Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 28
Add filters

Year range
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18672, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360164


The use of plants in disease treatment is cost effective and relatively safe. This study was designed to investigate anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-diabetic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus alone and in combination therapy in hyperlipidemic & diabetic mice. Eight groups comprising five mice each were used. Group A was hyperlipidemic control, group B, C, D received atorvastatin (20 mg/kg), leaf extract (200 mg/kg) and leaf extract in combination with atorvastatin (200 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) orally for 15 days. Group E was diabetic control. Group F, G, H received sitagliptin (40 mg/kg), leaf extract (200 mg/kg) and extract in combination with sitagliptin (200 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) orally for 7 days. Blood cholesterol levels were measured at 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th day and fasting blood sugar levels were measured at 2, 12, 24, 72 and 168 hours during treatment. One-way ANOVA with tukey- kramer multiple comparison test was used. The chemical characterization of ethanolic extract of Catharanthus roseus leaves showed presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Ethanolic extract of Catharanthus roseus has significant anti-hyperlipidemic & anti-diabetic effects (p<0.05, p<0.01) when compared with control but had not cause significantly increase in anti-hyperlipidemic effects of atorvastatin. While significantly increased the antidiabetic effect of sitagliptin (p<0.05)

Plant Leaves/classification , Catharanthus/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents , Blood Glucose , Cholesterol/blood , Disease/classification , Alkaloids/blood , Hyperlipidemias/blood
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18891, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350242


In the present study, antidepressant-like activity of ethanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima was evaluated in Swiss young male albino mice. Stress was induced in mice by subjecting them to unpredictable mild stress for 21 successive days. Ethanol extract of the leaves (100, 200 and 400 mg/ kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered for 21 consecutive days to separate groups of unstressed and stressed mice. Ethanol extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) and fluoxetine significantly decreased immobility period of unstressed as well as stressed mice in tail suspension test (TST). However, the lowest dose (100 mg/kg) of the extract also significantly decreased immobility period of stressed mice in TST. The extract significantly restored reduced sucrose preference in stressed mice. There was no significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. Ethanol extract of the leaves significantly decreased plasma nitrite and corticosterone levels; brain MAO-A activity and MDA level; and increased brain reduced glutathione and catalase activity in unstressed as well as stressed mice as compared to their respective vehicle treated controls. Thus, ethanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima showed significant antidepressant-like activity in unstressed and stressed mice probably through inhibition of brain MAO-Aactivity, reduction of oxidative stress and plasma corticosterone levels.

Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Leaves/classification , Caesalpinia/adverse effects , Ethanol , Sucrose , Fluoxetine , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Dosage
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18474, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249171


Due to the increase of bacterial resistance, the search for new antibiotics is necessary and the medicinal plants represent its most important source. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial property of extract and fractions from Protium spruceanum leaves, against pathogenic bacteria. By means of diffusion and microdilution assays, the crude extract was active against the nine bacteria tested being the hydromethanolic fraction the most active. During phytochemical procedures, procyanidin (1) and catechin (2) were identified as the main antibacterial constituents of this fraction. In silico results obtained using PASSonline tool indicated 1 and 2 as having good potential to interact with different targets of currently used antibiotics. These results no indicated potential to none DNA effect and indicated the cell wall as mainly target. Electrophoresis result supported that had no DNA damage. Cell wall damage was confirmed by propidium iodide test that showed increased membrane permeability and by cell surface deformations observed in scanning electronic microscopy. The in vitro assays together with the in silico prediction results establish the potential of P. spruceanum as source of antibacterial compounds that acts on important bacterial targets. These results contribute to the development of natural substances against pathogenic bacteria and to discovery of new antibiotics.

Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Plant Extracts/analysis , Catechin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Computer Simulation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Plant Leaves/classification , Burseraceae/classification , Phytochemicals
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 22-28, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983991


Abstract Macroinvertebrate shredders consume preferably leaves conditioned by fungi and bacteria which offer greater palatability to them. Plant species in Cerrado present high concentration of chemical elements such as lignin and cellulose, phenols and tanins thus making them less attractive for shredders consumption and limiting the palatability. This study aimed to evaluate the feeding preference of a macroinvertebrate shredder of the genus Phylloicus for plant material from two different biomes (Cerrado and Mata Atlântica), after conditioning in a stream of Mata Atlântica and observing their physical and chemical characteristics. Senescent leaves were collected, monthly from the litterfall of riparian vegetation in a 500 m stretch of a stream in each biome from August 2014 to January 201. The most abundant species in each stream was selected for the experiment. The experimental design consisted in with two treatments. The first (T1) comprised leaf discs from Chrysophyllum oliviforme (Cerrado species) together with leaf discs of Miconia chartacea (Atlantic Forest species) which were conditioned in the Atlantic Forest stream. The second treatment (T2) involved leaf discs of Miconia chartacea conditioned in Mata Altlântica and Cerrado streams. Both tests had showed significant differences between the two treatments (T1 and T2). For T1, there was consumption of M. chartacea leaf discs by Phylloicus sp., but there was no consumption of C. oliviforme discs. For T2, there was preference for M. chartaceae leaves conditioned in a stream of Mata Atlântica than in Cerrado stream. The results showed that Phylloicus sp., had presented preference for food detritus of the Mata Antlântica biome and rejection to the one from Cerrado biome.

