Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 32
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244261, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285633

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endophytic bacteria serve key roles in the maintenance of plant health and growth. Few studies to date, however, have explored the antagonistic and plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties of Prunus cerasifera endophytes. To that end, we isolated endophytic bacteria from P. cerasifera tissue samples and used a dual culture plate assay to screen these microbes for antagonistic activity against Verticillium dahliae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum, and F. moniliforme. Of the 36 strains of isolated bacteria, four (strains P1, P10, P16, and P20) exhibited antagonistic effects against all five model pathogens, and the P10 strain exhibited the strongest antagonistic to five pathogens. This P10 strain was then characterized in-depth via phenotypic assessments, physiological analyses, and 16s rDNA sequencing, revealing it to be a strain of Bacillus subtilis. Application of a P10 cell suspension (1×108 CFU/mL) significantly enhanced the seed germination and seedling growth of tomato in a greenhouse setting. This P10 strain further significantly suppressed tomato Verticillium wilt with much lower disease incidence and disease index scores being observed following P10 treatment relative to untreated plants in pot-based experiments. Tomato plants that had been treated with strain P10 also enhanced defense-related enzymes, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity upon V. dahliae challenge relative to plants that had not been treated with this endophytic bacterium. The results revealed that the P10 bacterial strain has potential value as a biocontrol agent for use in the prevention of tomato Verticillium wilt.


Resumo As bactérias endofíticas desempenham papel fundamental na manutenção da saúde e do crescimento das plantas. Poucos estudos até o momento, no entanto, exploraram as propriedades antagônicas e promotoras de crescimento de plantas (PGP) de endófitos de Prunus cerasifera. Para esse fim, isolamos bactérias endofíticas de amostras de tecido de P. cerasifera e usamos um ensaio de placa de cultura dupla para rastrear esses micróbios quanto à atividade antagonista contra Verticillium dahliae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum e F. moniliforme. Das 36 cepas de bactérias isoladas, quatro (cepas P1, P10, P16 e P20) exibiram efeitos antagônicos contra todos os cinco patógenos modelo, e a cepa P10 exibiu o antagonista mais forte para cinco patógenos. Essa cepa P10 foi então caracterizada em profundidade por meio de avaliações fenotípicas, análises fisiológicas e sequenciamento de rDNA 16s, revelando ser uma cepa de Bacillus subtilis. A aplicação de uma suspensão de células P10 (1 × 108 UFC / mL) aumentou significativamente a germinação das sementes e o crescimento das mudas de tomate em casa de vegetação. Essa cepa P10 suprimiu ainda mais a murcha de Verticillium do tomate com incidência de doença muito menor e pontuações de índice de doença sendo observadas após o tratamento com P10 em relação a plantas não tratadas em experimentos baseados em vasos. As plantas de tomate que foram tratadas com a cepa P10 também aumentaram as enzimas relacionadas à defesa, peroxidase, superóxido dismutase e atividade da catalase após o desafio de V. dahliae em relação às plantas que não foram tratadas com essa bactéria endofítica. Os resultados revelaram que a cepa bacteriana P10 tem valor potencial como agente de biocontrole para uso na prevenção da murcha de Verticillium em tomate.


Subject(s)
Solanum lycopersicum , Verticillium , Prunus domestica , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Ascomycota , Bacillus subtilis , Fusarium
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180428, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132198

ABSTRACT

Abstract Development of transgenic Bt crops with stable and high level of Bt protein expression over generations under different environmental conditions is critical for successful deployment at field level. In the present study, progenies of transgenic cotton Coker310 event, CH12 expressing novel cry2AX1 gene were evaluated in T3 generation for stable integration, expression and resistance against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The cry2AX1 gene showed stable inheritance and integration in the T3 progeny plants as revealed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. The expression of Cry2AX1 protein on 90 days after sowing (DAS) was in the range of 1.055 to 1.5 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue except one plant which showed 0.806 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue and after 30 days (i.e., on 120 DAS) three plants recorded in between 0.69 to 0.82 µg/g and other plants are in range of 0.918 to 1.058 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue. Detached leaf bit bioassay in T3 progeny on 110 DAS recorded mortality of 73.33 to 93.33 per cent against H. armigera and severe growth retardation in surviving larvae. These results indicate that the expression of chimeric cry2AX1 is stable and exhibits insecticidal activity against H. armigera in T3 progeny of CH12 event of transgenic cotton.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/pathogenicity , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Moths , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plants, Toxic , Biological Assay , Plants, Genetically Modified
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1047-1052, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008470

