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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids , Moringa , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Plant Leaves , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed/analysis
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252735, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Growth of plants is severely reduced due to water stress by affecting photosynthesis including photosystem II (PSII) activity and electron transport. This study emphasised on comparative and priority targeted changes in PSII activity due to progressive drought in seven populations of Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) collected from Cholistan Desert and non-Cholistan regions. Tillers of equal growth of seven populations of P. antidotale grown in plastic pots filled with soil were subjected progressive drought by withholding water irrigation for three weeks. Progressive drought reduced the soil moisture content, leaf relative water content, photosynthetic pigments and fresh and dry biomass of shoots in all seven populations. Populations from Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had higher growth than those of other populations. Cholistani populations especially in Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had greater ability of osmotic adjustment as reflected by osmotic potential and greater accumulation of total soluble proteins. Maximum H2O2 under water stress was observed in populations from Muzaffargarh and Khanewal but these were intermediate in MDA content. Under water stress, populations from Muzaffargarh and Dingarh Fort had greater K+ accumulation in their leaves. During progressive drought, non-Cholistani populations showed complete leaf rolling after 23 days of drought, and these populations could not withstand with more water stress condition while Cholistani populations tolerated more water stress condition for 31 days. Moreover, progressive drought caused PSII damages after 19 days and it became severe after 23 days in non-Cholistani populations of P. antidotale than in Cholistani populations.


Resumo O crescimento das plantas é severamente reduzido devido ao estresse hídrico, afetando a fotossíntese, incluindo a atividade do fotossistema II (PSII) e o transporte de elétrons. Este estudo enfatizou as mudanças comparativas e prioritárias na atividade do PSII devido à seca progressiva em sete populações de Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) coletadas no Deserto do Cholistão e regiões fora do Cholistão. Perfilhos de igual crescimento de sete populações de P. antidotale cultivadas em vasos de plástico cheios de solo foram submetidos à seca progressiva, retendo a irrigação com água por três semanas. A seca progressiva reduziu o teor de umidade do solo, teor de água relativo nas folhas, pigmentos fotossintéticos e biomassa fresca e seca dos brotos em todas as sete populações. Populações de Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali tiveram maior crescimento do que as de outras populações. As populações de Cholistani, especialmente em Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali, apresentaram maior capacidade de ajuste osmótico, refletido pelo potencial osmótico e maior acúmulo de proteínas solúveis totais. H2O2 máximo sob estresse hídrico foi observado em populações de Muzaffargarh e Khanewal, mas estas foram intermediárias no conteúdo de MDA. Sob estresse hídrico, as populações de Muzaffargarh e Dingarh Fort tiveram maior acúmulo de K+ em suas folhas. Durante a seca progressiva, as populações não cholistanesas mostraram rolagem completa das folhas após 23 dias de seca, e essas populações não conseguiram suportar mais condições de estresse hídrico, enquanto as populações cholistani toleraram mais condições de estresse hídrico por 31 dias. Além disso, a seca progressiva causou danos ao PSII após 19 dias e tornou-se severa após 23 dias em populações não cholistanesas de P. antidotale do que em populações cholistanesas.


Subject(s)
Panicum , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Desiccation , Droughts , Hydrogen Peroxide
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257739, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355883

ABSTRACT

Abstract Under salt stress conditions, plant growth is reduced due to osmotic, nutritional and oxidative imbalance. However, salicylic acid acts in the mitigation of this abiotic stress by promoting an increase in growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis of osmoregulators and antioxidant enzymes. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid doses on the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings under salt stress. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, where the treatments were distributed in randomized blocks using a central composite matrix Box with five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (CEw) (0.50; 1.08; 2.50; 3.92 and 4.50 dS m-1), associated with five doses of salicylic acid (SA) (0.00; 0.22; 0.75; 1.28 and 1.50 mM), with four repetitions and each plot composed of three plants. At 40 days after sowing, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, electrolyte leakage, relative water content, and total dry mass were determined. ECw and SA application influenced the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings. Increasing the ECw reduced growth in the absence of SA. Membrane damage with the use of SA remained stable up to 3.9 dS m-1 of ECw. The relative water content independent of the CEw increased with 1.0 mM of SA. The use of SA at the concentration of 1.0 mM mitigated the deleterious effect of salinity on seedling growth up to 2.50 dS m-1 of ECw.


Resumo Em condições de estresse salino, o crescimento das plantas é reduzido, em virtude, do desequilíbrio osmótico, nutricional e oxidativo. Contudo, o ácido salicílico atua na mitigação desse estresse abiótico por promover incremento no crescimento, fotossíntese, metabolismo do nitrogênio, síntese de osmorreguladores e enzimas antioxidantes. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de doses de ácido salicílico sobre o crescimento e alterações fisiológicas de mudas de berinjela sob estresse salino. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso utilizando uma matriz composta central Box com cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa) (0,50; 1,08; 2,50; 3,92 e 4,50 dS m-1), associada a cinco doses de ácido salicílico (AS) (0,00; 0,22; 0,75; 1,28 e 1,50 mM), com quatro repetições e cada parcela composta por três plantas. Aos 40 dias após a semeadura, foram determinados a altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, área foliar, vazamento de eletrólito, teor relativo de água e massa seca total. A CEa e a aplicação de AS influenciaram no crescimento e nas alterações fisiológicas das mudas de berinjela. O aumento da CEa reduziu o crescimento na ausência de AS. O dano de membrana com o uso de AS manteve-se estável até 3,9 dS m-1 de CEa. O conteúdo relativo de água independentemente da CEa aumentou com 1 mM de SA. O uso de AS na concentração de 1 mM mitigou o efeito deletério da salinidade no crescimento das mudas até 2,50 dS m-1 de CEa.


Subject(s)
Salicylic Acid/pharmacology , Solanum melongena/metabolism , Photosynthesis , Stress, Physiological , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Seedlings , Salinity , Salt Tolerance , Antioxidants/metabolism
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252364, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355885

ABSTRACT

Abstract Understanding morphological and physiological changes under different light conditions in native fruit species in juveniles' stage is important, as it indicate the appropriate environment to achieve vigorous saplings. We aimed to verify growth and morphophysiological changes under shade gradient in feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret) to achieve good quality saplings adequate to improve cultivation in orchards. The saplings were grown for twenty-one-month under four shading treatments (0%, 30%, 50%, and 80%). Growth, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf anatomy parameters were evaluated. Saplings under full sun and 30% shade had higher height and diameter growth and dry mass accumulation due to higher photosynthesis rate. As main acclimatization mechanisms in feijoa saplings under 80% shade were developed larger leaf area, reduced leaf blade thickness, and enhanced quantum yield of photosystem II. Even so, the net CO2 assimilation and the electron transport rate was lower and, consequently, there was a restriction on the growth and dry mass in saplings under deep shade. Therefore, to obtain higher quality feijoa saplings, we recommend that it be carried out in full sun or up to 30% shade, to maximize the sapling vigor in nurseries and, later, this light environment can also be used in orchards for favor growth and fruit production.


Resumo A verificação de mudanças morfológicas e fisiológicas sob diferentes condições luminosas em espécies frutíferas nativas em estágio juvenil é importante, uma vez que indicam o ambiente adequado para a formação de mudas com alto vigor. Objetivou-se verificar o crescimento e as alterações morfofisiológicas sob gradiente de sombreamento em mudas de feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret) para obter mudas de boa qualidade, adequadas para fomentar os plantios da espécie em pomares. As mudas foram cultivadas por vinte e um meses sob quatro tratamentos de sombreamento (0%, 30%, 50% e 80%). Foram avaliados parâmetros de crescimento, pigmentos fotossintéticos, trocas gasosas, fluorescência da clorofila e anatomia foliar. Mudas a pleno sol e 30% de sombra apresentaram maior crescimento em altura, diâmetro e acúmulo de massa seca, devido à maior taxa de fotossíntese. Como principais mecanismos de aclimatação sob 80% de sombra, as mudas desenvolveram maior área foliar, redução da espessura do limbo foliar e aumento do rendimento quântico do fotossistema II. Mesmo assim, a assimilação líquida de CO2 e a taxa de transporte de elétrons foram menores e, consequentemente, houve restrição ao crescimento e acúmulo de massa seca das mudas no maior nível de sombreamento. Portanto, para a obtenção de mudas de feijoa de maior qualidade, recomendamos que seja realizada a pleno sol ou até 30% de sombra, para maximizar o vigor das mudas em viveiros e, posteriormente, este ambiente de luz também pode ser utilizado em pomares para favorecer o crescimento e a produção de frutos.


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae , Feijoa , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Acclimatization , Light
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253156, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355904

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endophytic fungi are a ubiquituos group that colonize all plant species on earth. Studies comparing the location of endophytic fungi within the leaves and the sampling time in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) are limited. In this study, mature leaves of M. esculenta from Panama were collected in order to compare the cultivable diversity of endophytic fungi and to determine their distribution within the leaves. A total of one hundred sixty endophytes belonging to 97 species representing 13 genera and 8 morphospecies determined as mycelia sterilia that containing 63 isolates were isolated. Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia, and mycelia sterilia 1 and 3 were the most predominant isolated endophytes. We detected that endophytes varied across the sampling time, but not amongst locations within leaves. The endophytes composition across sampling and the location of endophytes within leaf was similar, except for Periconia and mycelia sterilia 3 and 7. The data generated in this study contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Panama, and establish the bases for future research focused on understanding the function of endophytes in M. esculenta crops.


Resumo Os fungos endofíticos são um grupo ubiquituo que colonizam todas as espécies de plantas na terra. Os estudos que comparam a localização dos fungos endofíticos dentro das folhas de Manihot esculenta Crantz (mandioca) e o tempo de amostragem são muito escassos. Neste estudo, folhas maduras de M. esculenta foram coletadas do Panamá com a finalidade de comparar a diversidade cultivável de endófitos e determinar sua distribuição dentro das folhas. Um total de 170 endófitos foram isolados de 97 espécies que representam 13 gêneros e 8 morfoespécies determinadas como micélios esterilizados contendo 63 isolados. Os fungos Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia e mycelia sterilia 1 e 3 foram os isolados mais predominantes. Também detectamos que os endófitos variaram ao longo do tempo de amostragem, mas não entre os locais dentro das folhas. A composição de endófitos na amostragem e localização de endófitos dentro da folha foi semelhante, exceto para Periconia e mycelia sterilia 3 e 7. Os dados gerados neste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da biodiversidade de fungos endofíticos no Panamá e estabelecem as bases para pesquisas sobre o entendimento da função de endófitos em culturas de M. esculenta.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Manihot , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Biodiversity , Endophytes , Fungi
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1382-1386, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521046

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Mormodica balsamina is a valuable medicinal plant that is used to treat wounds and inflammation; its leaves are also used as an antibiotic and in the treatment of stomach pain. This study was conducted to determine the anti-ulcer activity of methanolic leaf extract of Mormodica balsamina on ethanol-induced ulcer in albino rats. A total of 32 rats were used for the study. Groups I and II served as the baseline and negative controls respectively, while groups III-VII served as the test groups. Group I was untreated, while group II received 1ml/kg body weight of the vehicle (2 % DMSO). Three test groups (III - V) received methanol extracts (75 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg/kg body weight respectively) while the other three test groups (VI - VIII) received aqueous extracts (75 mg, 150mg, 300 mg/kg body weight respectively) via oral gavage for seven days prior to ulcer induction. The rats were sacrificed, stomachs excised and ulcers scored. Histological sections were produced and examined. Findings revealed that M. balsamina extracts protected the rats' gastric epithelia from ethanol induced ulceration to varying degree with the high dose (150 and 300 mg/kg) of both extracts offering the best preservation (42 % and 50 % ulcer protective index respectively) when compared to untreated animals. Histological findings correlated with calculated ulcer indices, with treated animals having less severe gastric mucosal lesions. In conclusion, extracts of M. balsamina may possess reasonable antiulcer activities in rats against ethanol induced gastric ulcer.


Mormodica balsamina es una valiosa planta medicinal que se utiliza para tratar heridas e inflamaciones; sus hojas también se utilizan como antibiótico y en el tratamiento del dolor de estómago. Este estudio se realizó para determinar la actividad antiulcerosa del extracto metanólico de hojas de Mormodica balsamina sobre la úlcera inducida por etanol en ratas albinas. Se utilizaron un total de 32 ratas para el estudio. Los grupos I y II sirvieron como referencia y controles negativos respectivamente, mientras que los grupos III-VII sirvieron como grupos de prueba. El grupo I no se trató, mientras que el grupo II recibió 1 ml/kg de peso corporal del vehículo (2% de DMSO). Tres grupos de prueba (III - V) recibieron extractos de metanol (75 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg/ kg de peso corporal respectivamente) mientras que los otros tres grupos de prueba (VI - VIII) recibieron extractos acuosos (75 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg/kg de peso corporal respectivamente) por sonda oral durante siete días antes de la inducción de la úlcera. Se sacrificaron las ratas, se extirparon los estómagos y se puntuaron las úlceras. Se realizaron y examinaron secciones histológicas. Los resultados revelaron que los extractos de M. balsamina protegieron el epitelio gástrico de las ratas de la ulceración inducida por etanol en diversos grados, y la dosis alta (150 y 300 mg/kg) de ambos extractos ofreció la mejor conservación (42 % y 50 % de índice de protección contra úlceras, respectivamente) en comparación con los animales no tratados. Los hallazgos histológicos se correlacionaron con los índices de úlcera calculados, y los animales tratados tenían lesiones de la mucosa gástrica menos graves. En extractos de M. balsamina puede poseer actividades antiulcerosas razonables en ratas contra la úlcera gástrica inducida por etanol.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Momordica/chemistry , Ethanol/toxicity , Anti-Ulcer Agents/administration & dosage , Plants, Medicinal , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Momordica balsamica , Plant Leaves , Disease Models, Animal , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Anti-Ulcer Agents/chemistry
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243651, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285608

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs. Our goal was to assess during a 24-month survey the pattern of arthropods (phytophagous insects, bees, spiders, and predator insects) on the leaf surfaces of A. auriculiformis saplings. Fourteen species of phytophagous, two of bees and eleven of predators were most abundant on the adaxial surface. The values of the ecological indexes (abundance, diversity, and species richness) and the rarefaction, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous, bees and arthropod predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of A. auriculiformis. The k-dominance and abundance of Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (both leaf surfaces), the native stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (both leaf surfaces) and the ant Brachymyrmex sp. (adaxial surface) and Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (abaxial surface) were the highest between the taxonomic groups of phytophagous, bees, and predators, respectively on A. auriculiformis saplings. The ecological indexes and rarefaction, abundance, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous insects, bees, and predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface. The preference of phytophagous insects for the adaxial leaf surface is probably due to the lower effort required to move on this surface. Understanding the arthropod preferences between leaf surfaces may help to develop sampling and pest management plans for the most abundant phytophagous insects on A. auriculiformis saplings. Also, knowledge on the preference pattern of bees and predators may be used to favour their conservation.


Resumo Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), espécie pioneira com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, é utilizada em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante 24 meses, o padrão de distribuição de artrópodes (insetos fitófagos, abelhas, aranhas e insetos predadores) nas superfícies foliares de A. auriculiformis. Quatorze espécies de fitófagos, duas de abelhas e onze de predadores foram mais abundantes na superfície adaxial. Índices ecológicos (abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies) e curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de fitófagos, abelhas e artrópodes predadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. auriculiformis. A dominância-k e a abundância de Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (ambas as superfícies foliares), da abelha nativa sem ferrão Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (ambas as superfícies foliares) e das formigas Brachymyrmex sp. (superfície adaxial) e Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (superfície abaxial) foram as maiores entre os grupos taxonômicos de fitófagos polinizadores e predadores, respectivamente, em plantas jovens de A. auriculiformis. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza e as curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de artrópodes fitófagos, abelhas e predadores foram maiores nas superfícies adaxiais das folhas dessa árvore. A preferência pela superfície adaxial da folha se deve, provavelmente, ao menor esforço para se movimentarem na mesma. Compreender as preferências dos artrópodes pelas superfícies foliares pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de planos de amostragem e manejo de pragas em A. auriculiformis. Além disso, o conhecimento da distribuição de abelhas e predadores pode favorecer a conservação desses insetos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Arthropods , Acacia , Bees , Plant Leaves , Insecta
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244479, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285635

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of the present study was to analyse the bioactive compounds of the leaves of Conocarpus lancifolius (C. lancifolius). The GC-MS analysis of the hot methanolic extract of the leaves (HMEL) of C. lancifolius exhibited the bioactive compounds such as 1-(3-Methoxy-2-nitrobenzyl) iso quinoline, morphin-4-ol-6,7-dione, 1-bromo-N-methyl-, phytol, hexadecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, 2,2':4',2"-terthiophene, ethyl iso-allocholate, caryophyllene oxide, campesterol, epiglobulol, cholestan-3-ol, 2-methylene-, (3á,5à)-, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, acetate (ester) and oleic acid, eicosyl ester. The FT-IR analysis of HMEL of C. lancifolius showed a unique peak at 3184, 2413, 1657 cm-1 representing coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid. The HMEL of C. lancifolius was actively inhibiting the proliferation of breast cancer cells MCF-7 ATCC at the concentration of 72.66 ± 8.21 µg/ml as IC50 value. The HMEL of C. lancifolius also revealed a good spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cultures screened in this work. The activity observed has shown more or less similar effects against screened bacteria. However, the magnitude of potentiality was significantly lesser compared to standard ciprofloxacin disc at p< 0.001 level (99% confidence intervals). Furthermore, the study demonstrating the bioactive compounds can be isolated from the leaves of C. lancifolius.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os compostos bioativos das folhas de Conocarpus lancifolius (C. lancifolius). A análise por GC-MS do extrato metanólico quente das folhas (HMEL) de C. lancifolius exibiu os compostos bioativos como 1- (3-Metoxi-2-nitrobenzil) isoquinolina, morfina-4-ol-6,7- diona, 1-bromo-N-metil-, fitol, ácido hexadecanoico, 2,3-di-hidroxipropil éster, 2,2 ': 4', 2 " - tertiofeno, isoalocolato de etil, óxido de cariofileno, campesterol, epiglobulol, colestano -3-ol, 2-metileno-, (3á, 5à) -, dasycarpidan-1-metanol, acetato (éster) e ácido oleico, éster eicosílico. A análise FT-IR de HMEL de C. lancifolius mostrou um pico único em 3184, 2413, 1657 cm-1 representando ácido cumarico, ácido clorogênico e ácido ferúlico. O HMEL de C. lancifolius inibiu ativamente a proliferação de células de câncer de mama MCF-7 ATCC na concentração de 72,66 ± 8,21 µg / ml como valor de IC50. O HMEL de C. lancifolius também revelou bom espectro de atividade contra culturas de bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas rastreadas neste trabalho. A atividade observada mostrou efeitos mais ou menos semelhantes contra bactérias rastreadas. No entanto, a magnitude da potencialidade foi significativamente menor em comparação com o disco de ciprofloxacina padrão em nível de p < 0,001 (intervalos de confiança de 99%). Além disso, o estudo demonstrando os compostos bioativos pode ser isolado das folhas de C. lancifolius.


Subject(s)
Trees , Plant Leaves , Saudi Arabia , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240842, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339375

ABSTRACT

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culex , Chenopodium , Insecticides/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Hexanes , Larva
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245536, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339403

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) is a fast growing, rustic, pioneer species, with potential to fix nitrogen, and for programs to recover degraded areas. The objective was to evaluate the distribution and the functional diversity of interactions and the K-dominance of arthropod groups on A. mangium saplings. The number of individuals of eleven species of phytophagous insects, three bee species, and fourteen natural enemy species were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of this plant. Abundance, diversity and species richness of phytophagous insects and natural enemies, and abundance and species richness of pollinators were highest on the adaxial A. mangium leaf surface. The distribution of five species of sap-sucking hemipterans and six of protocooperating ants (Hymenoptera), with positive interaction between these groups, and three bee species (Hymenoptera) were aggregated on leaves of A. mangium saplings. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) and Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. and Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); and Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the most dominant phytophagous insects, natural enemies, and pollinators, respectively, on A. mangium leaves. Knowledge of preferred leaf surfaces could help integrated pest management programs.


Resumo Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) é uma planta pioneira com rápido crescimento, rusticidade, potencial nitrificador e importante em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo foi avaliar a distribuição e a diversidade funcional das interações e a dominância-K de grupos de artrópodes em árvores jovens de A. mangium. Os números de indivíduos de onze espécies de insetos fitófagos, três de abelhas e quatorze de inimigos naturais foram maiores na superfície adaxial de folhas dessa planta. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies de insetos fitófagos e inimigos naturais, e a abundância e riqueza de espécies de polinizadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. mangium. A distribuição de cinco espécies de hemípteros sugadores de seiva e seis de formigas protocooperantes (Hymenoptera), com interação positiva entre esses grupos, e três de abelhas (Hymenoptera) foi agregada em folhas de plantas jovens de A. mangium. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) e Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. e Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); e Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foram os insetos fitófagos, inimigos naturais e polinizadores mais dominantes, respectivamente, em folhas de A. mangium. A definição da superfície foliar preferida pode auxiliar programas de manejo integrado de pragas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Arthropods , Acacia , Fabaceae , Bees , Plant Leaves
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246803, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339417

ABSTRACT

Abstract Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of RFC, UV, ICF, FL, and JI shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.


Resumo A medicina tradicional é mais barata e facilmente disponível à população local para cuidar das doenças mais frequentes nas áreas do norte do Paquistão. Nosso estudo teve como objetivo inventariar medicamentos de plantas locais, documentar seus usos e avaliar seu valor de mercado em 2015-2018 durante as temporadas de primavera, verão e inverno. Foram feitas 15 viagens, 5 em cada temporada. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 165 moradores na faixa etária de 20 a 80 anos, com dados analisados ​​por meio de frequência relativa de citação (RFC), valor de uso (UV), nível de fidelidade (FL), fator de consenso de informantes (CIF), e o índice de Jaccard (JI) para encontrar as espécies utilizadas mais frequentes e conhecidas na área. Um total de 86 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de plantas vasculares, 33 gêneros foram documentados como medicamente importantes. A família Asteraceae foi observada como a família dominante entre todas as famílias com 10 espécies, a folha foi a parte mais utilizada e a decocção 36% foi o tipo de preparação mais preferido. A erva foi a forma de vida predominante (67%). O UV máximo (0,92) foi demonstrado pelas espécies de J. adhatoda L., enquanto A. sativum L. mostra RFC máximo (0,58), o maior valor de ICF representado por diarreia e dermatite 0,92, e alto valor de FL é registrado 100%. De acordo com nossas coleções, as espécies selvagens foram 45%, as espécies invasoras 38% e as cultivadas 17% registradas, as espécies dicotiledôneas foram registradas mais 81%. Sete espécies medicinais estão sendo economicamente importantes e exportadas para o mercado local e internacional do mundo, enquanto as espécies de P. integrima L. foram as espécies mais exportadas de acordo com os comerciantes locais. A área investigada é rural e a população local depende das plantas da área para suas necessidades de saúde e outros usos como vegetal, lenha, forragem etc. O resultado atual de RFC, UV, ICF, FL e JI mostra que a flora medicinal precisa ser investigada farmacológica e fitoquimicamente para comprovar sua eficácia. A documentação do conhecimento medicinal é importante para preservar esse precioso conhecimento antigo antes que se perca para sempre, devido às mudanças tecnológicas e ambientais do mundo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Plants, Medicinal , Pakistan , Surveys and Questionnaires , Plant Leaves , Ethnobotany , Phytotherapy , Medicine, Traditional
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971681

ABSTRACT

The stem and branch extract of Tripterygium wilfordii (Celastraceae) afforded seven new dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters [tripterysines A-G (1-7)] and eight known ones (8-15). The chemical structures of these new compounds were established based on combinational analysis of HR-ESI-MS and NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of tripterysines A-C (1-3) and E-G (5-7) were determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis and circular dichroism spectra. All the compounds were screened for their inhibitory effect on inflammation through determining their inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-induced BV2 macrophages. Compound 9 exhibited significant inhibitory activity on NO production with an IC50 value of 8.77 μmol·L-1. Moreover, compound 7 showed the strongest inhibitory effect with the secretion of IL-6 at 27.36%.


Subject(s)
Tripterygium/chemistry , Esters/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/chemistry , Molecular Structure
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970603

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of the total ginsenosides from Panax ginseng stems and leaves on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced acute lung injury(ALI) in mice. Sixty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, the total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves normal administration group(61.65 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-, medium-, and high-dose total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves groups(15.412 5, 30.825, and 61.65 mg·kg~(-1)). Mice were administered for seven continuous days before modeling. Twenty-four hours after modeling, mice were sacrificed to obtain lung tissues and calculate lung wet/dry ratio. The number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) was detected. The levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in BALF were detected. The mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the levels of myeloperoxidase(MPO), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and malondialdehyde(MDA) in lung tissues were determined. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes in lung tissues. The gut microbiota was detected by 16S rRNA sequencing, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) was applied to detect the content of short-chain fatty acids(SCFAs) in se-rum. The results showed that the total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves could reduce lung index, lung wet/dry ratio, and lung damage in LPS-induced ALI mice, decrease the number of inflammatory cells and levels of inflammatory factors in BALF, inhibit the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory factors and levels of MPO and MDA in lung tissues, and potentiate the activity of GSH-Px and SOD in lung tissues. Furthermore, they could also reverse the gut microbiota disorder, restore the diversity of gut microbiota, increase the relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae and Muribaculaceae, decrease the relative abundance of Prevotellaceae, and enhance the content of SCFAs(acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid) in serum. This study suggested that the total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves could improve lung edema, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in ALI mice by regulating gut microbiota and SCFAs metabolism.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Panax/genetics , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Acute Lung Injury/genetics , Lung/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Plant Leaves/metabolism , RNA, Messenger
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970569

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the chemical constituents from the leaves of Craibiodendron yunnanense. The compounds were isolated and purified from the leaves of C. yunnanense by a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over polyamide, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and reversed-phase HPLC. Their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic analyses including MS and NMR data. As a result, 10 compounds, including melionoside F(1), meliosmaionol D(2), naringenin(3), quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside(4), epicatechin(5), quercetin-3'-glucoside(6), corbulain Ib(7), loliolide(8), asiatic acid(9), and ursolic acid(10), were isolated. Compounds 1 and 2 were two new compounds, and compound 7 was isolated from this genus for the first time. All compounds showed no significant cytotoxic activity by MTT assay.


Subject(s)
Quercetin , Ericaceae , Plant Leaves , Catechin , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970517

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to investigate the effect of total flavonoids of buckwheat flower and leaf on myocardial cell apoptosis and Wnt/β-catenin/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) pathway in arrhythmic rats. SD rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a low-dose(20 mg·kg~(-1)) group of total flavonoids of buckwheat flower and leaf, a medium-dose(40 mg·kg~(-1)) group of total flavonoids of buckwheat flower and leaf, a high-dose(80 mg·kg~(-1)) group of total flavonoids of buckwheat flower and leaf, a propranolol hydrochloride(2 mg·kg~(-1)) group, with 12 rats in each group. Except the control group, rats in other groups were prepared as models of arrhythmia by sublingual injection of 1 mL·kg~(-1) of 0.002% aconitine. After grouping and intervention with drugs, the arrhythmia, myocardial cells apoptosis, myocardial tissue glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), catalase(CAT), malondialdehyde(MDA), serum interleukin-6(IL-6), prostaglandin E2(PGE2) levels, myocardial tissue apoptosis, and Wnt/β-catenin/PPARγ pathway-related protein expression of rats in each group were measured. As compared with the control group, the arrhythmia score, the number of ventricular premature beats, ventricular fibrillation duration, myocardial cell apoptosis rate, MDA levels in myocardial tissues, serum IL-6 and PGE2 levels, Bax in myocardial tissues, and Wnt1 and β-catenin protein expression levels increased significantly in the model group, whereas the GSH-Px and CAT levels, and Bcl-2 and PPARγ protein expression levels in myocardial tissues reduced significantly. As compared with the model group, the arrhythmia score, the number of ventricular premature beats, ventricular fibrillation duration, myocardial cell apoptosis rate, MDA leve in myocardial tissues, serum IL-6 and PGE2 levels, Bax in myocardial tissues, and Wnt1 and β-catenin protein expression levels reduced in the drug intervention groups, whereas the GSH-Px and CAT levels and Bcl-2 and PPARγ protein expression levels in myocardial tissues increased. The groups of total flavonoids of buckwheat flower and leaf were in a dose-dependent manner. There was no significant difference in the levels of each index in rats between the propranolol hydrochloride group and the high-dose group of total flavonoids of buckwheat flower and leaf. The total flavonoids of buckwheat flower and leaf inhibit the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, up-regulate the expression of PPARγ, reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory damage in myocardial tissues of arrhythmic rats, reduce myocardial cell apoptosis, and improve the symptoms of arrhythmia in rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Fagopyrum/genetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , beta Catenin/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Propranolol/pharmacology , Ventricular Fibrillation , Dinoprostone , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Flowers/metabolism , Apoptosis , Cardiac Complexes, Premature
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 695-712, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970401

ABSTRACT

Phytoremediation plays an important role in the treatment of heavy metal pollution in soil. In order to elucidate the mechanism of salicylic acid (SA) on copper absorption, seedlings from Xuzhou (with strong Cu-tolerance) and Weifang Helianthus tuberosus cultivars (with weak Cu-tolerance) were selected for pot culture experiments. 1 mmol/L SA was sprayed upon 300 mg/kg soil copper stress, and the photosynthesis, leaf antioxidant system, several essential mineral nutrients and the changes of root upon copper stress were analyzed to explore the mechanism of copper resistance. The results showed that Pn, Tr, Gs and Ci upon copper stress decreased significantly compared to the control group. Meanwhile, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid decreased with significant increase in initial fluorescence (F0), maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSⅡ (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (ETR) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) content all decreased. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content was decreased, the glutathione (GSH) value was increased, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity in the leaves were decreased, and the peroxidase (POD) activity was significantly increased. SA increased the Cu content in the ground and root system, and weakened the nutrient uptake capacity of K, Ca, Mg, and Zn in the root stem and leaves. Spray of exogenous SA can maintain the opening of leaf stomata, improve the adverse effect of copper on photosynthetic pigment and PSⅡ reaction center. Mediating the SOD and APX activity started the AsA-GSH cycle process, effectively regulated the antioxidant enzyme system in chrysanthemum taro, significantly reduced the copper content of all parts of the plant, and improved the ion exchange capacity in the body. External SA increased the content of the negative electric group on the root by changing the proportion of components in the root, promoted the absorption of mineral nutrient elements and the accumulation of osmoregulatory substances, strengthened the fixation effect of the root on metal copper, and avoided its massive accumulation in the H. tuberosus body, so as to alleviate the inhibitory effect of copper on plant growth. The study revealed the physiological regulation of SA upon copper stress, and provided a theoretical basis for planting H. tuberosus to repair soil copper pollution.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Copper , Helianthus/metabolism , Salicylic Acid/pharmacology , Chlorophyll A/pharmacology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Chlorophyll/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Photosynthesis , Glutathione , Plant Leaves , Stress, Physiological , Seedlings
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 640-652, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970397

ABSTRACT

GI (GIGANTEA) is one of the output key genes for circadian clock in the plant. The JrGI gene was cloned and its expression in different tissues was analyzed to facilitate the functional research of JrGI. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) was used to clone JrGI gene in present study. This gene was then analyzed by bioinformatics, subcellular localization and gene expression. The coding sequence (CDS) full length of JrGI gene was 3 516 bp, encoding 1 171 amino acids with a molecular mass of 128.60 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.13. It was a hydrophilic protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that JrGI of 'Xinxin 2' was highly homologous to GI of Populus euphratica. The result of subcellular localization showed that JrGI protein was located in nucleus. The JrGI, JrCO and JrFT genes in female flower buds undifferentiated and early differentiated of 'Xinxin 2' were analyzed by RT-qPCR (real-time quantitative PCR). The results showed that the expression of JrGI, JrCO and JrFT genes were the highest on morphological differentiation, implying the temporal and special regulation of JrGI in the differential process of female flower buds of'Xinxin 2'. In addition, RT-qPCR analysis showed that JrGI gene was expressed in all tissues examined, whereas the expression level in leaves was the highest. It is suggested that JrGI gene plays a key role in the development of walnut leaves.


Subject(s)
Juglans/genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981375

ABSTRACT

To solve the serious problem of stem and leaf shading in the middle and late stage of traditional flat planting of Codonopsis pilosula, this study analyzed the effects of different stereoscopic traction heights on the photosynthetic characteristics and growth of C. pilosula and explored the optimal traction height to improve the yield and quality of C. pilosula. The experiment designed three stereo-scopic traction heights [H1(60 cm), H2(90 cm), and H3(120 cm)] with natural growth without traction as the control(CK). The results showed that the increase in stereoscopic traction heights broadened the growth space of stems and leaves of C. pilosula, enhanced the ventilation effect, significantly increased the average daily net photosynthetic rate of C. pilosula, promoted the absorption of intercellular CO_2, decreased the transpiration rate, and reduced the evaporation of water. Moreover, it effectively avoided the problem of weakened photosynthesis, maintained the carbon balance of individual plants, and promoted the growth and development of the C. pilosula roots. In terms of the seed yield of C. pilosula, it was ranked as H2>H1>H3>CK. To be specific, H1 increased by 213.41% compared with CK, H2 increased by 282.43% compared with CK, and H3 increased by 133.95% compared with CK. The yield and quality of C. pilosula were the highest in the H3 treatment group, with the fresh yield of 6 858.33 kg·hm~(-2), 50.59% higher than CK, dry yield of 2 398.33 kg·hm~(-2), 76.54% higher than CK, and lobetyolin content of 0.56 mg·g~(-1), 45.22% higher than CK. Therefore, the stereoscopic traction height has a great influence on the photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and quality of C. pilosula. Particularly, the yield and quality of C. pilosula can be optimized and improved in the traction height treatment of H3(120 cm). This planting method is worth popularizing and applying in the cultivated management of C. pilosula.


Subject(s)
Codonopsis , Traction , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Plant Roots
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981358

ABSTRACT

The leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Delile of the family Asteraceae(also known as "bitter leaf"), rich in biological activities, are used as both medicine and food for a long time in West tropical Africa. They have been introduced into Southeast Asia and Fujian and Guangdong provinces of China in recent years. However, little is known about the properties of the plant in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), which limits its combination with other Chinese medicinal herbs. In this study, 473 articles on V. amygdalina leaves were selected from PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang Data and VIP to summarize their components, pharmacological effects and clinical research. V. amygdalina leaves presented anti-microbial, hypoglycemic, anti-hypertensive, lipid-lowering, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and other pharmacological effects. On the basis of the theory of TCM properties, the leaves were inferred to be cold in property and bitter and sweet in flavor, acting on spleen, liver, stomach and large intestine and with the functions of clearing heat, drying dampness, purging fire, removing toxin, killing insects and preventing attack of malaria. They can be used to treat dampness-heat diarrhea, interior heat and diabetes, malaria, insect accumulation and eczema(5-10 g dry leaves by decoction per day and an appropriate amount of crushed fresh leaves applying to the affected area for external use). Due to the lack of TCM properties, V. amygdalina leaves are rarely used medicinally in China. The determination of medicinal properties of the leaves is conducive to the introduction of new exotic medicinal herbs and the development of new TCM resources, which facilitated further clinical application and research and development of Chinese medicinal herbs.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Plants, Medicinal , Vernonia
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981347

ABSTRACT

Starting with the relationship between mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings as food and metabolites, this study systematically compared the chemical components, screened out differential components, and quantitatively analyzed the main differential components based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and UPLC-Q-TRAP-MS combined with principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA). Moreover, the in vitro enzymatic transformation of the representative differential components was studied. The results showed that(1) 95 components were identified from mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings, among which 27 components only exist in mulberry leaves and 8 components in silkworm droppings. The main differential components were flavonoid glycosides and chlorogenic acids.(2) Nineteen components with significant difference were quantitatively analyzed, and the components with significant differences and high content were neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rutin.(3) The crude protease in the mid-gut of silkworm significantly metabolized neochlorogenic acid and chlorogenic acid, which may be an important reason for the efficacy change in mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings. This study lays a scientific foundation for the development, utilization, and quality control of mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings. It provides references for clarifying the possible material basis and mechanism of the pungent-cool and dispersing nature of mulberry leaves transforming into the pungent-warm and dampness-resolving nature of silkworm droppings, and offers a new idea for the study of nature-effect transformation mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Morus/chemistry , Chlorogenic Acid/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry
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