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1.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190253, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153292

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Essential oils from populations of B. dracunculifolia were investigated. β-pinene and (E)-nerolidol were the main compounds in B. dracunculifolia populations. The difference in the chemical profile of the essential oils is quantitative only. There is a negative correlation between the antioxidant activity and spathulenol.


Abstract Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. is a Brazilian native plant, presenting wide chemical diversity and numerous pharmaceutical and industrial applications. This research assessed the yield, antioxidant activity and the chemical similarity of essential oils from 10 populations of B. dracunculifolia in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. The extraction of the volatile compounds was carried out by hydrodistillation, the chemical composition was determined by GC/FID and GC/MS and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH method. The essential oil yield of wild B. dracunculifolia populations ranged from 0.14 to 0.87%. The oils were predominantly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (34.16 - 51.01%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (18.02 - 46.17%) and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (9.60 - 17.70%). The major compounds found in all populations were β-pinene (7.65 - 29.8%) and (E)-nerolidol (9.11 - 21.68%). Essential oil solutions (20%) from different populations presented antioxidant capacity ranging from 27.78 to 91.67%. A negative correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and spathulenol (r = -0.696). Multivariate analyses separated the populations into three groups: (1) low concentrations of α-pinene (2.02 - 2.06%), (2) high concentrations of α-pinene (4.17 - 4.61%) and β-pinene (22.54 - 29.80%), and (3) intermediate concentrations of α-pinene (2.38 - 3.31%), β-pinene (12.77 - 19.03%) and spathulenol (6.02 - 9.06%).


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Baccharis/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Oils/isolation & purification , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 656-661, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951809

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hamelia patens, is a plant traditionally used to treat a variety of conditions among the Huastec people of Mexico. The objective of this study is to characterize the phenolic content and critically examine the antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts H. patens, obtained by maceration, Soxhlet and percolation, using ethanol as 70% solvent. Phenolic compounds are characterized by liquid chromatography, coupled to a High Resolution Mass Spectrometry, and the antimicrobial activity was studied from the inhibitory effect of each extract for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi, and by the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration, the percentage of activity and the Index of Bacterial Susceptibility of each extract. The phenolic compound identified in different concentrations in the three extracts was epicatechin. The extracts obtained by the three methods had antimicrobial activity, however, there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) between the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of the extracts obtained by maceration, percolation and Soxhlet. The results of this study contribute to the body of knowledge on the use of extracts in controlling microorganisms with natural antimicrobials.


Subject(s)
Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/pharmacokinetics , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacokinetics , Hamelia/chemistry , Chemical Fractionation/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenols/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Mexico , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 296-302, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889227

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the antimicrobial potential of the crude extract and fractions of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., popularly known as Santa-Maria herb, against microorganisms of clinical interest by the microdilution technique, and also to show the chromatographic profile of the phenolic compounds in the species. The Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of cardiotonic, anthraquinone, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. The analysis by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of rutin in the crude extract (12.5 ± 0.20 mg/g), ethyl acetate (16.5 ± 0.37 mg/g) and n-butanol (8.85 ± 0.11 mg/g), whereas quercetin and chrysin were quantified in chloroform fraction (1.95 ± 0.04 and 1.04 ± 0.01 mg/g), respectively. The most promising results were obtained with the ethyl acetate fraction, which inhibited a greater number of microorganisms and presented the lowest values of MIC against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 0.42 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 34.37 mg/mL), Paenibacillus apiarus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL) and Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL). Considering mycobacterial inhibition, the best results were obtained by chloroform fraction against M. tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, and M. avium (MIC ranging from 156.25 to 625 µg/mL). This study proves, in part, that the popular use of C. ambrosioides L. can be an effective and sustainable alternative for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by various infectious agents.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Chenopodium ambrosioides/chemistry , Phenols/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 152-161, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889202

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The present investigation was designed to study the effect of an active compound isolated from Justicia wynaadensis against multi drug resistant organisms (MDRO's) associated with diabetic patients. The drug resistant pathogens implicated in wound and urinary tract infection of diabetic patients were isolated and identified by molecular sequencing. Solvent-solvent fractionation of crude methanol extract produced hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol-water fraction, among which chloroform fraction was found to be potent when compared with other three fractions. Further, chloroform fraction was subjected to preparatory HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography), that produced four sub-fractions; chloroform HPLC fraction 1 (CHF1) through CHF4. Among the sub-fractions, CHF1 inhibited the pathogens effectively in comparison to other three sub-fractions. The purity of CHF1 was found to be >95%. Therefore, CHF1 was further characterized by NMR and FTIR analysis and based on the structure elucidated, the compound was found to be 3,3',4'-Trihydroxyflavone. The effective dose of this bioactive compound ranged from 32 µg/mL to 1.2 mg/mL. Thus, the present study shows that 3,3',4'-Trihydroxyflavone isolated from J. wynaadensis is an interesting biopharmaceutical agent and could be considered as a source of antimicrobial agent for the treatment of various infections and used as a template molecule for future drug development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Diabetes Complications/microbiology , Flavonols/pharmacology , Justicia/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Wounds and Injuries/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Flavonols/chemistry , Flavonols/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/chemistry
5.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1841-1850, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886758

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the composition and antioxidant potential of leaves of a new variety of Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia UEM-13). Stevia leaves of UEM-13 contain rebaudioside A as the main glycoside, while most wild Stevia plants contain stevioside. Furthermore can be multiplied by seed, which reduces the cost of plant culture techniques as other clonal varieties are multiplied by buds, requiring sophisticated and expensive seedling production systems. Ethanol and methanol were used in the extraction to determine the bioactive compounds. The methanolic extract was fractionated sequentially with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and isobutanol, and the highest concentration of phenolic compounds and flavonoids was obtained in the ethyl acetate fraction (524.20 mg galic acid equivalent/g; 380.62 µg quercetin equivalent/g). The glycoside content varied greatly among the fractions (0.5% - 65.3%). Higher antioxidant potential was found in the methanol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction with 93.5% and 97.32%, respectively. In addition to being an excellent source for obtaining of extracts rich in glycoside, this new variety can also be used as raw material for the production of extracts or fractions with a significant amount of antioxidant activity and potential to be used as additives in food.


Subject(s)
Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Stevia/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Stevia/classification , Glycosides/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 927-938, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886694

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The phytochemical study of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from leaves of Psychotria viridis resulted in the identification of: the pentacyclic triterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic acid; the steroids, 24-methylene-cycloartanol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol; the glycosylated steroids 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitosterol and 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-stigmasterol; a polyunsaturated triterpene, squalene; the esters of glycerol, 1-palmitoylglycerol and triacylglycerol; a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons; the aldehyde nonacosanal; the long chain fat acids hentriacontanoic, hexadecanoic and heptadenoic acid; the ester methyl heptadecanoate; the 4-methyl-epi-quinate and two indole alkaloids, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and N-methyltryptamine. The chemical structures were determined by means of spectroscopic (IR, 1H and 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) and spectrometric (CG-MS and LCMS-ESI-ITTOF) methods. The study of biologic properties of P. viridis consisted in the evaluation of the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cytotoxic activities. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, the substances 24-methylene-cycloartanol, DMT and a mixture of 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitosterol and 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-stigmasterol showed cholinesterase inhibiting activity. This activity induced by chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts was higher than 90%. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts inhibit the growth and/or induce the death of the tumor cells strains B16F10 and 4T1, without damaging the integrity of the normal cells BHK and CHO. DMT also demonstrated a marked activity against tumor cell strains B16F10 and 4T1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Psychotria/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , N,N-Dimethyltryptamine/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Reproducibility of Results , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Colorimetry , Cell Line, Tumor
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(5): 693-699, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755897

ABSTRACT

Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthiumbased on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs). The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP) EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11) against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9). The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artemisia absinthium/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Trichomonas/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Cell Line , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Jun; 53(6): 371-379
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158512

ABSTRACT

Advanced Glycation End products (AGE) generated in a non enzymatic protein glycation process are frequently associated with diabetes, aging and other chronic diseases. Here, we explored the protective effect of phlorotannins from brown algae Padina pavonica, Sargassum polycystum and Turbinaria ornata against AGEs formation. Phlorotannins were extracted from brown algae with methanol and its purity was analyzed by TLC and RP-HPLC-DAD. Twenty five grams of P. pavonica, S. polycystum, T. ornata yielded 27.6±0.8 µg/ml, 37.7 µg/ml and 37.1±0.74 µg/ml of phloroglucinol equivalent of phlorotannins, respectively. Antioxidant potentials were examined through DPPH assay and their IC50 values were P. pavonica (30.12±0.99 µg), S. polycystum (40.9±1.2 µg) and T. ornata (22.9±1.3 µg), which was comparatively lesser than the control ascorbic acid (46±0.2 µg). Further, anti-AGE activity was examined in vitro by BSA-glucose assay with the extracted phlorotannins of brown algae (P. pavonica, 15.16±0.26 µg/ml; S. polycystum, 35.245±2.3 µg/ml; T. ornata, 22.7±0.3 µg/ml), which revealed the required concentration to inhibit 50% of albumin glycation (IC50) were lower for extracts than controls (phloroglucinol, 222.33±4.9 µg/ml; thiamine, 263 µg/ml). Furthermore, brown algal extracts containing phlorotannins (100 µl) exhibited protective effects against AGE formation in vivo in C. elegans with induced hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
Caenorhabditis elegans/chemistry , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Glycation End Products, Advanced/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Phaeophyta/chemistry , Phaeophyta/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Sargassum/isolation & purification , /isolation & purification , Tannins/analogs & derivatives , Tannins/isolation & purification
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 139-143, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748240

ABSTRACT

The present investigations were aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacies of budmunchiamine-A (BUA) of Albizia amara. The activity-guided isolation leaded to isolate the bioactive compound budmunchiamine-A from alkaloid extract of A. amara. The budmunchiamine-A showed significant broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with zone of inhibition (ZOI), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) values varied from 7.3 to 24.5 mm, 0.95 to 62.5 μg/mL, and 1.9 to 250 μg/mL, respectively. The budmunchiamine-A exhibited moderate antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) value of 400 μg/mL in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and percent inhibition of β-carotene/linoleic acid was 67.8%. The results suggest the possible use of budmunchiamine-A as a molecular entity for drug development in pharmaceutical industry.


Subject(s)
Albizzia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Bacteria/drug effects , Fungi/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 65-74, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741608

ABSTRACT

Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae). We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL) and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL), Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL). Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM) in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Food Preservatives/isolation & purification , Myrica/chemistry , Perciformes/microbiology , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Seafood/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , China , Food Quality , Food Storage , Food Preservatives/adverse effects , Food Preservatives/chemistry , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Foodborne Diseases/prevention & control , Gram-Negative Bacteria/growth & development , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/growth & development , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lipid Peroxidation , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pacific Ocean , Proteolysis , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Seafood/analysis
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 145-147, 03/02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741613

ABSTRACT

Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth which is prevalent in warm, moist, tropical and subtropical regions of the world with poor sanitation. Heavy whipworm can result either in Trichuris dysenteric syndrome - especially in children - or in a chronic colitis. In heavy infections, worms can spread proximally and may cause ileitis. Here we provide first microscopic evidence for a T. trichiura adult worm embedded in the rectum of a post-Colonial Brazilian adult mummy. During Colonial and post-Colonial times, many European chroniclers described a parasitic disease named Maculo whose symptomatology coincides with heavy helminthiasis. Based on our findings and on comparison of ancient textual evidence with modern description of heavy whipworm, we feel confident in considering that the two syndromes are expressions of the same pathological condition.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Dietary Supplements , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/diet therapy , Hyperglycemia/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Liriope Plant/chemistry , Plant Tubers/chemistry , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Ethnopharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification , Insulin Resistance , Liver Glycogen/metabolism , Liver/enzymology , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pancreas/metabolism , Pancreas/pathology , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Polysaccharides/administration & dosage , Polysaccharides/adverse effects , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Toxicity Tests, Acute
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 142-144, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741622

