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Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 44: e59175, mar. 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1370173


The collapse of the Fundão tailings dam of the Samarco mining complex in Mariana, Brazil, was the largest mining disaster in the world to date with many socio-economic and environmental impacts. Soil affected by mining tailings was severely altered with negative impacts for agriculture. We tested whether diluting mining tailings with organic soil would eliminate or at least attenuate the ecotoxic effects on plant development and performance. We cultivated radish, Raphanus sativus,in substrates containing different proportions of mining tailings and organic soil: pure tailings (T100%); 2) tailings75%+ soil25%(T75%); 3) tailings50%+ soil50%(T50%); 4) tailings25%+ soil75%(T25%), and 5) pure organic soil (Soil100%, control). There were large differences in soil quality parameters between the 100% tailings treatment (T100%) and the control (Soil100%), as well as for some parameters in the most diluted treatment -T25%(Ca2+, Fe, Mn) in relation to the controltreatment. Although dilution of the tailings soil improved radish development, there was lower radish productivity (leaf area, total biomass, and root/tuber biomass) than for pure soil (control). There were also significantly higher amounts of bioaccumulated metals in radish tubers grown with tailings, even when grown in T25%for Fe content and in T75%for Mn content. These results present a worrisome scenario for human communities in the region of the Doce river, as human consumption of crops produced in soil contaminated with tailingsis not recommended due to potential toxicological effects from high metal concentrations.(AU)

Soil Quality , Raphanus , Plant Development , Mining , Substrates for Biological Treatment
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3005-3019, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921402


Formins are widely distributed in eukaryotes such as fungi, plants and animals. They play crucial roles in regulating the polymerization of actin, coordinating the synergistic interactions between actin and microtubules, and determining cell growth and morphology. Unlike formins from fungi and animals, plant formins have been evolved into two plant-specific types. Generally, type Ⅱ formins are believed to regulate the polarized growth of cells, and type Ⅰ formins may regulate the cell expansion and division processes. Recent studies on the function of plant formins suggest it is inappropriate to classify the function of formins purely based on their structures. This review summarizes the domain organization of formins and their corresponding functions, as well as the underpinning mechanisms. Furthermore, the unsolved or unexplored issues along with future perspectives on plant formins are proposed and discussed.

Actins , Formins , Microfilament Proteins , Plant Cells , Plant Development , Plants
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888102


Phytohormones play an important role at all stages of plant growth, influencing plant growth and development and regulating plant secondary metabolism, such as the synthesis of flavone, flavonol, anthocyanin, and other flavonoids. Flavonoids, a group of important secondary metabolites ubiquitous in plants, have antioxidative, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory activities and thus have a wide range of potential applications in Chinese medicine and food nutrition. With the development of biotechnology, phytohormones' regulation on flavonoids has become a research focus in recent years. This study reviewed the research progress on the mechanism of common phytohormones, such as abscisic acid, gibberellin, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid, in regulating flavonoid metabolism, and discussed the molecular mechanism of the synthesis and accumulation of flavonoids, aiming at clarifying the key role of phytohormones in modulating flavonoid metabolism. The result is of guiding significance for improving the content of flavonoids in plants through rational use of phytohormones and of reference value for exploring the mechanism of hormones in regulating flavonoid metabolism.

Abscisic Acid , Flavonoids , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Gibberellins , Plant Development , Plant Growth Regulators
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2645-2657, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887830


Lysine acetylation is one of the major post-translational modifications and plays critical roles in regulating gene expression and protein function. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are responsible for the removal of acetyl groups from the lysines of both histone and non-histone proteins. The RPD3 family is the most widely studied HDACs. This article summarizes the regulatory mechanisms of Arabidopsis RPD3 family in several growth and development processes, which provide a reference for studying the mechanisms of RPD3 family members in regulating plant development. Moreover, this review may provide ideas and clues for exploring the functions of other members of HDACs family.

Arabidopsis/metabolism , Histone Deacetylases/metabolism , Histones , Plant Development/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878910


ATP-binding cassette(ABC) transporters are one of the largest protein families in organisms, with important effects in regulating plant growth and development, root morphology, transportation of secondary metabolites and resistance of stress. Environmental stress promotes the biosynthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites, which determines the quality of medicinal plants. Therefore, how to improve the accumulation of secondary metabolites has been a hotspot in studying medicinal plants. Many studies have showed that ABC transporters are extremely related to the transportation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants. Recently, with the great development of genomics and transcriptomic sequencing technology, the regulatory mechanisms of ABC transporters on secondary metabolites have attached great attentions in medicinal plants. This paper reviewed the mechanisms of different groups of ABC transporters in transporting secondary metabolites through cell membranes. This paper provided key theoretical basis and technical supports in studying the mechanisms of ABC transporters in medicinal plant, and promoting the accumulation of secondary metabolites, in order to improve the quality of medicinal plants.

ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/metabolism , Biological Transport , Plant Development , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Stress, Physiological
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 142-148, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878549


WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcription factors in higher plants and involved in regulating multiple and complex growth and development processes in plants. WRKY12 is a typical member of WRKY family. This article summarizes recent research progresses on the regulatory mechanism of WRKY12 in multiple growth and development processes, and analyzes the functional differences between WRKY12 and WRKY13. It provides a useful reference for further studying the molecular mechanism of WRKY12 in plant complex developments. It also provides clearer research ideas and reference strategies for exploring the self-regulation of other WRKY member and the mutual regulatory relationships between different WRKY family genes.

Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Humans , Phylogeny , Plant Development/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants/metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/metabolism
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 437-448, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132382


Abstract Bromeliaceae is restricted to the Neotropical region and has a high degree of endemism, which contributes to increased biodiversity because of the diverse morphological characteristics of individuals. In order to develop an in vitro conservation technology to obtain plants for reintroduction, seeds of Vriesea flammea L.B.Sm. were collected, sterilized and germinated in culture medium. The plants obtained were cultured for 180 days in MS medium with different concentrations of mineral nutrients (25 and 50% of nitrogenous salts and macronutrients), and different concentrations of sucrose (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 g L-1), and then acclimatized for 150 days on commercial substrate. When seeds were sterilized directly, only 4% of them were contaminated, whereas sterilization of capsules resulted in 43.6% contaminated seeds. Germination rates above 80% were recorded. Low concentrations of nitrogenous salts and macronutrients produced greater than 76% survival and promoted greater in vitro plant development than the complete MS medium. The development of the aerial system, root system, fresh mass and photosynthetic pigments were positively related to sucrose concentration in vitro. The highest sucrose concentration also indirectly promoted greater development of the aerial system and fresh mass of acclimatized plants. We established conditions for in vitro cultivation and acclimatization for efficient propagation of V. flammea with a view towards conservation of the species or reestablishment of natural populations.

Resumo Bromeliaceae é restrita à região neotropical, com alto grau de endemismo, que contribui para o aumento da biodiversidade, devido às características morfológicas dos indivíduos. Objetivando desenvolver uma tecnologia in vitro de conservação para obtenção de plantas com vistas à reintrodução, sementes de Vriesea flammea L.B.Sm. foram coletadas, esterilizadas, germinadas em meio de cultura e as plantas obtidas foram cultivadas por 180 dias em meio MS com diferentes concentrações de nutrientes minerais (25 e 50% dos sais nitrogenados e dos macronutrientes), bem como em diferentes concentrações de sacarose (20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 g L-1). Após, as plantas foram aclimatizadas por 150 dias em substrato comercial. Quando da esterilização das sementes, apenas 4% destas contaminaram. Por sua vez, a esterilização de cápsulas resultou em 43,6% de sementes contaminadas. Taxas de germinação superiores a 80% foram registradas. Baixas concentrações dos sais nitrogenados e de macronutrientes proporcionaram sobrevivência superior a 76% e promoveram maior desenvolvimento das plantas in vitro do que o meio MS completo. O desenvolvimento do sistema aéreo, radicular, a massa fresca e pigmentos fotossintéticos apresentaram relação positiva com a concentração de sacarose in vitro. A maior concentração de sacarose também propiciou indiretamente maior desenvolvimento do sistema aéreo e massa fresca das plantas aclimatizadas. Estabelecemos as condições de cultivo in vitro e aclimatização para a eficiente propagação de V. flammea com vistas à conservação da espécie ou reestabelecimento das populações naturais.

Bromeliaceae , Plant Development , Brazil , Carbon , Nutrients
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 591-601, 01-03-2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146425


Understanding the influence of fragmentation on the behavior of forest essential elements in different vegetation formations is fundamental for the definition of conservation strategies. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the influence of the edge environment on the phytosociological structure of a fragment of Open Ombrophylous Forest, in Rio Largo, Alagoas. Five transects of 10.0 x 100.0 m were subdivided into ten 10.0 x 10.0 m plots to collect the data. All tree individuals with Chest Height Circumference ≥ 15 cm were sampled, measured and later identified in the herbarium of the Institute of the Environment of Alagoas. For the analysis, the phytosociological parameters Shannon-Wiener diversity (H'), Pielou equability (J') were calculated after defined the successional classes and dispersion syndromes of the species sampled. The edge effect was analyzed by comparing the richness, diversity, equability and number of individuals in the interior and at the edge of the fragment, using the Venn diagram technique. There were 581 arboreal individuals, of which 434 were identified as belonging to 20 families, 24 genera and 30 morphospecies. Among the raised species, there were higher occurrences of early secondary (46.67%) and late (23.33%), as well as those of zoocoric dispersion (53.33%). The diversity was 2.89 nats/ind., and the Pielou (J') equability was 0.8497. The edge environment did not influence the establishment of species. This may have occurred due to the environmental characteristics of the open ombrophylous forest.

Compreender a influência da fragmentação sobre o comportamento das essências florestais em diferentes formações vegetacionais é fundamental para que se possa definir estratégias de conservação. Neste trabalho,objetivou-se de avaliar a influência do ambiente de borda sobre estrutura fitossociológica de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Aberta, em Rio Largo, Alagoas. Para a coleta dos dados foram alocados cinco transectos de 10,0 x 100,0 m, subdivididos em dez parcelas de 10,0 x 10,0 m. Foram amostrados todos osindivíduos arbóreos com Circunferência à Altura do Peito ≥ 15 cm, que foram mensurados e posteriormente identificados no herbário do Instituto do Meio Ambiente de Alagoas. Para a análise foram calculados osparâmetros fitossociológicos, a diversidade de Shannon-Wiener (H'), a equabilidade de Pielou (J'), definidas as classes sucessionais e síndromes de dispersão das espécies amostradas. O efeito de borda foi analisado por meio de comparação da riqueza, diversidade, equabilidade e número de indivíduos no interior e na borda do fragmento, empregando-se a técnica diagrama de Venn. Foram registrados 581 indivíduos arbóreos, dos quais 434 foram identificados como pertencentes a 20 famílias, 24 gêneros e 30 morfoespécies. Entre as espécies levantadas, houve maior ocorrência de secundárias iniciais (46,67%) e tardias (23,33%), assim como de dispersão zoocórica (53,33%). A diversidade foi de 2,89 nats/ind., e a equabilidade de Pielou (J') foi de 0,8497. O ambiente de borda não influenciou no estabelecimento de espécies. Isso pode ter ocorrido em virtude das características da floresta ombrófila aberta.

Brazil , Forests , Conservation of Natural Resources , Rainforest , Trees , Ecosystem , Biodiversity , Plant Development
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190493, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142505


Abstract We evaluated the effect of combined Rhizobium tropici, Trichoderma asperellum and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in beans crop. The hypothesis that strains of T. asperullum, R. tropici and PGPR combined could improve growth, biomass accumulation and beans yield was tested under greenhouse and field conditions. The treatments consisted of control, mineral nitrogen application and inoculation, isolated and associated with the following microorganisms: Rhizobium tropici, Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma asperellum and Burkholderia sp. 10N6. Results were evaluated by shoot dry weight (SDW) and root dry weight (RDW), number of nodules and yield components. In greenhouse environment all the microorganisms behaved similarly, and the treatments inoculated with Burkholderia sp. 10N6 (IBu) and R. tropici (IR) stood out regarding the production components. In field conditions the treatments IR and IRTBa presented the highest values of SDW and RDW. Our results suggest that inoculation with R. tropici, T. asperellum and PGPR may promote beans growth and bring benefits to shoot and root accumulation, increase the number of nodules as well as improve yield components, contributing to a sustainable agriculture.

Phaseolus/growth & development , Phaseolus/microbiology , Bacillus subtilis , Trichoderma , Burkholderia , Rhizobium tropici , Plant Development
NOVA publ. cient ; 17(32): 109-129, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056793


Resumen Una hormona vegetal o fitohormona es un compuesto producido internamente por una planta, que ejerce su función en muy bajas concentraciones y cuyo principal efecto se produce a nivel celular, cambiando los patrones de crecimiento de los vegetales y permitiendo su control. Los reguladores vegetales son compuestos sintetizados químicamente u obtenidos de otros organismos y son, en general, mucho más potentes que los análogos naturales. Es necesario tener en cuenta aspectos críticos como oportunidad de aplicación, dosis, sensibilidad de la variedad, condición de la planta, etc., ya que cada planta requerirá de unas condiciones específicas de crecimiento que pueden afectarse por la concentración de ellos en el medio. Los reguladores vegetales son productos sintéticos que se han convertido en las primeras herramientas capaces de controlar el crecimiento y actividad bioquímica de las plantas por lo que su uso ha aumentado en los últimos años. Esta revisión busca hacer una recopilación bibliográfica de los primeros acontecimientos de la aplicación de los reguladores de crecimiento vegetal. Se presentan las principales características fisiológicas que pueden desarrollar la aplicación de estos sobre el crecimiento vegetal a nivel celular y su repercusión a nivel fenotípico; además, se describen las principales fitohormonas más conocidas en la aplicación biotecnológica. Entre ellas se encuentran auxinas, giberelinas, citoquininas, ácido abscísico, ácido salicílico, poliaminas, jasmonatos y derivados, brasinoesteroides, etileno y estrigolactonas. Se detallan las principales funciones a nivel del metabolismo vegetal y sus posibles interacciones intra e intercelular.

Abstract A vegetal hormone or phytohormone is a compound produced inside by a plant, that work in low concentrations and whose mainly effect occurs at the cellular level, changing the patterns of grow in vegetal organism and allow their control. The plant grows regulators are synthetic chemical compounds that can be obtained by the organism different to the plants and are more stronger that natural analogues, is necessary have in consideration different aspects like application opportunity, concentration, sensibility, plant condition, it's because every plant requires specific conditions of grow that can be affected by phytohormonal concentration in the soil or medium. The vegetal regulators are synthetic products that it has been converted in the mainly tool available to control the growing and biochemical activity of the plant and for that reason their use are increased in the last years. This review makes a bibliography compilation of the first events in the beginning of vegetal plant regulators application and presents the mainly physiologic characteristics that can be developed by application of vegetal hormones and their action in cellular and phenotypic response, furthermore we explain some of the mechanisms of action of the mainly ten phytohormones more knowledge in the biotechnological application: auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, polyamines, jasmonates and derived compounds, brassinosteroids, ethylene, and strigolactones. We describe their mainly functions to vegetal metabolism and their possible interactions intracellular and extracellular.

Plant Growth Regulators , Biochemistry , Agricultural Cultivation , Plant Shoots , Plant Development , Growth
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 36: 15-23, nov. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047981


Background: Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers is a wild plant used in folk medicine to treat several diseases owing to bioactive secondary metabolites present in its tissue. The accumulation of such molecules in plant cells can occur as a response against abiotic stress, but these metabolites are often deposited in low concentrations. For this reason, the use of a biotechnological approach to improve the yields of technologically interesting bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins is a compelling option. This work focuses on investigating the potential of in vitro T. officinale cultures as an anthocyanin source. Results: To demonstrate the suitability of anthocyanin induction and accumulation in calluses under specific conditions, anthocyanin was induced in the T. officinale callus. A specific medium of 5.5% sucrose supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine /1-naphthaleneacetic acid in a 10:1 ratio was used to produce an anthocyanin yield of 1.23 mg g-1 fw. An in vitro dandelion callus line was established from this experiment. Five mathematical models were then used to objectively and predictably explain the growth of anthocyanin-induced calluses from T. officinale. Of these models, the Richards model offered the most suitable representation of anthocyanin callus growth in a solid medium and permitted the calculation of the corresponding kinetic parameters. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate the potential of an in vitro anthocyanin-induced callus line from T. officinale as an industrial anthocyanin source.

Taraxacum/growth & development , Plant Development , Anthocyanins/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Kinetics , Plant Cells , Phytochemicals
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(6 Supplement 1): 131-140, nov./dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-968878


The knowledge of micronutrients for Jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) plants might be a valuable tool to the subsidize taking of decisions to the management of such species. The objective of this study was to describe the symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies in jute plants and to analyze micronutrient contents in leaves, stems, and roots. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with six treatments and four replications in a randomized block design. The treatments were, as follows: Complete solution (C) and solution with the omission of the following nutrients: B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. Except for Cu deficiency, the morphological alterations were easily characterized for all nutrients evaluated, in which Fe and Zn were the first and the last to cause symptoms in plants, respectively. In general, the nutrients that were most limiting to the growth of Jute plant and for dry mass were Fe and B. The omission of B, Mn and Fe limited root growth while the Zn and Cu deficiencies limited the growth of the aerial part. The nutrient contents were ordered as it follows: Fe> Mn> Zn> B> Cu in the leaves, Fe> Mn> B> Zn> Cu in the stem and Fe> Zn> Mn> B> Cu in the roots. For seedings of Jute, the deficiency of Fe and B are the most limiting and the suitable nutritional contents for those seedlings are 11.37; 8.99; 346.14; 248.88 and 77,28 for B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in the leaves, respectively.

O conhecimento acerca de micronutrientes em plantas de juta (Corchorus capsularis L.) pode ser uma importante ferramenta para subsidiar tomadas de decisão quanto ao manejo de tal espécie. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever os sintomas de deficiência de micronutrientes em plantas de juta e analisar o teor de micronutrientes contidos em folhas, caules e raízes. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições para cada tratamento em delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos foram: solução completa (C) e solução com a omissão dos seguintes nutrientes: B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn. Com exceção da deficiência de Cu, as alterações morfológicas foram fáceis de caracterizar para todos os nutrientes analisados, com Fe e Zn sendo o primeiro e o último a causar sintomas em plantas, respectivamente. Em geral, os nutrientes que foram os mais limitantes para o crescimento e matéria seca de juta foram Fe e B. A omissão de B, Mn e Fe limitou o crescimento radicular, enquanto que a deficiência de Zn e Culimitou o crescimento da parte aérea. O teor de nutrientes seguiu a seguinte ordem decrescente: Fe> Mn> Zn> B> Cu nas folhas, Fe> Mn> B> Zn> Cu no caule e Fe> Zn> Mn> B> Cu nas raízes. Pra mudas de juta, a deficiência de Fe e B são as mais limitantes e os teores nutricionais adequados para estas mudas são 11,37; 8.99; 346.14; 248.88; and 77.28, respectivamente, para B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn nas folhas.

Plants , Micronutrients , Corchorus , Mineral Deficiency , Plant Development
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 522-528, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039267


Abstract We used 16S rRNA sequencing to assess the archaeal communities across a gradient of Cerrado. The archaeal communities differed across the gradient. Crenarcheota was the most abundant phyla, with Nitrosphaerales and NRPJ as the predominant classes. Euryachaeota was also found across the Cerrado gradient, including the classes Metanocellales and Methanomassiliicoccaceae.

