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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257739, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355883

ABSTRACT

Abstract Under salt stress conditions, plant growth is reduced due to osmotic, nutritional and oxidative imbalance. However, salicylic acid acts in the mitigation of this abiotic stress by promoting an increase in growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis of osmoregulators and antioxidant enzymes. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid doses on the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings under salt stress. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, where the treatments were distributed in randomized blocks using a central composite matrix Box with five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (CEw) (0.50; 1.08; 2.50; 3.92 and 4.50 dS m-1), associated with five doses of salicylic acid (SA) (0.00; 0.22; 0.75; 1.28 and 1.50 mM), with four repetitions and each plot composed of three plants. At 40 days after sowing, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, electrolyte leakage, relative water content, and total dry mass were determined. ECw and SA application influenced the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings. Increasing the ECw reduced growth in the absence of SA. Membrane damage with the use of SA remained stable up to 3.9 dS m-1 of ECw. The relative water content independent of the CEw increased with 1.0 mM of SA. The use of SA at the concentration of 1.0 mM mitigated the deleterious effect of salinity on seedling growth up to 2.50 dS m-1 of ECw.


Resumo Em condições de estresse salino, o crescimento das plantas é reduzido, em virtude, do desequilíbrio osmótico, nutricional e oxidativo. Contudo, o ácido salicílico atua na mitigação desse estresse abiótico por promover incremento no crescimento, fotossíntese, metabolismo do nitrogênio, síntese de osmorreguladores e enzimas antioxidantes. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de doses de ácido salicílico sobre o crescimento e alterações fisiológicas de mudas de berinjela sob estresse salino. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso utilizando uma matriz composta central Box com cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa) (0,50; 1,08; 2,50; 3,92 e 4,50 dS m-1), associada a cinco doses de ácido salicílico (AS) (0,00; 0,22; 0,75; 1,28 e 1,50 mM), com quatro repetições e cada parcela composta por três plantas. Aos 40 dias após a semeadura, foram determinados a altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, área foliar, vazamento de eletrólito, teor relativo de água e massa seca total. A CEa e a aplicação de AS influenciaram no crescimento e nas alterações fisiológicas das mudas de berinjela. O aumento da CEa reduziu o crescimento na ausência de AS. O dano de membrana com o uso de AS manteve-se estável até 3,9 dS m-1 de CEa. O conteúdo relativo de água independentemente da CEa aumentou com 1 mM de SA. O uso de AS na concentração de 1 mM mitigou o efeito deletério da salinidade no crescimento das mudas até 2,50 dS m-1 de CEa.


Subject(s)
Salicylic Acid/pharmacology , Solanum melongena/metabolism , Photosynthesis , Stress, Physiological , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Seedlings , Salinity , Salt Tolerance , Antioxidants/metabolism
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888176

ABSTRACT

Leaves of Euryale ferox are rich in anthocyanins. Anthocyanin synthesis is one of the important branches of the flavonoid synthesis pathway, in which flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase(F3'H) can participate in the formation of important intermediate products of anthocyanin synthesis. According to the data of E. ferox transcriptome, F3'H cDNA sequence was cloned in the leaves of E. ferox and named as EfF3'H. The correlation between EfF3'H gene expression and synthesis of flavonoids was analyzed by a series of bioinforma-tics tools and qRT-PCR. Moreover, the biological function of EfF3'H was verified by the heterologous expression in yeast. Our results showed that EfF3'H comprised a 1 566 bp open reading frame which encoded a hydrophilic transmembrane protein composed of 521 amino acid residues. It was predicted to be located in the plasma membrane. Combined with predictive analysis of conserved domains, this protein belongs to the cytochrome P450(CYP450) superfamily. The qRT-PCR results revealed that the expression level of EfF3'H was significantly different among different cultivars and was highly correlated with the content of related flavonoids in the leaves. Eukaryotic expression studies showed that EfF3'H protein had the biological activity of converting kaempferol to quercetin. In this study, EfF3'H cDNA was cloned from the leaves of E. ferox for the first time, and the biological function of the protein was verified. It provi-ded a scientific basis for further utilizing the leaves of E. ferox and laid a foundation for the further analysis of the biosynthesis pathway of flavonoids in medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Transcriptome
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 509-516, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951583

ABSTRACT

Abstract Typha domingensis (cattail) is a native macrophyte known by its capacity to tolerate several heavy metals effects and the potential use for phytoremediation. However, in despite that cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic pollutants; its effects in T. domingensis biology remain uninvestigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to study the tolerance of T. domingensis to cadmium contamination by evaluating its growth, Cd uptake, leaf anatomy and gas exchange. The experiment was designed using three cadmium concentrations (0, 10 and 50 µM) and ten replicates for 90 days. The cadmium uptake, growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and leaf anatomy were evaluated. Data was submitted to ANOVA and Scott-Knott test for P<0.05. Typha domingensis accumulates Cd proportionally to its concentration on the solution and the content of this metal was higher in roots as compared to shoots. Plants showed no significant modifications on growth parameters such as the biomass production, number of leaves, number of clones and the biomass allocation to organs. The photosynthesis, transpiration and chlorophyll content were not modified by Cd. Most anatomical traits evaluated were not modified by the metal but the stomatal density and the proportion of vascular tissues were reduced under 50 µM of Cd. In despite, the leaf anatomy showed no toxicity evidences for any Cd level. The absence of growth reduction and the stability of anatomical and physiological traits give insight about the Cd tolerance of this species. Therefore, T. domingensis is able to overcome Cd toxicity and shows potential for phytoremediation.


Resumo A espécie Typha domingensis (taboa) é uma macrófita nativa conhecida por sua tolerância a vários metais pesados e potencial uso na fitorremediação. Contudo, apesar de que o Cd é um dos poluentes mais tóxicos; Seus efeitos em T. domingensis ainda não foram investigados. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a tolerância de T. domingensis ao cádmio, avaliando o crescimento, absorção de Cd, anatomia foliar e trocas gasosas. O experimento foi conduzido utilizando três concentrações de Cd (0, 10 e 50 µM) e dez repetições por 90 dias.. O crescimento, trocas gasosas e o teor de clorofila e anatomia foliar foram avaliados. Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Scott-Knott para P<0,05. A absorção de cádmio, crescimento, trocas gasosas, teor de clorofila e anatomia foliar foram analisados. As plantas de T. domingensis podem acumular Cd proporcionalmente à sua concentração na solução e o teor deste metal foi maior nas raízes em comparação com a parte aérea. As plantas não apresentam modificações significativas nos parâmetros de crescimento como produção de biomassa, número de folhas, número de clones produzidos e alocação de biomassa nos órgãos. A fotossíntese, transpiração e conteúdo de clorofila não foram afetados de forma significativa pelo Cd. A maioria das características anatômicas avaliadas não apresentou diferenças, mas houve redução na densidade estomática e na proporção de tecidos vasculares na concentração de 50 µM de Cd. A anatomia foliar não mostrou evidências de toxicidade em nenhum dos níveis de Cd. A ausência de redução de crescimento e estabilidade das características anatômicas e fisiológicas caracteriza alta tolerância da espécie ao Cd. Portanto, T. domingensis é capaz de superar a toxicidade do Cd e demostra potencial para fitorremediação.


Subject(s)
Cadmium/metabolism , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Typhaceae/growth & development , Typhaceae/metabolism , Photosynthesis/physiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cadmium/toxicity , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Chlorophyll/chemistry , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Biomass , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 686-690, Nov. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951609

ABSTRACT

Abstract Kiwifruit are a popular fruit worldwide; however, plant growth is threatened by abiotic stresses such as drought and high temperatures. Niacin treatment in plants has been shown to increase NADPH levels, thus enhancing abiotic stresses tolerance. Here, we evaluate the effect of niacin solution spray treatment on NADPH levels in the kiwifruit cultivars Hayward and Xuxiang. We found that spray treatment with niacin solution promoted NADPH and NADP+ levels and decreased both O2·- production and H2O2 contents in leaves during a short period. In fruit, NADPH contents increased during early development, but decreased later. However, no effect on NADP+ levels has been observed throughout fruit development. In summary, this report suggests that niacin may be used to increase NADPH oxidases, thus increasing stress-tolerance in kiwifruit during encounter of short-term stressful conditions.


Resumo Kiwis são uma fruta popular em todo o mundo; No entanto, o crescimento das plantas é ameaçado por estresses abióticos como a seca e as altas temperaturas. O tratamento com niacina em plantas mostrou aumentar os níveis de NADPH, aumentando assim a tolerância a stress abiótico. Aqui, avaliamos o efeito do tratamento com spray de solução de niacina sobre os níveis de NADPH nos cultivares de kiwis Hayward e Xuxiang. Descobrimos que o tratamento por spray com solução de niacina promoveu níveis de NADPH e NADP + e diminuiu a produção de O2·- e os teores de H2O2 nas folhas durante um curto período. Nos frutos, os teores de NADPH aumentaram durante o desenvolvimento precoce, mas diminuíram mais tarde. No entanto, não se observou qualquer efeito nos níveis de NADP + ao longo do desenvolvimento do fruto. Em resumo, este relatório sugere que a niacina pode ser utilizada para aumentar NADPH oxidases, aumentando assim a tolerância ao estresse em kiwis durante o encontro de condições estressantes de curto prazo.


Subject(s)
NADPH Oxidases/drug effects , Actinidia/drug effects , Fruit/drug effects , Niacin/pharmacology , Oxidation-Reduction , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Free Radicals/metabolism , Fruit/growth & development , NADP/metabolism
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 45-53, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889199

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Plants response to symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under water stress is important to agriculture. Under abiotic stress conditions native fungi are more effective than exotics in improving plant growth and water status. Mycorrhization efficiency is related to soil fungi development and energy cost-benefit ratio. In this study, we assessed the effect on growth, water status and energy metabolism of Cucurbita pepo var. pepo when inoculated with native AMF from the Sonoran desert Mexico (mixed isolate and field consortium), and compared with an exotic species from a temperate region, under drought, low and high salinity conditions. Dry weights, leaf water content, water and osmotic potentials, construction costs, photochemistry and mycorrhization features were quantified. Under drought and low salinity conditions, the mixed isolate increased plant growth and leaf water content. Leaf water potential was increased only by the field consortium under drought conditions (0.5-0.9 MPa). Under high salinity, the field consortium increased aerial dry weight (more than 1 g) and osmotic potential (0.54 MPa), as compared to non-mycorrhized controls. Plants inoculated with native AMF, which supposedly diminish the effects of stress, exhibited low construction costs, increased photochemical capacity, and grew larger external mycelia in comparison to the exotic inoculum.


Subject(s)
Cucurbita/microbiology , Mycorrhizae/physiology , Fungi/physiology , Soil/chemistry , Water/analysis , Water/metabolism , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Biomass , Cucurbita/growth & development , Cucurbita/physiology , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae/classification , Desert Climate , Salinity , Droughts , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Mexico
6.
Biol. Res ; 51: 49, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antarctic bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) are resilient to physiologically extreme environmental conditions including elevated levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation due to depletion of stratospheric ozone. Many Antarctic bryophytes synthesise UV-B-absorbing compounds (UVAC) that are localised in their cells and cell walls, a location that is rarely investigated for UVAC in plants. This study compares the concentrations and localisation of intracellular and cell wall UVAC in Antarctic Ceratodon purpureus, Bryum pseudotriquetrum and Schistidium antarctici from the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica. RESULTS: Multiple stresses, including desiccation and naturally high UV and visible light, seemed to enhance the incorporation of total UVAC including red pigments in the cell walls of all three Antarctic species analysed. The red growth form of C. purpureus had significantly higher levels of cell wall bound and lower intracellular UVAC concentrations than its nearby green form. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed that the red colouration in this species was associated with the cell wall and that these red cell walls contained less pectin and phenolic esters than the green form. All three moss species showed a natural increase in cell wall UVAC content during the growing season and a decline in these compounds in new tissue grown under less stressful conditions in the laboratory. CONCLUSIONS: UVAC and red pigments are tightly bound to the cell wall and likely have a long-term protective role in Antarctic bryophytes. Although the identity of these red pigments remains unknown, our study demonstrates the importance of investigating cell wall UVAC in plants and contributes to our current understanding of UV-protective strategies employed by particular Antarctic bryophytes. Studies such as these provide clues to how these plants survive in such extreme habitats and are helpful in predicting future survival of the species studied.


Subject(s)
Pigments, Biological/radiation effects , Pigments, Biological/metabolism , Ultraviolet Rays , Cell Wall/radiation effects , Cell Wall/metabolism , Bryophyta/radiation effects , Bryophyta/metabolism , Seasons , Time Factors , Pigmentation/radiation effects , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Plant Leaves/radiation effects , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Microscopy, Confocal , Bryophyta/cytology , Antarctic Regions
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(3): 535-541, July-Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888779

ABSTRACT

Abstract Golden trumpet, Tabebuia chrysotricha, is a native tree from the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest, with a broad latitudinal distribution. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of short-term changes in micro-weather conditions on structural features, and total protein and carbohydrate content of golden trumpet leaves, using structural and histochemical approaches. Leaves were harvested in four different micro-weather conditions: 1. Afternoon, after a hot, sunny day; 2. at dawn, after a previously hot, sunny day; 3. at noon, of a hot, sunny day; and 4. at noon, of a cold, cloudy day. Leaflets exposed to low light irradiance showed flattened chloroplasts, uniformly distributed within the cells, throughout the palisade parenchyma. Conversely, leaflets exposed to high light irradiance presented flattened and rounded chloroplasts, in the upper and lower palisade parenchyma cells, respectively. The strongest protein staining was found for leaves harvested at the coldest period, whereas the weakest protein staining was found for leaves harvested after a hot, sunny day. The largest and most numerous starch grains were found for leaves harvested in the afternoon, after a hot, sunny day. Conversely, the smallest and less numerous starch grains were found for leaves harvested at dawn. Analysis of the data reported herein suggests that the leaflet responses to transient changes in micro-weather conditions are likely to contribute to the golden trumpet successful establishment in the broad latitudinal distribution in which the species is found.


Resumo Ipê amarelo é uma árvore nativa da floresta Atlântica brasileira, encontrada em uma ampla distribuição latitudinal. Neste estudo, nós investigamos os efeitos potenciais de alterações de curto prazo nas condições micro-climáticas sobre características estruturais, proteína e carboidratos histoquimicamente marcados, de folhas de ipê amarelo, usando estratégias de análise estrutural e histoquímicas. As folhas foram marcadas em quatro condições microclimáticas distintas: 1. Tarde, após um dia quente e ensolarado; 2. Amanhecer, após um dia quente e ensolarado; 3. Ao meio-dia, de um dia quente e ensolarado; e 4. Ao meio-dia, de um dia frio e nublado. Folíolos expostos à baixa irradiância luminosa apresentaram cloroplastos achatados, uniformemente distribuídos no interior das células, por todo o parênquima paliçádico, enquanto que folíolos expostos à alta irradiância apresentaram cloroplastos achatados e arredondados, nas células superiores e inferiores do parênquima paliçádico, respectivamente. A marcação mais intensa para proteína foi observada para folhas coletadas no momento mais frio de coleta, enquanto que a marcação mais fraca foi observada para folhas coletadas após um dia quente e ensolarado. Os grãos de amido maiores e mais numerosos foram observados em folhas coletadas durante a tarde de dia quente e ensolarado, enquanto que os menores e menos numerosos grãos de amido foram observados em folhas coletadas ao amanhecer.


Subject(s)
Plant Proteins/metabolism , Weather , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Tabebuia/anatomy & histology , Tabebuia/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Brazil , Chloroplasts/metabolism , Rainforest , Microclimate
8.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1167-1174, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886713

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is popularly known as long-pepper and it owns a commercial value due to the essential oil it produces. Long-pepper oil is rich in safrole and eugenoln components that have insecticidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity. It has been establish that to medicinal plants light influences not only growth but also essential oil production. The growth, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the essential oil production of Piper hispidinervum at greenhouses with different light conditions was evaluated. The treatments were characterized by cultivation of plants for 180 days under different light conditions, produced by shading greenhouses with 50% and 30% of natural incident irradiance, two colored shading nets red (RN) and blue (BN) both blocking 50% of the incident radiation and one treatment at full-sun (0% of shade). The results showed that the treatments of 50% shade and RN and BN were the ones which stimulated the greater growth. Blue and red light also had the best production of photosynthetic pigments. Essential oil yielded more under full sun therefore this is the most indicated condition to produce seedlings for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.


Subject(s)
Photosynthesis/physiology , Sunlight , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Piper/growth & development , Piper/radiation effects , Piper/metabolism , Photosynthesis/radiation effects , Time Factors , Chlorophyll/analysis , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/radiation effects , Plant Leaves/metabolism
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(2): 171-176, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899271

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plants respond to wounding caused by mechanical stress or herbivory by synthesizing defense proteins. There are no studies reporting the action of induced plant proteins against ticks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanically wounded Leucaena leucocephala leaves against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Initially, we carried out time course experiments to evaluate the impact of mechanical wounding on the protein content and the peroxidase, catalase and protease inhibitor activities in L. leucocephala. We then evaluated the acaricidal activity on R. (B.) microplus from protein extract collected from L. leucocephala after mechanical wounding. L. leucocephala leaves were artificially wounded, and after 6, 12, 24 and 48h, the leaves were collected for protein extraction. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the proteins were performed. The protein content and peroxidase and protease activities increased 12h after wounding, and the acaricidal activity of this protein extract was evaluated using engorged R. (B.) microplus females. The protein extract obtained after wounding reduced egg production (8.5%) compared to those without wounding. Furthermore, the extract reduced egg hatching by 47.7% and showed an overall efficacy of 56.3% at 0.1 mgP/mL of the protein. We demonstrated that L. leucocephala defensive proteins could be effective against R. (B.) microplus.


Resumo As plantas respondem a injúria causada por estresse mecânico ou por ataque de herbívoros através da síntese de proteínas de defesa. Não há estudos de proteínas induzidas de plantas contra carrapatos. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a atividade acaricida de extratos protéicos de folhas Leucaena leucocephala após injúria mecânica, sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Inicialmente foram conduzidos experimentos em diferentes intervalos de tempo para avaliar o impacto da injúria mecânica no conteúdo de proteína, atividade de peroxidase, catalase e inibidor de protease de L. leucocephala. Em seguida foi avaliada a atividade acaricida sobre R. (B.) microplus de um extrato protéico após injúria mecânica. Folhas de L. leucocephala foram artificialmente feridas e após 6, 12, 24 e 48h, as folhas foram coletadas para extração de proteínas. Análises quantitativas e qualitativas das proteínas foram realizadas. A quantidade de proteína e atividades de peroxidase e protease aumentaram 12h após a injúria. O extrato proteico obtido após injúria (12h) reduziu a produção de ovos (8,5%) em comparação com extratos de plantas sem injúria. O extrato reduziu 47,7% a eclosão de ovos e apresentou eficácia geral de 56,3% a 0,1 miligrama de proteína por mL (mgP/mL). Apresentamos que proteínas de defesa de L. leucocephala podem ter atividade sobre R. (B.) microplus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Stress, Mechanical , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides/pharmacology , Fabaceae/metabolism , Acaricides/metabolism , Larva/drug effects
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 43-51, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839155

ABSTRACT

Abstract Soil flooding is an environmental stressor for crops that can affect physiological performance and reduce crop yields. Abiotic stressors cause changes in protein synthesis, modifying the levels of a series of proteins, especially the heat shock proteins (HSP), and these proteins can help protect the plants against abiotic stress. The objective of this study was to verify if tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom from different genotypes with varying expression levels of MT-sHSP23.6 (mitochondrial small heat shock proteins) have different responses physiological to flooding. Plants from three genotypes (untransformed, MT-sHSP23.6 sense expression levels and MT-sHSP23.6 antisense expression levels) were cultivated under controlled conditions. After 50 days, the plants were flooded for 14 days. After this period half of the plants from each genotype were allowed to recover. Chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, chlorophyll index, leaf area and dry matter were evaluated. Flood stress affected the photosynthetic electron transport chain, which is related to inactivation of the oxygen-evolving complex, loss of connectivity among units in photosystem II, oxidation-reduction of the plastoquinone pool and activity of photosystem I. The genotype with MT-sHSP23.6 sense expression levels was less sensitive to stress from flooding.


Resumo O alagamento do solo é um estressor ambiental para as culturas e pode afetar o desempenho fisiológico e reduzir a produtividade das culturas. Estresses abióticos causam mudanças na síntese de proteínas, modificando os níveis de uma série de proteínas, em especial as proteínas de choque térmico (HSP) e essas proteínas são conhecidas por proteger as plantas contra estresses abióticos. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se as plantas do tomateiro cv. Micro-Tom de distintos genótipos com diferentes níveis de expressão da MT-sHSP23.6 (proteínas mitocondriais de choque térmico com pequena massa molecular), têm diferentes respostas fisiológicas ao alagamento. As plantas de três genótipos (não-transformado, transformado com orientação antisense e transformado com orientação sense para MT-sHSP23.6) foram cultivadas sob condições controladas. Após 50 dias as plantas foram alagadas durante 14 dias. Após esse período as plantas de cada genótipo foram recuperadas. Foram avaliados fluorescência da clorofila, trocas gasosas, índice de clorofila, área foliar e massa seca. O estresse por alagamento afetou a cadeia de transporte de elétrons da fotossíntese, que está relacionado à inativação do complexo de evolução do oxigênio, perda da conectividade entre as unidades do fotossistema II, de oxidação e redução do pool de plastoquinona e atividade do fotossistema I. O genótipo com orientação sense MT-sHSP23.6 foi menos sensível ao estresse por alagamento.


Subject(s)
Stress, Physiological , Lycopersicon esculentum/physiology , Heat-Shock Proteins, Small/metabolism , Floods , Mitochondria/metabolism , Photosynthesis/physiology , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Photosystem I Protein Complex/metabolism , Genotype
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 321-334, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-897544

ABSTRACT

ResumenLas condiciones ecológicas de los ríos altoandinos tropicales estan amenazadas por numerosas actividades humanas que incluyen aquellas derivadas del cambio de la cobertura y uso del suelo de la cuenca. Para su evaluación se han propuesto protocolos que diagnostican el estado de la estructura pero no del funcionamiento de estos ecosistemas fluviales. En este trabajo se propone una herramienta de evaluación adaptada a las condiciones locales, incluyendo la metodología y los valores umbrales, utilizando el proceso de descomposición de la hojarasca como una medida del funcionamiento y salud de los ríos altoandinos del sur del Ecuador. Se seleccionaron 15 tributarios distribuidos en tres microcuencas (Mazán, Llaviuco y Matadero) dentro o en las adyacencias del Parque Nacional Cajas. En cada tributario se incubaron bolsas de descomposición elaboradas con dos tipos de malla (gruesa y fina) para separar la contribución de macroinvertebrados y microorganismos en el proceso. Como substrato vegetal se emplearon hojas de Alnus acuminata y Miconia bracteolata. Las bolsas fueron colocadas en los ríos y mantenidas durante 15, 28 y 64 días. Las tasas de descomposición (-K) fueron obtenidas a partir del período de tiempo en el cual se produjo la pérdida de aproximadamente el 50 % de la masa seca libre de ceniza. En cada período de recolección se determinaron parámetros físicos y químicos. Adicionalmente, se aplicaron los índices de calidad de ribera (QBR-And) y de habitat fluvial (IHF). Para la elaboración de los umbrales de condición funcional se utilizaron las métricas Ktotal y el cociente entre la tasa de descomposición en malla gruesa y malla fina (Kg/Kf). Para probar la sensibilidad de las métricas se emplearon métodos gráficos, Anova de una vía y se calculó la eficiencia discriminativa (ED) de las mismas. Los resultados del análisis de usos y coberturas del suelo revelaron un gradiente de intervención Matadero ≥ Llaviuco > Mazán. La composición de las variables ambientales de las corrientes de la microcuenca Mazán resultaron diferentes con respecto a las de Llaviuco y Matadero, cuyos valores parecen ser más semejantes entre sí. La evaluación de la calidad de ribera mediante el índice QBR-And muestra un gradiente importante desde valores muy bajos en las corrientes de Matadero (27.5), valores medios a altos en Llaviuco (66.5) y valores más altos en los tributarios de Mazán (87). Las tasas de descomposición de la hojarasca de los tributarios de la microcuenca del Río Mazán resultaron significativamente más rápidas que en los tributarios de los Ríos Matadero y Llaviuco para las hojas de A. acuminata pero no para las hojas de Miconia. La métrica Kg/Kf se consideró sensible y suficiente para discriminar los impactos en las áreas estudiadas. Los valores del cociente Kg/Kf resultaron significativamente mayores en Mazán en comparación a Llaviuco y Matadero, que no resultaron diferentes entre sí. Nuestros resultados apoyan la utilización del proceso de descomposición de la hojarasca como una herramienta adecuada para evaluar la condición ecológica funcional, complementando las evaluaciones estructurales, de los ríos altoandinos.


Abstract:The ecological condition of tropical Andean rivers are threatened by many human activities including changes in land use and cover in watersheds. Current protocols diagnose the structural condition of streams but not their function. In this study we proposed an assessment tool using the leaf-litter breakdown as a measure of the functional condition and health of high Andean streams in Southern Ecuador, including methodology and threshold values adapted to local conditions. We selected 15 streams in three micro-basins (Mazán, Llaviuco and Matadero) within or in the vicinity of Cajas National Park where we deployed litterbags for 15, 28 and 64 days. We used two types of mesh (coarse and fine) for the litterbags in order to separate the contribution of macro-invertebrates and microorganisms in the decomposition process and also tested two different leaf substrates: Alder (Alnus acuminata) and Miconia (Miconia bracteolata). In each collection period we determined physical and chemical parameters, applied the riparian quality index (QBR-And) and river habitat index (IHF). Decomposition rates (-k) were determined from the time period at which approximately 50 % ash-free mass would have been lost. We used Ktotal and the ratio of the rate of decomposition between coarse and fine mesh (Kg/Kf) to define the functional condition thresholds. To test the metrics sensitivity we used graphical methods, one-way ANOVA and discriminative efficiency (ED). The analysis of watershed land-use and cover showed a gradient of intervention: Matadero ≥ Llaviuco > Mazán. The composition of the environmental variables of Mazán streams were different with respect to Llaviuco and Matadero, whose values were similar to each other. The QBR-And index showed a significant gradient from very low levels in Matadero (27.5), moderately high values in Llaviuco (66.5) to high values in Mazán (87). Alder leaf-litter breakdown rates were significantly faster in Mazán than in Matadero and Llaviuco streams, while breakdown rates of Miconia were not significantly different among watersheds. The Kg/Kf ratio was significantly higher in Mazán compared to Llaviuco and Matadero, which did not differ. We consider the Kg/Kf metric sensitive enough to discriminate impacts in the studied areas. Our results support the use of the leaf-litter breakdown as an appropriate tool to assess functional ecological condition, complementing the structural assessments of these Andean rivers. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 321-334. Epub 2017 March 01.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Ecosystem , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Rivers/chemistry , Reference Values , Water Quality/standards , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Ecuador
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(3): e17095, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889381

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In this work, the potential chemopreventive activities of Elaeagnus umbellata fruit aqueous (EUFA) and leaf aqueous (EULA) extracts focusing on the modulatory influence of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), antioxidant enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, lipid peroxidation (LP), sulfhydryl groups were investigated in the hepatic and extrahepatic organs of Swiss albino mice (50 and 100 mg/kg body wt given orally for 14 days) and compared with BHA (0.75 % in diet). The modulatory and chemopreventive properties of two different doses EUFA and EULA were observed for cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, sulfhydryl groups, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, 7-ethoxyresorufin-deethylase and N,N-dimethylaniline N-oxidase activities in the liver and compared with BHA as a standard. The activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and DT-diaphorase (DTD) showed a significant increase in the kidney, forestomach, heart and brain at both doses of EUFA and EULA. The results of EULA-treated groups were found a notable increase in LDH, G6PD, 6PGD, GST and DTD activities. Superoxide dismutase level in liver, kidney and heart exhibited a significant increase at both doses of EULA. Glutathione reductase activity was a remarkable level at high dose of EUFA in liver, kidney and EULA in kidney. Both doses of EUFA were effective in inducing glutathione peroxidase activitiy in heart. The levels of LP at low and high doses of EULA-treated and EUFA-treated were effective in liver and kidney, respectively. The present results demonstrate that significant effects in the level of XMEs and antioxidant enzymes of EUFA and EULA are remarkable for modulating roles and natural chemoprevention properties and therefore is considered for a valuable natural source.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Elaeagnaceae/adverse effects , Antioxidants , Disease Prevention , Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/classification
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4): 846-853, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768193