ABSTRACT

Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) (98.8%), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.8%), Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf) (0.3%) and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León) (0.1%). Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most frequently trapped species. This is the first record of its remarkable ability to adapt to urban green areas. The three other species trapped represent new records of geographic distribution for the study region. These results indicate the need to establish measures for reducing both human contact with this vector and the risk of possible sites of infection.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Caesalpinia/chemistry , Food Preservatives/isolation & purification , Fruit/chemistry , Models, Chemical , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Emulsions , Ethanol/chemistry , Food Storage , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Food Preservatives/analysis , Food Preservatives/chemistry , Gallic Acid/analysis , Gallic Acid/chemistry , Gallic Acid/isolation & purification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oxidation-Reduction , Peru , Principal Component Analysis , Phenols/analysis , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Spain , Solvents/chemistry , Ultrasonics/methods , Water/chemistry
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 75-85, 03/02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741624

ABSTRACT

In our previous study, we have found that 5-cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-3-yl]-pyrimidin-4-ylamine (BAY 41-2272), a guanylate cyclase agonist, activates human monocytes and the THP-1 cell line to produce the superoxide anion, increasing in vitro microbicidal activity, suggesting that this drug can be used to modulate immune functioning in primary immunodeficiency patients. In the present work, we investigated the potential of the in vivo administration of BAY 41-2272 for the treatment of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus infections introduced via intraperitoneal and subcutaneous inoculation. We found that intraperitoneal treatment with BAY 41-2272 markedly increased macrophage-dependent cell influx to the peritoneum in addition to macrophage functions, such as spreading, zymosan particle phagocytosis and nitric oxide and phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated hydrogen peroxide production. Treatment with BAY 41-2272 was highly effective in reducing the death rate due to intraperitoneal inoculation of C. albicans, but not S. aureus. However, we found that in vitro stimulation of peritoneal macrophages with BAY 41-2272 markedly increased microbicidal activities against both pathogens. Our results show that the prevention of death by the treatment of C. albicans-infected mice with BAY 41-2272 might occur primarily by the modulation of the host immune response through macrophage activation. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adipocytes, White/metabolism , Ananas/chemistry , Dietary Supplements , Fruit/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification , Industrial Waste/analysis , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Adipogenesis , Adipocytes, White/cytology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/economics , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/economics , Enzyme Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Glycosylation , Glycerolphosphate Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycerolphosphate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/economics , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/economics , India , Industrial Waste/economics , Lipotropic Agents/chemistry , Lipotropic Agents/economics , Lipotropic Agents/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/economics , Solvents/chemistry , alpha-Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors , alpha-Amylases/metabolism
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Feb; 53(2): 98-103
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158385

ABSTRACT

Anticancer potential of Moringa oleifera L. extracts have been well established. However, there are no reports on the isolated molecules/fractions from these extracts which are responsible for the anticancer/cytotoxic activity. Thus, in the present study, we explored the same. The n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol extracts of the M. oleifera leaves and 15 fractions (F1 to F15) of ethyl acetate extract were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity using Hep-2 cell lines and Dalton’s lymphoma ascites model in mice, respectively. Among the tested samples, the F1 fraction showed potential cytotoxic effect in Hep-2 cell lines with a CTC50 value of 12.5 ± 0.5 µg/ml. In vivo studies with the doses 5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o. demonstrated significant reduction in body weight and increased the mean survival time compared to the control group. These results were also comparable to the standard, 5-Fluorouracil, treated animals. We have also successfully isolated and characterized the anticancer fraction, F1 from the leaves of M. oleifera L.


Subject(s)
Acetates/chemistry , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/isolation & purification , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chemical Fractionation/methods , Chloroform/chemistry , Female , Hep G2 Cells , Hexanes/chemistry , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Methanol/chemistry , Moringa oleifera/chemistry , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Vero Cells
15.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2015 Feb; 52 (1):
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157957

ABSTRACT

The enzyme D-galactose dehydrogenase (GalDH) has been used in diagnostic kits to screen blood serum of neonates for galactosemia. It is also a significant tool for the measurement of β-D-galactose, α-D-galactose and lactose as well. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to identify the suitable conditions for recovery of recombinant GalDH from Pseudomonas fluorescens in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). The identified GalDH gene was amplified by PCR and confirmed by further cloning and sequencing. E. coli BL-21 (DE3) containing the GalDH gene on a plasmid (pET28aGDH) was used to express and purify the recombinant enzyme. The polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ammonium sulfate concentrations and pH value were selected as variables to analyze purification of GalDH. To build mathematical models, RSM with a central composite design was applied based on the conditions for the highest separation. The recombinant GalDH enzyme was expressed after induction with IPTG. It showed NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase activity towards D-Galactose. According to the RSM modeling, an optimal ATPS was composed of PEG-2000 14.0% (w/w) and ammonium sulfate 12.0% (w/w) at pH 7.5. Under these conditions, GalDH preferentially concentrated in the top PEG-rich phase. The enzyme activity, purification factor (PF) and recovery (R) were 1400 U/ml, 60.0% and 270.0%, respectively. The PEG and salt concentrations were found to have significant effect on the recovery of enzyme. Briefly, our data showed that RSM could be an appropriate tool to define the best ATPS for recombinant P. fluorescens GalDH recovery.


Subject(s)
/analysis , /genetics , /isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas fluorescens/chemistry
16.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-10, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of bioactive metabolites present in Newbouldia laevis leaf extract. RESULTS: Chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods were used in the study and modified where necessary in the study. Bioactivity of the extract was determined at 10 µg/ml, 50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml, 200 µg/ml and 400 µg/ml concentrations expressed in % inhibition. The yield of the ethanolic leaf extract of N.laevis was 30.3 g (9.93%). Evaluation of bioactive metabolic constituents gave high levels of ascorbic acid (515.53 ± 12 IU/100 g [25.7 mg/100 g]), vitamin E (26.46 ± 1.08 IU/100 g), saponins (6.2 ± 0.10), alkaloids (2.20 ± 0.03), cardiac glycosides(1.48 ± 0.22), amino acids and steroids (8.01 ± 0.04) measured in mg/100 g dry weight; moderate levels of vitamin A (188.28 ± 6.19 IU/100 g), tannins (0.09 ± 0.30), terpenoids (3.42 ± 0.67); low level of flavonoids (1.01 ± 0.34 mg/100 g) and absence of cyanogenic glycosides, carboxylic acids and aldehydes/ketones. The extracts percentage inhibition of DPPH, hydroxyl radical (OH.), superoxide anion (O2 .-), iron chelating, nitric oxide radical (NO), peroxynitrite (ONOO-), singlet oxygen (1O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and FRAP showed a concentration-dependent antioxidant activity with no significant difference with the controls. Though, IC50 of the extract showed significant difference only in singlet oxygen (1O2) and iron chelating activity when compared with the controls. CONCLUSIONS: The extract is a potential source of antioxidants/free radical scavengers having important metabolites which maybe linked to its ethno-medicinal use.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Free Radical Scavengers/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Bignoniaceae/chemistry , Metabolome/physiology , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Phenols/analysis , Vitamins/isolation & purification , Vitamins/metabolism , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Iron Chelating Agents/isolation & purification , Reactive Oxygen Species/isolation & purification , Hydroxyl Radical/analysis , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Secondary Metabolism/physiology , Nigeria , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
17.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-9, 2015. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Curcuma longa Linnaeus and Zingiber officinale Roscoe are two main representatives ofZingiberaceae family studied for a wide range of therapeutic properties, including: antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, antibacterial, analgesic, immunomodulatory, proapoptotic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus properties and anticancer effects. This study was aimed to analyse the ethanolic extracts of Curcuma rhizome (Curcuma longa Linnaeus) and Zingiber rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in terms of polyphenols, antioxidant activity and anti-melanoma potential employing the B164A5 murine melanoma cell line. RESULTS: In order to evaluate the total content of polyphenols we used Folin-Ciocâlteu method. The antioxidant activity of the two ethanolic extracts was determined by DPPH assay, and for the control of antiproliferative effect it was used MTT proliferation assay, DAPI staining and Annexin-FITC-7AAD double staining test. Results showed increased polyphenols amount and antioxidant activity forCurcuma rhizome ethanolic extract. Moreover, 100 μg/ml of ethanolic plant extract from both vegetal products presented in a different manner an antiproliferative, respectively a proapoptotic effect on the selected cell line. CONCLUSIONS: The study concludes that Curcuma rhizome may be a promising natural source for active compounds against malignant melanoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Melanoma, Experimental/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/analysis , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Curcuma/chemistry , Curcuma/classification , Ginger/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Polyphenols/classification , Rhizome/chemistry
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130576

