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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248359, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345547

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is one of the major rice diseases in Malaysia. This disease causes substantial yield loss as high as 70%. Development of rice varieties which inherited BLB resistant traits is a crucial approach to promote and sustain rice industry in Malaysia. Hence, this study aims were to enhance BLB disease resistant characters of high yielding commercial variety MR219 through backcross breeding approach with supporting tool of marker-assisted selection (MAS). Broad spectrum BLB resistance gene, Xa7 from donor parent IRBB7 were introgressed into the susceptible MR219 (recurrent parent) using two flanking markers ID7 and ID15. At BC3F4, we managed to generate 19 introgressed lines with homozygous Xa7 gene and showed resistant characteristics as donor parent when it was challenged with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae through artificial inoculation. Recurrent parent MR219 and control variety, MR263 were found to be severely infected by the disease. The improved lines exhibited similar morphological and yield performance characters as to the elite variety, MR219. Two lines, PB-2-107 and PB-2-34 were chosen to be potential lines because of their outstanding performances compared to parent, MR219. This study demonstrates a success story of MAS application in development of improved disease resistance lines of rice against BLB disease.


Resumo A mancha bacteriana das folhas (BLB) é uma das principais doenças do arroz na Malásia. Essa doença causa perdas substanciais de rendimento de até 70%. O desenvolvimento de variedades de arroz que herdaram características de resistência ao BLB é uma abordagem crucial para promover e sustentar a indústria do arroz na Malásia. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi aumentar os caracteres BLB resistentes a doenças da variedade comercial MR219 de alto rendimento por meio de uma abordagem de cruzamento retrocruzamento com ferramenta de apoio de seleção assistida por marcador (MAS). O gene de resistência a BLB de amplo espectro, Xa7 do pai doador IRBB7, foi introgressado no MR219 suscetível (pai recorrente) usando dois marcadores flanqueadores ID7 e ID15. No BC3F4, conseguimos gerar 19 linhagens introgressadas com o gene Xa7 homozigoto e apresentamos características de resistência como genitor doador quando desafiado com Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae por inoculação artificial. O pai recorrente MR219 e a variedade controle, MR263, estavam gravemente infectados pela doença. As linhas melhoradas exibiram características morfológicas e de desempenho de rendimento semelhantes às da variedade elite, MR219. Duas linhas, PB-2-107 e PB-2-34, foram escolhidas como linhas potenciais por causa de seus desempenhos excelentes em comparação com a mãe, MR219. Este estudo demonstra uma história de sucesso de aplicação de MAS no desenvolvimento de linhas de arroz melhoradas com resistência a doenças contra a doença BLB.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Plant Diseases/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , Plant Breeding
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246460, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350310

ABSTRACT

Abstract Field survey study was conducted season (2017). Soybeans and weeds were weekly sampled randomly. Thrips adults were identified and counted. Detection of the virus isolate and the natural incidence was determined using; Mechanical transmission, host range, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. The natural incidence thrips individuals was detected depending on the SVNV% in thrips individuals and weeds hosts. Ten thrips species were associated with soybean plants in the field. The most abundant species was T. tabaci, average 256.5 average no.of individuals, followed by F. occidentalis (142.5 average no. of individuals), then N. variabilis (86.6/ average no. of individuals). Fourteen thrips species occurred on 5 legumes field crops and 41 weed plant species within soybean field. The highest average number 40.6.of individuals were recorded on Ammi majus. While the lowest one 3.3 average no. of individuals were on Urtica urens. Only 21diagnostic plant species were susceptible to infection with SVNV. G. max and Vigna radiate, were the highest percentage of infection 80% followed by V. unguilata & N. benthamiana, 75%. Egyptian isolate of Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) in this study showed a high degree of similarity and it is closely related to TSWV from Egypt (DQ479968) and TCSV from USA (KY820965) with nucleotide sequence identity of 78%. Four thrips species transmitted SVNV (F. fusca 4.0%, F. schultzei 4.3%, F. tritici 3.3% and N. variabilis 68.0% transmission). Both C. phaseoli and M. sjostedti can acquire the virus but unable to transmit it. The following species; T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis and T. palmi cannot acquire or transmit SVNV. The incidence of SVNV in the field started by the end of July then increased gradualy from 12.7 to 71.3% by the end of the season. In conclusion, few thrips individuals invaded soybean crops are enough to transmit high rate of SVNV within the crop. Furthermore, several vector species are also abundant on weeds, which are the major sources of soybean viruses transmitted to the crops. This information might be important for control and reduce the incidence of SVNV infection.


Resumo O estudo de pesquisa de campo foi realizado na temporada (2017). A soja e as ervas daninhas foram amostradas semanalmente de forma aleatória. Tripes adultos foram identificados e contados. A detecção do vírus isolado e a incidência natural foram determinadas usando transmissão mecânica, gama de hospedeiros, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. A incidência natural de tripes em indivíduos foi detectada dependendo da % de SVNV em tripes e hospedeiros infestantes. Dez espécies de tripes foram associadas a plantas de soja no campo. A espécie mais abundante foi T. tabaci, com média de 256,5 número médio de indivíduos, seguida por F. occidentalis (142,5) e N. variabilis (86,6 / número médio de indivíduos). Catorze espécies de tripes ocorreram em 5 culturas de leguminosas e 41 espécies de plantas daninhas dentro de campos de soja. O maior número médio de 40,6 indivíduos foi registrado em Ammi majus. Enquanto o mais baixo, 3,3 número médio de indivíduos, foi no Urtica urens. Apenas 21 espécies de plantas diagnosticadas foram suscetíveis à infecção com SVNV. G. max e Vigna radiate foram os maiores percentuais de infecção, 80%, seguidos por V. unguilata e N. benthamiana, 75%. O isolado egípcio neste estudo mostrou um alto grau de similaridade e está intimamente relacionado ao TSWV do Egito (DQ479968) e ao TCSV dos EUA (KY820965), com identidade de sequência de nucleotídeos de 78%. Quatro espécies de tripes transmitiram SVNV (F. fusca 4,0%, F. schultzei 4,3%, F. tritici 3,3% e N. variabilis 68,0% de transmissão). Tanto C. phaseoli quanto M. sjostedti podem adquirir o vírus, mas não podem transmiti-lo. As seguintes espécies, T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis e T. palmi não podem adquirir ou transmitir SVNV. A incidência de SVNV no campo, iniciada no final de julho, aumentou gradativamente de 12,7 para 71,3% no final da temporada. Em conclusão, poucos indivíduos de tripes invadiram a cultura da soja e são suficientes para transmitir alta taxa de SVNV dentro da cultura. Além disso, várias espécies de vetores também abundam em ervas daninhas, que são as principais fontes dos vírus da soja transmitidos às lavouras. Essas informações podem ser importantes para controlar e reduzir a incidência de infecção por SVNV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tospovirus , Plant Diseases , Soybeans , Incidence , Urticaceae , Egypt/epidemiology , Plant Weeds , Necrosis
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246440, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339395

ABSTRACT

Abstract Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative's wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.


Resumo A utilização de técnicas modernas de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de tipos de plantas uniformes e de alto rendimento, em última análise, estreitando a composição genética da maioria das culturas. A composição genética restrita dessas plantações tornou-as vulneráveis a doenças e epidemias de insetos. Para uma produção agrícola sustentável, a variabilidade genética dessas culturas deve ser ampliada contra vários estresses bióticos e abióticos. Uma das maneiras de ampliar a configuração genética dessas culturas é identificar novas fontes adicionais de resistência durável. A esse respeito, os parentes selvagens das culturas estão fornecendo fontes valiosas de diversidade alélica para vários componentes de qualidade e tolerância ao estresse abiótico e biótico. Para incorporar a nova variabilidade da ampla técnica de hibridização de parente selvagem tornou-se um método de reprodução promissor. Para esse efeito, trigo-Th. As linhas anfiploides, de adição e translocação de bessarabicum foram selecionadas em condições de campo e de casa de tela para obter novas fontes de ferrugem amarela e resistência ao bunt de Karnal. A triagem de ferrugem em faixas em condições de campo revelou as linhas de adição 4JJ e 6JJ como resistentes a moderadamente resistentes, enquanto as linhas de adição 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ e as linhas de translocação Tr-3, Tr-6 como estoque genético de trigo-Thinopyrum bessarabicum moderadamente resistente. A triagem Karnal bunt descreveu as linhas de adição 5JJ e 4JJ como estoque genético altamente resistente. Esses estoques genéticos podem ser usados para introgressão da nova ferrugem e resistência ao bunt de Karnal do pool genético terciário em origens de trigo suscetíveis.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/genetics , Triticum/genetics , Plant Diseases/genetics , Chromosomes, Plant , Disease Resistance/genetics , Plant Breeding
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245865, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339368

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a tremendous threat to vegetables across the globe, including in Pakistan. The present work was conducted to investigate the genetic variability of CMV isolates infecting pea and spinach vegetables in the Pothwar region of Pakistan. Serological-based surveys during 2016-2017 revealed 31.70% overall CMV disease incidence from pea and spinach crops. Triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) revealed that all the positive isolates belong to CMV subgroup II. Two selected cDNA from ELISA-positive samples representing each pea and spinach crops were PCR-amplified (ca.1100 bp) and sequenced corresponding to the CMV CP gene which shared 93.7% nucleotide identity with each other. Both the sequences of CMV pea (AAHAP) and spinach (AARS) isolates from Pakistan were submitted to GenBank as accession nos. MH119071 and MH119073, respectively. BLAST analysis revealed 93.4% sequence identity of AAHAP isolate with SpK (KC763473) from Iran while AARS isolate shared maximum identity (94.5%) with the strain 241 (AJ585519) from Australia and clustered with some reference isolates of CMV subgroup II from UK (Z12818) and USA (AF127976) in a Neighbour-joining phylogenetic reconstruction. A total of 59 polymorphic (segregating) sites (S) with nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.06218 was evident while no INDEL event was observed in Pakistani isolates. The evolutionary distance of Pakistani CMV isolates was recorded as 0.0657 with each other and 0.0574-0.2964 with other CMV isolates reported elsewhere in the world. A frequent gene flow (Fst = 0.30478 <0.33) was observed between Pakistani and earlier reported CMV isolates. In genetic differentiation analysis, the value of three permutation-based statistical tests viz; Z (84.3011), Snn (0.82456), and Ks* (4.04042) were non-significant. The statistical analysis revealed the values 2.02535, 0.01468, and 0.71862 of Tajima's D, Fu, & Li's F* and D* respectively, demonstrating that the CMV population is under balancing selection.