Plants/microbiology , Soil Microbiology , Archaea/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Plants/classification , Soil/chemistry , Brazil , Archaea/classification , Archaea/growth & development , Archaea/genetics , Biodiversity , Plant Development
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 34: 76-82, july. 2018. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047373


Background: Jatropha curcas L., as an important strategic biofuel resource with considerable economic potential, has attracted worldwide attention. However, J. curcas has yet to be domesticated. Plant height, an important agronomic trait of J. curcas, has not been sufficiently improved, and the genetic regulation of this trait in J. curcas is not fully understood. Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs), a class of transcription factors, have previously been shown to play critical roles in regulating multiple aspects of plant growth and development and may accordingly be implicated in the genetic regulation of plant height in J. curcas. Results: In this study, we cloned JcZFP8, a C2H2 ZFP gene in J. curcas. We found that the JcZFP8 protein was localized in the nucleus and contained a conserved QALGGH motif in its C2H2 structure. Furthermore, ectopic expression of JcZFP8 under the control of the 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco resulted in dwarf plants with malformed leaves. However, when JcZFP8 was knocked out, the transgenic tobacco did not show the dwarf phenotype. After treatment with the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC), the dwarf phenotype was more severe than plants that did not receive the PAC treatment, whereas application of exogenous gibberellin3 (GA3) reduced the dwarf phenotype in transgenic plants. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that JcZFP8 may play a role in J. curcas plant phenotype through GA-related pathways. Our findings may help us to understand the genetic regulation of plant development in J. curcas and to accelerate breeding progress through engineering of the GA metabolic pathway in this plant. How to cite: Shi X,Wu Y, Dai T, et al. JcZFP8, a C2H2 zinc-finger protein gene from Jatropha curcas, influences plant development in transgenic tobacco.

Tobacco/genetics , Jatropha , Plant Development , CYS2-HIS2 Zinc Fingers/genetics , Plant Growth Regulators/genetics , Transcription Factors , Triazoles , Plants, Genetically Modified/growth & development , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gibberellins
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 232-239, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889220


Abstract Biofertilizer Ning shield was composed of different strains of plant growth promotion bacteria. In this study, the plant growth promotion and root-knot nematode disease control potential on Trichosanthes kirilowii in the field were evaluated. The application of Ning shield significantly reduced the diseases severity caused by Meloidogyne incognita, the biocontrol efficacy could reached up to 51.08%. Ning shield could also promote the growth of T. kirilowii in the field by increasing seedling emergence, height and the root weight. The results showed that the Ning shield could enhance the production yield up to 36.26%. Ning shield could also promote the plant growth by increasing the contents of available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter, and increasing the contents of leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment. Moreover, Ning shield could efficiently enhance the medicinal compositions of Trichosanthes, referring to the polysaccharides and trichosanthin. Therefore, Ning shield is a promising biofertilizer, which can offer beneficial effects to T. kirilowii growers, including the plant growth promotion, the biological control of root-knot disease and enhancement of the yield and the medicinal quality.

Animals , Plant Diseases/therapy , Tylenchoidea/growth & development , Plant Roots/parasitology , Trichosanthes/growth & development , Trichosanthes/parasitology , Agriculture/methods , Fertilizers , Plant Growth Regulators/analysis , Trichosanthes/chemistry , Plant Development
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 557-571, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886913


ABSTRACT Native to subtropical region of South America, yerba mate is responsive to P under some conditions, but the degree of influence of genetic and soil on the growth and composition of the leaf is unknown. The aim of study was to evaluate plant growth, nutrients and potentially toxic elements in leaves of yerba mate clones in response to P application in acid soils. In greenhouse condition, two yerba mate clone seedlings were grown (210 days) in pots, each clone in a completely randomized design in factorial scheme (with and without P; four acid soils). The elemental composition of leaves and the growth of plants were determined. Phosphorus promoted plant growth, but this was not accompanied by increased P in leaf tissue in all conditions tested. The P effect on the elemental composition varied: decrease/null (N, K, Mg, Mn, Cu, Ni, B, Mo, Al, Cd); increase/null (C/N, C, Ca, Fe, V); increase/decrease/null (Zn, Ba, Pb) and; null (Cr). The soils affect the elemental composition of the leaves, especially Mn, with accumulation greater than 1000 mg kg-1. The Ba, Pb, Al and Zn in the leaves varied among clones. Yerba mate response to P was affected by edaphic and plant factors.

Phosphorus/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Clone Cells/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Ilex paraguariensis/growth & development , Ilex paraguariensis/chemistry , Reference Values , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/drug effects , Time Factors , Trace Elements/analysis , Random Allocation , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Ilex paraguariensis/drug effects , Fertilizers , Plant Development/drug effects
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 521-528, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886894


ABSTRACT Among weeds, morning glories comprise a very important group of climbing plants that infest sugarcane crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shoot and root interference of Merremia cissoides on the initial growth of sugarcane cultivar RB 966928. The experiment consisted of five treatment groups: (i) sugarcane monocropping, (ii) morning glory monocropping, (iii) sugarcane intertwined with morning glory but inseparate boxes, (iv) sugarcane intertwined with morning glory in attached boxes and (v) sugarcane with morning glory in attached boxes with morning glory prevented from intertwining with the sugarcane. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replicates. Merremia cissoides adversely affected the initial growth of the RB 966928 sugarcane starting at 90 days after transplanting (DAT). This effect increased with the time of intercropping, reaching at 180 DAT with a reduction of 57.3% in height,15.5% in stalk diameter, 90.4% in leaf areas, 86.6 and 75.2% in stalk and leaf dry mass, respectively. These reductions primarily due to the weed intertwining with the sugarcane plants because the weed had a physical choking and shading effect. This negative effect of morning glory on the sugarcane plants increased when they shared the substrate (i.e., when they competed for space and water), which also adversely affected weed growth, reducing 50.2% leaf areas and 42.1% shoot dry mass. The leaf area and the stalk and leaf dry mass of sugarcane are the characteristics more sensitive to the weed interference. Thus, both the shoot and root of M. cissoides interferes negatively in the growth of sugarcane, with the effect proportional to the period of coexistence, highlighting the detrimental effect on the stem (greater economic interest), and may also compromise the mechanical harvesting of the crop.

Plant Shoots/physiology , Plant Roots/physiology , Crops, Agricultural/physiology , Convolvulaceae/physiology , Saccharum/growth & development , Plant Weeds/physiology , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Analysis of Variance , Plant Physiological Phenomena , Plant Leaves/physiology , Plant Development/physiology , Host-Seeking Behavior
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 876-886, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888799


Abstract In Cerrado, studies of post-fire vegetation recovery show that some herbaceous species are able to flower shortly after fires. However, these were mainly short-term studies that focused on grasslands and savannas. Little is known about the effects of fire on ground layer of forests that border the savannas in Central Brazil. Thus, an accidental burning gave us the opportunity to describe the reproductive activity of the ground layer vegetation after a fire event along a savanna-forest boundary at the IBGE Ecological Reserve, Brasília, Brazil. During the 16-month of the inventory, we registered 170 herbaceous species flowering or fruiting, of which 52 species (31%) may have been influenced by fire that changed their times of reproduction. In the savanna plots reproduction peaked at the end of the rainy season. Of the total number of reproducing species, 90 species occurred only in the savanna and four in the forest. Five herbs were recorded in the forest, savanna and border environments. Late dry season fire probably lead the majority of herbaceous species to have their reproduction spread throughout the study time.

Resumo No Cerrado, estudos de recuperação da vegetação pós-fogo mostram que algumas espécies herbáceas são capazes de florescer logo após queimadas. No entanto, esses foram principalmente estudos de curto prazo, que se concentraram em áreas campestres e savânicas. Pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos do fogo no sub-bosque de matas que margeiam as savanas do Brasil Central. Assim, uma queima acidental nos deu a oportunidade de descrever a atividade reprodutiva pós-fogo do estrato herbáceo ao longo de ecótono cerrado-mata na Reserva Ecológica do IBGE, Brasília, Brasil. Durante os 16 meses do inventário, foram registrados 170 espécies herbáceas com flores ou frutos, das quais 52 espécies (31%) podem ter sido influenciadas pelo fogo, que alterou suas épocas reprodutivas. Nas parcelas de cerrado, a reprodução teve seu pico ao final da estação chuvosa. Do número total de espécies, 90 ocorreram exclusivamente no cerrado e quatro na floresta. Cinco espécies herbáceas foram registradas na floresta, cerrado e borda. O fogo ao final da estação seca pode ter levado a maioria das plantas a se reproduzir através do período de estudo.

Plants/classification , Forests , Plant Physiological Phenomena , Grassland , Plant Development , Reproduction , Brazil , Biodiversity , Fires
Protein & Cell ; (12): 81-88, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757160


Cell division and expansion require the ordered arrangement of microtubules, which are subject to spatial and temporal modifications by developmental and environmental factors. Understanding how signals translate to changes in cortical microtubule organization is of fundamental importance. A defining feature of the cortical microtubule array is its association with the plasma membrane; modules of the plasma membrane are thought to play important roles in the mediation of microtubule organization. In this review, we highlight advances in research on the regulation of cortical microtubule organization by membrane-associated and membrane-tethered proteins and lipids in response to phytohormones and stress. The transmembrane kinase receptor Rho-like guanosine triphosphatase, phospholipase D, phosphatidic acid, and phosphoinositides are discussed with a focus on their roles in microtubule organization.

Cell Membrane , Metabolism , Environment , Microtubules , Metabolism , Plant Cells , Metabolism , Plant Development , Signal Transduction
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4): 534-542, out.-dez. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-763233


RESUMOA pesquisa de produtos naturais benéficos à saúde humana vem crescendo nos últimos 20 anos. Considerando que as plantas de Aloe são amplamente utilizadas pela população humana, em geral de maneira terapêutica, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de Aloearborescens Miller e Aloe barbadensis Miller, sobre o desenvolvimento vegetativo de linhagens normais e mutantes de Aspergillus nidulans. Conídios da linhagem biA1methG1, MSE e CLB3 de A. nidulans, foram inoculados em meio completo sem (Controle) e com extratos das duas espécies incubados por 2, 4, 6 e 8 horas a 37ºC, no escuro. Foi analisado em microscópio óptico, 200 conídios de cada tratamento. Para o desenvolvimento das colônias, as linhagens foram inoculadas no centro das placas juntamente com o meio de cultura sólido e sobre a membrana de diálise, visando a medição do diâmetro e do peso. A análise estatística foi baseada no teste de Tukey e todos os procedimentos experimentais foram conduzidos em triplicata. Todas as linhagens apresentaram interferências positivas quando expostas às plantas de Aloe, porém, de maneira variada. Ambas as espécies aceleraram a germinação em todas as linhagens testadas e atuaram na redução significativa de conídios mortos e/ou malformados. Em relação ao desenvolvimento vegetativo, todos os dados referentes ao peso úmido e diâmetro corrigido dos tratamentos demonstraram progressos, contudo, a razão diâmetro/peso apresentou somente na linhagem MSE, ação favorável dos tratamentos naturais. As informações deste estudo sugerem benefícios de A. arborescens e A. barbadensis, justificando a importância e continuidade da investigação, para melhor elucidar os mecanismos de ação dessas plantas.

ABSTRACTThe researches about natural products that arebeneficial to human health have been growing over the past 20 years. Since Aloe plants are broadly used by the general population, frequently due to therapeutic reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Aloe arborescens Millerand Aloe barbadensis Miller on the vegetative growth of normal and mutant strains of Aspergillus nidulans. The conidia of thebiA1methG1, MSE and CLB3 strains of A. nidulans were inoculated in complete environment without (control) and with extracts of two species of Aloeincubated for 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours at 37˚C. 200 conidia were analyzed by optical microscopy. For the development of the colonies, the strains were inoculated in the center of the plates together with the solid environment of the cultivation and over the dialysis membrane for measuring the diameter and weighing. The statistical analysis was based on the Tukey test and all experimental procedures were performed in triplicate. All strains showed positive interference when exposed to Aloe plants, however, through different manners. Both species have accelerated the germination in all tested strains and acted in the significant reduction of dead and / or malformed conidia. Regarding the vegetative growth, all data related to wet weight and corrected diameter of the treatments revealed progress, however, the ratio diameter/weightpresented improvement only in the MSE lineage, favorable action of natural treatments. The information from this study suggest that A. arborescens and A. barbadensis are beneficial, thus justifying the importance of research maintenance in order to better elucidate the action mechanisms of these plants.

Aloe/anatomy & histology , Aspergillus nidulans/metabolism , Plant Development/physiology , Germination , Plants, Medicinal/classification