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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): e0041, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347258

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To report a case of anterior uveitis caused by Euphorbia milii sap and review all reported cases of keratouveitis related to this species. Methods: A 64-year-old male patient presented with a 10-day history of reduced visual acuity, pain, and photophobia in the left eye after an accidental contact with Euphorbia milii sap. Best-corrected visual acuity was initially 20/200. Upon examination, ciliary injection, mild corneal edema; fine keratic precipitates, and significant anterior chamber reaction. There was no vitritis, and fundoscopy was unremarkable. The patient initiated on topical steroid and tropicamide. Results: Best-corrected visual acuity in left eye improved to 20/20 after using eyedrops for 3 weeks, associated with complete resolution of anterior uveitis. Over the following 6 months, best-corrected visual acuity remained stable, and no evidence of recurrent inflammation was observed. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the third reported case of keratouveitis caused by Euphorbia milii sap. As observed in other cases of keratouveitis caused by sap of this species, the clinical course is benign and characterized by moderate reaction of the anterior chamber, and corneal involvement of variable intensity.


RESUMO O objetivo foi relatar um caso de uveíte anterior induzida pela seiva da Euphorbia milii e revisar todos os casos relatados de ceratouveíte causados por essa espécie. Paciente do sexo masculino, 64 anos, apresentou história de 10 dias de evolução com redução da acuidade visual, dor e fotofobia no olho esquerdo, após contato acidental com a seiva da planta Euphorbia milii. A acuidade visual com melhor correção era inicialmente 20/200. O exame revelou injeção ciliar, edema de córnea leve, precipitados ceráticos finos e reação de câmara anterior significativa. Não havia vitreíte, e a fundoscopia não exibia alterações. Foram iniciados colírios de esteroides e tropicamida. A acuidade visual no olho esquerdo melhorou para 20/20 em 3 semanas com a utilização dos colírios, além de se ter alcançado a resolução completa da uveíte anterior. Nos 6 meses seguintes, a acuidade visual permaneceu estável, e não foi observada evidência de recorrência da inflamação. Até então, este é o terceiro caso relatado de ceratouveíte pela seiva da Euphorbia milii. Como visto nos demais casos de ceratouveíte induzidos pela seiva dessa espécie, o curso clínico é benigno e caracterizado por reação moderada da câmara anterior, com envolvimento corneano de intensidade variável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Uveitis/chemically induced , Euphorbia/adverse effects , Plant Exudates/adverse effects , Keratitis/chemically induced , Plant Poisoning/complications , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Visual Acuity
2.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(7): 427-435, July 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective We performed a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of Tribulus terrestris to treat female sexual dysfunction (FSD). Data sources We performed unrestricted electronic searches in the MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, PsycINFO,WHO-ICTR, Clinicaltrials.gov and OpenGrey databases. Selection of studies We included any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared T. terrestris versus inactive/active interventions. After the selection process, conducted by two reviewers, 5 RCTs (n = 279 participants) were included. Data collection Data extraction was performed by two reviewers with a preestablished data collection formulary. Data synthesis Due to lack of data and clinical heterogeneity, we could not perform meta-analyses. The risk of bias was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool, and the certainty of evidence was assessed with Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). Results After 1 to 3 months of treatment, premenopausal and postmenopausal women randomized to T. terrestris had a significant increase in sexual function scores. Three months of treatment with T. terrestris showed a significant increase in the serum testosterone levels of premenopausal women. There was no report of serious adverse events, and none of the studies assessed health-related quality of life. The certainty of the evidence was very low, whichmeans that we have very little confidence in the effect estimates, and future studies are likely to change these estimates. Conclusion MoreRCTs are needed to supportor refute the use of T. terrestris. The decision to use this intervention should be shared with the patients, and the uncertainties around its effects should be discussed in the clinical decision-making process. Number of Protocol registration in PROSPERO database: CRD42019121130


Resumo Objetivo Nós realizamos uma revisão sistemática para avaliar a efetividade e a segurança do Tribulus terrestris no tratamento da disfunção sexual feminina (DSF). Fontes de dados Nós realizados uma busca eletrônica irrestrita nas seguintes bases de dados: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, PsycINFO, WHO-ICTR, Clinicaltrials.gov, e OpenGrey. Seleção dos estudos Nós incluímos todos os ensaios clínico randomizados (ECR) que comparou T. terrestris com controles ativos/inativos. Após o processo de seleção, conduzido por 2 revisores, 5 ECRs (n = 279 participantes) foram incluídos. Extração de dados O processo de extração de dados foi realizado por dois revisores, utilizando-se um formulário de extração de dados pré-estabelecido. Síntese de dados Devido à falta de dados disponíveis e à heterogeneidade clínica entre os estudos incluídos, nós não realizamos meta-análises. O risco de viés foi avaliado pela tabela de risco de viés da Cochrane e, a certeza do corpo da evidência foi avaliada pelo Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). Resultados Após 1 a três 3 meses de tratamento, mulheres na pré e pós-menopausa randomizadas ao T. terrestris tiveram um aumento significante nos escores de função sexual. O grupo com 3 meses de tratamento com T. terrestris exibiu um aumento significante dos níveis séricos de testosterona emmulheres pré-menopausa. Não houve relato de eventos adversos graves, e nenhum estudo avaliou qualidade de vida das participantes. A certeza da evidência foi considerada muito baixa, o que significa que existe pouca certeza na estimativa dos efeitos e que é provável que futuros estudos mudem estas estimativas. Conclusão Mais ECRs são importantes para apoiar ou refutar o uso do T. terrestris. A decisão de usar essa intervenção deve ser compartilhada com pacientes, e as incertezas sobre seus efeitos devem ser discutidas durante o processo de decisão clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Tribulus/chemistry , Saponins/adverse effects , Saponins/therapeutic use , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/blood , Testosterone/blood , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Premenopause , Postmenopause , Diosgenin/analogs & derivatives , Diosgenin/adverse effects , Diosgenin/therapeutic use
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18456, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249172

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of crude extracts from Eugenia uniflora, Libidibia ferrea and Psidium guajava. The extracts were obtained by turbo-extraction using water (AQ) or acetone-water (AC-W) (7:3, v/v) as solvents and lyophilized to obtain the crude extracts (CE). The CE were characterized by UV-Vis, TLC and HPLC. The activity of CEs was investigated against clinical isolates of Candida spp. and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), MIC50 and MIC90 were determinated. The analysis by TLC showed that all CEs presented polyphenols (flavonoids and tannins). The CEs from E. uniflora showed higher amount of polyphenols (30.35 ± 2.15%, AC-W) and the HPLC analysis revealed the tannins in all extracts. The CEs of E. uniflora showed MIC range from 1.9 to 500.0 µg/mL, and lower values of MIC50 and MIC90 against non-albicans Candida isolates. Regarding L. ferrea and P. guajava, the results showing MIC from 3.9 to 1000.0 µg/mL (CE-AQ) against C. albicans. The results demonstrate antifungal performance from CE against various species of Candida spp., suggesting that the herbal species may be use as new potential antifungal agents. Additionally, the polyphenol content can play a pivotal role in the antifungal properties of CE.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/methods , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Polyphenols/analysis , Phytochemicals , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Flavonoids/pharmacokinetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17200, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039047

ABSTRACT

Natural products are rapidly becoming the primary sources of novel antimicrobial agents, as resistance to existing antimicrobial agents is increasing. Apart from determining the antimicrobial activity of natural products, it is also important to understand their effects on the virulence factors of microorganisms. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of Sternbergia species prevalent in Turkey and investigate their role in the inhibition of germination tube and biofilm formation, both of which are known to be important virulence factors of Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts were evaluated using bore-plate and broth microdilution method. The extracts' capacity to inhibit the formation of the germ-tube was also evaluated. The findings of our study revealed that Sternbergia lutea, Sternbergia vernalis possessed antimicrobial activities, with MIC values ranging between 0.048 mg/mL and 0.39 mg/mL. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed against Candida dubliniensis (0.048 mg/mL). While evaluating the inhibition of fungal germination activities, S. vernalis extract (at a concentration of 0.09 mg/mL) was found to be the most effective against C. albicans ATCC 90028 strain. The results also indicated that S. vernalis extracts at sub-MIC levels inhibited germ tube formation and modulated the tail-length of germinated cells, both of which are important virulence factors of C. albicans. Furthermore, the inhibition of biofilm-formation was also investigated, and it was found that two Sternbergia spp. extracts at or below MIC levels inhibited biofilm formation.


Subject(s)
Biofilms/drug effects , Amaryllidaceae/classification , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Candida albicans , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Virulence Factors
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18099, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039042

ABSTRACT

Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders with a prevalence of 15%-25%. Monoamine aminotransferases, in particular, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, change in the brain of depressed people. Adiantum capillus-veneris is one of the species of the maidenhair fern genus that have traditionally been used to treat cough, cold symptoms, and local hair loss.In this experimental study, white male rats weighing 250-300 g were assigned to 5 groups of 10 each; group 1: Receiving normal saline; groups 2-4: Receiving A.capillus-veneris extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively; and group 5: Receiving fluoxetine at 10 mg/kg. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) was induced by 3-week exposure to chronic stress. The forced swim test and plus maze were used to assess depression and anxiety, respectively. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant capacity in the serum and brain were measured. Treatment with A.capillus-veneris extract at 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the duration of immobility. In the group given extract at 200 mg/kg, a significant increase in the number of open arm entries was observed when compared to the control group. A.capillus-veneris extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg resulted in a significant increase in the time spent in the open arm. A.capillus-veneris extract reduced MDA levels and increased antioxidant levels of serum and brain in rat. A.capillus-veneris has significant antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects in rat, probably due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anxiety/diagnosis , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Adiantum/classification , Depression/diagnosis , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18027, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039062

ABSTRACT

Single garlic has been used as a traditional medicine for hypercholesterolemia and increasing stamina. The aim of this research was to analyze the effect of single-bulb garlic oil (SGO) extract toward hematology and histopathology liver and kidney in mice. Male mice (strain Balb-C, 12 weeks old, weight of 28±3 g) was treated by SGO for 28 days (once per days) with various doses K- (Normal); K+ (SGO 0.0 mg/kg BW); T1 (SGO 6.25 mg/kg BW); T2 (SGO 12.5 mg/kg BW); T3 (SGO 25.0 mg/kg BW); T4 (SGO 50.0 mg/kg BW). The end of the treated mice was sacrificed. Blood was collected to analyze hematology. Liver and kidney were collected then made microanatomy slide with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Parameters of hematology are the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, number of erythrocytes, and number of leukocytes. Histopathology of liver and kidney determine by cell necrosis. The result of the research showed that SGO increased the number of erythrocytes and leucocytes but there is no effect on the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit. Histopathology on liver and kidney showed there is no effect in necrosis. The conclusion is the single-bulb garlic oil extract safe if consumed continuously


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Medulla Oblongata/anatomy & histology , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Garlic/adverse effects , Kidney , Liver , Hematology/classification
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17754, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039063

ABSTRACT

The study evaluated the vasorelaxant effect induced by the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (EEtOH-Zr/leaves). Wistar rats were treated with the leaf extract containing a single dose of 2,000 mg / kg, v.o. After 14 days, the animals were anesthetized for blood collection and subsequent analysis of the biochemical parameters; they were then euthanized (sodium pentobarbital-100 mg/kg, i.p.) for the removal and morphological analysis of the heart, lung, liver and kidney. The vasorelaxation activity the and vascular reactivity of EEtOH-Zr/leaves were evaluated on artery mesenteric rings isolated from rats. The extract showed no signs of toxicity and no significant difference in the values of the biochemical parameters between the control group and the group of treated animals. In the evaluation of pharmacological activity in the smooth muscle, the EEtOH-Zr/leaves caused vasorelaxant effect on the tonic contraction induced by phenylephrine in mesenteric artery preparations in the presence (pD2=2.17±0.05 µg/mL; Emax=99.8±5.2%) and absence (pD2=2.14±0.05 µg/mL; Emax=95.3±6.4%) of the vascular endothelium. Oral administration of EEtOH-Zr/leaves reduced the contraction induced by the cumulative addition of PHE. It is concluded that the EEtOH-Zr/leaves promote vasorelaxation and reduce vascular reactivity of adrenergic alpha-1 agonist in the mesenteric artery. The results did not show toxic effects of the extract.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Acute Toxicity/analysis , Zanthoxylum/toxicity , Mesenteric Arteries/drug effects , Blood Vessels/drug effects
9.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 23(5): 58-64, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975022

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The number of patients who seek orthodontic treatment that may have a history of tooth bleaching is increasing over the time. Bleaching may influence the decrease of the bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Objective: To determine and prove the effect of mangosteen peel (MP) extract to reverse the reduced shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets after bleaching. Methods: A total of 150 maxillary first premolar teeth were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups as follow (n=25): negative-control (N: no bleaching), positive-control (P: bleaching + no treatment), and the treatment groups (bleaching + 10% sodium ascorbate (SA), 10% (MP-10), 20% (MP-20) and 40% (MP-40) MP extract gel). After treatment, the brackets were bonded with the resin-modified glass ionomer cement, SBS testing was performed using universal testing machine, and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was examined using stereoscopic microscope after debonding. The SBS data were analyzed by analysis of variance (Anova) and the Tukey test. For the ARI, the Kruskal-Wallis test was performed. Result: There was significant SBS difference (p< 0.001) between various groups. The group without bleaching showed significantly higher SBS (8.19 ± 2.26 MPa) compared to others, while SBS in the group treated with 40% MP gel was significantly higher (7.93 ± 1.92 MPa) than other groups treated with antioxidants. The failure of orthodontic brackets bonded after bleaching and treatment using MP extract occurred at the enamel-adhesive interface. Conclusion: The application of MP extract as an antioxidant after bleaching was effective in reversing the reduced shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets after bleaching.


Resumo Introdução: o número de pacientes que procuram o tratamento ortodôntico e têm histórico de clareamento dentário tem aumentado. O clareamento pode levar à diminuição da resistência adesiva dos braquetes ortodônticos. Objetivos: comprovar a efetividade do extrato de casca de mangostão (CM) em reverter a diminuição da resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes ortodônticos colados após o clareamento. Métodos: 150 primeiros pré-molares superiores foram aleatoriamente divididos em seis grupos experimentais (n= 25): controle negativo (grupo N, sem clareamento), controle positivo (grupo P, clareamento + sem tratamento) e os grupos com tratamento (clareamento + ascorbato de sódio a 10% [grupo AS], gel de extrato de CM a 10% [grupo CM-10], a 20% [grupo CM-20] e a 40% [grupo CM-40]). Após o tratamento, os braquetes foram colados com cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina e, depois, fez-se o teste de resistência ao cisalhamento (SBS) em uma máquina universal de ensaios. Após a descolagem dos braquetes, verificou-se o índice de adesivo remanescente (ARI), com o uso de um microscópio estereoscópico. Os dados da SBS foram submetidos a uma análise de variância (ANOVA) e ao teste de Tukey. Para o ARI, foi utilizado o teste de Kruskal-Wallis. Resultados: houve diferença significativa na SBS (p< 0,001) entre os diferentes grupos. O grupo sem clareamento mostrou resistência ao cisalhamento significativamente maior (8,19 ± 2,26 MPa) do que os outros grupos, enquanto a resistência ao cisalhamento do grupo tratado com o gel de extrato de CM a 40% foi significativamente maior (7,93 ± 1,92 MPa) do que nos outros grupos tratados com antioxidantes. A falha na colagem dos braquetes ortodônticos após o clareamento e tratamento com o extrato de CM ocorreu na interface adesivo/esmalte. Conclusão: a aplicação do extrato de CM como agente antioxidante foi efetiva em reverter a diminuição, que ocorre após o clareamento dentário, na resistência ao cisalhamento da colagem de braquetes ortodônticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Orthodontic Brackets , Garcinia mangostana/adverse effects , Shear Strength/drug effects , Fruit/adverse effects , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Dental Bonding , Dental Stress Analysis , Glass Ionomer Cements/therapeutic use
10.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(5): 468-473, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142158

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El consumo de yerba mate (YM) (Ilex paraguariensis) es común en Sudamérica y se extiende a todo el mundo. Contiene muchas sustancias bioactivas que pueden ser beneficiosas. También existe la opinión de que puede tener efectos nocivos sobre el ritmo cardíaco, pero no encontramos investigaciones al respecto. Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el efecto agudo de YM sobre el ritmo, en pacientes enviados para realizar un Holter. Método: Realizamos un estudio clínico seudoexperimental, de tipo antes y después. Tomamos 50 pacientes consumidores habituales de YM y se les realizó un Holter tomando YM y otro luego de 24 sin consumir. También se controló el uso de otros productos que pudieran interferir. Resultados: El 52% fueron mujeres y la edad, de 55 ± 15 años. El 78% tenía al menos un factor de riesgo vascular, el 44% cardiopatía estructural y el 90% tomaba medicación cardiovascular. La frecuencia cardíaca (FC) con y sin YM fue similar. Solo la FC mínima horaria fue menor tomando YM (61 ± 10 vs. 63 ± 9, p = 0.021). No hubo diferencia significativa en la incidencia de arritmias sostenidas, no sostenidas ni en la extrasistolia ventricular. El total de extrasístoles supraventriculares fue mayor sin YM (952 ± 3,538 vs. 1,294 ± 5,201, p = 0.014) y la cantidad máxima horaria también (86 ± 302 vs. 107 ± 360, p = 0.032). No hubo diferencia en la variabilidad de la FC. Conclusiones: En pacientes cardiológicos tomadores de YM, su consumo de la forma habitual no se asoció con cambios importantes de la FC ni con un aumento en la incidencia de arritmias. Hubo menos actividad ectópica supraventricular.


Abstract Introduction: The consumption of yerba mate (YM) (Ilex paraguariensis) is common in South America and is now used all over the world. It contains many bioactive substances that can be beneficial. There is also the opinion that it may have harmful effects on heart rhythm, but no studies have been found on this. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of YM on heart rhythm in patients referred for a Holter study. Method: A before and after pseudo-experimental clinical study was conducted by performing a Holter on 50 habitual users of YM, and another one after 24 without YM consumption. The use of other products that could interfere was also controlled. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 55 ± 15 years, and 52% were women. At least one vascular risk factor was found in 78%, with 44% structural heart disease, and 90% taking cardio- vascular medication. The heart rate (HR) with and without YM was similar. Only the minimum hourly HR was lower when taking YM (61 ± 10 vs. 63 ± 9, P = .021). There was no significant diffe- rence in the incidence of sustained or non-sustained arrhythmias, or in ventricular extrasystoles. The total number of supra-ventricular premature beats was higher without YM (952 ± 3,538 vs. 1,294 ± 5,201, P = .014) and also the maximum hourly (86 ± 302 vs. 107 ± 360, P = .032). There was no difference in HR variability. Conclusions: In cardiology patients, usual users of YM, habitual consumption was not associated with significant changes in HR or an increase in the incidence of arrhythmias. There was less ectopic supraventricular activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ilex paraguariensis/chemistry , Heart Rate/drug effects , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Incidence , Risk Factors , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Atrial Premature Complexes/epidemiology
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17135, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974406

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic crude extracts and fractions of the species Senecio westermanii Dusén on Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) and Allium cepa L. (onion) seeds. We assessed the germination, growth, root respiration and photosynthesis of the target species in Petri dishes (9.0 cm diameter) containing filter paper n°6. The study was conducted using 50 seeds per plate and held in 4 replicates per concentration of each sample. In the germination there was an inhibitory effect of fractions hexane (FH) and chloroform (FCl) at concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg/mL. There was a reduction in the radicle growth of lettuce by 14 to 24% and a reduction of hypocotilum by 14 to 28%. As for the radicle of the onion was up 74% reduction to the FCl and the coleoptile was 24 and 45% reduction for FH and FCl, respectively. Inhibitory effects in the root respiration of lettuce were detected in all the samples analyzed, with results ranging from 16 to 83%. For the seeds of A. cepa, there was an encouragement for the FCl and ethyl acetate fractions (FAE), with results ranging from 94 to 142% and 76 to 150%, respectively. With regard to the photosynthesis of L. sativa, there was no significant difference between the control, and as for the A. cepa, there was a strain in inhibition concentrations of 250 and 500 µg/mL, which ranged from 27 to 68%. The samples of S. westermanii caused changes in the target species and thus can be used as a natural herbicide.


Subject(s)
Seeds/growth & development , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Lettuce/growth & development , Asteraceae/adverse effects , Onions/growth & development , Plant Components, Aerial , Senecio/classification , Allelopathy/physiology
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e17720, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001580

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of Kalanchoe brasiliensis extract, followed by the development of an oil in water emulsion containing the K. brasiliensis leaves extract and evaluating its clinical moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing sodium acrylates/ Beheneth-25 methacrylate Crosspolymer (and) hydrogenated polydecene (and) lauryl glucoside and 0.5% of extract were prepared. The extract was considered as non-irritating through skin irritant tests. The stability testing was carried out in different conditions for 90 days. The skin hydration was measured by capacitance measurement and transepidermal water loss using biophysical techniques. The results indicate that the formulation containing 0.5% of extract increased the hydration of the stratum corneum up to 5 h after application on the forearm. The transepidermal water loss was reduced when compared to the untreated area and placebo area. Therefore, we can conclude that the increased skin hydration and protection of barrier function can be attributed to the K. brasiliensis extract. This research presents a new raw material from the Brazilian Caatinga biome and shows its possible application in the development of cosmetic products.


Subject(s)
Wetting Agents/pharmacology , Kalanchoe/anatomy & histology , Emulsions , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Cosmetic Stability
13.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 55 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-997710

ABSTRACT

Muitos genes bacterianos são regulados pelo mecanismo de comunicação denominado quorum sensing (QS). Neste sistema, moléculas sinalizadoras ativam um comportamento de grupo, conforme a densidade celular, permitindo o controle da expressão gênica. Estudos sugerem o potencial de compostos extraídos de plantas sobre o QS, a exemplo da quercetina, um flavonol presente em concentrações elevadas em algumas frutas e hortaliças. Este composto é o flavonoide majoritário presente em cebola (Allium cepa), mas não existem estudos que mostrem a atividade anti-QS de extratos orgânicos deste vegetal. Este trabalho avaliou o potencial antimicrobiano e anti-QS de extratos orgânicos de cebola branca e cebola roxa, assim como de alguns de seus componentes majoritários identificados, em fenótipos regulados pelo QS como a produção de violaceína em Chrormobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472, a motilidade tipo swarming e a formação de biofilmes em Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 e Serratia marcescens MG1. Extratos de cebola branca e roxa foram obtidos por extração em fase sólida utilizando coluna de poliamida e seus compostos identificados e quantificados pelas técnicas de Cromatografia líquida- ionização por elétron spray-espectrometria de massas e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência acoplada a detector de arranjo de diodo. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelas curvas de multiplicação de cada micro-organismo. O efeito dos compostos quercetina aglicona (inibidor do QS já relatado na literatura e encontrado no extrato de cebola roxa) e quercetina-3-ß-D-glicosideo (um dos compostos majoritários encontrados em ambos extratos) sobre os micro-organismos utilizados neste estudo foi também avaliado. Foram obtidos três extratos: cebola branca em metanol (CB-MeOH), cebola branca em metanol amônia (CBMeOH/ NH4) e cebola roxa em metanol (CR-MeOH). Os compostos quercetina 3,4'- diglicosídeio, quercetina-4-glicosídeo, quercetina-3-ß-D-glicosideo e quercetina aglicona foram os predominantes nos extratos das duas variedades de cebola. Cianidina-3-O-glicosideo também foi identificada no extrato de cebola roxa. A concentração inibitória mínima (MIC) dos extratos foi igual ou superior a 125 µg/ml (p/v) de extrato seco. Não foi observada inibição significativa da produção de violaceína em C. violaceum pelos extratos orgânicos de cebola e nem pela quercetina-3-ß-D-glicosideo, nas concentrações sub-inibitórias avaliadas. No entanto, a quercetina aglicona inibiu significativamente a produção de violaceína em todas as concentrações. A glicosilação da quercetina pode ter afetado sua atividade sobre a inibição da produção de violaceina, já que estudos mostram menor atividade biológica deste composto quando glicosilado. Para a motilidade tipo swarming em P. aeruginosa PAO1 houve inibição significativa pelo extrato de cebola roxa, em todas as concentrações estudadas. Os demais extratos não apresentaram inibição contra este micro-organismo. Para S. marcescens MG1, foi observada inibição da motilidade swarming somente na concentração de 125 µg/ml de CBMeOH/ NH4. As análises de comparação entre os dois tipos de quercetina revelaram que, embora para as duas bactérias testadas os dois compostos apresentaram atividade inibitória sobre a motilidade tipo swarming, a quercetina-3-ß-D-glicosideo foi menos eficiente que a quercetina aglicona na concentração de 125 µg/ml. A formação de biofilmes não foi influenciada pelos extratos e, inesperadamente, não se detectou inibição da formação de biofilmes por ambos tipos de quercetina avaliados. De forma geral, os extratos orgânicos de cebola mostraram pouco efeito sobre os fenótipos controlados pelo quorum sensing e a glicosilação da quercetina provavelmente explica a baixa atividade antimicrobiana e anti-QS dos extratos


Many bacterial genes are regulated by a communication mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). In this system, signaling molecules activate a group behavior according to cell density, allowing the control of gene expression. Studies suggest the inhibitory potential of compounds extracted from plants on the QS system, like quercetin, a flavonol present in high concentrations in some fruits and vegetables. This compound is the main flavonoid found in onion (Allium cepa); however, there are no studies showing the anti-QS activity of organic extracts of this plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-QS potential of organic extracts of white and red onions, and their major components studied in QS-regulated phenotypes such as violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum, swarming motility and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Serratia marcescens MG1.White and red onion extracts were obtained by solid phase extraction using a polyamide column and its compounds were identified and quantified by Liquid Chromatography - Electron Spray-Mass Spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector. O The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by growth curves of each microorganism. The effect of non-glycosylated quercetin (a QS inhibitor already reported in the literature and found in red onion extract) and quercetin-3-ß-D-glycoside (one of the major compounds found in both extracts) on the microorganisms used in this study was also evaluated. Three extracts were obtained: white onion in methanol (CB-MeOH), white onion in methanol ammonia (CB-MeOH / NH4) and red onion in methanol (CR-MeOH). Our results showed that quercetin 3,4'- diglycoside, quercetin-4-glycoside, quercetin-3-ß-D-glycoside and non-glycosylated quercetin were predominant in the extracts of the two onion varieties. Cyanidin-3-O-glycoside has also been identified in the purple onion extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts was equal or greater than 125 µg / ml (w / v) of dry extract. There was no significant inhibition of violacein production in C. violaceum by organic onion extracts or by quercetin-3-ß- D-glycoside at the sub-inhibitory concentrations evaluated. However, non-glycosylated quercetin showed a significant inhibition of violacein production in all tested concentrations. The glycosylation of Quercetin could have altered its inhibition activity towards violacein production, and in fact, some studies have shown less biological activity of some phenolic compounds when they have been glycosylated. For swarming motility in P. aeruginosa PAO1 there was significant inhibition by red onion extract, in all studied concentrations. The other extracts did not present inhibition against this microorganism. For S. marcescens MG1, inhibition of swarming motility was observed only at the concentration of 125 µg / ml of CB-MeOH / NH4. Comparative analyses between the two types of quercetin showed that, although for the two bacteria tested the two compounds showed inhibitory activity on swarming motility, quercetin-3-ß-D-glycoside was less efficient than non-glycosylated quercetin in the concentration of 125 µg / ml. Biofilm formation was not influenced by the extracts and unexpectedly, both types of quercetin evaluated did not show inhibition towards biofilm formation. In general, organic onion extracts showed little effect on quorum sensing controlled phenotypes and glycosylation of quercetin probably explains the low antimicrobial and anti-QS activity of the extracts


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Onions/classification , Quorum Sensing/immunology , Anti-Infective Agents , Quercetin/analysis , Phenolic Compounds , Food Microbiology/classification
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(4): 556-558, July-Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887008

ABSTRACT

Abstract: We report an 80-year-old male patient with severe rheumatoid arthritis who was treated with tripterygium glycoside, an immunosuppressive agent made from the extract of a Chinese medicinal herb called Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. The patient had no apparent skin lesions before the treatment, but he developed aggressive hyperkeratotic lesions with rapid progression after using tripterygium glycoside. He was repeatedly diagnosed with eczema, but treatment failed to achieve efficacy. Interestingly, a microscopic examination of the lesions revealed numerous scabies mites and eggs. Thus, we confirmed the diagnosis of Norwegian scabies infection. Treated with crotamiton 10% cream and 10% sulfur ointment for one month, the patient's clinical symptoms disappeared.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Scabies/chemically induced , Tripterygium/chemistry , Glycosides/adverse effects , Sarcoptes scabiei , Scabies/diagnosis , Plant Extracts/adverse effects
15.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(4): e17077, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039032

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of intravenous administration of Berberis vulgaris root bark aqueous extract (BRBD) on the cardiovascular and renal functions of healthy normotensive rats. The different doses of BRBD 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg were administered intravenously (i.v) in normal rats. Blood pressure, diuretic activity and serum renal profile were analyzed. Intravenous injection of BRBD at the different doses of 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg showed a dose-dependent reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (P<0.001). At different doses of 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg, the hypotensive effect remained for more than one hour. Single dose administration of BRBD at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg caused a significant increase in urine output (P<0.001) as compared to the control rats. Serum renal profile test (albumin, Urea, Uric Acid, creatinine and BUN) did not show any significant alteration. The authors conclude that the BRBD is a potent hypotensive and possesses diuretic potential


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Berberis vulgaris/adverse effects , Administration, Intravenous/instrumentation , Plant Bark , Arterial Pressure/drug effects
16.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(4): 781-786, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951873

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via a green biochemical method using Corymbia citriodora leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by SEM and XRD. An electrochemical H2O2 biosensor was fabricated by modification of a glassy carbon electrode using our proposed ZnO NPs. The electrochemical sensor showed excellent detection performance towards trace amounts of H2O2, demonstrating that it could potentially be used in clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Zinc Oxide/chemical synthesis , Hydrogen Peroxide/classification , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Plant Leaves , Myrtaceae
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 65-74, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741608

ABSTRACT

Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae). We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL) and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL), Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL). Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM) in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Food Preservatives/isolation & purification , Myrica/chemistry , Perciformes/microbiology , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Seafood/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , China , Food Quality , Food Storage , Food Preservatives/adverse effects , Food Preservatives/chemistry , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Foodborne Diseases/prevention & control , Gram-Negative Bacteria/growth & development , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/growth & development , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lipid Peroxidation , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pacific Ocean , Proteolysis , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Seafood/analysis
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 145-147, 03/02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741613

ABSTRACT

Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth which is prevalent in warm, moist, tropical and subtropical regions of the world with poor sanitation. Heavy whipworm can result either in Trichuris dysenteric syndrome - especially in children - or in a chronic colitis. In heavy infections, worms can spread proximally and may cause ileitis. Here we provide first microscopic evidence for a T. trichiura adult worm embedded in the rectum of a post-Colonial Brazilian adult mummy. During Colonial and post-Colonial times, many European chroniclers described a parasitic disease named Maculo whose symptomatology coincides with heavy helminthiasis. Based on our findings and on comparison of ancient textual evidence with modern description of heavy whipworm, we feel confident in considering that the two syndromes are expressions of the same pathological condition.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Dietary Supplements , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/diet therapy , Hyperglycemia/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Liriope Plant/chemistry , Plant Tubers/chemistry , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Ethnopharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification , Insulin Resistance , Liver Glycogen/metabolism , Liver/enzymology , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pancreas/metabolism , Pancreas/pathology , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Polysaccharides/administration & dosage , Polysaccharides/adverse effects , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Toxicity Tests, Acute
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