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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18501, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360167

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diabetic Neuropathy (DN) is one of the prevailing micro vascular complications of diabetes which can be characterized by neuropathic pain. Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in the rat has been increasingly used as a model of painful diabetic neuropathy. STZ injection leads to neurotoxicity of peripheral nerves that leads to development of Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy in rat model. The present study was aimed at exploring the protective role of Tinospora cordifolia extract in STZ induced neurotoxicity and evaluating mechanisms responsible for attenuating neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain markers like hyperalgesia, allodynia and motor deficits were assessed before STZ injection and after the treatment with 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg dose of Tinospora cordifolia. Oxidative stress markers, NGF expression in sciatic nerve were observed after seven weeks treatment. Our results demonstrated that seven weeks treatment with Tinospora cordifolia leaf extract significantly relieved thermal hyperalgesia and allodynia by increasing the antioxidant enzyme levels, decreasing the lipid peroxidation and by increasing the Nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in diabetic rat sciatic nerves. Our findings highlighted the beneficial effects of oral administration of Tinospora cordifolia extract in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain, possibly through a strong antioxidant activity and by inducing NGF m RNA in sciatic nerves.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/analysis , Menispermaceae/classification , Hyperalgesia/diet therapy
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18785, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364421

ABSTRACT

We were carried out to investigate the efficacy of Rape (Rapeseed, Brassica napus L.) flower on BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) in rats. We found that the extract from Rape flower prevented hyperplasia in testosterone-induced BPH model, the relevant animal model of human BPH. Extract reduced the weight of prostate and induced significantly cell apoptosis in prostate in BPH model. In addition, the extract controlled expression of TGF-ß1 in prostate gland and promoted urinary output in dose-dependence in BPH model. Our data provide that Rape flower may be useful for treatment of BPH


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Prostatic Hyperplasia/pathology , Efficacy , Brassica napus/anatomy & histology , Flowers/classification , Testosterone , Plant Extracts/analysis , Models, Animal
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18628, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364417

ABSTRACT

Abstract Degenerative diseases diabetes and oxidative stress constitute a major health concern worldwide. Medicinal plants are expected to provide effective and affordable remedies. The present research explored antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of extracts of Carissa opaca roots. Methanolic extract (ME) was prepared through maceration. Its fractions were obtained, sequentially, in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. An aqueous decoction (AD) of the finely ground roots was obtained by boiling in distilled water. The leftover biomass with methanol was boiled in water to obtain biomass aqueous decoction (BAD). The extracts and fractions showed considerable porcine pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC50 in the range of 5.38-7.12 mg/mL while acarbose had 0.31 mg/mL. The iron chelating activity in terms of EC50 was 0.2939, 0.3429, 0.1876, and 0.1099 mg/mL for AD, BAD, ME, and EDTA, respectively. The EC50 of beta-carotene bleaching activity for AD, BAD, ME, and standard BHA were 4.10, 4.71, 3.48, and 2.79 mg/mL, respectively. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of AD and BAD were also considerable. In general, ethyl acetate fraction proved to be the most potent. Thus, the C. opaca roots had excellent antioxidant activity while having moderate α-amylase inhibitory potentia


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/analysis , Iron Chelating Agents/analysis , beta Carotene/analysis , Apocynaceae/classification , Disease , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18891, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350242

ABSTRACT

In the present study, antidepressant-like activity of ethanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima was evaluated in Swiss young male albino mice. Stress was induced in mice by subjecting them to unpredictable mild stress for 21 successive days. Ethanol extract of the leaves (100, 200 and 400 mg/ kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered for 21 consecutive days to separate groups of unstressed and stressed mice. Ethanol extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) and fluoxetine significantly decreased immobility period of unstressed as well as stressed mice in tail suspension test (TST). However, the lowest dose (100 mg/kg) of the extract also significantly decreased immobility period of stressed mice in TST. The extract significantly restored reduced sucrose preference in stressed mice. There was no significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. Ethanol extract of the leaves significantly decreased plasma nitrite and corticosterone levels; brain MAO-A activity and MDA level; and increased brain reduced glutathione and catalase activity in unstressed as well as stressed mice as compared to their respective vehicle treated controls. Thus, ethanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima showed significant antidepressant-like activity in unstressed and stressed mice probably through inhibition of brain MAO-Aactivity, reduction of oxidative stress and plasma corticosterone levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Leaves/classification , Caesalpinia/adverse effects , Ethanol , Sucrose , Fluoxetine , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Dosage
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18901, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350236

ABSTRACT

The plant, Malva neglecta wallr., is widely consumed for medicinal and nutritional purposes. The current study was carried out to assess the hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic potential of aqueous methanolic extract of M. neglecta. Chemical evaluation of the extract was performed by high pressure liquid chromatography. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done in diabetic rats pre-exposed to 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg plant extract via the oral route. For hypoglycemic and biochemical study, the same therapy was administered to alloxan induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The standard control group received Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). Ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and other phenolic acids were detected and estimated in the extract. Administration of the plant extract significantly reduced blood glucose level in diabetic rats subjected to OGTT. The plant extract lowered the fasting blood glucose and alpha amylase, and prevented the damage to pancreas. It also corrected dyslipidemia in diabetic animals following 14 days therapy. Hence, this experimental study establishes the fact that M. neglecta exhibited significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities in alloxan induced diabetic rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Malvaceae/classification , Malva/adverse effects , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Hypolipidemic Agents/administration & dosage , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18972, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350227

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effect of Punica granatum peel aqueous extract (PGE), on pulmonary inflammation and alveolar degradation induced by intratracheal administration of Elastase in Sprague Dawley rats. Lung inflammation was induced in rats by intratracheal instillation of Elastase. On day 1 and 2, animals received an intraperitoneal injection of PGE (200 mg/mL), three hours later, they were intratracheally instilled with 25U/kg pancreatic porcine Elastase. Animals were sacrificed 7 days later. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were collected and cellularity, histology and mRNA expression of Monocyte chemotactic protein 1(MCP-1), Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were studied. In addition, activity of TNF- α, IL-6 and MCP-1 on BAL were also analyzed by ELISA Kit. Elastase administration increased: BAL cellularity, neutrophils recruitment and BAL MCP1, IL-6 expressions. It also increased lung TNF-α, MCP-1, MMP-2 expressions, platelets recruitment, histological parameters at 7th day of elastase treatment. Intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg of PGE reduced, significantly, BAL cellularity, and neutrophils recruitment. However, in animal treated with PGE, MCP-1, MMP-2 and IL-6 on day 7, were similar to the Sham group. Treatment with PGE (200 mg/ kg) also significantly reduced lung TNF-α, and MCP-1 expression. This study reveals that PGE Punica granatum protects against elastase lung inflammation and alveolar degradation induced in rats


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Pancreatic Elastase/classification , Plant Bark , Pomegranate/adverse effects , Pneumonia/classification , Pulmonary Edema/classification , Emphysema/classification
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18474, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249171

ABSTRACT

Due to the increase of bacterial resistance, the search for new antibiotics is necessary and the medicinal plants represent its most important source. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial property of extract and fractions from Protium spruceanum leaves, against pathogenic bacteria. By means of diffusion and microdilution assays, the crude extract was active against the nine bacteria tested being the hydromethanolic fraction the most active. During phytochemical procedures, procyanidin (1) and catechin (2) were identified as the main antibacterial constituents of this fraction. In silico results obtained using PASSonline tool indicated 1 and 2 as having good potential to interact with different targets of currently used antibiotics. These results no indicated potential to none DNA effect and indicated the cell wall as mainly target. Electrophoresis result supported that had no DNA damage. Cell wall damage was confirmed by propidium iodide test that showed increased membrane permeability and by cell surface deformations observed in scanning electronic microscopy. The in vitro assays together with the in silico prediction results establish the potential of P. spruceanum as source of antibacterial compounds that acts on important bacterial targets. These results contribute to the development of natural substances against pathogenic bacteria and to discovery of new antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Plant Extracts/analysis , Catechin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Computer Simulation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Plant Leaves/classification , Burseraceae/classification , Phytochemicals
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 233-242, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989454

ABSTRACT

Abstract The expression of chemical compounds by individual plants of the same species in different locations may be affected by abiotic factors resulting in differences in the production of allelopathic compounds. The objective of this study was to compare the phytochemical profiles of plant species from two different forest formations in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The forest formations were Seasonal Semideciduous Forest (SSF) and Lowland Ombrophilous Dense Forest (LODF), and the five study species were Jacaranda micrantha, Cecropia pachystachya, Mimosa bimucronata, Schinus terebinthifolius and Cedrela fissilis. Secondary metabolites were extracted by exhaustive extraction with methanol, and the crude extract was fractionated using column chromatography. The fractions were used to calculate the retention factor of the main compounds using thin layer chromatography and phytochemical tests. The classes of compounds identified were practically the same among the analyzed species, however, at different levels of concentration. The type of tannins found in S. terebinthifolius differed between the two forest formations.


Resumo A expressão de compostos químicos de uma mesma espécie pode ser afetada e diferenciada pelos fatores abióticos, resultando em respostas alelopáticas diferenciadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o perfil químico de espécies provenientes de duas Formações Florestais do Estado do Paraná. As formações foram a Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Floresta Ombrófila Densa, sendo as espécies escolhidas: Jacaranda micrantha, Cecropia pachystachya, Mimosa bimucronata, Schinus terebinthifolius e Cedrela fissilis. Foi realizada extração exaustiva dos metabólitos secundários com metanol e o extrato bruto fracionado em coluna cromatográfica. As frações foram utilizadas para calcular o fator de retenção dos constituintes principais empregando cromatografia em camada delgada e para realizar testes fitoquímicos. As classes de compostos identificados foram praticamente as mesmas entre as espécies analisadas, porém, em diferentes níveis de concentração. O tipo de tanino encontrado em S. terebinthifolius foi diferente entre as duas formações florestais.


Subject(s)
Plants/classification , Plants/chemistry , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Forests , Phytochemicals/analysis , Brazil
9.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 55: e18224, 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011647

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the safety of the alcoholic leaves extract of Reinwardtia indica in Charles foster rats through an acute and sub-acute oral administration.For assessment of acute oral toxicity test, ratswere orally treated with single dose of the alcoholic leaves extract of Reinwardtia indica at the doses of 50, 250, 500, 1000 2000 and 5000 mg/kg. In sub-acute toxicity study, using the OECD guidelines no. 407, the extract was administered at the doses of 50, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days and at the dose of 2000 mg/kg satellite group also used for 6 weeks.In acute toxicity above mentioned doses neither showed mortality nor exterior signs of toxicity. In sub-acute, study no significant changes found in haematological and biochemical level ofthe treated rat after 14 days and 28 days in comparison to control. The histopathology of rat brain, kidney, liver, and heart also showed the no cellular changes after extract treated rat.The alcoholic leaves extract of Reinwardtia indica was found non-toxic in single drug dose administration up to 5000 mg/kg (acute study) and in sub-acute administration up to 2000 mg/kg.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Leaves/adverse effects , Linaceae/classification , Administration, Oral , Toxicity Tests/instrumentation , Hematologic Tests/instrumentation
10.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 55: e18157, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011648

ABSTRACT

In the current study, four Onobrychis species, O. albiflora Hub.-Mor., O. argyrea Boiss. subsp. argyrea Boiss., O. galegifolia Boiss., and O. tournefortii (Willd.) Desv. were collected from Anatolia to be evaluated for their antidiabetic activities. Methanol water extracts of the aerial parts were used for experiments. An alloxan-induced diabetic mice test model was used. Phytochemical analysis of the tested extracts was investigated using the HPLC method. The highest activity was observed with treatment of O. albiflora aerial part extract. Significant decrements were detected in the blood glucose levels as follows: 180.83±47.48 and 252.83±50.47mg/dL at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg doses of O. albiflora, respectively, when compared to the isotonic saline solution control group, eliciting a blood glucose level of 494.20±27.32. Among the tested standard compounds, rutin and isoquercetin were detected in the examined species. The highest amount of rutin (1.1981±0.0017%) and isoquercetin (0.7318±0.0197%) were found in O. albiflora and O. argyrea subsp. argyrea, respectively. Antidiabetic activities of the tested Onobrychis species seem to indicate a possible correlation with their rutin and isoquercetin contents. Therefore, rutin and isoquercetin may be the antidiabetic compounds that contribute to the antidiabetic activity of the tested Onobrychis species.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/analysis , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Fabaceae/adverse effects , Rutin/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Alloxan/adverse effects
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18107, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039037

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ethanol leaf extract of Dryopteris filix-mas. Acute toxicity and phytochemical tests on ethanol leaf extract were determined. In sub-chronic toxicity test, animals were treated with 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of extract every day for 90 days. Blood samples were collected via retro-orbital puncture for baseline studies and at 31, 61 and 91st days for determination of hematological, kidney and liver function parameters. Liver and kidneys were harvested for histopathology analyses on 91st day. Also, a 28 day recovery study was carried out to determine reversibility in toxicological effects. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, terpenoids, reducing sugar and cardiac glycosides. Acute toxicity test did not show toxicity or death at 5000 mg/kg. There was significant (p<0.005) reduction in white blood cell and lymphocyte counts, significant (p<0.05) increase in some liver and kidney biomarkers as well as alterations in liver and kidney histo-architecture on 91st days in animals that were treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg extract. However, toxicities observed on 91st day were reversible in recovery studies. The leaf extract of Dryopteris filix-mas may be hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic when used for long periods


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Acute Toxicity/adverse effects , Dryopteris/toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic/instrumentation , Ethanol/toxicity
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18063, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039055

ABSTRACT

Cymbopogon citratus and C. nardus are noteworthy among the several existing plant species displaying medicinal properties, due to the potential pharmacological activity of these species, including antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-trypanosomal activities. The objective of this study was to carry out in vitro toxicity tests of plant extracts from both species and analyze potential antiviral activity against Human mastadenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5). Two cell lines (A549 and VERO) were used and mitochondrial and lysosomal viability were determined by the MTT and neutral red assay, respectively, after two exposure times (24 hours and six days). The aim of these assays was to counteract the behavior of the extracts against the different cell lines and determine their non-toxic concentration range, in order to evaluate possible antiviral activity against HAdV-5. Plaque reduction and inhibition index of viral titer assays were performed using the maximum non-cytotoxic concentrations (MNCC) of each extract. The results indicate MNCC at 625 µg/mL for all extracts, except for Cymbopogon nardus obtained with 80% ethanol (CN80), which showed toxicity at concentrations higher than 312.5 µg/mL. CN80 was the only extract that displayed potential activity against HAdV-5, at a concentration of 75 µg/mL, becoming a candidate for extract fraction purification and/or the isolation of substances related to the observed antiviral activity


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/analysis , Mastadenovirus/isolation & purification , Cymbopogon/toxicity , Antiviral Agents/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Cell Survival
13.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 20(2): 71-79, May.-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091448

ABSTRACT

Abstract There are several controversies regarding the efficacy of homeopathic substances; however, these remedies are used in many countries for the treatment of various pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of two homeopathic tinctures Arsenicum album (mineral extract) and Lycopodium clavatum (plant extract) on the periodontal bacteria Actinomyces israelii, Streptococcus sanguinis, Prevotella intermedia, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Phorphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). Materials and methods: Equal numbers of bacteria were seeded on agar plates containing enriched media with the homeopathic solutions at 1dH and 1cH dilutions. After 7 days of incubation under anaerobic conditions, colony forming units (CFUs) were counted. The antibacterial effect was calculated based on the total number of CFUs observed on non-tincture containing agar, and on the tincture containing plates. Results: No visible growth of any of the strains was observed on the plates containing Arsenicum album at any of the dilutions tested. In contrast, when Lycopodium clavatum at 1cH dilution was tested, only P. gingivalis was susceptible to this compound. Conclusions: The results suggest that the mineral extract tincture had a greater antibacterial activity than the plant extract tincture, also Lycopodium clavatum preparation could be an effective inhibitor of periodontal pathogens bacteria such as P. gingivalis.


Resumen Se necesita un mayor número de estudios in vitro e in vivo para validar estos resultados.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus sanguis/drug effects , Actinomyces/drug effects , Arsenicum Album/antagonists & inhibitors , Lycopodium clavatum/antagonists & inhibitors , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/drug effects , Porphyromonas gingivalis/drug effects , Prevotella intermedia/drug effects , Plant Extracts/analysis , Pharmacodynamic Action of Homeopathic Remedy , Homeopathy
14.
Arch. Health Sci. (Online) ; 25(1): 11-12, 23/04/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046565

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A busca por novos agentes terapêuticos tem incentivado as pesquisas com plantas medicinais, pois muitas delas podem apresentar propriedade antimicrobiana e conhecer o potencial citotóxico dos extratos é fundamental para garantir a segurança durante o uso. Objetivo: Avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e a citotoxicidade hemolítica de Arctium lappa (bardana), Equisetum arvense (cavalinha), Mikania glomerata (guaco), Morus nigra (amora) e Plantago major (tanchagem), amplamente consumidos pela população na forma de chás medicinais. Material e Métodos: Os extratos etanólicos fora preparados a 20% por percolação. Na avaliação antimicrobiana foi utilizada a técnica de difusão em disco, empregando as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobactersp, Enterococcus sp e Salmonella sp. O ensaio de citotoxicidade baseou-se na exposição dos extratos a 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% em suspensão de hemácias a 37ºC por 30 minutos, seguido de centrifugação e visualização do grau de hemólise. Resultados: Todos os extratos apresentaram inibição de crescimento microbiano, principalmente sobre Acinetobacter sp (amora), Enterococcus sp (amora e cavalinha), K. pneumoniae(amora, bardana e guaco), P. aeruginosa (cavalinha, tanchagem, bardana e guaco) e Salmonellasp (amora e bardana). No ensaio de citotoxicidade, o grau de hemólise foi classificado como baixo para tanchagem e bardana (5%) e médio para cavalinha, guaco e amora (25%) nas concentrações testadas. Conclusão: Os resultados mostram o potencial antimicrobiano dos extratos de amora, bardana, cavalinha, guaco e tanchagem contra bactérias Gram negativas e a baixa citotoxicidade hemolítica confirma a segurança no uso dos mesmos como agentes terapêuticos.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Noxae/analysis
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 98-107, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888842

ABSTRACT

Abstract The family Verbenaceae hosts important species used in traditional medicine of many countries. The taxonomic controversies concerning the specific delimitation of several of its species make it difficult to guarantee the botanical origin of herbal preparations based on species of this family. To contribute to the development of both specific chemomarkers and a quality control tool to authenticate the botanical origin of herbal preparations of Verbenacea species, we determined the foliar HPLC-DAD phenolic profiles and the antioxidant properties of 10 wild species of this family occurring in Mexico. The contents of phenols and flavonoids varied significantly among species. Priva mexicana showed the highest levels of total phenolics (53.4 mg g-1 dry tissue) and Verbena carolina had the highest levels of flavonoids (17.89 mg g-1 dry tissue). Relevant antioxidant properties revealed by antiradical and reducing power were found for the analyzed species. These properties varied significantly in a species-dependent manner. The phenolic compounds accumulated were flavones and phenolic acids. Flavones were the only type of flavonoids found. The results of a cluster analysis showed that the compounds were accumulated in species-specific profiles. The phenolic profiles are proposed as valuable chemomarkers that can become a useful tool for the quality control concerning the botanical origin of herbal medicinal preparations based on the species analyzed. In addition, phenolic profiles could contribute importantly to solve the taxonomic controversies concerning species delimitation in the family Verbenaceae.


Resumo A família Verbenaceae compreende importantes espécies utilizadas na medicina popular de muitos países. As dificuldades taxonômicas relativas à delimitação específica de muitas das suas espécies face difícil a verificar a origem botânico das preparações herbales baseadas nas espécies desta família. Para fazer uma contribuição ao desenvolvimento de indicadores taxonômicos e dum método de controle de qualidade para verificar a origem botânico de preparações herbales das espécies de Verbenaceae, os perfis fenólicos, obtidos pares HPLC-DAD, e as atividades antioxidantes das folhas de 10 espécies selvagens Mexicanas desta família foram determinados. Os conteúdos dos compostos fenólicos totais e dos flavonoides foram significativamente diferentes entre as espécies. Priva mexicana apresentou a maior quantidade de compostos fenólicos totais (53.4 mg g-1 amostra seca) e Verbena carolina apresentou a maior quantidade de flavonoides (17.89 mg g-1 amostra seca). Verifica-se importantes propriedades antioxidantes, como os resultados dos ensaios da capacidade antiradical e do poder redutor indicaram. As propriedades antioxidantes foram significativamente diferentes entre as espécies. Verificou-se que os compostos fenólicos conteúdos nas folhas das espécies analisadas foram só flavonas e ácidos fenólicos. Os resultados das análises de agrupamento provarãn que os perfiles fenólicos foram espécie-específicos. Estes perfis podem ser considerados como indicadores químicos da qualidade relativa à origem botânico de preparações medicinais baseadas nas espécies analisadas e podem fazer importantes contribuições para a delimitação específica na família Verbenaceae.


Subject(s)
Phenols/analysis , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Verbenaceae , Mexico
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): e17151, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889444

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Our present investigation deals with the phytochemical screening, estimation of total flavonoids, terpenoids and tannin contents to evaluate the anti-diabetic activities of Salacia oblonga stem followed by GC-MS analysis. It explores the natural compounds and the potential α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory actions of stem extracts. The aqueous stem extract was selected from other extracts (ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether and chloroform) for the in vitro study of anti-diabetic activity by alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory assays. The stem extract was also analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to identify the natural chemical components. Phytochemical analysis of aqueous stem extract showed major classes of secondary metabolites such as phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins. The total flavonoid, terpenoid, and tannin contents were quantified as 19.82±0.06 mg QE/g, 96.2±0.20 mg/g and 11.25±0.03 mg TAE/g respectively. The percentage inhibition of assays showed maximum inhibitory effects (59.46±0.04% and 68.51±0.01%) at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. The IC50 values of stem extract was found to be 73.56 mg/mL and 80.90 mg/mL for alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition. Fifteen chemical constituents were found by GC-MS analysis. This study suggest the aqueous stem extract of Salacia oblonga might be considered as potential source of bio active constituents with excellent antidiabetic activity.


Subject(s)
Plant Stems , alpha-Amylases/analysis , alpha-Glucosidases/analysis , Plant Extracts/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Salacia/anatomy & histology , Hypoglycemic Agents , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): e17251, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951906

ABSTRACT

Abstract Stroke is the third leading cause of mortality and disability in industrial countries. Treatment with herbs with antioxidant properties has been reported to be an alternative to the conventional treatments. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Anchusa italica extract on hippocampal injury induced by transient global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in the rat. To do so, 50 rats were randomly assigned to five groups; control, sham, ischemia, and 50 or 100 mg/kg of Anchusa italica treated animals. Ischemia was induced by occlusion of carotid artery for 30 minutes. Afterward, behavioral tests and biochemical analyses were conducted. Induction of ischemia/reperfusion caused a decline in learning and passive avoidance memory in rats. Moreover, Anchusa italica caused an increase in learning and improved the passive avoidance memory. Induction of ischemia/reperfusion caused a decrease in the antioxidant capacity of the brain and serum as well as an increase in the malondialdehyde of the brain and serum. Anchusa italica led to an increase in the antioxidant capacity of the brain and serum and decrease in the malondialdehyde of the brain and serum. Overall, because of its protective effects on spatial memory, passive avoidance learning, antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation during ischemia/reperfusion, Anchusa italica might be beneficial in ischemic patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Boraginaceae/adverse effects , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Spatial Memory/drug effects , Neuroprotection/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/pharmacology
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): e17178, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951912

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Antioxidants from natural sources hold high values regarding their indispensible roles in the development of nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products. Oroxylum indicum L. is a common medicinal plant with a wide range of therapeutic properties, including a notable antioxidant potency that was reported, yet has not been subjected to more detailed studies. The present study evaluated the potency of Oroxylum indicum methanol stem bark extract, along with its hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol fractions, three flavones including baicalein, oroxylin A and chrysin using DPPH assay. In terms of IC50 values, the crude extract (65,48 µg/mL) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity which was as half potent as that of its ethyl acetate fraction (32,94 µg/mL). This fraction was also superior to the methanol and hexane fractions, as their IC50 were 57,19 and 137,95 µg/mL respectively. Remarkably, a yellow powdery sub-fraction consisted of isolated compounds showed powerful activity (32,89 µg/mL) compared to those of its components, revealing the intriguing effect of synergism while giving evidence for the theory of structure-activity relationship between some flavones and their antioxidant capability. Perpetual search for new radical scavenging agents in Oroxylum indicum is emboldened considering its partially exploited potential in this study


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/analysis , Bignoniaceae/classification , Methanol/analysis , Antioxidants/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Stems/adverse effects , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Plant Bark/adverse effects , Flavones
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): e17363, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951923

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-hypoxia activity of polyphenolic extracts of Crataegus microphylla and Crataegus pentaegyn on mice. Three experimental models of hypoxia were considered, including asphyctic hypoxia, haemic hypoxia, and circulatory hypoxia. Polyphenolic extract of both plants exhibited significant anti-hypoxic activity and prolonged animal survival time. Anti-hypoia activity of C. pentaegyn was found to be superior to that of C. microphylla in circulatory and asphyctic hypoxia. Antihypoxic activity of these extracts may be attributed to their phenolic compounds.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Crataegus/adverse effects , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Fruit/classification
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): e17267, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951925

ABSTRACT

Abstract Considering the high prevalence of human cervical cancer and the adverse effects of the available treatments, it is important to develop studies involving plants. Eugenia uniflora L. is a Brazilian native plant widely used in folk medicine and some biological effects have already been described. In this study, we investigated the biologicals effects of the aqueous crude extract of E. uniflora leaves in relation to the viability of human cervical cancer cells (SiHa), non-tumorigenic cells HaCaT and human lymphocytes. Our results demonstrated that different concentrations of E. uniflora's extract significantly inhibited the viability of the Siha cell line at 24, 48 and 72 hours of treatment, but did not induce significant changes in the HaCat cell line and human lymphocytes. Tumor cells had adhesion capacity, migration processes, ability of colony forming and the potential to recover its viability after treatment. withdrawal, significantly reduced. The nuclear morphology revealed chromatin condensation, and the flow cytometry showed predominantly cell death by apoptosis in the treated tumor cells. Therefore, the E. uniflora's extract may contribute for future studies aiming at new therapeutic perspectives for human cervical cancer.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/analysis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Eugenia/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents
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