Resumo Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) é uma tremenda ameaça aos vegetais em todo o mundo, inclusive no Paquistão. O presente trabalho foi conduzido para investigar a variabilidade genética de isolados de CMV infectando vegetais de ervilha e espinafre na região de Pothwar, Paquistão. Pesquisas com base em sorologia durante 2016-2017 revelaram 31,70% da incidência geral da doença por CMV em safras de ervilha e espinafre. O ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática em sanduíche de anticorpo triplo (TAS-ELISA) revelou que todos os isolados positivos pertencem ao subgrupo II do CMV. Dois cDNA selecionados de amostras positivas para ELISA representando cada safra de ervilha e espinafre foram amplificados por PCR (ca.1100 pb) e sequenciados correspondendo ao gene CMV CP que compartilhou 93,7% de identidade de nucleotídeo um com o outro. Ambas as sequências de isolados de ervilha CMV (AAHAP) e espinafre (AARS) do Paquistão foram submetidas ao GenBank como nos de acesso. MH119071 e MH119073, respectivamente. A análise BLAST revelou 93,4% de identidade de sequência do isolado AAHAP com SpK (KC763473) do Irã, enquanto o isolado AARS compartilhou a identidade máxima (94,5%) com a cepa 241 (AJ585519) da Austrália e agrupada com alguns isolados de referência do subgrupo II de CMV do Reino Unido (Z12818) e EUA (AF127976) em uma reconstrução filogenética vizinha. Um total de 59 sítios polimórficos (segregantes) (S) com diversidade de nucleotídeos (π) de 0,06218 foi evidente, enquanto nenhum evento INDEL foi observado em isolados do Paquistão. A distância evolutiva de isolados de CMV do Paquistão foi registrada como 0,0657 entre si e 0,0574-0,2964 com outros isolados de CMV relatados em outras partes do mundo. Um fluxo gênico frequente (Fst = 0,30478 < 0,33) foi observado entre os isolados de CMV do Paquistão e relatados anteriormente. Na análise de diferenciação genética, os valores de três testes estatísticos baseados em permutação viz, Z (84,3011), Snn (0,82456) e Ks * (4,04042) não foram significativos. A análise estatística revelou os valores 2,02535, 0,01468 e 0,71862 de Tajima's D, Fu, & Li's F * e D * respectivamente, demonstrando que a população de CMV está sob seleção de balanceamento.


Subject(s)
Cucumovirus/genetics , Cucumis sativus , Pakistan , Phylogeny , Plant Diseases , Genetic Variation , Spinacia oleracea , Peas
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244261, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285633

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endophytic bacteria serve key roles in the maintenance of plant health and growth. Few studies to date, however, have explored the antagonistic and plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties of Prunus cerasifera endophytes. To that end, we isolated endophytic bacteria from P. cerasifera tissue samples and used a dual culture plate assay to screen these microbes for antagonistic activity against Verticillium dahliae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum, and F. moniliforme. Of the 36 strains of isolated bacteria, four (strains P1, P10, P16, and P20) exhibited antagonistic effects against all five model pathogens, and the P10 strain exhibited the strongest antagonistic to five pathogens. This P10 strain was then characterized in-depth via phenotypic assessments, physiological analyses, and 16s rDNA sequencing, revealing it to be a strain of Bacillus subtilis. Application of a P10 cell suspension (1×108 CFU/mL) significantly enhanced the seed germination and seedling growth of tomato in a greenhouse setting. This P10 strain further significantly suppressed tomato Verticillium wilt with much lower disease incidence and disease index scores being observed following P10 treatment relative to untreated plants in pot-based experiments. Tomato plants that had been treated with strain P10 also enhanced defense-related enzymes, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity upon V. dahliae challenge relative to plants that had not been treated with this endophytic bacterium. The results revealed that the P10 bacterial strain has potential value as a biocontrol agent for use in the prevention of tomato Verticillium wilt.


Resumo As bactérias endofíticas desempenham papel fundamental na manutenção da saúde e do crescimento das plantas. Poucos estudos até o momento, no entanto, exploraram as propriedades antagônicas e promotoras de crescimento de plantas (PGP) de endófitos de Prunus cerasifera. Para esse fim, isolamos bactérias endofíticas de amostras de tecido de P. cerasifera e usamos um ensaio de placa de cultura dupla para rastrear esses micróbios quanto à atividade antagonista contra Verticillium dahliae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum e F. moniliforme. Das 36 cepas de bactérias isoladas, quatro (cepas P1, P10, P16 e P20) exibiram efeitos antagônicos contra todos os cinco patógenos modelo, e a cepa P10 exibiu o antagonista mais forte para cinco patógenos. Essa cepa P10 foi então caracterizada em profundidade por meio de avaliações fenotípicas, análises fisiológicas e sequenciamento de rDNA 16s, revelando ser uma cepa de Bacillus subtilis. A aplicação de uma suspensão de células P10 (1 × 108 UFC / mL) aumentou significativamente a germinação das sementes e o crescimento das mudas de tomate em casa de vegetação. Essa cepa P10 suprimiu ainda mais a murcha de Verticillium do tomate com incidência de doença muito menor e pontuações de índice de doença sendo observadas após o tratamento com P10 em relação a plantas não tratadas em experimentos baseados em vasos. As plantas de tomate que foram tratadas com a cepa P10 também aumentaram as enzimas relacionadas à defesa, peroxidase, superóxido dismutase e atividade da catalase após o desafio de V. dahliae em relação às plantas que não foram tratadas com essa bactéria endofítica. Os resultados revelaram que a cepa bacteriana P10 tem valor potencial como agente de biocontrole para uso na prevenção da murcha de Verticillium em tomate.


Subject(s)
Lycopersicon esculentum , Verticillium , Prunus domestica , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Ascomycota , Bacillus subtilis , Fusarium
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243692, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278520

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vegetables are an important source of income and high-value crops for small farmers. Chilli (Capsicum spp.) is one of the most economically important vegetables of Pakistan and it is grown throughout the country. It is a rich source of nutrition especially vitamins A, B, C and E along with minerals as folic acid, manganese (Mn), potassium (K) and molybdenum (Mo). Chilli possesses seven times more amount of vitamin C than an orange. Vitamin A, C and beta-carotenoids are strong antioxidants to scavenge the free radicals. Chilli production is restricted due to various biotic factors. Among these viruses, Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) is one of the most destructive and menacing agents that inflicts heavy and colossal losses that accounted for 50% yield loss both in quality and quantity. Pathogen-Derived Resistance (PDR) approach is considered one of the effective approaches to manage plant viruses. In this study, ChiVMV was characterized on a molecular level, the coat protein (CP) gene of the virus was stably transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The transgenic plants were challenged with the virus to evaluate the level of resistance of plants against the virus. It was observed that the plants expressing CP gene have partial resistance against the virus in terms of symptoms' development and virus accumulation. Translation of this technique into elite chilli varieties will be resulted to mitigate the ChiVMV in the crop as well as an economic benefit to the farmers.


Resumo Vegetais são uma importante fonte de renda e culturas de alto valor para os pequenos agricultores. A pimenta-malagueta (Capsicum spp.) é uma das hortaliças mais importantes economicamente do Paquistão e é cultivada em todo o país. É uma rica fonte de nutrição, especialmente vitaminas A, B, C e E com minerais como ácido fólico, manganês (Mn), potássio (K) e molibdênio (Mo). O pimentão possui sete vezes mais vitamina C do que a laranja. Vitaminas A e C e betacarotenoides são antioxidantes fortes para eliminar os radicais livres. A produção de pimenta é restrita devido a vários fatores bióticos. Entre esses vírus, o ChiVMV é o agente mais destrutivo e ameaçador que inflige perdas pesadas e colossais que representam 50% da perda de rendimento, tanto em qualidade quanto em quantidade. A abordagem de resistência derivada de patógenos (PDR) é considerada uma das abordagens eficazes para gerenciar os vírus de plantas. Neste estudo, ChiVMV foi caracterizado em nível molecular e o gene CP do vírus foi transformado de forma estável em plantas Nicotiana benthamiana usando Agrobacterium tumefaciens. As plantas transgênicas foram desafiadas com o vírus para avaliar seu nível de resistência contra o vírus. Observou-se que as plantas que expressam o gene CP apresentam resistência parcial ao vírus em termos de desenvolvimento de sintomas e acúmulo de vírus. A tradução dessa técnica em variedades de pimenta de elite resultará na mitigação do ChiVMV na safra, bem como em benefícios econômicos para os agricultores em termos de melhor rendimento e baixo custo de produção.


Subject(s)
Tobacco/genetics , Potyvirus/genetics , Pakistan , Plant Diseases/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Disease Resistance
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 27-36, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153332

ABSTRACT

Abstract The use of more than one control technique can maximize the reduction of the damages caused by the fungus Asperisporium caricae causal agent of the black spot in the papaya crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the sensitivity of the fungi Hansfordia pulvinata and Acremonium spp. to alternative products with potential for use in the control of the black-spotted ptarmigan. Three isolates of Acremonium spp. (A-598, A-602 and A-617) and an isolate of H. pulvinata (H-611) were grown in BDA medium containing Agro-Mos®, Bion®, Ecolife®, Hortifospk®, Matriz G®, Vitaphol® separately. The Amistar 500WG ® fungicide was used as a positive control and pure BDA as a negative control. The toxicity of the tested products was determined based on the values of the biological index, derived from the means of mycelial growth, sporulation and germination of conidia, in each experimental unit. In this way it was possible to select the products classified as compatible for all isolates, and to test them in vivo. In the greenhouse, only the isolates and isolates with selected products, were applied in papaya plants with foliar symptoms of black-spotted. The incidence of leaves with hyperparasites and the percentage of black-painted lesions colonized by the tested isolates were evaluated. Thus, the H-611 isolate proved to be compatible with most of the alternative products tested, except with Hortifos®. Bion® and Matrix® products were compatible with all tested isolates and could be used in conjunction with Acremonium spp. and H. pulvinata to control the papaya black spot, since these products did not present toxicity on the hyperparasitic fungi.


Resumo O uso de mais de uma técnica de controle pode maximizar a redução dos danos causados pelo fungo Asperisporium caricae agente causal da pinta preta na cultura do mamoeiro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade dos fungos Hansfordia pulvinata e Acremonium spp. a produtos alternativos com potencial para uso no controle da pinta-preta. Três isolados de Acremonium spp. (A-598, A-602 e A-617) e um isolado de H. pulvinata (H-611) foram cultivados em meio BDA contendo Agro-Mos®, Bion®, Ecolife®, Hortifospk®, Matriz G®, Vitaphol® separadamente. Fungicida Amistar 500WG® foi utilizado como controle positivo e BDA puro, como controle negativo. A toxicidade dos produtos testados foi determinada com base nos valores do índice biológico, provenientes das médias do crescimento micelial, esporulação e germinação de conídios, em cada unidade experimental. Dessa forma foi possível selecionar os produtos classificados como compatíveis para todos os isolados, e testá-los in vivo. Em casa de vegetação, somente os isolados e os isolados com produtos selecionados, foram aplicados em plantas de mamoeiro com sintomas foliares de pinta-preta. Avaliaram-se a incidência de folhas com hiperparasitas e a porcentagem de lesões de pinta-preta colonizadas pelos isolados testados. Assim o isolado H-611 mostrou-se compatível com a maioria dos produtos alternativos testados, exceto com Hortifos®. Os produtos Bion® e Matriz® apresentaram compatibilidade com todos os isolados testados, podendo ser utilizados em conjunto com o Acremonium spp. e H. pulvinata para controlar a pinta-preta do mamoeiro, uma vez que estes produtos não apresentaram toxidade sobre os fungos hiperparasitas.


Subject(s)
Carica , Plant Diseases , Ascomycota
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 11-17, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153310

ABSTRACT

Abstract Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a pathogen responsible for rice bacterial leaf blight, produces biofilm to protect viable Xoo cells from antimicrobial agents. A study was conducted to determine the potency of Acacia mangium methanol (AMMH) leaf extract as a Xoo biofilm inhibitor. Four concentrations (3.13, 6.25, 9.38, and 12.5 mg/mL) of AMMH leaf extract were tested for their ability to inhibit Xoo biofilm formation on a 96-well microtiter plate. The results showed that the negative controls had the highest O.D. values from other treatments, indicating the intense formation of biofilm. This was followed by the positive control (Streptomycin sulfate, 0.2 mg/mL) and AMMH leaf extract at concentration 3.13 mg/mL, which showed no significant differences in their O.D. values (1.96 and 1.57, respectively). All other treatments at concentrations of 6.25, 9.38, and 12.5 mg/mL showed no significant differences in their O.D. values (0.91, 0.79, and 0.53, respectively). For inhibition percentages, treatment with concentration 12.5 mg/mL gave the highest result (81.25%) followed by treatment at concentrations 6.25 and 9.38 mg/mL that showed no significant differences in their inhibition percentage (67.75% and 72.23%, respectively). Concentration 3.13 mg/mL resulted in 44.49% of biofilm inhibition and the positive control resulted in 30.75% of biofilm inhibition. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis of Xoo biofilm inhibition and breakdown showed the presence of non-viable Xoo cells and changes in aggregation size due to increase in AMMH leaf extract concentration. Control slides showed the absence of Xoo dead cells.


Resumo Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), um patogênico responsável pela influência bacteriana na folha do arroz, produz biofilme para proteger células Xoo viáveis de agentes antimicrobianos. Foi conduzido um estudo para determinar a potência do extrato de folha de Acacia mangium methanol (AMMH) como um inibidor de biofilme Xoo. Quatro concentrações (3,13, 6,25, 9,38 e 12,5 mg/mL) de extrato de folha de AMMH foram testadas quanto à sua capacidade de inibir a formação de biofilme Xoo em uma placa de microtitulação de 96 poços. Os resultados mostraram que os controles negativos tiveram o maior valor de OD do que os outros tratamentos, indicando a intensa formação de biofilme. Isso foi seguido do controle positivo (sulfato de estreptomicina, com concentração de 0,2 mg/mL, e extrato de folha de AMMH, com concentração de 3,13 mg/mL), que não apresentou diferenças significativas nos seus valores OD (1,96 e 1,57, respectivamente). Todos os outros tratamentos com concentrações de 6,25, 9,38, e 12,5 mg/mL não tiveram diferenças significativas nos seus valores OD (0,91, 0,79, e 0,53, respectivamente). Para percentagens de inibição, o tratamento com concentração 12,5 mg/mL apresentou o maior resultado (81,25%), seguido do tratamento em concentrações de 6,25 e 9,38 mg/mL, que não mostraram diferenças significativas na sua percentagem de inibição (67,75 e 72,23%, respectivamente). Concentração 3,13 mg/mL resultou em 44,49% de inibição do biofilme, e o controle positivo resultou em 30,75% de inibição do biofilme. Análise por microscopia confocal de leitura a laser de inibição e separação de biofilme Xoo revelou a presença de células Xoo não viáveis e alterações no tamanho da agregação por causa do aumento na concentração de extrato de folha de AMMH. Slides de controle mostraram a ausência de células Xoo mortas.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Acacia , Plant Diseases , Xanthomonas , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Biofilms , Methanol
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888049

ABSTRACT

Trollius chinensis is a traditional Chinese medicinal material in China, the wild resource of T. chinensis are now exhausted, and commercial medicinal T. chinensis mainly depends on artificial cultivation. As one of the most severely happened diseases at the seedling period, damping off has been a serious threaten to the breeding of T. chinensis seedlings. However, no related research have been reported so far. So, the authors collected damping-off samples of T. chinensis in 2018 from seedling breeding nursery in Guyuan, Hebei province, and carried out study on taxonomic identification of the pathogen. Damping off occurs in the T. chinensis production area from mid-May to late June every year. At the beginning, brown lesions were observed on the basal stem, then the lesions circumferential expanded and constricted, and finally resulted in the fall and death of T. chinensis seedlings. Pathogenic isolate was growing rapidly on the PDA medium, well developed aerial mycelia were grey white at first, then turned brown gradually, and a great number of small dark brown sclerotia were developed in the middle and periphery of the colony. Mycelial diameter of the pathogen was about 7 to 10 μm, near right angle or acute angle branches, near branches with septa, branches and septa with constriction. After the healthy T. chinensis seedlings were inoculated by pathogenic isolate, damping-off was observed soon, and the symptom was as same as those observed in the field. Through homogenous blast, the rDNA-ITS sequence of the pathogenic isolate shown 99.49% to 99.84% homology with Rhizoctonia solani, R. solani AG-1 IC mycelium anastomosis group and Thanatephorus cucumeris, the sexual type of Rhizoctonia. Furthermore, obvious mycelial anastomosis phenomena were observed when the pathogenic isolate and R. solani AG-1 IC strain were confronting cultured. Based on the results above, the pathogenic isolate causing damping off of T. chinensis was identified as R. solani AG-1 IC mycelial anastomosis group. RESULTS:: in the present work have important significance for further research on basic biology of the pathogen and integrated control of damping off causing by it on T. chinensis.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Plant Breeding , Plant Diseases , Rhizoctonia , Seedlings
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888008

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants are beneficial to human health. However,most of the major producing regions of medicinal plants suffer from rust disease,which threatens the yield and quality of Chinese medicinal materials,thus causes huge economic loss,and hinders the sustainable development of the Chinese medicine industry. By the end of 2020,rust disease had been reported in medicinal plants of 76 species and 33 families. In the 76 species,79 rust pathogens were detected. The majority of these pathogens belonged to Puccinia( 33,39. 24%),Coleosporium( 14,15. 19%),and Aecidium( 11,13. 92%). Of these 79 rust pathogens,10 were autoecious and 13 were heteroecious. Through literature research,this study reviewed the symptoms,pathogen species,severity and distribution,prevalence and occurrence conditions,and control measures of rust disease in medicinal plants,and thereby summarized the research status of rust disease in medicinal plants and the gap with other plants,which is expected to serve as a reference for further research on rust disease in medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/genetics , Humans , Plant Diseases , Plants, Medicinal
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 43-50, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rice sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) and tobacco mosaic virus are very important plant diseases, causing a huge loss in global crop production. Paenibacillus kribbensis PS04 is a broad-spectrum biocontrol agent, used for controlling these diseases. Previously, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) from P. kribbensis PS04 had been purified and their structure was inferred to be fructosan. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous EPS treatment on plant­pathogen interactions. RESULTS: Plant defense genes such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, catalase, chitinase, allene oxide synthase, and PR1a proteins were significantly induced by exogenous EPS treatment. Moreover, subsequent challenge of EPSpretreated plants with the pathogens (R. solani or tobacco mosaic virus) resulted in higher expression of defenseassociated genes. Increased activities of defense-associated enzymes, total phenols, and flavonoids were also observed in EPS pretreated plants. The contents of malondialdehyde in plants, which act as indicator of lipid peroxidation, were reduced by EPS treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study comprehensively showed that EPS produced from P. kribbensis PS04 enhances disease resistance in plants by the activation of defense-associated genes as well as through the enhancement of activities of defense-related enzymes.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/immunology , Rhizoctonia/pathogenicity , Tobacco Mosaic Virus/pathogenicity , Paenibacillus/immunology , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Polysaccharides, Bacterial , Pest Control, Biological , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Paenibacillus/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fructose/analogs & derivatives
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 691-701, 01-05-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146440

ABSTRACT

The application of chemical pesticides for the control of fungal diseases results in impacts on the environment and human health. The use of vegetal extracts with antifungal properties for the proper management of crops becomes a viable alternative, mainly for organic and family farming. The objective of this study was to carry out the phytochemical evaluation of Datura inoxia, evaluating its antifungal potential against the mycelial growth of Fusarium solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The extracts, aqueous and ethanolic, obtained from the leaves of the plant collected in areas of the municipality of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, were submitted to phytochemical prospecting and quantification of flavonoids and total phenols. It was evaluated its antifungal activity at concentrations of 800, 1200, 1600, 2000, and 2400 µg 100 mL-1. Each concentration was separately incorporated into BDA agar, poured into Petri dishes, and inoculated with the mycelial disc of the fungus. The diameter of the colonies were measured daily. Two solutions were prepared as control, one containing the solvent added to PDA medium (ethanol solution), and another with only PDA medium (without D. inoxia extract, control). In both extracts were found the same diversity of secondary metabolites (nine classes). The ethanolic extract, a solvent of lower polarity than water, was more efficient in the extraction of these constituents. Alkaloids and phenolic compounds were the most frequent compounds (100%). In relation to antifungal activity, the ethanolic extract provided 100% inhibition of mycelial growth ofSclerotinia sclerotitorum in all concentrations, relative to the control. On the other hand, the growth ofFusarium solani was only negatively affected at the highest concentrations of 800 and 1200 µmL-1 100 mL-1. The antifungal potential of Datura inoxia was probably related to the abundance of alkaloids and phenolic compounds in its chemical constitution that negatively effects the development of the vegetative mycelium.


A aplicação de defensivos químicos para o controle de doenças fúngicas tem por consequência impactos sobre o ambiente e a saúde humana. Desta forma, a utilização de extratos vegetais com propriedades antifúngicas associado ao manejo adequado de culturas, torna-se uma proposta viável de controle alternativo, principalmente na agricultura orgânica e familiar. Neste sentido, objetivou-se realizar a avaliação fitoquímica das folhas de Datura inoxia, avaliando seu potencial antifúngico frente ao crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Os extratos, aquoso e etanólico, obtidos das folhas da planta coletadas em áreas do município de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, foram submetidos à prospecção fitoquímica e quantificação flavonoides e fenóis totais, avaliando-se sua atividade antifúngica em concentrações de 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 e 2400 µg 100 mL-1. Cada concentração foi incorporada, separadamente, em ágar BDA, vertida em placas de petri, seguida da colocação do disco de micélio do fungo, com diâmetro das colônias sendo medido diariamente. Utilizou-se como controle negativo, ágar sem extrato e ágar com solução etanólica. Nos dois extratos ocorreu a mesma diversidade de metabólitos secundários (nove classes); porém o extrato etanólico, um solvente de menor polaridade que a água, foi mais eficiente na extração destes constituintes, com destaque aos alcaloides e compostos fenólicos com maior frequência (100%). Em relação a atividade antifúngica, o extrato etanólico proporcionou inibição de 100% do crescimento micelial de Sclerotinia sclerotitorum, em todas as concentrações, em relação a testemunha. Por outro lado, o crescimento de Fusarium solani foi afetado negativamente apenas nas maiores concentrações, 800 e 1200 µmL-1 100 mL-1.O potencial antifúngico da planta provavelmente está relacionado a sua constituição química, com abundância de alcaloides e compostos fenólicos, afetando negativamente o desenvolvimento do micélio vegetativo.


Subject(s)
Soil , Plant Extracts , Datura metel , Fungi , Pesticides , Plant Diseases , Ascomycota , Control , Phenolic Compounds , Phytochemicals , Fusarium , Noxae
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 14-18, Mar. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although bioactive metabolites capable of causing oxidative photo-necrosis in plant tissues have been identified in fungi, little is known about this type of mechanism in bacteria. These metabolites act as photosensitizers that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of causing damage to cells. In addition, these metabolites can pass into an energetically excited state when they receive some luminous stimulus, a condition in which they interact with other molecules present in the environment, such as molecular oxygen (O2), also known as triplet oxygen (3 O2), generating ROS. RESULTS: The suspension of the bacterial culture of Pseudomonas cedrina was shown to produce foliar necrosis in papaya leaves (Carica papaya L.) only in the presence of sunlight, which is evidence of photosensitizing mechanisms that generate singlet oxygen (1 O2). From the chemical study of extracts obtained from this bacteria, 3-(4-(2-carboxipropyl) phenyl) but-2-enoic acid (1) was isolated. This compound, in the presence of light and triplet oxygen (3 O2), was able to oxidize ergosterol to its peroxide, since it acted as a photosensitizer producing 1 O2, with which it was corroborated that a photosensitization reaction occurs, mechanism by which this bacterium could prove to cause oxidative foliar photo-necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: P. cedrina was able to induce oxidative foliar photo-necrosis because of its potential ability to produce photosensitizing metabolites that generate singlet oxygen in the plants it colonizes. Based on the above, it can be proposed that some bacteria can cause oxidative foliar photo-necrosis as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of host species.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/microbiology , Pseudomonas/physiology , Carica/microbiology , Singlet Oxygen/metabolism , Pseudomonas/metabolism , Acids , Reactive Oxygen Species , Plant Leaves/microbiology , Photooxidation , Light , Necrosis
14.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180428, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132198

ABSTRACT

Abstract Development of transgenic Bt crops with stable and high level of Bt protein expression over generations under different environmental conditions is critical for successful deployment at field level. In the present study, progenies of transgenic cotton Coker310 event, CH12 expressing novel cry2AX1 gene were evaluated in T3 generation for stable integration, expression and resistance against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The cry2AX1 gene showed stable inheritance and integration in the T3 progeny plants as revealed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. The expression of Cry2AX1 protein on 90 days after sowing (DAS) was in the range of 1.055 to 1.5 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue except one plant which showed 0.806 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue and after 30 days (i.e., on 120 DAS) three plants recorded in between 0.69 to 0.82 µg/g and other plants are in range of 0.918 to 1.058 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue. Detached leaf bit bioassay in T3 progeny on 110 DAS recorded mortality of 73.33 to 93.33 per cent against H. armigera and severe growth retardation in surviving larvae. These results indicate that the expression of chimeric cry2AX1 is stable and exhibits insecticidal activity against H. armigera in T3 progeny of CH12 event of transgenic cotton.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/pathogenicity , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Moths , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plants, Toxic , Biological Assay , Plants, Genetically Modified
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 949-958, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826881

ABSTRACT

Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), one of the major viral diseases of Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit., has had a serious impact on its yield and quality. The construction of viral infectious clones is a powerful tool for reverse genetics research on viral gene function and interaction between virus and host. To clarify the molecular mechanism of SMV infection in Pinellia ternata, it is particularly important to construct the SMV full-length cDNA infectious clone. Therefore, the infectious clone of Soybean mosaic virus Shanxi Pinellia ternata isolate (SMV-SXBX) was constructed in this study by Gibson in vitro recombination system, and the healthy Pinellia ternata leaves were inoculated by Agrobacterium infiltration, further through mechanical passage and RT-PCR, confirming that the 3' end of the SMV-SXBX infectious clone had a stable infectivity when it contained 56-nt of poly(A) tail. This method is not only convenient and efficient, but also avoids the instability of SMV infectious clones in Escherichia coli. The construction of SMV full-length infectious cDNA clones laid the foundation for further study on the molecular mechanism of SMV replication and pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
DNA, Complementary , Pinellia , Virology , Plant Diseases , Virology , Potyvirus , Metabolism
16.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0202019, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1118082

ABSTRACT

Induced resistance emerges as an alternative method for controlling plant diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of biotic and abiotic resistance inducers for controlling white rust in rocket (Eruca sativa), as well as biochemical changes (peroxidase) and fitness costs. The experiments were developed with the abiotic inducers acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) (12.5, 25, and 50 mg ai L-1) and citrus biomass (CB) (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5%), as well as with the biotic ones Saccharomyces cerevisiae (25 mg mL-1), Bacillus thuringiensis (25 mg p.c. mL-1), Saccharomyces boulardii (25 mg mL-1), and phosphorylated mannan oligosaccharide (PMO) (0.25%), in preventive and curative interventions. Fungicide mancozeb (1.6 g ai L-1), Bordeaux mixture (1%), and water were the control treatments. Leaf samples were collected 3, 7, 11, 15, and 19 days after the treatments to determine peroxidases and assess the severity and production. Concerning abiotic inducers, all doses of ASM and CB 0.5% (preventive) and CB 0.25% (curative) reduced the severity of white rust, whereas, among biotic inducers, only PMO applied preventively controlled the disease. Peroxidase activity was higher for CB 0.25% and ASM 50 mg L-1. Bordeaux mixture induced higher peroxidase activity.(AU)


A indução de resistência surge como um método alternativo para o controle de doenças em plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de indutores de resistência bióticos e abióticos no controle de ferrugem branca em rúcula (Eruca sativa), bem como alterações bioquímicas (peroxidase) e o impacto na produção. Foram desenvolvidos experimentos com os indutores abióticos acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM) (12,5; 25 e 50 mg i.a. L-1) e biomassa cítrica (BC) (0,1; 0,25 e 0,5%), e os bióticos Saccharomyces cerevisiae (25 mg p.c. mL-1), Bacillus thuringiensis (25 mg p.c. mL-1), Saccharomyces boulardii (25 mg p.c. mL-1) e manano-oligossacarídeo fosforilado (MOF) (0,25%), sendo aplicados preventiva e curativamente. Como controles foram utilizados o fungicida mancozeb (1,6 g i.a. L-1), calda bordalesa (1%) e água. Amostras de folhas foram coletadas aos 3, 7, 11, 15 e 19 dias após os tratamentos para a determinação de peroxidases, e avaliações de severidade e produção. Entre os indutores abióticos, todas as doses de ASM e BC 0,5% (preventivamente) e BC 0,25% (curativamente) reduziram a severidade da ferrugem branca, enquanto entre os indutores bióticos, apenas o MOF aplicado preventivamente, controlou a doença. A atividade de peroxidase foi superior para BC 0,25% e ASM 50 mg L-1. O tratamento com calda bordalesa também incrementou a atividade de peroxidase.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases , Saccharomyces , Bacillus thuringiensis , Peroxidase , Brassicaceae , Efficiency
17.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0832019, 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130144

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to develop and validate a standard area diagram (SAD) set to estimate the severity of bacterial blight of eucalyptus caused by Erwinia psidii. For this purpose, an eight-level SAD was developed and validated by ten inexperienced raters. Accuracy and precision of the estimates by each rater, with and without the SAD, were determined based on Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. The proposed SAD improved the accuracy and precision of the estimates. The SAD set studied here is a useful tool in assessments of bacterial blight of eucalyptus for epidemiological research and breeding programs.(AU)


Este trabalho objetivou o desenvolvimento de uma escala para estimar a severidade da seca-de-ponteiros do eucalipto causada por Erwinia psidii. Para isso, uma escala de oito níveis foi desenvolvida e validada por dez avaliadores inexperientes. A acurácia e precisão das estimativas de cada avaliador, com e sem a escala, foram determinadas baseadas no coeficiente de correlação concordante de Lin. A escala proposta melhorou a acurácia e a precisão das estimativas. A escala estudada se mostrou uma ferramenta útil na avaliação da seca-de-ponteiros do eucalipto para estudos epidemiológicos e em programas de melhoramento.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/classification , Erwinia , Eucalyptus/microbiology , Reproducibility of Results
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 37: 11-17, Jan. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wheat is one of the most important crops cultivated all over the world. New high-yielding cultivars that are more resistant to fungal diseases have been permanently developed. The present study aimed at the possibility of accelerating the process of breeding new cultivars, resistant to eyespot, by using doubled haploids (DH) system supported by marker-assisted selection. RESULTS: Two highly resistant breeding lines (KBP 0916 and KBH 4942/05) carrying Pch1 gene were crossed with the elite wheat genotypes. Hybrid plants of early generations were analyzed using endopeptidase EpD1 and two SSR markers linked to the Pch1 locus. Selected homozygous and heterozygous genotypes for the Pch1-linked EpD1b allele were used to produce haploid plants. Molecular analyses were performed on haploids to identify plants possessing Pch1 gene. Chromosome doubling was performed only on haploid plants with Pch1 gene. Finally, 65 DH lines carrying eyespot resistance gene Pch1 and 30 lines without this gene were chosen for the eyespot resistance phenotyping in a field experiment. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the experiment confirmed higher resistance to eyespot of the genotypes with Pch1 in comparison to those without this gene. This indicates the efficiency of selection at the haploid level.


Subject(s)
Selection, Genetic , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/metabolism , Haploidy , Plant Diseases , Breeding/methods , Gene Expression , Microsatellite Repeats , Genotype
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 742-748, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001482

ABSTRACT

Abstract Citrus fruit production occupies a place of considerable importance in the economy of the world including Pakistan. Tristeza disease caused by Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) exists in various forms that may or may not cause symptoms in the plants. The bioactive compounds and antioxidants are naturally present in plants and provide a defense mechanism that is generally accelerated in response to a stress. The objective of the present study was to target and analyze the citrus plants that were CTV positive to observe the changes in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants of citrus (Sweet Oranges only). It was observed that in response to CTV infection, both the non-enzymatic antioxidants (total flavonoid, ascorbic acid, phenolic acid) and enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) activities showed an increasing trend overall. The profiling of antioxidants in response to a viral infection may help in the discovery of new biomarkers that can be used as a monitoring tool in disease management.


Resumo As frutas cítricas ocupam um lugar de considerável importância na economia do Paquistão, assim como o resto do mundo. A doença da tristeza causada pelo Vírus da Tristeza dos Citros (CTV) existe em várias formas que podem ou não apresentar sintomas nas plantas. Os compostos bioativos e antioxidantes estão naturalmente presentes nas plantas e fornecem um mecanismo de defesa que é geralmente acelerado em resposta a um estresse. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar as alterações causadas pelo CTV nos antioxidantes enzimáticos e não enzimáticos de laranjas doces. Foi observado que, em resposta ao ataque de CTV, os antioxidantes não enzimáticos como flavonoides totais, ácido ascórbico, ácido fenólico e antioxidantes enzimáticos, como as atividades de catalase, superóxido dismutase e peroxidase, geralmente mostram uma tendência crescente. O perfil de antioxidantes em resposta a um ataque viral pode ajudar na descoberta de novos biomarcadores que podem ser usados ​​como uma ferramenta de monitoramento no gerenciamento de doenças.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plant Diseases/virology , Closterovirus/physiology , Citrus sinensis/enzymology , Citrus sinensis/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/classification , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Catalase/analysis , Peroxidase/analysis
20.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 65-70, July. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053486

ABSTRACT

Background: In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Msn2, which acts as a key transcription factor downstream the MAPKHOG cascade pathway, also regulates the expression of genes related to stress responses. However, little is known about the regulation mechanisms of the transcription factor in Setosphaeria turcica. Results: In this study, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein, designated as StMSN2, was cloned from S. turcica. Sequencing results showed that StMSN2 had a 1752 bp open reading frame (ORF), which was interrupted by an intron (135 bp) and encoded a putative 538-amino acid protein. Phylogenetic analysis further revealed that StMsn2 was more closely related to Msn2 of Aspergillus parasiticus. StMSN2 was cloned into the pET-28a vector with His (Histidine) tags and induced with 1 mM IPTG (isopropyl-ß-D-thiogalactoside) at 37°C. The recombinant His-tagged StMsn2 was purified, and a band of size approximately 58.8 kDa was obtained. The high specificity of the polyclonal antibody Msn2-2 was detected with the StMsn2 protein from S. turcica and prokaryotic expression system, respectively. Conclusions: A new gene, named StMSN2, with 1617 bp ORF was cloned from S. turcica and characterized using bioinformatics methods. StMsn2 was expressed and purified in a prokaryotic system. A polyclonal antibody, named Msn2-2, against StMsn2 with high specificity was identified.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases , Ascomycota/genetics , Ascomycota/pathogenicity , Transcription Factors/isolation & purification , Ascomycota/metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Carrier Proteins , Gene Expression , Blotting, Western , Open Reading Frames , Zinc Fingers , Cloning, Molecular , Zea mays , Escherichia coli , Helminthosporium , Epitopes
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