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Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 523-533, jul. 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538056


Leaves of Croton stipulaceuswere extracted (EHex, ECHCl3and EEtOH extracts) to assesstheir antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory activity in murine models and acute toxicity. EEtOH showed the highest effect in DPPH (37.80% inhibition), FRAP (1065.00 ± 55.30 µmolFe2+) and total polyphenols (231.24 ± 9.05 meq AG/gM). EHex was the most active, ~ 50% inhibition of TPA-induced ear edema; while EEtOH (dose of 2 mg/ear) showed the highest inhibition in the chronic model (97% inhibition), and inhibited MPO activity (48%). In carrageenan-induced edema, ECHCl3(dose 500 mg/kg) was the most active. None of the extracts showed acute toxicity (LD50) at 2 g/kg (p.o.). This work is the first report that supports the traditional use of C. stipulaceusas an anti-inflammatory.

De las hojas de Croton stipulaceusse obtuvieron diferentes extractos (EHex, ECHCl3y EEtOH) evaluando el potencial antioxidante y la actividad antiinflamatoria en modelos murinos y la toxicidad aguda. El EEtOH mostró mayor efecto en DPPH (37.80% inhibición), FRAP (1065.00 ± 55.30 µmolFe2+) y polifenolestotales (231.24 ± 9.05 meq AG/gM). El EHex fue el más activo, cercano al 50% de inhibición del edema auricular inducido con TPA; mientras que el EEtOH (dosis de 2 mg/oreja) mostró la mayor inhibición en el modelo crónico (97% inhibición), e inhibió la actividad de la MPO (48%). En el edema inducido con carragenina, el ECHCl3(dosis 500 mg/kg) fue el más activo. Ninguno de los extractos mostró una toxicidad aguda (DL50) mayor a 2 g/kg (p.o). Este trabajo es el primer reporte que sustenta el uso tradicional de C. stipulaceuscomo antiinflamatorio.

Plant Leaves/chemistry , Croton/chemistry , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Structures/metabolism , Plant Structures/chemistry , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Croton/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 636-644, jul. 2024. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538072


Thechemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from aerial parts (leaves and flowers) of Chuquiraga arcuataHarling grown in the Ecuadorian Andes were studied. One hundred and twenty-six compounds were identified in the essential oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (45.8%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (44.1%) had the major percentages. The most abundant compounds were camphor (21.6%), myrcene (19.5%), and 1,8-cineole (13.4%). Antioxidant activity was examined using DPPH, ABTS,and FRAP assays. The essential oil had a moderate scavenging effect and reduction of ferric ion capacity through FRAP assay. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed against four pathogenic bacteria and a fungus. The essential oil exhibited activity against all microorganism strains under test, particularly against Candida albicansand Staphylococcus aureuswith MICs of 2.43-12.10 µg/mL.

Se estudió la composición química, actividades antioxidantes y antimicrobianas del aceite esencial procedente de las partes aérea (hojas y flores) de Chuquiraga arcuataHarling cultivadas en los Andes ecuatorianos. Se identificaron 126 compuestos en el aceite esencial. Los hidrocarburos monoterpénicos (45,8%) y los monoterpenos oxigenados (44,1%) tuvieron el mayor porcentaje. Los compuestos más abundantes fueron alcanfor (21,6%), mirceno (19,5%) y 1,8-cineol (13,4%). La actividadantioxidante se examinó mediante ensayos DPPH, ABTS y FRAP. El aceite esencial tuvo un efecto eliminador moderado y una reducción de la capacidad de iones férricos mediante el ensayo FRAP. Se observó actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial contra cuatro bacterias y un hongo patógenos. El aceite esencial mostró actividad contra todas las cepas de microorganismos bajo prueba, particularmente contra Candida albicansy Staphylococcus aureuscon CMI de 2,43-12,10 µg/mL.

Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Ecuador , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 233-240, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971681


The stem and branch extract of Tripterygium wilfordii (Celastraceae) afforded seven new dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters [tripterysines A-G (1-7)] and eight known ones (8-15). The chemical structures of these new compounds were established based on combinational analysis of HR-ESI-MS and NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of tripterysines A-C (1-3) and E-G (5-7) were determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis and circular dichroism spectra. All the compounds were screened for their inhibitory effect on inflammation through determining their inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-induced BV2 macrophages. Compound 9 exhibited significant inhibitory activity on NO production with an IC50 value of 8.77 μmol·L-1. Moreover, compound 7 showed the strongest inhibitory effect with the secretion of IL-6 at 27.36%.

Tripterygium/chemistry , Esters/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/chemistry , Molecular Structure
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 298-307, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982701


Five new terpenoids, including two vibsane-type diterpenoids (1, 2) and three iridoid allosides (3-5), together with eight known ones, were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Viburnum odoratissimum var.sessiliflorum. Their planar structures and relative configurations were determined by spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR techniques. The sugar moieties of the iridoids were confirmed as β-D-allose by GC analysis after acid hydrolysis and acetylation. The absolute configurations of neovibsanin Q (1) and dehydrovibsanol B (2) were determined by quantum chemical calculation of their theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra and Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced ECD analysis. The anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1, 3, 4, and 5 were evaluated using an LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell model. Compounds 3suppressed the release of NO in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 55.64 μmol·L-1. The cytotoxicities of compounds 1-5 on HCT-116 cells were assessed and the results showed that compounds 2 and 3 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 13.8 and 12.3 μmol·L-1, respectively.

Terpenes/pharmacology , Viburnum/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Diterpenes/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1892-1898, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981408


The present study aimed to explore the chemical constituents from the stems and leaves of Cephalotaxus fortunei. Seven lignans were isolated from the 75% ethanol extract of C. fortunei by various chromatographic methods, including silica gel, ODS column chromatography, and HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated according to physicochemical properties and spectral data. Compound 1 is a new lignan named cephalignan A. The known compounds were identified as 8-hydroxy-conidendrine(2), isolariciresinol(3), leptolepisol D(4), diarctigenin(5), dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(6), and dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(7). Compounds 2 and 5 were isolated from the Cephalotaxus plant for the first time.

Cephalotaxus , Lignans/analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Ethanol , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1824-1832, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981400


This study aims to develop the pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) method for the determination of 16 kinds of amino acids in Eucommia ulmoides leaves, and compare the content of amino acids in the leaves harvested at different time and under leaf-oriented cultivation mode(LCM) and arbor forest mode(AFM). The HPLC conditions are as below: phenyl isothiocyanate(PITC) as pre-column derivatization agent, Agilent ZORBAX C_(18 )column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), mobile phase A of acetonitrile-water(80∶20), mobile phase B of 0.1 mol·L~(-1) sodium acetate solution-acetonitrile(94∶6), gradient elution, flow rate of 1.0 mL·min~(-1), injection volume of 5 μL, column temperature of 40 ℃, and detection wavelength of 254 nm. The HPLC profile indicated well separation of 16 kinds of amino acids and the amino acid content in E. ulmoides leaves was up to 16.26%. In addition, the amino acid content in leaves of E. ulmoides under LCM was higher than under AFM. The amino acid content varied with the harvesting time. Through orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, the amino acids of E. ulmoides under LCM and AFM were compared, which can distinguish the leaves under LCM from those under AFM. Principal component analysis was applied to comprehensively score the amino acids of E. ulmoides leaves. The results showed that the score of leaves under LCM was higher than that under AFM. Nutritional evaluation results indicated that the proteins in E. ulmoides leaves belonged to high-quality vegetable proteins. The established method for the determination of amino acid content is reliable. With the amino acid content as index, the leaf quality of E. ulmoides under LCM is better than that under AFM. This study lays a theoretical basis for the promotion of LCM for E. ulmoides and the development of medicinal and edible products from E. ulmoides leaves.

Amino Acids/metabolism , Eucommiaceae/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2160-2185, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981347


Starting with the relationship between mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings as food and metabolites, this study systematically compared the chemical components, screened out differential components, and quantitatively analyzed the main differential components based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and UPLC-Q-TRAP-MS combined with principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA). Moreover, the in vitro enzymatic transformation of the representative differential components was studied. The results showed that(1) 95 components were identified from mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings, among which 27 components only exist in mulberry leaves and 8 components in silkworm droppings. The main differential components were flavonoid glycosides and chlorogenic acids.(2) Nineteen components with significant difference were quantitatively analyzed, and the components with significant differences and high content were neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rutin.(3) The crude protease in the mid-gut of silkworm significantly metabolized neochlorogenic acid and chlorogenic acid, which may be an important reason for the efficacy change in mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings. This study lays a scientific foundation for the development, utilization, and quality control of mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings. It provides references for clarifying the possible material basis and mechanism of the pungent-cool and dispersing nature of mulberry leaves transforming into the pungent-warm and dampness-resolving nature of silkworm droppings, and offers a new idea for the study of nature-effect transformation mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine.

Animals , Bombyx , Morus/chemistry , Chlorogenic Acid/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1091-1098, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414403


Eugenia pyriformis Cambess (Myrtaceae), conhecida popularmente como uvaia. Em seus frutos são encontrados compostos fenólicos com ação antioxidante e nas folhas foram detectados altos teores de flavonoides e taninos hidrolisados que se mostraram inibidor da protease de 2019 - nCoV e SARS-CoV. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste estudo foi a obtenção do extrato bruto das folhas, a análise da composição química e a possibilidade da ação antiviral frente ao SARS COV-2. O extrato bruto (EB) foi obtido a partir das folhas secas de E. pyriformis, pela técnica de maceração dinâmica com esgotamento do solvente (etanol 90º GL) e concentrado em evaporador rotativo. Seis gramas do EB foram fracionados em cromatografia em coluna, e eluído com hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etila e metanol, as frações foram concentradas em um evaporador rotativo (Tecnal TE-210). O EB e as frações foram identificadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência à espectrometria de massas de alta resolução (CLAE-ESI/qTOF). A identificação química do extrato bruto e frações das folhas de E. pyriformis evidenciou a presença de compostos fenólicos destacando os ácidos fenólicos, flavonoides e taninos. De forma complementar, foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico sobre a provável ação antiviral dos compostos fenólicos e taninos presentes nas folhas de uvaia. Os resultados evidenciaram que os flavonoides quercetina e kaempferol possuem ação antiviral quando se ligam a glicoproteína do envelope ou capsídeo viral interferindo na ligação e penetração do vírus na célula. Este resultado coloca as folhas de E. pyriformis na lista de plantas com ação antiviral.

Eugenia pyriformis Cambess (Myrtaceae), popularly known as uvaia. In its fruits, phenolic compounds with antioxidant action are found and in the leaves, high levels of flavonoids and hydrolyzed tannins were detected, which proved to be an inhibitor of the 2019 protease - nCoV and SARS-CoV. In this sense, the objective of this study was to obtain the crude extract of the leaves, the analysis of the chemical composition and the possibility of antiviral action against SARS COV-2. The crude extract (EB) was obtained from the dried leaves of E. pyriformis, by the dynamic maceration technique with solvent exhaustion (ethanol 90º GL) and concentrated in a rotary evaporator. Six grams of EB were fractionated in column chromatography, and eluted with hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol, the fractions were concentrated on a rotary evaporator (Tecnal TE-210). EB and fractions were identified by high performance liquid chromatography using high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/qTOF). The chemical identification of the crude extract and fractions of E. pyriformis leaves evidenced the presence of phenolic compounds, highlighting phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannins. In addition, a bibliographic survey was carried out on the probable antiviral action of phenolic compounds and tannins present in uvaia leaves. The results showed that the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol have antiviral action when they bind to the envelope glycoprotein or viral capsid, interfering with the binding and penetration of the virus into the cell. This result places E. pyriformis leaves in the list of plants with antiviral action.

Eugenia pyriformis Cambess (Myrtaceae), conocida popularmente como uvaia. En sus frutos se encuentran compuestos fenólicos con acción antioxidante y en las hojas se detectaron altos contenidos de flavonoides y taninos hidrolizados que demostraron inhibir la proteasa de 2019 - nCoV y SARS-CoV. En este sentido, el objetivo de este estudio fue obtener el extracto crudo de las hojas, el análisis de la composición química y la posibilidad de acción antiviral contra el SARS COV-2. El extracto crudo (EB) se obtuvo a partir de las hojas secas de E. pyriformis, mediante la técnica de maceración dinámica con agotamiento del disolvente (etanol 90º GL) y se concentró en evaporador rotatorio. Seis gramos de EB se fraccionaron en cromatografía en columna, y se eluyeron con hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etilo y metanol, las fracciones se concentraron en un evaporador rotatorio (Tecnal TE-210). El EB y las fracciones se identificaron mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución a espectrometría de masas de alta resolución (HPLC-ESI/qTOF). La identificación química del extracto crudo y de las fracciones de las hojas de E. pyriformis mostró la presencia de compuestos fenólicos destacando los ácidos fenólicos, los flavonoides y los taninos. De forma complementaria, se realizó un estudio bibliográfico sobre la probable acción antiviral de los compuestos fenólicos y los taninos presentes en las hojas de la uva. Los resultados mostraron que los flavonoides quercetina y kaempferol tienen acción antiviral cuando se unen a la glicoproteína de la envoltura o cápside viral, interfiriendo en la unión y penetración del virus en la célula. Este resultado sitúa a las hojas de E. pyriformis en la lista de plantas con acción antiviral.

Plant Leaves/chemistry , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/chemistry , Eugenia/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Quercetin/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Kaempferols/pharmacology , Hydrolyzable Tannins/pharmacology , Phenolic Compounds
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(3): 321-327, jul.-sep. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410009


RESUMEN Objetivo . Analizar y determinar la actividad antifúngica in vitro del extracto etanólico de las hojas de Solanum hispidum Pers. Materiales y métodos . Se realizó el análisis fitoquímico preliminar cualitativo mediante reacciones de color y precipitación. Se investigó la actividad antifúngica in vitro frente a Candida albicans, Aspergillus brasilensis y Trichophyton mentagrophytes usando el método de difusión en pozo de agar y el ensayo de la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI). Resultados . El análisis fitoquímico preliminar cualitativo mostró la presencia de compuestos fenólicos, taninos, flavonoides, esteroides, alcaloides y saponinas. La actividad antifúngica in vitro fue demostrada para todos cultivos fúngicos con halos de inhibición entre 23 a 26 mm. Los valores de la CMI fueron de 125, 250 y 125 µg/mL para C. albicans, A. brasilensis y T. mentagrophytes, respectivamente. Conclusiones. El extracto etanólico de las hojas de Solanum hispidum Pers contiene importantes metabolitos secundarios y tiene moderada actividad antifúngica.

ABSTRACT Objective. To analyze and determine the in vitro antifungical activity of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Solanum hispidum Pers. Materials and methods. We carried out a preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis by color and precipitation reactions. We evaluated the in vitro antifungical activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus brasilensis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes by using the agar well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Results. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids and saponins. In vitro antifungal activity was demonstrated for all fungal cultures with inhibition halos between 23 to 26 mm. The MIC values were 125, 250, and 125 μg/mL for C. albicans, A. brasilensis, and T. mentagrophytes, respectively. Conclusions. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Solanum hispidum Pers. contains important secondary metabolites and has moderate antifungical activity.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Solanum/chemistry , Mitosporic Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Ethanol , Phytochemicals/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(4): 418-430, jul. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1524860


Abstract: Comparative study GC - FID /M S of essential oils of fruits, leaves and roots of the endemic plant Angelica pancicii Vandas ex Velen. revealed a significant difference in their chemical composition. The enantiomeric purity of the main component in the fruit oil (+) - ß - phellandrene was a lso confirmed. In addition, imperatorin, isoimperatorin, oxypeucedanin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, angeloylpangelin and umbelliprenin were isolated from the fruit hexane extract. The content of these coumarins in the hexane extracts from different plant parts was further determined by HPLC. The essential oils and hexane extracts were assessed for their antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect towards  - amylase and acetylcholinesterase enzymes. The fruit and leaf essential oils (> 80%) as well as the fruit he xane extract (> 62%) significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Distinguish free radical scavenging properties were detected for the leaf (Inh. 95.0 ± 2.2 %) and the root (Inh. 66.0 ± 2.4 %) extracts.

Resumen: Estudio comparativo GC - FID / MS de aceites esenciales de frutas, hojas y raíces de la planta endémica Angelica pancicii Vandas ex Velen revelaron una dife rencia significativa en su composición química. También se confirmó la pureza enantiomérica del componente principal del aceite de fruta (+) - ß - felandreno. Además, se aislaron imperatorina, isoimperatorina, oxipeucedanina, hidrato de oxipeucedanina, angeloi lpangelina y umbeliprenina del extracto de hexano del fruto. El contenido de estas cumarinas en los extractos de hexano de diferentes partes de la planta se determinó adicionalmente mediante HPLC. Los aceites esenciales y extractos de hexano se evaluaron p or su potencial antioxidante efecto inhibidor de las enzimas -  - amilasa y acetilcolinesterasa. Los aceites esenciales de frutas y hojas (> 80%), así como el extracto de hexano de frutas (> 62%) inhibieron significativamente la enzima acetilcolinesterasa. Se detectaron propiedades de captación de radicales libres diferenciadas para los extractos de hoja (Inh. 95,0 ± 2,2%) y de raíz (Inh. 66,0 ± 2,4%).

Acetylcholinesterase/chemistry , Angelica/chemistry , alpha-Amylases/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Antioxidants
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 343-351, mayo 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396913


Leaf and fruit decoctions of Schinus areira L. from northwest Argentina were investigated here. Phenolic compounds and organic acids were analyzed by HPLC. Antioxidant capacity and α-glucosidase inhibition were determined by using in vitro tests. The general toxicity was assessed against Artemia salina nauplii. Hyperoside and 3 O-caffeoylquinic acid in leaf decoctions; gallic acid and catechin in fruit decoction were the major phenolic compounds. Malic and citric acids were the main organic acid quantified in the leaf and fruit decoctions, respectively. Fruit decoction had a relatively important content of shikimic acid, precursor of Tamiflu. Leaf decoction presents a greater richness in bioactive compounds with antiradical activity against DPPH●, O2●-and ●NO radicals. S. areira leaves and fruits had α-glucosidase inhibitory activity comparable to hyperoside and acarbose. Fruit decoction was not eco-toxic; leaf decoction showed significant eco-toxic activity and could be chosen for the search of other bioactive compounds with pharmacological activity.

Se investigaron decocciones de hojas y frutos de Schinus areira L. del noroeste de Argentina. Compuestos fenólicos y ácidos orgánicos se analizaron mediante HPLC. Capacidad antioxidante e inhibición de α-glucosidasa se determinaron in vitro. Se evaluó toxicidad general con Artemia salina. Los principales compuestos fenólicos fueron hiperósido y ácido 3 O-cafeoilquínico en hojas y ácido gálico y catequina en frutos. Los principales ácidos orgánicos cuantificados fueron málico en hojas y cítrico en frutos. Ácido shikímico, precursor del Tamiflu está presente en decocción de frutos con un contenido relativamente importante. La de hojas presenta una mayor riqueza en compuestos bioactivos con actividad antirradicalaria frente a DPPH●, O2●-y ●NO. Las hojas y frutos de S. areira tenían una actividad inhibidora de la α-glucosidasa comparable a la de hiperósido y acarbosa. La decocción de frutas no fue eco-tóxica, pero sí la de hojas que podría ser fuente de compuestos bioactivos con actividad farmacológica.

Plant Extracts/chemistry , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Organic Acids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors , Fruit/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 352-364, mayo 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396915


The antioxidant activity and the inhibitory potential of α-amylase of lyophilized hydroethanolic extracts of Conocarpus erectus leaves obtained by ultrasonication were determined. The most potent extract was subjected to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography system equipped with mass spectrometer for metabolite identification. The identified metabolites were docked in α-glucosidase to assess their binding mode. The results revealed that 60% ethanolic extract exhibited highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (4.08 ± 0.187 mg TE/g DE) and α-amylase inhibition (IC50 58.20 ± 1.25 µg/mL. The metabolites like ellagic acid, 3-O-methyl ellagic acid, ferujol, 5, 2 ́-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethyl flavone and kaempferol glucoside were identified in the extract and subjected to molecular docking studies regarding α-amylase inhibition. The comparison of binding affinities revealed 3-O-methyl ellagic acid as most effective inhibitor of α-amylase with binding energy of -14.5911 kcal/mol comparable to that of acarbose (-15.7815 kcal/mol). The secondary metabolites identified in the study may be extended further for functional food development with antidiabetic properties.

Se determinó la actividad antioxidante y el potencial inhibidor de la α-amilasa de extractos hidroetanólicos liofilizados de hojas de Conocarpus erectus obtenidos por ultrasónicación. El extracto más potente se sometió a un sistema de cromatografía líquida de ultra alto rendimiento equipado con un espectrómetro de masas para la identificación de metabolitos. Los metabolitos identificados se acoplaron en α-glucosidasa para evaluar su modo de unión. Los resultados revelaron que el extracto etanólico al 60% exhibió el mayor poder antioxidante reductor férrico (4.08 ± 0.187 mg TE/g DE) e inhibición de la α-amilasa (IC50 58.20 ± 1.25 µg/mL. Los metabolitos como el ácido elágico, 3-O-metil elágico ácido, ferujol, 5, 2 ́-dihidroxi-6,7,8-trimetil flavona y kaempferol glucósido se identificaron en el extracto y se sometieron a estudios de acoplamiento molecular con respecto a la inhibición de la α-amilasa. La comparación de las afinidades de unión reveló 3-O-metil El ácido elágico como inhibidor más eficaz de la α-amilasa con una energía de unión de -14,5911 kcal/mol comparable a la de la acarbosa (-15,7815 kcal/mol). Los metabolitos secundarios identificados en el estudio pueden ampliarse aún más para el desarrollo funcional de alimentos con propiedades antidiabéticas.

Plant Extracts/chemistry , alpha-Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors , Myrtales/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Benzopyrans/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 221-228, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929255


Four new prenylflavonoid glycosides, namely koreanoside H-K (1-4), together with eleven known ones (5-15) were isolated from the leaves of Epimedium koreanum Nakai. Their structures were elucidated by 1D NMR, 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS, IR and UV. The identification of the sugar moieties was carried out by means of acid hydrolysis and HPLC analysis of their derivatives. It is worth noting that compound 3 and compound 4 were elucidated to contain fucose and quinovose moieties, which were two extremely rare sugar units from the genus Epimedium. The anti-pulmonary fibrosis activity of the new compounds was evaluated using A549 cell line. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 showed significant anti-pulmonary fibrosis activities.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Epimedium/chemistry , Glycosides/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2148-2157, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928154


This study aims to develop an HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous determination of 11 components(6 phenolic acids and 5 iridoids) in Lonicera japonica flowers(LjF) and leaves(LjL), and compare the content differences of LjF at different development stages, LjL at different maturity levels, and between LjF and LjL. One-way ANOVA, principal component analysis(PCA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were employed to compare the content of the 11 components. The content of total phenolic acids, total iridoid glycosides, and total 11 components in LjF showed an overall downward trend with the development of flowers. The content of total phenolic acids, total iridoid glycosides, and total 11 components in young leaves were higher than those in mature leaves. The results of PCA showed that the samples at different flowering stages had distinguishable differences in component content. The VIP value of OPLS-DA showed that isochlorogenic acid A, chlorogenic acid, and secologanic acid were the main differential components of LjF at different development stages or LjL with different maturity levels. LjF and LjL have certain similarities in chemical composition while significant differences in component content. The content of total phenolic acids in young leaves was significantly higher than that in LjF at various development stages. The content of total iridoid glycosides in young leaves was similar to that in LjF before white flower bud stage. The total content of 11 components in young leaves was significantly higher than that in LjF at green flower bud stage, before and during completely white flower bud stage. LjL have great potential for development. Follow-up research on the pharmacodynamic equivalence of LjF and LjL(especially young leaves) should be carried out to speed up the development and application of LjL.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flowers/chemistry , Iridoid Glycosides/analysis , Lonicera/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1582-1586, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928087


This study investigated the chemical components from the leaves and stems of Schisandra chinensis. Three norsesquiterpenoids were isolated from S. chinensis by various column chromatographies(silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and MCI), reversed-phase medium-pressure preparative, and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Their structures were identified based on physicochemical properties, mass spectrometry(MS), nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR), ultraviolet(UV), and electro-nic circular dichroism(ECD) as(3R,4R,5R,6S,7E)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-7-megastigmen-9-one(1),(3S,5R,6R,7E)-3,5,6-trihydroxy-7-megastigmen-9-one(2), and(3S,4R,9R)-3,4,9-trihydroxymegastigman-5-ene(3). Compound 1 was a new compound, and its absolute configuration was determined by ECD. Compounds 2 and 3 were isolated from the Schisandra plant for the first time.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Schisandra
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 880-888, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928005


To clarify the content characteristics of mineral elements in different Artemisia argyi germplasm resources and their relationship with the quality properties of Artemisiae Argyi Folium, this study measured the content of 10 mineral elements including nitrogen(N), phosphorus(P), potassium(K), calcium(Ca), magnesium(Mg), aluminum(Al), manganese(Mn), iron(Fe), copper(Cu), and zinc(Zn) in 100 Artemisia argyi germplasm samples. Besides, their relationship with the quality properties of Artemisiae Argyi Folium was explored by correlation analysis, path analysis, and cluster analysis. The results demonstrated that the variation coefficient of the 10 mineral elements in Artemisiae Argyi Folium ranged from 12.23% to 64.38%, and the genetic diversity index from 0.97 to 3.09. The genetic diversities of N, P, and Zn were obvious. As revealed by the correlation analysis, N, P, and K showed strong positive correlations with each other. Except that Mg and Al were negatively correlated, Ca, Mg, Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were positively correlated. The correlation analysis of mineral elements with the quality properties of Artemisiae Argyi Folium proved the significant correlations of 17 pairs of characters. According to the path analysis, P, K, Ca, and Mn greatly affected the yield of Artemisiae Argyi Folium, P, K, and Mg the output rate of moxa, N, P, and K the content of total volatile oil, P and K the content of eucalyptol, and P, K, and Ca the content of eupatilin. The 100 germplasm samples were clustered into three groups. Specifically, in cluster Ⅰ, the enrichment capacity of P, K, and Mg elements was strong, and the comprehensive properties of mineral elements were better, implying good development potential. Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn elements in cluster Ⅱ and N and Al in cluster Ⅲ displayed strong enrichment capacities. This study has provided new ideas for resource evaluation and variety breeding of A. argyi and also reference for fertilizer application.

Artemisia/genetics , Iron , Minerals/analysis , Plant Breeding , Plant Leaves/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 536-557, sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369226


This study determined phytochemical composition, antifungal activity and toxicity in vitro and in vivo of Syzygium cumini leaves extract (Sc). Thus, was characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and submitted to determination of Minimum Inhibitory (MIC) and Fungicidal concentrations (MFC) on reference and clinical strains of Candida spp. and by growth kinetics assays. Toxicity was verified using in vitro assays of hemolysis, osmotic fragility, oxidant and antioxidant activity in human erythrocytes and by in vivo acute systemic toxicity in Galleria mellonella larvae. Fourteen different compounds were identified in Sc, which showed antifungal activity (MIC between 31.25-125µg/mL) with fungistatic effect on Candida. At antifungal concentrations, it demonstrated low cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity and neglible in vivotoxicity. Thus, Sc demonstrated a promising antifungal potential, with low toxicity, indicating that this extract can be a safe and effective alternative antifungal agent.

Este estudio determinó la composición fitoquímica, la actividad antifúngica y la toxicidad in vitro e in vivo del extracto de hojas de Syzygium cumini (Sc). Así, se caracterizó mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas y se sometió a determinación de Concentraciones Mínimas Inhibitorias (CMI) y Fungicidas (MFC) sobre cepas de referencia y clínicas de Candida spp. y mediante ensayos de cinética de crecimiento. La toxicidad se verificó mediante ensayos in vitro de hemólisis, fragilidad osmótica, actividad oxidante y antioxidante en eritrocitos humanos y por toxicidad sistémica aguda in vivo en larvas de Galleria mellonella. Se identificaron catorce compuestos diferentes en Sc, que mostraron actividad antifúngica (CMI entre 31.25-125 µg/mL) con efecto fungistático sobre Candida. En concentraciones antifúngicas, demostró baja citotoxicidad, actividad antioxidante y toxicidad in vivo insignificante. Por lo tanto, Sc demostró un potencial antifúngico prometedor, con baja toxicidad, lo que indica que este extracto puede ser un agente antifúngico alternativo seguro y eficaz.

Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Syzygium/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Candida/drug effects , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Toxicity Tests , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/toxicity , Antioxidants
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 215-225, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342813


This review describes the geographical distribution, botanical data, popular use, chemical composition, pharmacological activities and genetic aspects related to Eugenia luschnathiana, a native Brazilian plant popularly known as "bay pitomba". E. luschnathiana leaves are characterized morphologically by the presence of a petiole, an attenuated base, acuminated apex, elliptical shape, and parallel venation. The major chemical compounds found in E. luschnathiana are sesquiterpenes. Literature reports showed that E. luschnathiana extracts have antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The extractsfrom the leaf, fruit and stem, and a concentrated residual solution of its essential oil, displayed negligible toxicity. Lastly, a cytogenetic analysis indicated that some markers can be used for the study of genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic improvements. The information available on E. luschnathiana supports the hypothesis that this plant may be a source of compounds with promising pharmacological activity.

Esta revisión describe la distribución geográfica, datos botánicos, uso popular, composición química, actividad farmacológica y el análisis genético de Eugenia luschnathiana, una planta originaria del Brasil conocida popularmente como "pitomba da baía". Las hojas de E. luschnathiana se caracterizan por la presencia de pecíolo, base atenuada, ápice acuminado, forma elíptica y venación paralela. Su composición química presenta mayormente sesquiterpenos. Los informes en la literatura muestran que los extractos de E. luschnathiana presentan propiedades antioxidantes y actividad antimicrobiana contra las bacterias Gram-negativas y Gram-positivas. Los extractos de la hoja, fruto y tallo, y una solución residual concentrada del aceite esencial, presentaron baja toxicidad. Por último, un análisis citogenético indicó que algunos marcadores pueden utilizarse para estudios de diversidad genética, estructura poblacional y mejoramiento genético. Las informaciones disponibles acerca de E. luschnathiana proponen la hipótesis de que esta planta puede ser una fuente de compuestos con actividad farmacológica prometedora.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/genetics , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Eugenia/genetics , Medicine, Traditional , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 621-625, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888790


Three new coumarins, integmarins A-C (1-3), and a new coumarin glycoside, integmaside A (4) were isolated from the leaves and stems of Micromelum integerrimum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS data, and their absolute configurations were assigned according to the ECD data of the in situ formed transition metal complexes and comparison of experimental and calculated ECD data. Compounds 1 and 2 are two rare coumarins with butyl and propyl moieties at the C-6 position; compound 3 is a novel coumarin with a highly oxidized prenyl group, and compound 4 is a rare bisdihydrofuranocoumarin glycoside.

Coumarins/isolation & purification , Glycosides/isolation & purification , Molecular Structure , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Rutaceae/chemistry
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 491-499, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888777


Six new oligomeric neolignans including two trimeric neolignans (1 and 2) and four dimeric neolignans (3-6) were isolated from the leaves of Magnolia officinalis var. biloba. Their structures were determined based on HR-ESIMS and NMR data, as well as electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compound 1 is formed from two obovatol moieties directly linked to an aromatic ring of the remaining obovatol moiety, which is an unprecedented type of linkage between monomers. All isolates were assessed for their inhibitory effects on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Compounds 1 and 3 showed significantly inhibitory activities with IC

Animals , Mice , Lignans/pharmacology , Magnolia/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry