparações caseiras de Cariniana rubra para tratar a inflamação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Edema/drug therapy , Lecythidaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pleurisy/drug therapy , Analgesics/isolation & purification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Antipyretics/isolation & purification , Carrageenan , Capillary Permeability/drug effects , Edema/chemically induced , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Pleurisy/chemically induced , Rats, Wistar
15.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 10(2): 136-138, mar. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686992

ABSTRACT

From the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla, the limonoid clausenolide-1-methyl ether (1) was isolated. The structure of the compound was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic studies, including 2D NMR and MS measurements and by comparison with spectroscopic and physical data from the literature. This is the first report of occurrence of clausenolide-1-methyl ether (1) in Clausena heptaphylla.


El limonoíde clausenolido-1-metil eter (1) fue aislado de corteza de Clausena heptaphylla. La estructura del compuesto fue determinada por metodos espectroscópicos, incluyendo 2D RMN, espectrometría de masas (EM) y comparación de los datos espectroscópicos y constantes físicas con los publicados en la literatura. Este es el primer informe del aislamiento de clausenolido-1-metil eter (1) de Clausena heptaphylla.


Subject(s)
Clausena/chemistry , Plant Bark/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis
16.
Journal of the Arab Society for Medical Research. 2011; 6 (2): 127-133
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-117246

ABSTRACT

Salvadora persica is an evergreen shrub or small tree to 6-7m. Fruits have a sweet, agreeable, aromatic, slightly pungent and peppery taste. It has many biological activities such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antifungal activities. This study aims to evaluate cytotoxic effect of Salvadora persica, meswak, [Salvadoraceae] extracts and isolate main compounds from the most effective extract on different human cell lines. Extracts from meswak sticks and bark, aqueous alcoholic [crude], petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were tested for their cytotoxic activities on human hepatocellular carcinoma, breast, lung and colon carcinoma cell lines. Cell viability was assessed by the mitochondria! dependent reduction of yellow MTT [3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] to purple formazan. In addition, two triterpenes were isolated from the petroleum ether extract, most active extract, partitioned from aqueous alcoholic crude extract using thin layer and column chromatographic technique. Elucidation of the chemical structure of two triterpenes was established based on their spectroscopic data [MS, [1]HNMR, [13]CNMRand IR]. The petroleum ether extract is the most potent evaluated extract. It presented IC[50]=43.6 microg/ml against human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line-HepG2, IC[50]=44.3 microg/ml against human breast carcinoma cell line-MCF7, 19.87 microg/ml against lung carcinoma cell line-A549 and 10.2 microg/ml against colon carcinoma cell linc-HCT116, however the other extracts showed weak activities. Ursolic was more effective than olcanolie acid against HepG2, MCF7 and HCT116 [IC[50]= 26.32, 18.73 and 20.4microg/mL, respectively] while oleanolic was potent against A549 [IC[50]= 19.5microg/mL]. petroleum ether extract and ursolic acid showed cytotoxic activity against all tested human cell lines. Petroleum ether extract was superior against HCT116 and A549 while ursolic acid was efficient against HepG2 and MCF7


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts , Plant Bark/chemistry , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Colonic Neoplasms , Cell Line
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 82(3): 561-567, Sept. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-556791

ABSTRACT

The phytochemical investigation of Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.) J.F. Macbr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae), commonly known as "pau jacaré" (alligator stick), afforded sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, the N-benzoylphenylalanine-2-benzoylamide-3-phenylpropyl ester, known as asperphenamate, sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, besides three flavonoids, apigenin, 5-O-methylapigenin and 7,4'-dihydroxy-3',5-dimethoxyflavone from its branches. From its leaves, the methyl gallate and two flavonoids, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated. From its bark, a mixture of sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol, besides a mixture of cycloartenone, cycloartan-25-en-3-one, and 24-methylene-cycloartenone, and the pure triterpenes 24-methylenecycloartanol, friedelin, lupeol and lupenone, were isolated. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis, comparison with literature data and GC-MS analysis of the mixtures. The ester, flavonoids and the cycloartanes are been identified for first time in the genus Piptadenia.


O estudo fitoquímico de galhos de Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.) J.F. Macbr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae), comumente conhecida como "pau jacaré", forneceu sitosterol, estigmasterol, o éster N-benzoilfenilalaninato de 2-N-benzoil-3-fenilpropila, conhecido como asperfenamato, 3-O-β-D-glicopiranosil-sitosterol, além de três flavonóides, apigenina (5,7,4'-triidroxiflavona), apigenina-5-O-metil éter e 7,4'-dihidroxi-3' , 5-dimetoxiflavona. Das folhas isolaram-se galato de metila e dois flavonóides, 8-C-glicopiranosil-5,7,4' -trihidroxiflavona e 6-C-glicopiranosil-5,7,4'-trihidroxiflavona, conhecidas como vitexina e isovitexina. Das cascas desta planta isolaram-se uma mistura de sitosterol, campesterol e estigmasterol; mistura de cicloartenona, cicloartan-25,26-en-3-ona e 24-metileno-cicloartanona, além dos triterpenos, 24-metilenocicloartenol, fridelina, lupeol e lupenona. As estruturas foram estabelecidas através de análise de espectros de IV, RMN ¹H e 13C e massas, além de análise com CG-EM para identificar os componentes das misturas de cicloartanos e esteróides. O éster conhecido como asperfenamato, os flavonóides e os cicloartanos estão sendo registrados pela primeira vez em Piptadenia.


Subject(s)
Fabaceae/chemistry , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Chromatography, Gel , Fabaceae/classification , Mass Spectrometry
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 12(4): 9-10, Oct. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-558552

ABSTRACT

This study shows that wood fiber of Phoenix tree (Firmiana simplex) is an effective adsorbent for malachite green (MG). MG sorption behavior onto the wood adsorbent was investigated in this study. Basic condition was favorable for MG adsorption to the adsorbent. The pseudo second order equation well described MG adsorption onto the wood adsorbent. The Freundlich Isotherm could describe the sorption data. The positive value of AH0 showed that adsorption of malachite green onto the wood adsorbent was endothermic. The negative values of AG at various temperatures indicate the spontaneous nature of the adsorption process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Bark/metabolism , Plant Bark/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacokinetics , Fungicides, Industrial/therapeutic use , Wood , Wood/enzymology , Wood/metabolism , Absorption , Kinetics , Thermodynamics
19.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 45(3): 437-442, July-Sept. 2009. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-533170

ABSTRACT

The stem bark of Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), commonly called cashew, is used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric and inflammatory disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of the acetone extract (AE) of the stem bark of A. occidentale. We evaluated the pharmacological activities of this plant material through the analgesic, antiedematogenic and chemotaxic inhibitory effects produced by the AE. The oral administration (p.o.) of mice with the AE (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg) or positive control indomethacin (10 mg/kg) inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing by 18.9, 35.9, 62.9 and 68.9 percent, respectively (ID50 percent = 530 mg/kg). The highest dose of the AE was able to inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema formation by 56.8 percent (indomethacin at 10 mg/kg, p.o. - 57.6 percent inhibition). When submitted to the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test, the AE (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg, p.o.) impaired leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity by 24.8, 40.5 and 49.6 percent, respectively. The positive control, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, s.c.), inhibited leukocyte migration by 66.9 percent. These results indicate the presence of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive principles in the acetone extract of Anacardium occidentale, and reinforce the plant's potential therapeutic use against pain and inflammatory diseases.


As cascas do caule do Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), conhecido como cajueiro, são popularmente utilizadas no Brasil para o tratamento de doenças gástricas e inflamatórias. Este estudo teve como objetivo a avaliação farmacológica in vivo da atividade antiinflamatória do extrato acetônico (AE) obtido das cascas do A. occidentale, investigando os efeitos analgésico, antiedematogênico e inibitório sobre a quimiotaxia deste material botânico. A administração oral (p.o.) em camundongos com o AE (0,1; 0,3 e 1 g/kg) ou o controle positivo indometacina (10 mg/kg) inibiu as contorções abdominais induzidas pelo ácido acético em 18,9; 35,9; 62,9 e 68,9 por cento respectivamente (ID50 por cento = 530 mg/kg). Esta maior dose do AE também inibiu o edema de orelha produzido pelo óleo de cróton em 56,8 por cento (indometacina, 10 mg/kg, p.o. - 57,6 por cento de inibição). No teste da peritonite induzido pela carragenina, o AE (0,1; 0,3; e 1,0 mg/kg, p.o.) reduziu a migração de leucócitos para a cavidade peritoneal em 24,8; 40,5; e 49,6 por cento respectivamente, enquanto que o controle positivo dexametasona (2 mg/kg, s.c.) inibiu a migração de leucócitos em 66,9 por cento. Estes resultados indicam a presença de princípios ativos antiinflamatórios e antinociceptivos no extrato acetônico de Anacardium occidentale e reforçam o potencial terapêutico da planta em doenças que envolvem dor e inflamação.


Subject(s)
Acetone , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Anacardium/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry
20.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 45(3): 443-452, July-Sept. 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-533171

ABSTRACT

The extract from stem bark of Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth. was chromatographed on a Sephadex® LH-20 column, and yielded nine compounds: gallic acid (GA), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), gallocatechin (GC), epigallocatechin (EPG), 4'-O-methylgallocatechin (MGC), epigallocatechin-(4β→8)-epigallocatechin (EPEP), epigallocatechin-(4β→8)-gallocatechin (EPGC), robinetinidol-(4α→8)-gallocatechin (ROGC) and robinetinidol-(4β→8)-epigallocatechin (ROEP). Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity in vitro by the methods of DPPH free radical (IC50; μg/mL) and reduction of the phosphomolybdenum complex (RAC) gave the following results, respectively: crude extract 4.52 and 0.8242; ethyl-acetate fraction 4.04 and 0.9537; aqueous fraction 5.58 and 0.9275. The crude extract and ethyl-acetate fraction were shown to possess an antioxidant capacity comparable to that of vitamin C (4.93 and 1.0). The values obtained by the DPPH free-radical method for the isolated compounds were IC50 (μM): GA=8.89; PHB=10.12; GC=16.46; EPG=13.20; MGC=21.00; EPEP=6.89; EPGC=4.91; ROGC=7.78 and ROEP=6.20. Vitamin C and trolox showed 30.11 and 30.10, respectively. Dimers showed greater activity in scavenging free radicals, possibly related to the number of hydroxyls. However, compounds without a hydroxyl at position 5 of the A-ring (5-deoxy-proanthocyanidins) did not change the antioxidant activity of the DPPH free radical, as evaluated here for the first time. Among the monomers, there appeared to be a direct relationship in scavenging of free radicals because of the stereochemistry of the compounds. The presence of a methyl radical on the B-ring significantly reduced the scavenging of free radicals of gallocatechin. All compounds showed greater scavenging of radicals than vitamin C and trolox, and these two compounds showed no significant difference from each other.


O extrato das cascas de Stryphnodendron obovatum submetido à cromatografia em coluna, Sephadex® LH-20, forneceu nove substâncias: ácido gálico (GA), ácido p-hidróxibenzóico (PHB), galocatequina (GC), epigalocatequina (EPG), 4'-O-metilgalocatequina (MGC), epigalocatequina-(4β→8)-epigalocatequina (EPEP), epigalocatequina-(4β→8)-galocatequina (EPGC), robinetinidol-(4α→8)-galocatequina (ROGC) e robinetinidol-(4β→8)-epigalocatequina (ROEP). A capacidade antioxidante in vitro pelos métodos do radical livre DPPH (IC50; μg/mL) e do complexo fosfomolibdênio (CAR) apresentou os seguintes resultados, respectivamente: extrato bruto 4,52 e 0,8242; fração acetato de etila 4,04 e 0,9537 e fração aquosa 5,58 e 0,9275 demonstrando possuírem capacidade antioxidante quando comparados com vitamina C 4,93 e 1,0. Os valores obtidos pelo método do radical livre DPPH com as substâncias isoladas foram: IC50 (μM): GA=8,89; PHB=10,12; GC=16,46; EPG=13,20; MGC=21,00; EPEP=6,89; EPGC=4,91; ROGC=7,78 e ROEP=6,20. Vitamina C e trolox mostraram valores de 30,11 e 30,10, respectivamente. Os dímeros mostraram maior atividade no sequestro de radicais livres, possivelmente relacionada com o número de hidroxilas. No entanto, substâncias com ausência de hidroxila na posição 5 do anel A (5-desoxi-proantocianidinas) não alteraram o poder antioxidante frente ao radical livre DPPH, tendo sido avaliadas aqui pela primeira vez. Entre os monômeros, parece haver uma relação direta com a estereoquímica. A presença de um radical metila no anel B reduziu significativamente a atividade da galocatequina. Todas as substâncias isoladas mostraram maior atividade do que a vitamina C e trolox, e estes não mostraram diferença significativa entre si.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Stryphnodendron barbatimam/analysis , Chromatography , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Free Radicals , Proanthocyanidins
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