Resumo Macroinvertebrados fragmentadores consomem folhas preferencialmente condicionadas por fungos e bactérias que lhes oferece uma maior palatabilidade. Nas espécies do cerrado esse condicionamento está também associado às altas concentrações de elementos químicos limitantes à palatabilidade como alto teor de lignina e celulose, que tornam as folhas menos atrativas para os fragmentadores. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a preferência alimentar de macroinvertebrados fragmentador ( Phylloicus sp.) por material vegetal de dois diferentes biomas (Cerrado e Mata Atlântica), após condicionamento em riacho de Mata Atlântica, observando suas características físicas e químicas. Foram coletadas folhas senescentes do aporte vegetal (AV) de espécies nativas da vegetação ripária nesses dois biomas, com periodicidade mensal em um trecho de 500 m de um córrego em cada bioma. O experimento foi delineado com dois tratamentos. O primeiro (T1) compreendeu discos de folhas do Cerrado (Chrysophyllum oliviforme) mais discos de folhas da Mata Atlântica (Miconia chartacea) que foram condicionadas em córrego de Mata Atlântica. O segundo tratamento (T2) envolveu discos de folhas da Mata Atlântica condicionadas em córrego da Mata Atlântica mais discos de folhas da Mata Atlântica condicionadas em córrego do Cerrado. Os dois testes apontaram diferenças significativas entre os dois tratamentos (T1 e T2). Para T1 houve consumo de discos de folha de M. chartacea por Phylloicus sp, mas não houve consumo dos discos de C. oliviforme , de Cerrado. Para T2, houve o consumo, porém a preferência pelas folhas de M. chartaceae condicionadas no córrego da Mata Atlantica foi consideravelmete maior. Os resultados apontam que Phylloicus sp, apresentou preferência alimentar pelo detrito de bioma de Mata Atlântica e rejeição pelo detrito do bioma Cerrado.

Animals , Plant Leaves/classification , Plant Leaves/physiology , Melastomataceae/physiology , Rivers/chemistry , Herbivory , Insecta/physiology , Trees/classification , Trees/physiology , Brazil , Sapotaceae/physiology , Diet , Food Preferences
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17584, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039064


In South American folk medicine members of the genus Myrciaria are used for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea, asthma, inflammation and post-partum uterine cleansing. The aim of this work was to evaluate its antileishmanial properties (in vitro) of essential oil derived from leaves of Myrciaria plinioides D. Legrand, a plant species that is native in South of Brazil. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation using fresh leaves of M. plinioides. The chemical composition of this essential oil (MPEO, M. plinioides essential oil) was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). MPEO was assayed in vitro for antileishmanial properties against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania infantum, and for cytotoxicity against murine peritoneal macrophages. The MPEO comprised 66 components and was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (82.66%) containing spathulenol (21.12%) as its major constituent. The MPEO was effective against L. amazonensis with IC50 value of 14.16 ± 7.40 µg/mL, while against L. infantum the IC50 value was higher with 101.50 ± 5.78 µg/mL. The MPEO showed significant activity against L. amazonensis, and presented a selectivity index (SI) of 6.60. The results suggest that the essential oil from leaves of M. plinioides is a promising source for new antileishmanial agents against L. amazonensis.

In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Brazil/ethnology , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Myrtaceae/anatomy & histology , Leishmania infantum , Plant Leaves/classification , Leishmania
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18284, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011642


The present study was undertaken to assess the potential uses of the essential oil obtained from Ocotea nutans (Nees) Mez. The hydrodistilled essential oil from O. nutans leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifty-eight compounds representing 87,29% of the total leaf essential oil components were identified, of which biciclogermacrene(11.41%), germacrene-D (4.89%), bisabolol-11-ol(3.73%) and spathulenol (3.71%) were the major compounds. The essential oil from O. nutans were tested for antibacterial activity using the minimum inhibitory concentracion (MIC) method, Artemia salina method, larvicidal activity in Aedes aegypti, and antioxidant capacity.The antioxidant activity measured by the phosphomolybdenum complex and Prussian blue method had positive results. The minimum inhibitory concentration for the microorganisms tested allowed moderate inhibitionfor Enterococcus faecalis (MIC=500 µg/mL). Artemia salina were toxic to the organisms in the study (LC50= 71,70 µg /mL). The essential oil showed remarkable larvicidal activity potencial (LC50= 250 µg/mL). The present results showed thatO. nutans essential oil has potential biological uses

Oils, Volatile/analysis , Ocotea/anatomy & histology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/classification , Aedes/classification
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): e17467, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951941


ABSTRACT The leaves of Acacia modesta Wall. have been shown to possess diverse pharmacological properties. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating anti-diabetic, cytotoxic and proliferative effects of extracts of Acacia modesta Wall. leaves. After evaluating the primary and secondary metabolites, anti-diabetic activity of various extracts was assessed by α-amylase inhibition, glucose uptake by yeast cells and non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin assay. Cytotoxicity and proliferative potential was assessed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and short term proliferation assays, respectively, using human liver carcinoma cell line, HepG2. Among other extracts, chloroform extract exhibited 34.16% inhibition of α-amylase, 90.65% inhibition of hemoglobin glycosylation and 94.75% glucose uptake employing α-amylase inhibition, non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin and glucose uptake by yeast cells assays, respectively. Moreover, extracts exhibited no significant effects on HepG2 cell viability and proliferation. So, this data suggested that chloroform extract of leaves of Acacia modesta Wall., exhibited higher anti-hyperglycemic activity in comparison to extracts in other solvents, while no extract demonstrated cytotoxic and proliferation effects when tested using HepG2 cell line

Plant Leaves/classification , Acacia/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/analysis , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e18101, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974421


In-vitro investigation of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae) has demonstrated the evidence of several antioxidant compounds. Current study was aimed to determine the phytoconstituents and hepatoprotective potential of n-hexane extract of Morus nigra. Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups: normal control, paracetamol control, silymarin control, 250 mg/kg p.o. extract for 7 days plus paracetamol 3 h later, 500 mg/kg p.o. extract for 7 days plus paracetamol 3 h later. Serum levels of liver enzymes and total bilirubin were assessed and compared between the groups by using one-way ANOVA to confirm hepatoprotective activity. HPLC analysis revealed the presence quercetin, oleanolic acid, luteolin, apigenin, vitamin C and kuwanon C. n-hexane extract of Morus nigra at dose of 250 mg/kg reduced elevated ALT by 54.3% (p<0.001), AST by 55.1% (p<0.01), ALP by 28.5% (p<0.01) and TBR by 56.4% (p<0.01) as compared to paracetamol control. The dose of 500 mg/kg of the extract reduced the ALT levels by 62.9% (p<0.001), AST by 56.7% (p<0.01), ALP by 33.6% (p<0.01) and TBR by 54.5% (p<0.01), as compared to paracetamol group. However, the reduction of liver enzymes and total bilirubin after administration of extract was comparable to the silymarin. Current study demonstrated potential hepatoprotective activity of n-hexane extract of Morus nigra

Animals , Mice , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Plant Leaves/classification , Acetaminophen/adverse effects , Quercetin , Plant Extracts/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Moraceae/classification , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 708-717, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785031


Abstract Bambusoideae is a diverse subfamily that includes herbaceous (Olyreae) and woody (Arundinarieae and Bambuseae) bamboos. Species within Bambusae are particularly difficult to identify due to their monocarpic lifecycle and the often long durations between mass flowering events; whereas the herbaceous bamboos are pluricarpic, but often are found with no reproductive structures. The leaf blade anatomy of 16 sympatric species of native Brazilian bamboos (Olyreae and Bambuseae) from the Atlantic Rainforest was studied in order to detect useful features for their identification. All the studied species share the following features: epidermis with a single stratum of cells; adaxial bulliform cells; mesophyll with arm cells, rosette cells, and fusoid cells; and collateral vascular bundles. Herbaceous bamboos share two features: papillae scattered on the abaxial surface and parallel-sided arrays of bulliform cells; whereas woody bamboos share: centrally organized papillae and fan-shaped arrays of bulliform cells. Also within the woody bamboos, intercostal fibers and a midrib with only one vascular bundle (simple midrib) characterize the subtribe Arthrostylidiinae; whereas a midrib with more than one vascular bundle (complex midrib) and a stomatal apparatus with two pappilae per subsidiary cell characterize the subtribe Chusqueinae. There are also diagnostic features for the sampled species, such as: papillae shape, and the outline and structure of the midrib. An identification key for all the studied species is provided based on the anatomical features.

Resumo Bambusoideae é uma subfamília que inclui diversas espécies de bambus herbáceos (Olyreae) e lignificados (Arundinarie e Bambuseae). Bambus lignificados geralmente apresentam dificuldades de delimitação e identificação, devido principalmente ao ciclo monocárpico e longa amplitude temporal entre florações; enquanto que bambus herbáceos possuem ciclo pluricárpico, porém frequentemente são encontrados em estágio vegetativo. Foi estudada a anatomia da lâmina foliar de 16 espécies de Bambusoideae (Olyreae e Bambuseae), simpátricas e nativas do Brasil, visando levantar caracteres úteis para sua identificação. Todos os táxons estudados compartilham: epiderme uniestratificada; células buliformes na face adaxial; mesofilo com células invaginantes, células em roseta e células fusoides; e feixes vasculares colaterais. Bambus herbáceos compartilham: papilas dispersas na face abaxial e grupos de células buliformes organizadas paralelamente; enquanto que bambos lignificados compartilham: papilas organizadas em colunas centrais e grupos de células buliformes em forma de leque. Ainda dentre os bambus lignificados, fibras intercostais e nervura central com apenas um feixe vascular (nervura central simples) caracterizam a subtribo Arthrostylidiinae; enquanto que nervura central com mais de um feixe vascular (nervura central complexa) e aparelho estomático com duas papilas por célula subsidiária caracterizam a subtribo Chusqueinae. Há ainda caracteres anatômicos diagnósticos, tais como: forma da papila, e forma e estrutura da nervura central. Uma chave de identificação é fornecida baseada nos caracteres anatômicos relevantes à identificação das espécies estudadas.

Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Plant Leaves/classification , Poaceae/classification , Phylogeny , Brazil , Magnoliopsida
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1): 89-95, jan.-mar. 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780031


RESUMO Tanacetum vulgare L., conhecida popularmente como catinga-de-mulata, é utilizada na medicina tradicional como vermífugo, digestivo e emenagogo. Objetivou-se analisar a morfoanatomia de folhas e caules dessa espécie medicinal com vistas ao controle da qualidade. Foram utilizadas técnicas usuais de microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. As folhas são compostas, pinatissectas e anfiestomáticas. Tricomas tectores flageliformes simples e glandulares capitados são observados. A nervura central tem formato biconvexo, o pecíolo é côncavo-convexo, a ráque é plano-convexa e o caule é arredondado. Feixes vasculares colaterais, calotas de fibras perivasculares e colênquima lamelar estão presentes na folha e no caule. Os caracteres morfoanatômicos evidenciados contribuem na identificação do táxon e fornecem subsídios farmacobotânicos para o controle da qualidade de drogas vegetais e fitoterápicos.

ABSTRACT Tanacetum vulgare L., popularly known as tansy, is used in traditional medicine as a vermifuge, digestive and emmenagogue. This study aimed to analyze the morphoanatomical leaves and stems of this medicinal plant in order to control the quality. Usual techniques of light and scanning electron microscopy were used. The leaves are composed, pinatissect and amphistomatic. Simple and flagelliform non- glandular trichomes and capitate glandular trichomes are observed. The midrib has biconvex shape, the petiole is concavo-convex, the rachis is plano-convex, and the stem is rounded. Collateral vascular bundles, perivascular fiber caps and laminar collenchyma are encountered in the leaves and stems. Evidenced the morphological and anatomical features contribute to the identification of the taxon and provide pharmacobotanical data for the quality control of herbal drugs.

Plant Leaves/classification , Tanacetum/analysis , Asteraceae/classification , Quality Control
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2,supl.1): 621-627, 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-830062


RESUMO O estudo fenológico tem como finalidade determinar o ritmo sazonal dos eventos do ciclo de vida da planta, como floração e frutificação. Estes eventos são determinados por uma série de fatores, como: alternância de períodos chuvosos ou não chuvosos, intensidade da radiação solar, entre outros. A fitoquímica tem por objetivos conhecer os constituintes químicos de espécies vegetais ou avaliar sua presença. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar a caracterização fenológica e a prospecção fitoquímica de folhas de jaborandi. A área de estudo para a avaliação do material vegetal foi o Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Jaborandi da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, situada no município de Belém-PA. Os acessos escolhidos foram: Merck, cultivado a pleno sol e à sombra; Japonês e Bonal 4, cultivados a pleno sol. Os registros foram realizados diariamente por um período de 28 meses correspondendo a agosto de 2010 a dezembro de 2012, de cinco plantas/acesso e organizados para demonstração mensal, através de fichas com a numeração respectiva das plantas, com registro de presença ou ausência das fenofases, floração e frutificação. A determinação do peso seco das amostras coletadas dos acessos foi realizada no Laboratório de Agroindústria da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, onde, após a triagem e remoção das impurezas, as folhas foram cortadas, pesadas, colocadas em bandejas de inox e secas em estufa com circulação mecânica (FANEM 320-SE), à temperatura de 45º C por 120 h. Em seguida, as amostras foram pesadas, trituradas e acondicionadas em sacos plásticos devidamente identificados e guardados sob refrigeração à temperatura de 10º C até o uso. Os extratos das plantas foram preparados utilizando-se 100 g de folhas secas de cada acesso, triturados e submetidos à extração hidroalcoólica (etanol 80%) em banho-maria sob refluxo, por aproximadamente 4 horas. Os extratos foram armazenados protegidos da luz na geladeira até o momento das análises. Foi analisada a presença das seguintes classes de substâncias químicas: ácidos orgânicos, açúcares redutores, polissacarídeos, proteínas e aminoácidos, taninos, catequinas, flavonoides, glicosídeos cardíacos, lactonas sesquiterpênicas, azulenos, carotenoides, esteroides e triterpenoides, depsídeos e depsidonas, derivados da cumarina, saponina espumídica, alcaloides, purinas, antraquinonas. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a espécie Pilocarpus microphyllus apresentou floração durante o ano todo e frutificação em onze meses, e a prospecção fitoquímica revelou a presença de 11 classes de constituintes químicos.

ABSTRACT Phenological studies aim to determine the seasonal rhythm of the plant life cycle events, as flowering and fruiting. These events are determined by different factors, such as: alternating periods of rainy or dryer seasons, solar radiation intensity, among others. Phytochemistry aims to identify the chemical constituents of plant species or to evaluate their presence. This study aimed the phenological characterization and the phytochemical prospection of jaborandi leaves. The chosen study area for the plant material assessment was the Active Germplasm Bank of Jaborandi in the Embrapa Eastern Amazon, located in the city of Belém, PA, Brazil. The chosen accessions were the following: Merck, grown in full sun and in shade; Japanese and Bonal 4, both grown in full sun. Records were taken on a daily basis for a period of 28 months (August of 2010 to December of 2012), from five plants/accession, and arranged for monthly demonstrations by record sheets containing the corresponding plant numeration and the presence or absence of flowering and fruiting phenophases. The dry weight of the samples collected from the accessions was measured at the Laboratory of Agribusiness of Embrapa Eastern Amazon, where, after the sorting and removal of impurities, the leaves were cut, weighed, placed in stainless steel trays, and dried in forced air circulation oven (FANEM 320 UP) at a 45°C for 120h. Then, the samples were weighed, crushed, and placed in plastic bags properly identified and stored under refrigeration at a temperature of 10ºC until the use. The plant extracts were prepared using 100g of dried leaves from each accession, crushed, and subjected to hydroalcoholic extraction (80% ethanol) with water bath heating under reflux for approximately 4 hours. The extracts were stored protected from light in a refrigerator until the analysis. We analyzed the presence of the following classes of chemical substances: organic acids, reducing sugars, polysaccharides, proteins and amino acids, tannins, catechins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, sesquiterpene lactones, azulenes, carotenoids, steroids and triterpernoids, depsides and depsidones, coumarin derivatives, foam saponin, alkaloids, purines, anthraquinones. Our results showed that the flowering of Pilocarpus microphyllus occurred throughout the year and fruiting occurred in eleven months, and the phytochemical prospection revealed the presence of 11 classes of chemical constituents.

Jaborandi/analysis , Flowers/classification , Fruit/classification , Plant Leaves/classification
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1027-1035, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769635


Abstract We investigated the composition and structure of fungal communities associated with leaf litter generated by Clusia nemorosa and Vismia guianensis that belong to phylogenetically-related botanical families and exist together in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted during wet (June 2011) and dry (January 2013) seasons in Serra da Jibóia. The fungi were isolated using particle filtration and the 1,832 isolates represented 92 taxa. The wet season yielded the largest number of isolates (1,141) and taxa (76) compared with the dry season (641 isolates and 37 taxa). The richness and diversity of fungal species associated with C. nemorosa (64 taxa, Simpson=0.95)were higher compared with those of V.guianensis (59 taxa, Simpson =0.90). Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) revealed significant variations in the composition and community structure of fungi isolated from the two plants as a function of seasons. In contrast, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis show that the seasonality was an important influence on the distribution of fungal species. However, the populations of the saprobic fungal communities were dynamic, and several factors may influence such communities in the Atlantic Forest.

Brazil/classification , Brazil/genetics , Brazil/isolation & purification , Brazil/microbiology , Clusia/classification , Clusia/genetics , Clusia/isolation & purification , Clusia/microbiology , Clusiaceae/classification , Clusiaceae/genetics , Clusiaceae/isolation & purification , Clusiaceae/microbiology , Ecosystem/classification , Ecosystem/genetics , Ecosystem/isolation & purification , Ecosystem/microbiology , Forests/classification , Forests/genetics , Forests/isolation & purification , Forests/microbiology , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/microbiology , Plant Leaves/classification , Plant Leaves/genetics , Plant Leaves/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/microbiology , Seasons/classification , Seasons/genetics , Seasons/isolation & purification , Seasons/microbiology , Trees/classification , Trees/genetics , Trees/isolation & purification , Trees/microbiology
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(3): 845-858, jul.-sep. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-778088


Espeletia paipanaes una roseta caulescente gigante en peligro de extinción, endémica del departamento de Boyacá. Con el fin de establecer si una enfermedad en la planta, atribuida a la acción patogénica de microorganismos endófitos y caracterizada por la pérdida de pubescencia foliar (PPF), puede ser causante de la acelerada mortandad poblacional, se evaluó el desempeño fisiológico de la especie con y sin PPF. La incidencia (% de hojas afectadas por cada uno de los 27 individuos de la población actual) y severidad (% de área foliar afectada en 135 hojas) de la PPF fueron monitoreadas durante un periodo de nueve meses, en tres zonas topográficas a diferentes altitudes. Parámetros fisiológicos como conductancia estomática (Gs) y temperatura foliar (Tfol) e índice de contenido de clorofila (ICC) fueron medidos en hojas sanas y enfermas durante cuatro días consecutivos, tanto en la época seca como en la época húmeda. El estudio fue complementado con aislamientos y pruebas de patogenici-dad para identificar el agente causal de la PPF. En general, aunque la incidencia de la enfermedad en E. paipanafue constante a lo largo del tiempo, la severidad avanzó superando el 60 % del área foliar. El aumento de la severidad en el haz fue atribuido al efecto foto-oxidativo de las altas radiaciones entre las 11:00 y14:00 h. La reducción del área foliar funcional a causa de la PPF, llevó a una baja Gs con serias implicaciones en la fijación de carbono, y por tanto limitando el crecimiento y la renovación de biomasa. El efecto estacional en la Tfol varió de acuerdo con la zona topográfica, mientras que el ICC no presentó un patrón definido con relación a la PPF; sus valores bajos podrían estar relacionados con la producción de otros pigmentos. Finalmente, aunque no es posible asegurar que Botrytissp. es el causante de la pérdida de pubescencia foliar, se postula como el agente causal más probable debido a su alta representatividad en los aislamientos y su potencial de infección durante las pruebas de patogenicidad. En general, la reducción de biomasa foliar sana y disminución del rendimiento fisiológico sugieren que la PPF afecta negativamente la sobrevivencia de E. paipana,lo que significa que el uso de biocontroladores podría ser una estrategia para el rescate poblacional.

Espeletia paipanais an endangered giant caulescent rosette endemic to Boyacá department. In order to establish whether a plant disease, characterized by the loss of leaf pubescence (PPF) and attributed to the pathogenic action of endophytic microorganisms, is the cause of the increasing mortality of population, the physiological performance of the species was evaluated with and without PPF. The incidence (% leaves affected in each of the 27 individuals in the current population) and severity (% leaf area affected on 135 leaves) of the PPF were monitored over a period of nine months, in three topographic zones of different heights. During four consecutive days in both dry and wet season, physiological parameters as chlorophyll content index (ICC), stomatal conductance (Gs) and leaf temperature (Tfol) were measured in healthy and affected leaves. The study was complemented with isolations and pathogenicity tests to identify the causal agent of the PPF. Overall, although the disease incidence in E. paipanawas constant over time, the severity progressed surpassing 60 % of the leaf area. The increasing of severity in the upper side of leaves was attributed to the photo-oxidative effect of high radiation between 11:00 h and 14:00 h of the day. The reduction of functional leaf area because of the PPF, led to low Gs with serious implications for carbon fixation and thus limiting growth and biomass renewal. The effect of season in Tfol varied according to the topographic zone, while the ICC did not present a defined pattern with respect to the PPF; its low values could be associated with the production of other pigments. Finally, although it is not possible to ensure that Botrytissp. is the causative of the loss of leaf pubescence, it is postulated as the most probably causal agent due to its high representativeness in the isolates and its infectious potential during the pathogenicity tests. In general, the reduction of healthy leaf biomass and decrease of physiological performance suggest that PPF affect negatively the survival of E. paipana,which means that the use of biological controllers could be a strategy to mitigate its effect on the population.

Asteraceae/physiology , Endangered Species , Plant Leaves/physiology , Asteraceae/classification , Colombia , Light , Plant Leaves/classification , Seasons , Temperature
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(2): 195-200, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-746132


RESUMO: Esta pesquisa objetivou estudar, experimentalmente, a cinética de secagem de folhas de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart.) sob camada delgada em estufa com circulação forçada de ar utilizando temperaturas de 40, 50 e 60 ºC e velocidade do ar de 0,5, 1,0 e 1,5 m.s-1 conforme planejamento fatorial (22 + 3) e posterior ajuste das equações matemáticas aos dados experimentais, verificando assim aquele que melhor representa o fenômeno de secagem. Foi determinado o teor de água inicial das folhas utilizando o método padrão da estufa, em triplicatas. Para cada tratamento de secagem foram utilizados em torno de 150 g de folhas. Para o ajuste utilizou-se análise de regressão não linear, pelo método Quasi-Newton, por meio do programa computacional Statistica 5.0®, em que os valores dos parâmetros das equações foram estimados em função da temperatura e da velocidade do ar de secagem. A equação que melhor representou o processo de secagem do juazeiro para a faixa de temperatura de 40 a 60 ºC foi a de Midilli. Os resultados mostraram que com o acréscimo da temperatura ocorre maior redução no tempo de secagem.

ABSTRACT: This research aimed to study experimentally the kinetics of drying leaves of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. in thin layer in an oven with forced air using the temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 ºC and the air velocity of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m s-1 according to the factorial design (22 + 3) and subsequent adjustment of the experimental data in different models, and we select the one that best represents the phenomenon of drying. We determined the initial water content of the leaves by the standard oven method, in triplicates. For each drying treatment, we used approximately 150g of leaves. For adjustment, we used the non-linear regression analysis, through the Quasi-Newton method, using the software Statistica 5.0 ®, in which the parameter values of the equations were determined for the temperature and velocity of the drying air. The equation that best represented the drying process of the Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. for the temperature range of 40-60 ºC was the Midilli equation. The results showed that there is a greater reduction in drying time with increasing temperature.

Kinetics , Plant Leaves/classification , Rhamnaceae/anatomy & histology , Models, Anatomic
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2): 339-346, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749681


The specific leaf area (SLA) has been related to environmental disturbances, showing a positive correlation between the disturbances intensities and SLA in a plant community. These studies, however, assessed the responses of plant community as a whole, neglecting species attributes, such as the position in the vertical stratum of forests. Considering the importance of SLA to understand forest ecological processes, this study aimed to determine the influence of the disturbance regime on the SLA of understory species, considering that, unlike for communities as a whole, an increase in the disturbance intensity implies a decrease in SLA of understory species. This study was conducted in nine understories of seasonal forests in Brazil. The most abundant species were selected and their SLA were evaluated. The variability of SLA among populations in different forests was analyzed by Student’s t-tests. The SLA of the understories (SLAU) was also compared by an adaptation of the Community-weighted mean index. The comparison of species SLA showed significant differences among the populations of understories under different disturbance regime, showing a decrease in SLA with an increase in the disturbance intensity. Similar results were found for the SLA of understories communities (SLAU), corroborating our hypothesis. The correlation between a reduction in species SLA and in SLA of understory with an increase in disturbance intensity, contradicted the trend observed in the literature for the community as a whole. This study highlights the importance of the evaluation of SLA in understories, as an indicator of the successional stage of communities.

A área foliar específica (SLA) tem sido relacionada a distúrbios ambientais, apresentando uma correlação positiva entre a intensidade de perturbação e a SLA da comunidade vegetal. Estes estudos, no entanto, avaliaram as respostas da comunidade vegetal como um todo, negligenciando os atributos por espécies, tais como a posição vertical no estrato florestal. Considerando a importância da SLA para entender os processos ecológicos das florestas, este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a influência do regime de perturbação na SLA de espécies de sub-bosque, cuja hipótese é que, ao contrário de comunidades como um todo, um aumento na intensidade de perturbação implica na diminuição da SLA de espécies de sub-bosque. Este estudo foi realizado em nove sub-bosque de florestas estacionais no Brasil. As espécies mais abundantes foram selecionados e suas SLA foram avaliadas. A variabilidade de SLA entre as populações em diferentes florestas foi analisada pelo teste t de Student. O SLA dos sub-bosque (SLAu) também foi comparado por uma adaptação do índice de média ponderada da comunidade. A comparação de SLA das espécies mostraram diferenças significativas entre as populações de sub-bosque sob um regime de distúrbios diferentes, mostrando um decréscimo na SLA com um aumento na intensidade de perturbação. Resultados semelhantes foram encontrados para o SLA dos sub-bosque (SLAu), corroborando nossa hipótese. A correlação entre a redução no SLA espécies e SLA do sub-bosque com um aumento na intensidade de perturbação contradiz a tendência observada na literatura para a comunidade como um todo. Este estudo destaca a importância da avaliação de SLA em sub-bosque, como um indicador do estágio sucessional das comunidades.

Forests , Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Brazil , Plant Leaves/classification , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Species Specificity
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(1): 26-35, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742935


Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), conhecida como aroeira-vermelha é uma espécie nativa do Brasil, perenifólia e pioneira, sendo muito utilizada para combater diversas doenças, pois apresenta, entre outras, propriedades anti-inflamatórias e cicatrizantes. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar um estudo morfoanatômico do caule e da folha de S. terebinthifolius, descrevendo a organização dos tecidos e suas possíveis variações. As análises macro e microscópicas foram realizadas com material selecionado de partes vegetativas de um espécime localizado na cidade de Campina Grande - PB. A aroeira-vermelha é um vegetal arbóreo e dióico, que apresenta caule cilíndrico e simpodial, com casca rugosa e estriada. A folha é perene, alterna, coriácea e composta. As análises microscópicas evidenciaram epiderme caulinar e foliar uniestratificadas, exceto na face adaxial da folha, que é bisseriada. No caule e no pecíolo são visualizados muitos tricomas tectores unicelulares, curtos, cônicos e agudos no ápice. Encontram-se canais secretores arredondados e bem desenvolvidos na região do floema em todos os órgãos estudados, bem como cutícula revestindo as células epidérmicas e grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. Os feixes vasculares são circundados por células esclerenquimáticas e apresentam o floema seguido por xilema helicoidal bem desenvolvido. No caule, pecíolo e nervura central da folha, o xilema é interno e o floema, externo. A aroeira-vermelha apresenta alguns aspectos estruturais característicos de plantas xerófilas, como camada múltipla da epiderme da face adaxial foliar, que protegem o mesofilo de excessiva dessecação; presença de cutícula espessa e grande quantidade de pêlos e de estômatos; além de sistema vascular bem desenvolvido, com abundância de esclerênquima, dando sustentação ao feixe.

Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as Brazilian pepper, is an evergreen, pioneer and indigenous plant from Brazil, and it is used to combat various diseases, as it presents anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. The aim of this research was to study the morpho-anatomical features of the stem and leaf of S. terebinthifolius, describing the organization of the tissues and their variations. The macroscopic and microscopic analyses were performed with material selected from vegetative parts of a specimen collected in the city of Campina Grande - state of Paraíba, Brazil. The Brazilian pepper is a dioecious plant with cylindrical and sympodial stem and rough and striated bark. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, leathery and compound. The microscopic analysis showed uniseriate epidermis in the stem and leaf, except in the adaxial leaf, which is biseriate. In the stem and petiole, many unicellular, short, conical tector trichomes with acute apex are observed. In the phloem of all studied organs, we found rounded and well-developed secretory ducts, as well as cuticle covering the epidermal cells and a large amount of calcium oxalate druses. The vascular bundles are surrounded by sclerenchyma cells and present phloem followed by well-developed spiral xylem. In the stem, petiole and leaf's central vein, the xylem is internal and the phloem is external. The Brazilian pepper has some structural features characteristic of xerophilous plants, such as multiple layers of the epidermis in adaxial leaf, which protects the mesophyll from excessive drying, thick cuticle and a large quantity of hairs and stomata, well-developed vascular system with plenty of sclerenchyma, giving support to the bundle.

Anacardiaceae/metabolism , Plant Structures/anatomy & histology , Calcium Oxalate , Plant Leaves/classification
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4,supl.2): 953-963, 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-771164


RESUMO O jenipapo (Genipa americana L.) é uma espécie nativa com importância medicinal, sendo amplamente utilizada no Brasil. Em função da necessidade de conhecimento à cerca do pré-processamento desta espécie, este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a cinética de secagem de folhas de jenipapo (G. americana L.), bem como determinar a difusividade efetiva da água durante o processo. As folhas foram coletadas com teor de água inicial de 2,30±0,05 (decimal b.s.), e submetidas à secagem em três condições de temperatura do ar (35,3; 46,0 e 65,0°C) até atingirem o teor de água de equilíbrio. Aos dados experimentais, ajustaram-se doze modelos matemáticos, recomendados para representar o processo de secagem de produtos agrícolas. As magnitudes do coeficiente de determinação (R2), do erro médio relativo (P), do erro médio estimado (SE) e do teste do qui-quadrado (χ2), foram utilizadas para verificar o grau de ajuste dos modelos. Os modelos de Henderson e Pabis modificado e Midilli apresentaram ajustes adequados aos dados experimentais, sendo o modelo de Midilli, em função de sua simplicidade, escolhido para representar a cinética de secagem das folhas de jenipapo. Aumentando a temperatura do ar de secagem de 35,3 para 46,0 e 65,0ºC houve redução no tempo de secagem das folhas de jenipapo de 91,1 para 62,5 e 24,2 horas, respectivamente. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo aumenta com a elevação da temperatura, e esta relação é descrita pela equação de Arrhenius, que apresenta energia de ativação para a difusão líquida de 33,9 kJ mol-1.

ABSTRACT The jenipapo (Genipa americana L.) is a native species with medicinal importance and is widely used in Brazil. Due to the need for knowledge about the preprocessing of this species, this work was developed to evaluate the drying kinetics of the jenipapo leaves (G. americana L.), and also to determine the effective diffusivity of water during the process. The leaves were collected with an initial moisture content of 2.30 ± 0.05 (decimal db), and dried in three conditions of air temperature (35.3, 46.0 and 65.0°C) until they reach the equilibrium moisture content. The experimental data set were twelve mathematical models, recommended to represent the drying process of agricultural products. The magnitudes of the coefficient of determination (R2), the mean relative error (P), the average estimated error (SE) and the chi-square (X2), were used in order to verify the adequacy level of the models. The Henderson, modified Pabis and Midilli models presented appropriate adjustments to the experimental data, with the model Midilli, due to its simplicity, chosen to represent the drying kinetics of the jenipapo leaves. By increasing the temperature of the drying air from 35.3 to 46.0 and 65.0ºC, there was a reduction in the drying time of the jenipapo leaves, from 91.1 to 62.5 and to 24.2 hours, respectively. The effective diffusion coefficient increases with the temperature’s raise, and this relationship is described by the Arrhenius equation, which shows activation energy for liquid diffusion of 33.9 kJ mol-1.

Kinetics , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Food Preservation , Plant Leaves/classification , Rubiaceae/classification
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(2): 256-261, jun. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-711785


O presente trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a atividade antioxidante dos extratos das folhas de Cordia verbenacea obtido por maceração em etanol e partição em solventes orgânicos. O infuso das folhas também foi investigado. O teor de fenóis totais foi avaliado pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau e o de flavonoides totais pela formação de complexo com cloreto de alumínio. O extrato etanólico, as subfrações e o infuso foram testados em diversas concentrações para determinar a atividade sequestradora de DPPH expressa em termos de sua CE50. A melhor atividade antioxidante encontrada foi para o extrato em acetato de etila, EA, CE50 15,0 ± 0,5 µg.mL-1. Os ensaios espectrofotométricos revelaram altas concentrações de fenóis e de flavonoides no extrato EA. A análise por HPLC-DAD foi realizada para se obter o perfil de UV-Vis dos picos cromatográficos do extrato EA. As características espectrais foram relacionadas a compostos fenólicos e flavonoídicos.

The objective of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of extracts from Cordia verbenacea leaves obtained by maceration in ethanol and partitioned with organic solvents. The infusion of leaves was also investigated. The total phenolic and total flavonoid content was evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and by the aluminum chloride complex method, respectively. The ethanol extract, the subfractions and the infusion were assayed at various concentrations to determine the DPPH scavenging activity expressed in terms of CE50. The best antioxidant activity was found on the ethyl acetate extract, EA, CE50 15.0 ± 0.5 µg.mL-1. The spectrophotometric assays revealed high phenol and flavonoid concentrations on the EA extract. The HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to reveal the UV-Vis profile of the chromatographic peaks of the EA extract. The UV spectral characteristics were related to phenol and polyphenol compounds.

Cordia/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/statistics & numerical data , Flavonoids/analysis , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/classification
Braz. j. biol ; 74(1): 41-51, 2/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715593


We present the leaf anatomy of seven amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Papilionoideae, Leguminosae), interpreting their structures and ecological functions, and also, providing information on which their taxonomy can be based, especially of morphologically similar species. We evaluated Aeschynomene americana, A. ciliata, A. evenia, A. denticulata, A. fluminensis, A. rudis and A. sensitiva. The anatomy corroborates the separation of the series Americanae, Fluminenses, Indicae and Sensitivae, with the shape of the petiole, types of trichomes and quantity of vascular units in the petiole as main characteristics to delimit the species. The petiole shape varies from cylindric in A. americana, A. sensitiva and A. fluminensis, to triangular in A. evenia and quadrangular in A. rudis, A. denticulata and A. ciliata. We observed four types of trichomes: hydathode trichome, long conic trichome, short conic trichome and bulb-based trichome. The hydathode trichome was the most common, except for A. americana and A. fluminensis. Species with higher affinity with water share similar adaptive characteristics, including hydathode trichomes described for the first time for the genus. This article adds unseen descriptions for the genus and on the adaptation factors of the amphibious species.

Neste trabalho é apresentada a anatomia foliar de sete espécies anfíbias de Aeschynomene L., interpretando estruturas e suas funções ecológicas e fornecendo informações que subsidiam sua taxonomia, principalmente de espécies semelhantes morfologicamente. Foram avaliadas Aeschynomene americana, A. ciliata, A. evenia, A. denticulata, A. fluminensis, A. rudis e A. sensitiva, pertencentes ao grupo Papilionoideae - Leguminosae. A anatomia corrobora a separação das séries Americanae, Fluminenses, Indicae e Sensitivae, sendo o formato do pecíolo, tipos dos tricomas e quantidade de unidades vasculares no pecíolo as principais características para delimitação das espécies de Aeschynomene. O formato do pecíolo variou de cilíndrico para A. americana, A. sensitiva e A. fluminensis, triangular para A. evenia e quadrangular para A. rudis, A. denticulata e A. ciliata. Foram observados quatro tipos de tricomas, são eles: tricoma-hidatódio, tricoma cônico longo, tricoma de base bulbosa e cônico curto. O tricoma-hidatódio foi o mais comum, ausente somente em A. americana e A. fluminensis. Espécies com maior afinidade pela água compartilham características adaptativas similares, incluindo tricoma-hidatódio descrito pela primeira vez para o gênero. Este trabalho acrescenta descrições inéditas para o gênero e sobre fatores adaptativos das espécies anfíbias.

Ecology , Fabaceae/classification , Plant Leaves/classification , Fabaceae/anatomy & histology , Fabaceae/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Plant Leaves/ultrastructure
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(1): 122-126, 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-703732


Objetivou-se com este trabalho quantificar a composição mineral das folhas de Oliveira a fim de diagnosticar o estado nutricional das plantas cultivadas em sistema convencional. O experimento foi conduzido com sete cultivares Arbequina, MGS Asc 315, MGS Mariense, MGS Grap 541, MGS Grap 561, Grappolo 575 e Leccino, em blocos casualizados com 4 repetições e parcelas com cinco plantas. Em maio de 2010 foram coletadas 60 folhas de cada cultivar (12 por planta) e submetidas a analise foliar. As cultivares apresentaram diferenças significativas entre si quanto aos teores foliares médios de nutrientes. Observou-se também que apesar da analise de solo apontar níveis elevados de Fe e Mn, a análise foliar acusou deficiência para esses elementos em todas as cultivares de Oliveira avaliadas. Os resultados alertam para os altos níveis de Cu, como consequência do uso abusivo de fungicidas a base de oxicloreto e calda bordalesa nos pomares. A concentração elevada desse elemento nas folhas pode causar fitotoxidez às plantas. Desta forma, sugere-se o uso racional de fertilizantes e de produtos fitossanitários no cultivo da oliveira a fim de evitar fitotoxidez ou deficiências nutricionais.

This study aimed to quantify the mineral composition of olive leaves to diagnose nutritional status of plants grown in conventional system. The experiment was conducted with seven cultivars: Arbequina, MGS Asc 315, MGS Mariense, MGS Grap 541, MGS Grap 561, Grappolo 575 and Leccino, in a randomized block design with four replications and five plants perplot. In May 2010, we collected 60 leaves for each cultivar (12 per plant),whichwere dried and subsequently analyzed. The results advert to the high levels of Cu, a consequence of the excessive use of fungicides based on copper oxychloride and Bordeaux mixture in the orchards. The high concentration of this element in the leaves can bephytotoxicity to plants and harmful to human health, since the leaves are used popularly as an aid in procedures for weight loss. Thus, we suggest the rational use of fertilizers and pesticides in the cultivation of olive trees to prevent nutritional deficiency or phytotoxicity and, if the research acknowledges the phytotherapic effect of leaves, the adoption of crops in the differentiated system of production, to obtain raw material with good quality and suitable for consumption in natura.

Mineral Deficiency , Olea/metabolism , Agricultural Cultivation , Deficiency Diseases/prevention & control , Fertilizers/statistics & numerical data , Plant Leaves/classification