ABSTRACT

Leaf blight is the main disease of Asarum. At present, chemical treatment is main measure for disease control, and there is no report on biological control. In order to achieve the biological control of Asarum leaf blight, the biocontrol strains with antagonistic effect on Asarum leaf blight were screened. The rhizosphere bacteria of healthy Asarum plants were isolated by soil dilution method, and the isolated strains were screened by the methods of antagonistic antifungal and fermentation liquid antifungal, then the strains were identified and the control effect in vivo was determined. Abiocontrol bacterial strains S2-31 which with high antagonism to leaf blight was obtained from more than 100 isolated strains. The inhibitory rates of antagonistic antifungal and fermentation liquid antifungal reached 92.47% and 60.56%, respectively. It was identified by morphology and 16 S rDNA sequence analysis, and the strain was identified as Brevibacillus laterosporus. The results of indoor potted experiment showed that the control effect was 79.87%, 71.44% and 66.82% on the 3 rd, 5 th and 7 th day after inoculation, respectively, which indicated that S2-31 could reduce the disease index and control the development of Asarum leaf blight.


Subject(s)
Antibiosis , Asarum/microbiology , Biological Control Agents , DNA, Ribosomal , Firmicutes , Fungi/pathogenicity , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Rhizosphere , Soil Microbiology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 742-748, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001482

ABSTRACT

Abstract Citrus fruit production occupies a place of considerable importance in the economy of the world including Pakistan. Tristeza disease caused by Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) exists in various forms that may or may not cause symptoms in the plants. The bioactive compounds and antioxidants are naturally present in plants and provide a defense mechanism that is generally accelerated in response to a stress. The objective of the present study was to target and analyze the citrus plants that were CTV positive to observe the changes in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants of citrus (Sweet Oranges only). It was observed that in response to CTV infection, both the non-enzymatic antioxidants (total flavonoid, ascorbic acid, phenolic acid) and enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) activities showed an increasing trend overall. The profiling of antioxidants in response to a viral infection may help in the discovery of new biomarkers that can be used as a monitoring tool in disease management.


Resumo As frutas cítricas ocupam um lugar de considerável importância na economia do Paquistão, assim como o resto do mundo. A doença da tristeza causada pelo Vírus da Tristeza dos Citros (CTV) existe em várias formas que podem ou não apresentar sintomas nas plantas. Os compostos bioativos e antioxidantes estão naturalmente presentes nas plantas e fornecem um mecanismo de defesa que é geralmente acelerado em resposta a um estresse. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar as alterações causadas pelo CTV nos antioxidantes enzimáticos e não enzimáticos de laranjas doces. Foi observado que, em resposta ao ataque de CTV, os antioxidantes não enzimáticos como flavonoides totais, ácido ascórbico, ácido fenólico e antioxidantes enzimáticos, como as atividades de catalase, superóxido dismutase e peroxidase, geralmente mostram uma tendência crescente. O perfil de antioxidantes em resposta a um ataque viral pode ajudar na descoberta de novos biomarcadores que podem ser usados ​​como uma ferramenta de monitoramento no gerenciamento de doenças.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plant Diseases/virology , Closterovirus/physiology , Citrus sinensis/enzymology , Citrus sinensis/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/classification , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Catalase/analysis , Peroxidase/analysis
5.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 84-94, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010445

ABSTRACT

Peach brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola, is one of the most serious peach diseases. A strain belonging to the Actinomycetales, named Streptomyces blastmyceticus JZB130180, was found to have a strong inhibitory effect on M. fructicola in confrontation culture. Following the inoculation of peaches in vitro, it was revealed that the fermentation broth of S. blastmyceticus JZB130180 had a significant inhibitory effect on disease development by M. fructicola. The fermentation broth of S. blastmyceticus JZB130180 had an EC50 (concentration for 50% of maximal effect) of 38.3 µg/mL against M. fructicola, as determined in an indoor toxicity test. Analysis of the physicochemical properties of the fermentation broth revealed that it was tolerant of acid and alkaline conditions, temperature, and ultraviolet radiation. In addition, chitinase, cellulase, and protease were also found to be secreted by the strain. The results of this study suggest that S. blastmyceticus JZB130180 may be used for the biocontrol of peach brown rot.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/pathogenicity , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Cell Wall/metabolism , Cellulase/metabolism , Chitinases/metabolism , Fermentation , Fruit/microbiology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Phylogeny , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Prunus persica/microbiology , Siderophores/metabolism , Streptomyces/physiology
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3954-3959, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008311

ABSTRACT

Through investigation,it was found that the main disease of leaves was grey mold on Dendrobium officinale in Hubei province,which has a great impact on the yield and quality of D. officinale. The identification of morphological and molecular biological was used to prove that the pathogen was Botrytis cinerea. Through test the effect of 5 plant source fungicides and 4 antibiotic fungicides on mycelial growth of strain HS1,which proved 0. 3% eugenol had the best inhibitory effect,EC50 was 0. 29 mg·L-1,the second was1% osthol and EC50 was 1. 12 mg·L-1,the EC50 of 0. 5% matrine was 9. 16 mg·L-1,the EC50 of the other six fungicides was higher than 10 mg·L-1. The field control effect test proved that 0. 3% eugenol had the best control effect,reaching 89. 44%,secondly for 1%osthole,which was 77. 17%,0. 5% matrine was in the third place with 62. 37% of effective rate. However,the control effect of the other fungicides was less than 60%. The three plant-derived fungicides were safe for the produce of D. officinale and showed no phytotoxicity. The effect of these fungicides on the growth of D. candidum was tested,and proved that all the fungicides were safe and harmless to D. candidum. This study provides a research basis for the safe and effective prevention and control gray mold of D. officinale.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Botrytis/pathogenicity , Coumarins , Dendrobium/microbiology , Eugenol , Fungicides, Industrial , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plant Leaves/microbiology , Quinolizines , Matrines
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3942-3947, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008309

ABSTRACT

The Astragalus membranaceus root rot disease,a soil-borne disease,has become increasingly severe in Shanxi province.This study was aimed at getting antagonistic Bacillus with excellent bio-control effects,and determining its effects on bacterial communities in root zone soil. With Fusarium solani and F. acuminatum as the target,antagonistic Bacillus was selected through such tests as living body dual culture,antifungal effect of bacteria-free filtrate,mycelia growth inhibition in vitro and control effect in detached roots,and identified with morphology,physio-biochemical characteristics and 16 S r DNA sequence analysis. The results showed that the Bacillus strain SXKF16-1 had obvious antifungal effect. The diameter of inhibition zone of its bacteria-free filtrate to F. solani and F. acuminatum was( 25. 90±1. 18) mm and( 25. 86±1. 85) mm respectively,and showed a lasting inhibition effect to mycelia growth. The disease index of the protective treatment and that of the cure treatment in detached roots test to F. solani and F. acuminatum were( 37. 50±8. 58),( 41. 67±4. 90) and( 25. 00±8. 33),( 38. 89±9. 62) respectively,both being significantly different( P<0. 05) from that of the control. The strain SXKF16-1 was identified as Bacillus atrophaeus. The B. atrophaeus SXKF16-1 showed significantly inhibition effect to pathogen causing root rot and could increase the bacterial diversity in root zone soil. It has potential to be developed as a special biocontrol agent.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant/microbiology , Bacillus/physiology , Biological Control Agents , Fusarium/pathogenicity , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plant Roots/microbiology , Soil Microbiology
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 429-435, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951570

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study reports the first assessment of endophytic fungi isolated from strawberry leaves and selection of isolates for the control of Duponchelia fovealis, a new pest of strawberries. A total of 400 strawberry leaves of the cultivar 'Albion' were collected in four commercial farms. Leaves were disinfected, cut in fragments, and placed on Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar media with tetracycline and incubated for 30 days. Following this time, 517 fungal colonies were isolated, and thirteen genera were identified: Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Nigrospora, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Chaetomium, Alternaria, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Bipolaris, Diaporthe, and Phoma. Eight isolates belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Diaporthe, Paecilomyces, and Cladosporium were selected for pathogenicity bioassays against third instar larvae of D. fovealis. Isolates of Paecilomyces induced the highest mortality rates.


Resumo Este trabalho apresenta a primeira contribuição no isolamento de fungos endofíticos de folhas de morangueiro e na seleção de isolados para controle de Duponchelia fovealis, uma nova praga do morangueiro. Foram coletadas 400 folhas da cultivar 'Albion' em quatro lavouras comerciais de morangueiro. As folhas foram desinfetadas, cortadas em fragmentos e depositadas em placas de Petri contendo Ágar Batata Dextrose como meio, em conjunto com tetraciclina e incubados durante 30 dias. Um total de 517 colônias fúngicas e treze gêneros foram isolados: Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Nigrospora, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Chaetomium, Alternaria, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Bipolaris, Diaporthe e Phoma. Oito isolados pertencentes aos gêneros Aspergillus, Diaporthe, Paecilomyces e Cladosporium foram selecionados para os bioensaios de virulência contra larvas de 3º instar de D. fovealis. Isolados de Paecilomyces causaram as maiores taxas de mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Paecilomyces/pathogenicity , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Lepidoptera/microbiology , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Paecilomyces/isolation & purification , Paecilomyces/physiology , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Fragaria/parasitology , Larva/growth & development , Larva/microbiology , Lepidoptera/growth & development
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 840-847, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974284

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Anthracnose is a crop disease usually caused by fungi in the genus Colletotrichum or Gloeosporium. These are considered one of the main pathogens, causing significant economic losses, such as in peppers and guarana. The current forms of control include the use of resistant cultivars, sanitary pruning and fungicides. However, even with the use of some methods of controlling these cultures, the crops are not free of anthracnose. Additionally, excessive application of fungicides increases the resistance of pathogens to agrochemicals and cause harm to human health and the environment. In order to find natural antifungal agents against guarana anthracnose, endophytic fungi were isolated from Amazon guarana. The compounds piliformic acid and cytochalasin D were isolated by chromatographic techniques from two Xylaria spp., guided by assays with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The isolated compounds were identified by spectrometric techniques, as NMR and mass spectrometry. This is the first report that piliformic acid and cytochalasin D have antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides with MIC 2.92 and 2.46 µmol mL-1 respectively. Captan and difenoconazole were included as positive controls (MIC 16.63 and 0.02 µmol mL-1, respectively). Thus, Xylaria species presented a biotechnological potential and production of different active compounds which might be promising against anthracnose disease.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Xylariales/chemistry , Paullinia/microbiology , Endophytes/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Mass Spectrometry , Xylariales/isolation & purification , Xylariales/genetics , Xylariales/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Colletotrichum/drug effects , Colletotrichum/physiology , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungicides, Industrial/isolation & purification , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 54-59, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889195

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) have different mechanisms of action in the development of plants, such as growth promotion, production of phytohormones and antibiotic substances and changes in root exudates. These help to control plant diseases. In order to evaluate the potential of microorganisms in the control of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp., five rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of garlic cultivated in the Curitibanos (SC) region were tested. Hatching chambers were set on Petri dishes, in which were added 10 mL of bacterial suspension and 1 mL of M. javanica eggs suspension, at the rate of 4500, on the filter paper of each chamber. The same procedure was performed with 300 juvenile Ditylenchus spp. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. The evaluations were performed every 72 h for nine days. The antagonized population of nematodes was determined in Peters counting chamber, determining the percentage hatching (for M. javanica) and motility (for Ditylenchus spp). Isolates CBSAL02 and CBSAL05 significantly reduced the hatching of M. javanica eggs (74% and 54.77%, respectively) and the motility of Ditylenchus spp. (55.19% and 53.53%, respectively) in vitro. Isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Pseudomonas (CBSAL05) and Bacillus (CBSAL02).


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus/physiology , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Pseudomonas/physiology , Tylenchoidea/microbiology , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Pest Control, Biological , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Pseudomonas/genetics , Pseudomonas/isolation & purification , Tylenchoidea/physiology
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 9-14, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974335

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria increase plant growth and give protection against insect pests and pathogens. Due to the negative impact of chemical pesticides on environment, alternatives to these chemicals are needed. In this scenario, the biological methods of pest control offer an eco-friendly and an attractive option. In this study, the effect of two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains (Bacillus sp. strain 6 and Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K) on aphid population and wheat productivity was evaluated in an aphid susceptible (Pasban-90) and resistant (Inqlab-91) wheat cultivar. The seeds were inoculated with each PGPR strain, separately or the combination of both. The lowest aphid population (2.1 tiller−1), and highest plant height (85.8 cm), number of spikelets per spike (18), grains per spike (44), productive tillers (320 m−2), straw yield (8.6 Mg ha−1), and grain yield (4.8 Mg ha−1) were achieved when seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. strain 6 + Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K. The grain yield of both varieties was enhanced by 35.5-38.9% with seed inoculation with both bacterial strains. Thus, the combine use of both PGPR strains viz. Bacillus sp. strain 6 + Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K offers an attractive option to reduce aphid population tied with better wheat productivity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aphids/growth & development , Pseudomonas/physiology , Bacillus/physiology , Triticum/growth & development , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Soil Microbiology , Triticum/microbiology , Triticum/parasitology , Pest Control, Biological , Population Dynamics
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 236-245, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974331

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Salinity and alkalinity are major abiotic stresses that limit growth and development of poplar. We investigated biocontrol potential of saline- and alkaline-tolerant mutants of Trichoderma asperellum to mediate the effects of salinity or alkalinity stresses on Populus davidiana × P. alba var. pyramidalis (PdPap poplar) seedlings. A T-DNA insertion mutant library of T. asperellum was constructed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation system; this process yielded sixty five positive transformants (T1-T65). The salinity tolerant mutant, T59, grew in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) containing up to 10% (1709.40 mM) NaCl. Under NaCl-rich conditions, T59 was most effective in inhibiting Alternaria alternata (52.00%). The alkalinity tolerant mutants, T3 and T5, grew in PDA containing up to 0.4% (47.62 mM) NaHCO3. The ability of the T3 and T5 mutants to inhibit Fusarium oxysporum declined as NaHCO3 concentrations increased. NaHCO3 tolerance of the PdPap seedlings improved following treatment with the spores of the WT, T3, and T5 strains. The salinity tolerant mutant (T59) and two alkalinity tolerant mutants (T3 and T5) generated in this study can be applied to decrease the incidence of pathogenic fungi infection under saline or alkaline stress.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/microbiology , Trichoderma/physiology , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Populus/growth & development , Alkalies/metabolism , Alternaria/physiology , Antibiosis , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Stress, Physiological , Trichoderma/genetics , Populus/microbiology , Seedlings/growth & development , Seedlings/microbiology
13.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 610-619, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010398

ABSTRACT

A transgenic maize event ZD12-6 expressing a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) fusion protein Cry1Ab/Cry2Aj and a modified 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) protein G10 was characterized and evaluated. Southern blot analysis indicated that ZD12-6 is a single copy integration event. The insert site was determined to be at chromosome 1 by border sequence analysis. Expression analyses of Bt fusion protein Cry1Ab/Cry2Aj and the EPSPS protein G10 suggested that they are both expressed stably in different generations. Insect bioassays demonstrated that the transgenic plants are highly resistant to Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis), cotton boll worm (Helicoverpa armigera), and armyworm (Mythimna separata). This study suggested that ZD12-6 has the potential to be developed into a commercial transgenic line.


Subject(s)
Animals , 3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase/metabolism , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , China , Disease Resistance/genetics , Drug Resistance/genetics , Endotoxins/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Glycine/chemistry , Hemolysin Proteins/metabolism , Insecta , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Zea mays/genetics , Glyphosate
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 706-714, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889164

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tomato is one of the most important vegetables in the world. Decay after harvest is a major issue in the development of tomato industry. Currently, the most effective method for controlling decay after harvest is storage of tomato at low temperature combined with usage of chemical bactericide; however, long-term usage of chemical bactericide not only causes pathogen resistance but also is harmful for human health and environment. Biocontrol method for the management of disease after tomato harvest has great practical significance. In this study, antagonistic bacterium B-6-1 strain was isolated from the surface of tomato and identified as Enterobacter cowanii based on morphological characteristics and physiological and biochemical features combined with sequence analysis of 16SrDNA and ropB gene and construction of dendrogram. Effects of different concentrations of antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii suspension on antifungal activity after tomato harvest were analyzed by mycelium growth rate method. Results revealed that antifungal activity was also enhanced with increasing concentrations of antagonistic bacterium; inhibitory rates of 1 × 105 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL antagonistic bacterial solution on Fusarium verticillioides, Alternaria tenuissima, and Botrytis cinerea were 46.31%, 67.48%, and 75.67%, respectively. By using in vivo inoculation method, it was further confirmed that antagonistic bacterium could effectively inhibit the occurrence of B. cinerae after tomato harvest, biocontrol effect of 1 × 109 cfu/mL zymotic fluid reached up to 95.24%, and antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii has biocontrol potential against B. cinerea after harvest of fruits and vegetables.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/microbiology , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiology , Enterobacter/isolation & purification , Enterobacter/physiology , Antibiosis , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Botrytis/growth & development , Botrytis/physiology , Enterobacter/classification , Enterobacter/genetics , Alternaria/growth & development , Alternaria/physiology , Fruit/microbiology , Fusarium/growth & development , Fusarium/physiology
15.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1155-1166, Apr.-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886710

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Melon is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. With short cycle in a system of phased planting, phytosanitary control is compromised, and a great volume of agricultural chemicals is used to control vegetable leafminer. Genetic control is an ideal alternative to avoid the damage caused by this insect. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate Cucumis accessions in regard to resistance to leafminer and correlate the variables analyzed. Fifty-four accessions and four commercial hybrids of melon were tested. The study was divided into two experiments: with and with no choice. The following characteristics were evaluated: with choice, in field - subjective score based on the infestation and the number of mines per leaf; and with no choice, in cage - number of mines per leaf, chlorophyll content, and leaf colorimetry. The results showed variability among the accessions and some genotypes showed favorable results for resistance in both experiments. There was correlation between the two variables in the experiment in the field. The accessions CNPH 11-282, CNPH 06-1047, and CNPH 11-1077 are the most recommended for future breeding programs with aim on introgression of resistance to vegetable leafminer in melon.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phenotype , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Plant Leaves/genetics , Cucumis melo/genetics , Diptera , Genotype , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Reference Values , Genetic Variation , Chlorophyll/analysis , Genes, Plant , Colorimetry/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Larva
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 1014-1019, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828192

ABSTRACT

Abstract Apple is one of the most important temperate fruit to Brazil economy, and the use of synthetic chemicals has been the main method for reducing postharvest diseases, such as the blue mold, caused by Penicillium expansum. This work intends to evaluate the practical utilization of chitosan for blue mold control. For this purpose, fruits were treated in a preventive and curative way, immersing the fruits in chitosan solution (5 or 10 mg mL-1), or adding a single drop of this solution (10 mg mL-1) directly into the injuries. The eradicative effect of the polysaccharide was also evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Chitosan did not show a curative effect against the blue mold, and its eradicative effect was only evidenced on the higher concentration (10 mg mL-1). On the other hand, preventively, without the addition of adjuvants, chitosan reduced blue mold incidence in fruits by 24% and 93%, through the immersion or the single drop methods, respectively. Thus, it was found that, for long scale utilization, some improvements in the physico-chemical properties of the chitosan are needed, since it was only capable to prevent the infection by P. expansum when directly added on the fruit injury.


Subject(s)
Penicillium/drug effects , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Plant Diseases/therapy , Malus/microbiology , Chitosan/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Time Factors , Chitosan/chemistry , Fruit/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 10-17, Jan.-Mar. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775109

ABSTRACT

Abstract The antagonistic potential of Trichoderma strains was assayed by studying the effect of their culture filtrate on the radial growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of chickpea collar rot. Trichoderma harzianum-1432 (42.2%) and Trichoderma atroviride (40.3%) were found to be strong antagonists. To enhance their antagonistic potential, mutagenesis of these two selected strains was performed. Two mutants, Th-m1 and T. atroviride m1, were found to be more effective than their parent strains. The enzymatic activities of the selected parent and mutant strains were assayed, and although both mutants were found to have enhanced enzymatic activities compared to their respective parent strains, Th-m1 possessed the maximum cellulase (5.69 U/mL) and β-1,3-glucanase activity (61.9 U/mL). Th-m1 also showed high competitive saprophytic ability (CSA) among all of the selected parent and mutant strains, and during field experiments, Th-m1 was found to successfully possess enhanced disease control (82.9%).


Subject(s)
Antibiosis/drug effects , Basidiomycota/growth & development , Mutagenesis , Mutagens/metabolism , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Trichoderma/drug effects , Trichoderma/physiology , Cicer/microbiology , Hydrolases/analysis , Mutation , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Trichoderma/enzymology , Trichoderma/growth & development
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1093-1101, Oct.-Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769640

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sampling of agricultural soils from the Mexican northeastern region was performed to detect Trichoderma spp., genetically characterize it, and assess its potential use as a biologic control agent against Macrophomina phaseolina. M. phaseolina is a phytopathogen that attacks over 500 species of cultivated plants and causes heavy losses in the regional sorghum crop. Sampling was performed immediately after sorghum or corn harvest in an area that was approximately 170 km from the Mexico-USA border. Sixteen isolates were obtained in total. Using colony morphology and sequencing the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 4 of 18S rDNA, 14 strains were identified as Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningiopsis and T. virens. Subsequently, their antagonistic activity against M. phaseolina was evaluated in vitro, and 11 isolates showed antagonism by competition and stopped M. phaseolina growth. In 4 of these isolates, the antibiosis phenomenon was observed through the formation of an intermediate band without growth between colonies. One strain, HTE808, was identified as Trichoderma koningiopsis and grew rapidly; when it came into contact with the M. phaseolina colony, it continued to grow and sporulated until it covered the entire petri dish. Microscopic examination confirmed that it has a high level of hyperparasitism and is thus considered to have high potential for use in the control of this phytopathogen.


Subject(s)
Antibiosis/microbiology , Antibiosis/physiology , Antibiosis/prevention & control , Ascomycota/microbiology , Ascomycota/physiology , Ascomycota/prevention & control , Mexico/microbiology , Mexico/physiology , Mexico/prevention & control , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Plant Diseases/physiology , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Sorghum/microbiology , Sorghum/physiology , Sorghum/prevention & control , Trichoderma/microbiology , Trichoderma/physiology , Trichoderma/prevention & control , Zea mays/microbiology , Zea mays/physiology , Zea mays/prevention & control
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1077-1085, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769659

ABSTRACT

Abstract The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Lecanicillium lecanii and Isaria fumosorosea were tested for their efficacy in managing the exotic spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta) during 2 seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013). The fungi I. fumosorosea and L. lecanii exhibited promising levels of control (> 70% mortality of the A. dispersus population). The percent mortality increased over time in both seasons. Application of I. fumosorosea was highly pathogenic to A. dispersus in both seasons compared to the other entomopathogenic fungi. Analysis of the percent mortality in both seasons revealed differences in efficacy between 3 and 15 days after treatment. The season also influenced the effects of the fungi on the A. dispersus population. Thus, entomopathogenic fungi have the potential to manage A. dispersus infestation of cassava.


Subject(s)
Animals/microbiology , Animals/parasitology , Animals/physiology , Animals/prevention & control , Hemiptera/microbiology , Hemiptera/parasitology , Hemiptera/physiology , Hemiptera/prevention & control , Hypocreales/microbiology , Hypocreales/parasitology , Hypocreales/physiology , Hypocreales/prevention & control , Manihot/microbiology , Manihot/parasitology , Manihot/physiology , Manihot/prevention & control , Pest Control, Biological/microbiology , Pest Control, Biological/parasitology , Pest Control, Biological/physiology , Pest Control, Biological/prevention & control , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Plant Diseases/physiology , Plant Diseases/prevention & control
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL