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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1325-1330, Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1040132

ABSTRACT

Impairing osteoporosis progression is a challenge, and recently the role of antioxidants has been associated to bone metabolism. Green tea extract is rich in catechins, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which may help control osteoporosis damage in bone tissue. This investigation evaluated the efficacy of green tea ingestion containing different concentrations of EGCG in calvaria bone repair of ovariectomized rats. Wistar rats (n=15) were ovariectomized and divided into 3 groups: ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized + GTE 15 % EGCG (OVX/GTE15), and ovariectomized + GTE 94 % EGCG (OVX/GTE94). Green tea extract was administered by gavage in the concentration of 50 mg/kg and sham group (n=5) received water. Bone defects were performed in the calvaria 60 days after ovariectomy followed by 4 weeks until euthanasia. Bone samples were collected to perform qualitative and quantitative histological analysis of bone formation. Data obtained were submitted to normality and ANOVA statistical test for p<0.05. The mean values of neoformed bone for Sham, OVX, OVX/GTE15 and OVX/GTE94 were respectively: 21.11 ± 3.91; 19.92 ± 2.20; 33.05 ± 1.26 e 34.75 ± 0.54 (p<0.05). Results show that continuous ingestion of green tea extract immediately after ovariectomy shows positive effects in the prevention of bone loss in osteoporosis, even with low concentrations of EGCG.


La disminución en la progresión de la osteoporosis es un desafío, y recientemente el papel de los antioxidantes se ha asociado al metabolismo óseo. El extracto de té verde es rico en catequinas, especialmente el galato de epigalocatequina (EGCG), lo que puede ayudar a controlar el daño de la osteoporosis en el tejido óseo. Esta investigación evaluó la eficacia de la ingesta de té verde con diferentes concentraciones de EGCG en la reparación ósea de calvaria de ratas ovariectomizadas. Las ratas Wistar (n = 15) fueron ovariectomizadas y divididas en 3 grupos: ovariectomizadas (OVX), ovariectomizadas + GTE 15 % EGCG (OVX / GTE15), y ovariectomizadas + GTE 94 % EGCG (OVX / GTE94). El extracto de té verde se administró por sonda en una concentración de 50 mg/kg y el grupo simulado (n = 5) recibió agua. Los defectos óseos se realizaron en la calvaria 60 días después de la ovariectomía, seguido de 4 semanas hasta la eutanasia. Se obtuvieron muestras de hueso para realizar un análisis histológico cualitativo y cuantitativo de la formación ósea. Los datos obtenidos se sometieron a normalidad y prueba estadística ANOVA (p<0,05). Los valores medios de hueso neoformado para Sham, OVX, OVX / GTE15 y OVX / GTE94 fueron: 21,11 ± 3,91; 19,92 ± 2,20; 33,05 ± 1,26 y 34,75 ± 0,54 (p <0,05), respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que la ingesta continua de extracto de té verde, inmediatamente después de la ovariectomía, muestra efectos positivos en la prevención de la pérdida ósea ocurrida en la osteoporosis, incluso con concentraciones bajas de EGCG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Tea/chemistry , Bone Regeneration , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/metabolism , Osteoporosis/pathology , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Ovariectomy , Rats, Wistar
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 504-517, sept. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1008288

ABSTRACT

Nowdays it is established that ischemic brain damage like ischemic stroke is one of the leading cause of death and disability in the population that assumes relevance development of anti-ischemic drugs. The work studied the anti-hypoxic and anti-ischemic effect of 7 plant extracts. Antihypoxic activity was assessed on models of hypobaric, hypercapnic, histotoxic, hematotoxic hypoxia. Anti-ischemic activity of test-extracts was studied on the focal cerebral ischemia model. Administration of Tagetes patula, Gaillardia pulchella, Sorbaria sorbifolia, Grossularia reclinata, Ribes nigrum, Rubus caesius and Lysimachia punctata extracts contributed to the necrosis zone reduction by 56.6% (p<0.05); 37.3% (p<0.05); 73.2% (p<0.05); 49.4% (p<0.05); 42.5% (p<0.05); 85.5% (p<0.05); 44.2% (p<0.05) and also restored aerobic metabolism in brain tissue. Test - objects increased of the animal lifespan under hypoxia conditions. Based on the data obtained, it is assumed that further studies of North Caucasus flora plant extracts as cerebro-protective agents are promising.


Hoy en día, se ha establecido que el daño cerebral isquémico, como el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico, es una de las principales causas de muerte y discapacidad en la población lo cual hace relevante el desarrollo fármacos antiisquémicos. En este trabajo se estudió el efecto antihipóxico y antiisquémico de siete extractos de plantas. La actividad antihipóxica se evaluó en modelos de hipoxia hipocrática, hipercápnica, histotóxica y hematotóxica. La actividad antiisquémica de los extractos de prueba se estudió en el modelo de isquemia cerebral focal. La administración de los extractos de Tagetes patula; Gaillardia pulchella; Sorbaria sorbifolia; Grossularia reclinata; Ribes nigrum; Rubus caesius y Lysimachia punctata contribuyeron a la reducción de la zona de necrosis en un 56,6% (p<0,05); 37,3% (p<0,05); 73,2% (p<0,05); 49,4% (p<0,05); 42,5% (p<0,05); 85,5% (p<0,05); 44.2% (p<0.05), respectivamente, además, de restaurar el metabolismo aeróbico en el tejido cerebral. Comparado con el control, se observó un aumento en el tiempo de sobrevida del animal en condiciones de hipoxia. Sobre la base de los interesantes datos obtenidos, se sugiere estudios adicionales de extractos de plantas de la flora del Cáucaso Norte como agentes protectores del cerebro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Adenosine Triphosphate/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Lactic Acid/analysis , Pyruvic Acid/analysis , Mice, Inbred BALB C
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 392-410, jul. 2019. mapas, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1008179

ABSTRACT

An ethnobotanical study was conducted with the aim to identify the medicinal plants used for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus (DM) in Sidi Bel Abbes region (Northwest Algeria). Sidi Bel Abbes, known for its diverse ecological habitats, such as mountains, steppe, lake, and fertile plains with diverse medicinal plants. The data was collected through questionnaire and interviews with inhabitants and traditional healers. The results obtained revealed that 33 plant species distributed in 20 genera belonging to 21 families for the treatment of DM were used. The most represented families were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Myrtaceae, Fabaceae and Lauraceae. Medicinal plants commonly used were Trigonella foenum-graecum, Olea europaea, Cinamomum cassia, Artemisia herba-alba, Lupinus albus, Juniperus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Prunus dulcis and Berberis vulgaris. The study revealed that, leaves, followed by seeds and stem bark were mostly used parts. Also, decoction and infusion were the most frequently used method of preparation. This study confirms that most people with Diabetes mellitus in the study areas rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs.


Se realizó un estudio etnobotánico con el objetivo de identificar las plantas medicinales utilizadas para el tratamiento de la Diabetes mellitus (DM) en la región de Sidi Bel Abbes (noroeste de Algeria). Sidi Bel Abbes, conocida por sus diversos hábitats ecológicos, como montañas, estepas, lagos y fértiles llanuras con plantas medicinales. Los datos se recopilaron mediante cuestionarios y entrevistas con habitantes y curanderos tradicionales. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron que 33 especies vegetales distribuidas en 20 géneros pertenecientes à 21 familias fueron utilizadas para el tratamiento de DM. Las familias más representadas fueron Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Myrtaceae, Fabaceae y Lauraceae. Las plantas medicinales comúnmente utilizadas fueron Trigonella foenum-graecum, Olea europaea, Cinamomum cassia, Artemisia herba-alba, Lupinus albus, Juniperus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Prunus amygdalus y Berberis vulgaris. El estudio reveló que las hojas, seguidas de las semillas y la corteza de tallo, eran en su mayoría partes usadas. Sin embargo, la infusión y la decocción son el método de preparación más utilizado. El estudio reveló que las hojas, seguidas de las semillas y las partes del área, eran en su mayoría partes utilizadas. Tambien, la decocción y la infusión fueron los métodos de preparación más utilizado. Este estudio confirma que la mayoría de las personas con Diabetes mellitus en las áreas d'estudio dependen de la medicina tradicional para sus necesidades d'atenciónn primaria de la salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Leaves , Ethnobotany , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Seeds , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Surveys and Questionnaires , Algeria , Medicine, Traditional
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(3): 223-238, mayo 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1007927

ABSTRACT

Plants of the genera Werneria (Asteraceae) and Xenophyllum (genus extracted from Werneria) are used in traditional medicine of Latin America for the treatment of mountain sickness, hypertension and gastrointestinal disorders. Only a small number of species of these genera have been studied, leading to the isolation of compounds belonging to the classes of benzofurans, chromenes, acetophenones, coumarates, diterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Some of the plant extracts and/or compounds have shown antimicrobial, anti-HIV, hypotensive and photoprotective activities.


Las plantas de los géneros Werneria (Asteraceae) y Xenophyllum (género extraido de Werneria) son usadas en la medicina tradicional de América Latina para el tratamiento del mal de montaña, hipertensión y desórdenes gastrointestinales. Solo un pequeño número de especies de estos géneros ha sido investigado, lográndose aislar compuestos que pertenecen a las clases de benzofuranos, cromenos, acetofenonas, cumaratos, diterpenos y alcaloides pirrolizidínicos. Algunos de los extractos y/o compuestos de dichas plantas han mostrado actividades antimicrobianas, anti-HIV, hipotensoras y fotoprotectoras.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Asteraceae/chemistry , Acetophenones/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Benzopyrans/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Chlorogenic Acid/chemistry , Coumaric Acids/chemistry , Alkaloids/chemistry , Altitude Sickness/drug therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Medicine, Traditional
5.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4886, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-998259

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the potency of Javanese turmeric extract in inhibiting and eradicating the mature phase of C. albicans biofilm. Material and Methods: C. albicans ATCC 10231 was cultured in Sabouraud Dextrose Broth on a 96-well plate and was incubated at 37ºC. To analyze its inhibitory effect, C. albicans cultures were incubated for 1.5 hours before being exposed to various concentrations of Javanese turmeric extract, followed by a further 48-hour incubation to reach the maturation phase. To analyze the eradication effect, the 48-hour C. albicans cultures were exposed to the extract and incubated further for 24 hours. Nystatin (100,000 IU) was used as a positive control. The percentage of viable C. albicans cells on the 48-hour biofilm was determined by a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. This value was converted into the percentage of the extract's minimum inhibitory and eradication concentrations. Results: Against the mature phase C. albicans biofilm, the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration of the Javanese turmeric extract was 40%, while the minimum biofilm eradication concentration was 45%. There were significant differences between the inhibition percentage of the positive control and that of the solutions exposed to Javanese turmeric with all the tested concentrations (p<0.05). There was a strong positive correlation between the increase in extract concentration and the eradication percentage of the mature C. albicans biofilm (r=0.981). Conclusion: Javanese turmeric extract is potential for inhibiting and eradicating mature phase C. albicans biofilm. The extract is more effective in inhibiting than in eradicating the biofilm.


Subject(s)
Complementary Therapies , Candida albicans , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Biofilms , Curcuma , Dental Plaque , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Analysis of Variance , Indonesia
6.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4626, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-998263

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate in vitro the effect of a red propolis ethanolic extract (RPE) in the prevention of growth of a cariogenic biofilm and its cytotoxic potential. Material and Methods: Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) of RPE against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei were determined. The cytotoxic potential of 0.4% RPE in oral fibroblasts was observed after 1, 3 and 5 min of contact. Cellulose membrane disks (13 mm, N=12) were used for biofilm formation (24 h) of S. mutans and L. casei, which were treated (1 min) with 0.4% RPE or 0.12% Chlorhexidine (CHX). The control group of biofilm formation was not submitted to any treatment. Serial dilutions were then made to evaluate microbial viability. Descriptive data analysis and, for microbial viability, Mann Whitney test were performed (p≤0.05). Results: RPE showed similar MIC and MBC (4.46 mg/mL) against S. mutans and, for L. casei, they were 8.92 mg/mL (MIC) and 17.85 mg/mL (MBC). CHX presented MIC and MBC <0.00002 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.00047 mg/mL for L. casei. After 1, 3 and 5 min, the RPE exhibited, respectively, 69.38%, 43.91% and 40.36% of viable cells. The RPE (6.55) and CHX (6.87) presented similar efficacy to reduce the total number of viable bacteria (p>0.05). Regarding the total number of viable bacteria (Log10 CFU/mL), the RPE (6.55) and CHX (6.87) presented similar efficacy (p>0.05). Conclusion: Red propolis extract showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains, exhibited acceptable cytotoxicity and reduced the colonization of S. mutans and L. casei in a biofilm membrane model.


Subject(s)
Propolis/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Biofilms , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Statistics, Nonparametric
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(3): e201900305, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-989062

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of the EtOAc extract of U. longissima which is uninvestigated previously on esophagogastric cancer induced in rats with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidin (MNNG). Methods: The anticancer activity of EtOAc extract of U. longissima was examined in the esophagogastric adenocarcinoma models induced in rats with MNNG. EtOAc extract of U. longissima, 50 and 100 mg/kg oral doses were administered once daily for six months. MNNG induced differentiated and undifferentiated type adenocarcinomas in the esophageal and gastric tissues of rats. Results: EtOAc extract of U. longissima obtained from U. longissima prevented gastric and esophageal cancerogenesis induced in rats with MNNG. EtOAc extract of U. longissima did not have a lethal effect at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg. The prominent anticarcinogenic activity of EtOAc extract of U. longissima 50 and 100 mg/kg suggests that it is not toxic and it is selective to the cancer tissue. Conclusion: This information may shed light on clinical implementation of EtOAc extract of U. longissima in future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Usnea/chemistry , Acetates/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(3): e201900307, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-989071

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the healing potential of the Ximenia americana hydroalcoholic extract in 10% cream in excisional wound models in rats. Methods: Sixty male adults Wistar rats were submitted to skin and subcutaneous tissue surgery in the right and left thoracic regions, divided into three experimental groups: Standard submitted to treatment with only the base vehicle, Treated wounds treated with hydroalcoholic extract of X. americana applied on 10%, Lanette base and Control, untreated wounds. The treatment was performed daily and the wounds evaluated microscopically by the quantification of fibroblasts, collagen fibers and blood vessels. Results: The histomorphometric analysis showed a significant increase in the number of fibroblasts, collagen fibers and blood vessels in the treated group. Conclusion: The topical action of the cream based on Ximenia americana shows angiogenic effects and improves the replacement of collagen, suggesting its use for the development of herbal remedy in the treatment of cutaneous wound healing.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Wound Healing/drug effects , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Olacaceae/chemistry , Ointments , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 583-603, nov. 2018. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1007363

ABSTRACT

Ethnobotanical studies focusing on the documentation of folk therapies employed for pneumonia are almost non-existence in Africa and elsewhere. Data on plants used to treat this ailments was obtained through informed consent semi-structured face-to-face interview and field observations with 128 conveniently selected Bapedi traditional healers (THs) residing in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 57 plant species distributed across 54 genera and 32 botanical families, mostly the Asteraceae (21.8%) and Fabaceae (18.7%) were used by THs to treat pneumonia and related symptoms. Therapeutic uses of larger number of the documented species are not recorded elsewhere in literature as treatments of these ailments. Overall, the most widely used species by all interviewed THs were Acacia erioloba, Clerodendrum ternatum, Cryptocarya transvaalensis, Enicostema axillare, Lasiosiphon caffer and Stylochaeton natalensis. Ethnopharmacological studies validating the reported therapeutic claims of the species by Bapedi THs should be a subject of future investigation.


Los estudios etnobotánicos que se centran en la documentación de las terapias populares empleadas para la neumonía son casi inexistentes en África y en otros lugares. Los datos sobre plantas utilizadas para tratar estas dolencias se obtuvieron a través de entrevistas personales semiestructuradas con consentimiento informado y observaciones de campo a 128 curanderos tradicionales (TH) convenientemente seleccionados que residen en la provincia de Limpopo, Sudáfrica. Las TH utilizaron un total de 57 especies de plantas distribuidas en 54 géneros y 32 familias botánicas, en su mayoría Asteraceae (21.8%) y Fabaceae (18.7%) para tratar la neumonía y los síntomas relacionados. Los usos terapéuticos de un gran número de las especies documentadas no se registran en ninguna otra parte de la literatura como tratamientos para estas dolencias. En general, las especies más utilizadas por todos los TH entrevistados fueron Acacia erioloba, Clerodendrum ternatum, Cryptocarya transvaalensis, Enicostema axillare, Lasiosiphon caffer y Stylochaeton natalensis. Los estudios etnofarmacológicos que validan las afirmaciones terapéuticas informadas de las especies por parte de Bapedi TH deben ser un tema de investigación futura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Ethnobotany , South Africa , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Medicine, African Traditional , Phytotherapy
10.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(2): 200-209, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-959211

ABSTRACT

Objective: The harmful use of psychoactive substances represents one of today's largest public health problems. Yet, in spite of its global relevance, current treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs) is still not entirely successful. The purpose of this study was to investigate alternative treatments and conceptions from traditional Amazonian medicine adapted to SUDs. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 practicing experts at a well-established addiction treatment center in the Peruvian Amazon and performed qualitative content analysis on the collected data. Main categories were deductively defined and corresponding subcategories inductively developed. Results: Our findings revealed characteristic features and consequences, causes and antecedents, and treatment methods of SUDs as the main categories. Overall, concepts of disease etiology bore resemblance with contemporary biopsychosocial models of SUDs. The Amazonian therapeutic means however differed markedly from current Western ones. The main methods involved dietary retreats, healing ceremonies, and purging rituals. The integral application of Amazonian methods, as well as their traditional implementation according to prescribed ritual protocols, were emphasized by the experts as crucial for efficacy and safety of treatment delivery. Conclusion: We suggest further scientific attention to these therapies, including clinical studies, for which our results provide conceptual underpinnings. Findings from this research expand the cross-cultural understanding of SUDs and, in the long run, may enhance its treatment options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Substance-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Peru , Plants, Medicinal , Complementary Therapies , Interviews as Topic , Rainforest
11.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 3959, 15/01/2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-967103

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the effectiveness effectivity of mouthwash from Aloe vera juice after scaling treatment on patient with gingivitis. Material and Methods: This was an experimental research using pretest and posttest design with control group. The number of samples of 30 people selected using sampling method quota sampling. Samples were divided into two groups: test (n = 15 skeletons with Aloe vera juice) and control (n = 15 just scaling). Gingival inflammation is measured using a gingival index according to Loe and Sillness on the first day before scaling treatment and 7th day after scaling. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20. Independent-samples t-test and paired-samples t-test were used for data analysis. The statistical test performed has a significance level of 0.05 (p = 0.05) and confidence level of 95% (α = 0,05). Results: There was a significant decrease in the mean score of the gingival index in the control group (1.1 to 0.5) and the test group (1.2 to 0.4) significantly (p<0.05). Conclusion: The use of mouthwash from Aloe vera juice can decrease gingival inflammation, which can be seen from the gingival index score on all test subjects. The decrease in gingival index in the test group using the Aloe vera juice was greater than that of the control group, which was not given the mouthwash.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Dental Plaque , Aloe/immunology , Gingivitis/diagnosis , Mouthwashes/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Epidemiology, Experimental , Data Interpretation, Statistical
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17732, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-974392

ABSTRACT

Overconsumption of alcohol leads to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Natural compounds have been investigated previously for their hepatoprotective activities against liver injury. This study investigated the protective effect of Alhagi sparsifolia on ALD. Alcohol was administered to mice for three consecutive days; either alone or in combination with Alhagi sparsifolia extract (150, 300, 600 mg/kg). Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine transaminase as biomarkers of liver injury, the content of malonaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glutathione which indicated the redox status of liver and the antioxidant enzyme activity of super oxide dismutase were detected, respectively. Moreover, the expression of protein cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) the key enzyme of alcohol metabolism, and also tested by western blot experiment. Subsequently, the mRNA levels of inflammatory factors including TNF- α and TLR4 was determined real-time PCR. Results showed that Alhagi sparsifolia significantly alleviated alcohol-induced liver injury by reducing serum ALT and AST, inhibiting MDA and H2O2 content, increasing SOD, and GSH level in the liver (P< 0.05). In addition, the Alhagi sparsifolia treatment inhibited the expression of CYP2E1 (P< 0.05). The results suggest that Alhagi sparsifolia could be a promising natural substance for ameliorating acute alcohol-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Fabaceae/adverse effects , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 , Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic/drug therapy , Antioxidants/pharmacology
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(12): 1411-1415, dez. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895386

ABSTRACT

In vitro bioassay using Sarcoptes scabiei as a test microorganism is a viable method of study for diverse drugs with acaricidal properties. A great amount of assays proves the diverse and efficient biological activity of extracts and compounds from Brazilian savanna plants. This study had as main object, test and compare the acaricidal activity of four Brazilian Cerrado bioproducts: Stryphnodendron adstringens Mart., Copaifera sp., Lafoensia pacari A. St Hil. and Pterodon emarginatus Vogel, 1837. To perform this test S. scabiei mites were collected from crusts removed on ears of highly infected sows. The mites were selected and separated in Petri dishes with three different concentrations (25, 50 and 75%) of each bioproduct, to evaluate their potential acaricidal activity. The mortality of the mites was counted in each Petri dish every hour, during five hours. The statistical analyses demonstrated differences between the bioproducts tested. The oleoresin of Copaifera sp. and P. emarginatus presented the best results with 100% of mites mortality after treatment. The ethanolic extracts of S. adstringens and L. pacari demonstrated lower acaricidal activity when compared to the oleoresins, with little or no difference among the control groups tested. This bioassay demonstrated to be efficient, reliable, low cost and easy accomplishment. Oil resins from Copaifera sp. and P. emarginatus have in vitro acaricidal activity against adult females of S. scabiei var. suis.(AU)


O uso de Sarcoptes scabiei como microrganismo teste para bioensaio in vitro é um método de estudo viável para diversas drogas acaricidas. Muitos ensaios comprovam a diversidade e eficiência de atividade biocida de extratos e componentes presentes em plantas do cerrado brasileiro. Este trabalho objetivou testar e comparar a atividade acaricida de quatro bioprodutos do cerrado brasileiro: Stryphnodendron adstringens Mart., Lafoensia pacari A. St Hil., Copaifera sp. e Pterodon emarginatus Vogel, 1837. Para este estudo, ácaros S. scabiei foram colhidos em crostas removidas de orelhas de fêmeas suínas altamente infestadas. Os ácaros foram selecionados, separados e colocados em placas de Petri com três diferentes concentrações (25, 50 e 75%) de bioprodutos, para avaliar o potencial de atividade acaricida de cada um. Foi realizada a contagem da mortalidade dos ácaros em cada placa de Petri a cada hora, durante cinco horas. As análises estatísticas demonstraram diferenças entre os bioprodutos testados. As óleo-resinas de Copaifera sp. e P. emarginatus apresentaram os melhores resultados, com 100% de mortalidade dos ácaros após tratamento. Os extratos etanólicos de S. adstringens Mart. e L. pacari demonstraram menor atividade acaricida quando comparados as óleo-resinas, com pequena ou nenhuma diferença entre os resultados dos grupos controle. Este ensaio demonstrou ser uma ferramenta eficiente, confiável, de baixo custo e de fácil realização. As óleo-resinas Copaifera sp. e P. emarginatus possuem atividade acaricida in vitro sobre fêmeas adultas de S. scabiei var. suis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sarcoptes scabiei , Stryphnodendron barbatimam/analysis , Acaricides , Fabaceae , Resins, Plant/analysis , Biological Assay , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
14.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 25(3): 91-100, dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-949796

ABSTRACT

Smallanthus sonchifolius (Yacón) es una planta usada comúnmente por largos periodos de tiempo con el fin de ayudar en el control de la diabetes y otros desordenes metabólicos, por lo que con el propósito de evaluar la toxicidad subcrónica de la variedad colombiana de esta planta, fueron tratadas 30 ratas hembra de 8 semanas de edad dividas en 6 grupos. A cada uno de ellos se administró durante 28 días una de las siguientes dosis de infusión acuosa liofilizada (500, 250 y 125 mg/kg de peso), evaluando paralelamente grupos control (positivo y negativo) e incluyendo entre ellos grupos con y sin dieta hipercalórica. Para el seguimiento del perfil metabólico de los animales, se tomaron muestras de sangre periódicamente durante el ensayo y se evaluaron los niveles séricos de: glucemia, triglicéridos, colesterol total y HDL. Además, también se realizó el control del peso, así como estudios comportamentales que incluyeron el Test de Irwin y el Test Hipocrático. Al final de estudio (28 días), se realizó el análisis anatomopatológico e histológico comparativo con el fin de detectar posibles daños tisulares. Como resultado pudo observase que el liofilizado, si bien puede tener un efecto antihiperglucemiante, no modificó significativamente el perfil lipídico. Además, a pesar de que la administración se hizo durante 28 días, no se observaron cambios comportamentales que evidencien toxicidad, pero sí pudieron observarse cambios histológicos en el tejido cardiaco como hialinización, separación y redondeo de fibras.


Abstract. Smallanthus sonchifolius (Yacón) is a plant commonly used over long periods of time to help control diabetes and other metabolic disorders. To assess the sub-chronic toxicity of the Colombia variety of this plant, it was tested on 30 eight-week-old female rats, divided into six groups. For 28 days each group was administered with the following doses: three groups with lyophi­lized aqueous infusion (500 mg, 250 mg and 125 mg per kg of weight), two control groups (positive and negative) being assessed in parallel; this groups receiving hyper-caloric diet, and the last group was the general control or normal control. To monitor the animals' metabolic profile, blood samples were taken from time to time during the test period, and the serum levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL were measured. Weight tracking was also carried out, as well as behavioral studies, including the Irwin Test and the Hippocratic Test. At the end of the study (28 days), comparative anatomo-pathological and histological analyses were performed to detect possible tissue damage. The results showed that, although the lyophilized infusion could have an antihyperglycemic effect, it did not significantly change the lipid profile. Moreover, though the infusion was administered during 28 days, it was found that it did not lead to any behavioral changes indicating toxicity, but did produce in heart tissue histological changes such as hyalinization, separation and rounding of fibers.


Subject(s)
Rats , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Phytotherapeutic Drugs , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic/methods , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(9): 726-735, Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-886240

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigated the inflammatory, angiogenic and fibrogenic activities of the Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi leaves oil (STRO) on wound healing. Methods: The excisional wound healing model was used to evaluate the effects of STRO. The mice were divided into two groups: Control, subjected to vehicle solution (ointment lanolin/vaseline base), or STRO- treated group, administered topically once a day for 3, 7 and 14 days post-excision. We evaluated the macroscopic wound closure rate; the inflammation was evaluated by leukocytes accumulation and cytokine levels in the wounds. The accumulation of neutrophil and macrophages in the wounds were determined by assaying myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activities. The levels of TNF-α, CXCL-1 and CCL-2 in wound were evaluated by ELISA assay. Angiogenesis and collagen fibers deposition were evaluated histologically. Results: We observed that macroscopic wound closure rate was improved in wounds from STRO-group than Control-group. The wounds treated with STRO promoted a reduction in leucocyte accumulation and in pro-inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, STRO treatment increased significantly the number of blood vessels and collagen fibers deposition, as compared to control group. Conclusion: Topical application of STRO display anti-inflammatory and angiogenic effects, as well as improvement in collagen replacement, suggesting a putative use of this herb for the development of phytomedicines to treat inflammatory diseases, including wound healing.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Wound Healing/drug effects , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Collagen/analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Subcutaneous Tissue/drug effects , Subcutaneous Tissue/pathology
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(8): 859-865, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895510

ABSTRACT

An aqueous leaf extract of the medicinal species Kalanchoe gastonis-bonnieri (here denominated KGB) has been found to be effective as an antimicrobial agent against canine oral cavity bacteria in in vitro assays. In this study, we investigated the effect of topic oral administration of KGB on the development of dental biofilm in Beagle dogs. The experiments were performed with an experimental group (0.2% of KGB extract), a negative control group (0.9% of saline solution) and a positive control group (0.12% chlorhexidine). Each treatment was sprayed into the oral cavity daily for 28 days. Thirty Beagle dogs with similar characteristics and kept under the same management and diet were used. The measurement of dental plaque and calculus was performed using a computerized analytical method. The phenolic profile of KGB extract was analyzed by HPLC-DAD. KGB extract at 0.2% showed efficacy in controlling the formation of plaque compared to the negative control group, and dental calculus in relation to the negative and positive control groups. A significant difference was observed among these three groups. Peaks attributed to flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified in the HPLC-DAD chromatogram of the KGB extract. The presence of these substances could be related to the activity observed. Our findings demonstrate that treatment with KGB is effective in controlling periodontal disease in dogs, providing new insights into the medicinal properties of this plant. KGB extract has a potential use as a supplemental agent in pharmaceutical products for the prevention of periodontal disease.(AU)


Um extrato aquoso de folhas da espécie medicinal Kalanchoe gastonis-bonnieri (aqui denominado como KGB) foi efetivo como um agente antimicrobiano contra as bactérias da cavidade oral de cães em testes in vitro. Neste estudo, investigou-se o efeito da administração oral tópica de KGB sobre o desenvolvimento do biofilme dental em cães da raça Beagle. Os experimentos foram realizados com um grupo experimental (0,2% de extrato de KGB), um grupo controle negativo (0,9% de solução salina) e um grupo controle positivo (0,12% de gluconato de clorexidina). Cada tratamento foi aplicado no interior da cavidade oral diariamente durante 28 dias. Foram utilizados trinta cães da raça Beagle com características semelhantes e mantidos sob o mesmo manejo e dieta. A medição da placa bacteriana e cálculo dentários foi realizada utilizando-se um método de análise computadorizada. O perfil fenólico do extrato de KGB foi analisado por HPLC-DAD. O extrato de KGB a 0,2% mostrou eficácia no controle da formação de placa bacteriana em comparação com o grupo controle negativo, e de cálculo dentário em relação aos grupos controle negativo e positivo. Uma diferença significativa foi observada entre esses três grupos. Picos atribuídos a flavonoides e ácidos fenólicos foram identificados no cromatograma de HPLC-DAD do extrato de KGB. A presença de tais substâncias pode estar relacionada com a atividade observada. Os resultados demonstram que o tratamento com KGB é eficaz no controle da doença periodontal em cães, fornecendo novas perspectivas sobre as propriedades medicinais desta planta. O extrato de KGB tem uma utilização potencial como um agente suplementar em produtos farmacêuticos para a prevenção da doença periodontal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Dental Calculus/prevention & control , Kalanchoe , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Periodontal Diseases/therapy
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(7): 713-724, jul. 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895488

ABSTRACT

A doxorrubicina (DOX) é um quimioterápico utilizado no tratamento de neoplasias malignas, porém possui a cardiotoxicidade como efeito colateral. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar quanto à ação do extrato etanólico da casca do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) (EECP) por meio de avaliação morfológica (macroscópica, microscópica e ultramicroscópica), bem como avaliar a expressão de metaloproteinases (MMP2 e MMP9) e seus inibidores teciduais (TIMP1 e TIMP2) no miocárdio de ratos submetidos à cardiotoxicidade crônica pela DOX, tratados ou não com o EECP. O experimento teve duração de três meses e foram utilizados 30 ratos da raça Wistar, distribuídos em seis grupos de cinco animais. G1 e G2 receberam como pré-tratamento 300mg/kg e 600mg/kg de EECP, respectivamente, por gavagem, durante sete dias e mantiveram o tratamento durante os 21 dias de aplicação da DOX. Em G1, G2, G3, G4 e GC, a cardiotoxicidade foi induzida com aplicações semanais de 2mg/kg de DOX, via intraperitoneal, totalizando quatro aplicações (8mg/kg) e, nos ratos do grupo Sham (GS), foi aplicado 1ml de solução fisiológica. Os animais do G3 receberam diariamente 300mg/kg e os do G4 600mg/kg de EECP, por gavagem, durante os 21 dias de aplicação da DOX. Os do GC e GS receberam 1 ml de água, diariamente, também por gavagem. Após o término das aplicações, os animais foram mantidos por dois meses, totalizando três meses de experimento. A avaliação macroscópica foi realizada após 90 dias, momento em que foram colhidas amostras para análise em microscopia eletrônica, histopatologia e imunoistoquímica. Ao exame necroscópico foi observada ascite nos animais que receberam DOX. Houve baixo índice de mortalidade (3,33%), representado pela morte de um rato que desenvolveu pneumonia por falsa via. Não foi observada alteração no peso e nas medidas do coração dos ratos. Nas doses de 300 e 600mg/kg, o EECP atenuou a degeneração vacuolar miocítica. Na dose de 600mg/kg, o EECP reduziu a quantidade de células de Anitschkow e a fragmentação das miofibrilas. Não houve resultado significativo quanto à imunomarcação das MMP e, quanto a seus inibidores (TIMP), houve maior imunomarcação de TIMP2 no GC, grupo que recebeu apenas DOX. Concluiu-se que o extrato etanólico da casca do pequi (EECP) é eficiente em minimizar os efeitos da cardiotoxicidade crônica induzida pela DOX no miocárdio de ratos, considerando que nas doses de 300 e 600mg/kg o EECP atenua a degeneração vacuolar miocítica e, na dose de 600mg/kg, o EECP reduz a quantidade de células de Anitschkow e a fragmentação das miofibrilas.(AU)


Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapic drug used in the treatment of malignancies, but has the cardiotoxicity as collateral effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the action of pequi shell etanolic extract (Caryocar brasiliense) (PSEE) through morphological evaluation (macroscopic, microscopic and ultramicroscopic), and to evaluate the expression of metalloproteinases (MMP2 and MMP9) and its tissue inhibitors (TIMP1 and TIMP2) in the myocardium of rats with chronic cardiotoxicity by DOX and treated or not with PSEE. The experiment lasted three months and 30 Wistar rats were divided into six groups of five animals. G1 and G2 received 300mg/kg and 600mg/kg of PSEE, respectively, as pretreatment, by gavage for seven days and continued treatment for 21 days of application of DOX. In G1, G2, G3, G4 and GC, cardiotoxicity was induced with weekly applications of 2mg/kg DOX, intraperitoneally, totaling four applications (8 mg/kg), and in the Sham group (GS) 1ml of saline solution was applied. G3 animals received daily 300mg/kg of PSEE, and G4, 600mg/kg, by gavage, for 21 days of application of DOX. The GC and GS received 1ml of water daily by gavage also. After the completion of the application, the animals were kept for two months, with three months of experiment. Macroscopic evaluation was performed after 90 days, at which time samples were taken for analysis in electron microscopy, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. At necropsy, ascites was observed in animals that received DOX. There was a low mortality rate (3.33%), being one mouse that developed false road pneumonia. There was no change in weights and measures of the rat hearts. At doses of 300 and 600mg/kg, the PSEE attenuates myocyte vacuolar degeneration. At a dose of 600mg/kg, PSEE reduces amount Anitschkow cells. There was no significant result on the immunostaining of MMP, but considering their inhibitors (TIMP) there was a greater immunostaining of TIMP2 in GC, the group that received only DOX. It was concluded that PSEE is effective in minimizing effects of chronic cardiotoxicity induced by DOX in the myocardium of rats, whereas at doses of 300 and 600mg/kg, PSEE attenuates vacuolar degeneration in myocytes and at the dose of 600mg/kg the PSEE reduces the amount of Anitschkow cells and myofibrils fragmentation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Ericales/chemistry , Cardiotoxicity/therapy , Cardiotoxicity/veterinary , Doxorubicin/toxicity , Rats, Wistar , Ethanol
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(3): 523-528, jun. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), VETINDEX | ID: biblio-846836

ABSTRACT

The acaricidal activity of crude ethanolic extract and fractions from the leaves of Morus nigra (Moraceae) was carried out on female cattle ticks Rhipicephalus microplus, using the adult immersion test. The mortality and fertility of females exposed to different concentrations of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions, as well as ethanolic extract of M. nigra with concentrations of 5, 10 and 25mg/ml were evaluated using three treatment groups, two control groups and triplicate tests. The study also identified the main phenolic compounds of the extract and fractions of this species by HPLC. The chloroform fraction of leaves of M. nigra (25mg/mL) showed the best results for this species, obtaining 62.6% of inhibition of oviposition, 39.3% of eggs eclosion average and 65.4% of effectiveness. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, which may be related to biological activity shown by the extracts, which can be used as an alternative control against R. microplus adult tick.(AU)


A atividade acaricida do extrato etanólico bruto e das frações das folhas de Morus nigra (Moraceae) foi avaliada no carrapato Rhipicephalus microplus, utilizando-se o teste de imersão de fêmeas ingurgitadas. Foram avaliadas a mortalidade e a fertilidade das fêmeas ingurgitadas, expostas a diferentes concentrações (5, 10 e 25 mg/mL) das frações hexânica, clorofórmica e acetato de etila, bem como do extrato etanólico. Os testes foram realizados em triplicata. O estudo também identificou os principais compostos fenólicos do extrato e das frações dessa espécie por HPLC. A fração clorofórmica das folhas de M. nigra (25mg/mL) apresentou o melhor resultado para essa espécie, obtendo-se 62,6% de inibição da oviposição, 39,3% da eclosão dos ovos e 65,4% de eficácia. A análise por HPLC revelou a presença de compostos fenólicos, os quais podem estar relacionados com a atividade biológica demonstrada pelos extratos, que podem ser utilizados como auxiliar no controle contra carrapato adulto de R. microplus.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Acaricides/analysis , Morus/toxicity , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Tick Control/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/veterinary , Ticks/drug effects
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(4): 368-378, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895427

ABSTRACT

ladonia substellata Vainio is a lichen found in different regions of the world, including the Northeast of Brazil. It contains several secondary metabolites with biological activity, including usnic acid, which has exhibited a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the organic extract of C. substellata and purified usnic acid. Initially, Staphylococcus spp., derived from samples of skin and ears of dogs and cats with suspected pyoderma and otitis, were isolated and analyzed. In antimicrobial susceptibility testing against Staphylococcus spp., 77% (105/136) of the isolates were resistant to the antimicrobials tested. In the assessment of biofilm production, 83% (113/136) were classified as producing biofilm. In genetic characterization, 32% (44/136) were positive for blaZ, no isolate (0/136) was positive for the mecA gene, and 2% (3/136) were positive for the icaD gene. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the organic extract of C. substellata and purified usnic acid against Staphylococcus spp. ranged from 0.25mg/mL to 0.0019mg/mL, inhibiting bacterial growth at low concentrations. The substances were more effective against biofilm-producing bacteria (0.65mg/mL-0.42mg/mL) when compared to non-biofilm producing bacteria (2.52mg/mL-2.71mg/mL). Usnic acid and the organic extract of C. substellata can be effective in the treatment of pyoderma and otitis in dogs and cats caused by Staphylococcus spp.(AU)


Cladonia substellata Vainio é um líquen encontrado em diversos continentes do mundo, inclusive no nordeste do Brasil, possui vários metabólitos secundários com atividade biológica, entre eles, o ácido úsnico, que tem apresentado uma vasta gama de atividades biológicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do extrato orgânico de C. substellata e do ácido úsnico purificado. Para isto, foram isolados Staphylococcus spp. de amostras de pele e orelha de cães e gatos com suspeita de piodermatite e otite. No teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos frente Staphylococcus spp., 77% (105/136) foram resistentes. Na avaliação da produção de biofilme 83% (113/136) foram classificadas como produtoras de biofilme. Na caracterização genotípica, 32% (44/136) foram positivos para o gene blaZ, nenhum isolado (n=136) foi positivo para o gene mecA, e 2% (3/136) foram positivos para o gene icaD. A atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do extrato orgânico de C. substellata e do ácido úsnico purificado para Staphylococcus spp. variou de 0,25mg/ml a 0,0019mg/ml, inibindo o crescimento bacteriano em baixas concentrações. Foram mais eficazes contra bactérias produtoras de biofilme (0,65mg/ml-0,42mg/ml) quando comparadas às não produtoras de biofilme (2,52mg/ml-2,71mg/ml). Viabilizando a utilização do ácido úsnico e do extrato orgânico de C. substellata, no tratamento de otite e piodermatite em cães e gatos com o envolvimento de Staphylococcus spp.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Staphylococcus , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Usnea/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Biofilms , Lichens
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(4): 263-269, Apr. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-837702

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Baccharis trimera leaves on the proliferative capacity of the liver after partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats weighing between 300 and 450g were divided into two groups: control (HP) and test (HP100-rats that received the aqueous extract of Baccharis trimera for four days at a dose of 100 mg / kg / day). On the fifth day, animals from both groups underwent resection of 70% of the liver. Twenty-four hours later, they were sacrificed and the remnant liver was removed and prepared for studied through PCNA immunohistochemistry. Data analysis for comparison between the two groups was made through the non-parametric statistical test Mann-Whitney test. Results: In all the animals studied was found most abundant nuclear immunostaining positive hepatocytes interlobular located in regions of the liver. Quantitative analysis of PCNA-positive cells revealed positivity rate significantly higher mean (p = 0.02) in HP100 group (77.1 ± 13.6) compared to the HP group (45.8 ± 12.9). Conclusion: DAdministration of aqueous extract of the leaves of Baccharis trimera 100 mg/kg of animal has a significant positive effect on liver regeneration in rats, 24 hours after hepatectomy (70%).


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/analysis , Baccharis , Hepatectomy , Liver Regeneration/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology
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