ABSTRACT

Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 hr. In addition, their leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms was determined in a macrophage model, for 72 hr. Findings showed that the main components of essential oil were alpha-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%). Findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. tropica based on a dose-dependent response. The IC50 values for essential oil and methanolic extract was 8.4 and 28.9 mug/ml against promastigotes, respectively. These values were 11.6 and 40.8 mug/ml against amastigote forms, respectively. Glucantime as control drug also revealed IC50 values of 88.3 and 44.6 mug/ml for promastigotes and amastigotes of L. tropica, respectively. The in vitro assay demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. However, essential oil indicated a more cytotoxic effect as compared with the methanolic extract of M. communis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that M. communis might be a natural source for production of a new leishmanicidal agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiprotozoal Agents/isolation & purification , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cyclohexanols/isolation & purification , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Leishmania tropica/drug effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Mice , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Myrtus/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130569

ABSTRACT

Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 hr. In addition, their leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms was determined in a macrophage model, for 72 hr. Findings showed that the main components of essential oil were alpha-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%). Findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. tropica based on a dose-dependent response. The IC50 values for essential oil and methanolic extract was 8.4 and 28.9 mug/ml against promastigotes, respectively. These values were 11.6 and 40.8 mug/ml against amastigote forms, respectively. Glucantime as control drug also revealed IC50 values of 88.3 and 44.6 mug/ml for promastigotes and amastigotes of L. tropica, respectively. The in vitro assay demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. However, essential oil indicated a more cytotoxic effect as compared with the methanolic extract of M. communis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that M. communis might be a natural source for production of a new leishmanicidal agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiprotozoal Agents/isolation & purification , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cyclohexanols/isolation & purification , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Leishmania tropica/drug effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Mice , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Myrtus/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1341-1347, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741285

ABSTRACT

Bacterial infections cause thousands of deaths in the world every year. In most cases, infections are more serious because the patient is already weakened, and often, the bacteria are already resistant to the antibiotics used. Counterparting this negative scenario, the interest in medicinal plants as an alternative to the synthetic antimicrobial drugs is blossoming worldwide. In the present work, we identified the volatile compounds of ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha sp., Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus barbatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Also was evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against 6 bacteria of clinical interest, and was tested the interaction of these extracts with a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. Phytol was a compound identified in all extracts by GC/MS, being majoritary component in Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ethanol extracts, and Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most active extracts. Ethanol extracts exhibited a synergetic effect with streptomycin. These results encourage additional studies, in order to evaluate the possibilities of using ethanol extracts of Lamiaceae family as natural source for antibacterial activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Streptomycin/pharmacology , Volatile Organic Compounds/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Volatile Organic Compounds/isolation & purification
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