ABSTRACT

Abstract There are few studies in tropical regions exploring the use of leaf breakdown process as a functional tool to assess anthropic disturbance on aquatic ecosystems. We assessed the effects of water pollution due to human activities on the leaf breakdown rate of Picramnia sellowii in streams of the southeastern Brazil. The experiment was carried out for 60 days in three reference streams and three streams impaired by organic pollution and absence of riparian vegetation. Three litter bags were incubated in each stream containing 3 ± 0.05 g of P. sellowii leaves. The reference streams presented higher values of dissolved oxygen and lower values of nutrients, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total impermeable area and water temperature. The leaf breakdown rate (k) differed significantly between the reference (k = 0.014 ± 0.003 d–1) and impaired streams (k = 0.005 ± 0.001 d–1). The leaves incubated in the reference streams contained greater fungal biomass (measured as ergosterol concentration) and abundance of invertebrates, as well as greater presence of shredders, with k values being related to the biomass of these organisms. Overall, there were clear differences between the leaf mass loss in the reference and impaired streams. These results reinforce the negative effect of urbanization on leaf breakdown and fungal and shredder biomass.


Resumo Na região tropical são escassos os estudos que exploram o uso do processo de decomposição foliar como ferramenta funcional para avaliar os efeitos das perturbações antrópicas sobre os ecossistemas aquáticos. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos dos impactos antrópicos sobre a taxa de decomposição de Picramnia sellowii em riachos no Sudeste do Brasil. O experimento foi realizado durante 60 dias em três riachos referências e três impactados por poluição orgânica e sem cobertura vegetal. Em cada riacho foram incubados três sacos contendo 3 ± 0,05 g de folhas secas de P. sellowii. Os riachos referência apresentaram maiores concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido e menores valores de nutrientes, turbidez, condutividade elétrica, TIA (área total impermeável) e temperatura. O coeficiente de decomposição (k) diferiu entre os riachos referência (k = 0,014 ± 0,003 d–1) e os impactados (k = 0,005 ± 0,001 d–1). Nas folhas incubadas nos riachos referência foi observada maior biomassa de fungos e abundância de invertebrados, assim como a presença de fragmentadores, estando o k relacionado com a biomassa destes organismos. A decomposição se mostrou sensível para avaliar impactos antrópicos nos ecossistemas aquáticos uma vez que foram observadas nítidas diferenças entre a perda de massa foliar nos riachos referências e impactados. Estes resultados reforçam o efeito negativo da urbanização sobre a decomposição e biomassa de fungos e fragmentadores.


Subject(s)
Magnoliopsida/metabolism , Ecosystem , Rivers/chemistry , Sewage/adverse effects , Water Quality , Biomass , Brazil , Plant Leaves/metabolism
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2): 268-272, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749684

ABSTRACT

The study of litter decomposition and nutrient cycling is essential to know native forests structure and functioning. Mathematical models can help to understand the local and temporal litter fall variations and their environmental variables relationships. The objective of this study was test the adequacy of mathematical models for leaf litter decomposition in the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. We study four native forest sites in Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, a Biosphere Reserve of the Atlantic, which were installed 200 bags of litter decomposing with 20×20 cm nylon screen of 2 mm, with 10 grams of litter. Monthly from 09/2007 to 04/2009, 10 litterbags were removed for determination of the mass loss. We compared 3 nonlinear models: 1 – Olson Exponential Model (1963), which considers the constant K, 2 – Model proposed by Fountain and Schowalter (2004), 3 – Model proposed by Coelho and Borges (2005), which considers the variable K through QMR, SQR, SQTC, DMA and Test F. The Fountain and Schowalter (2004) model was inappropriate for this study by overestimating decomposition rate. The decay curve analysis showed that the model with the variable K was more appropriate, although the values of QMR and DMA revealed no significant difference (p> 0.05) between the models. The analysis showed a better adjustment of DMA using K variable, reinforced by the values of the adjustment coefficient (R2). However, convergence problems were observed in this model for estimate study areas outliers, which did not occur with K constant model. This problem can be related to the non-linear fit of mass/time values to K variable generated. The model with K constant shown to be adequate to describe curve decomposition for separately areas and best adjustability without convergence problems. The results demonstrated the adequacy of Olson model to estimate tropical forest litter decomposition. Although use of reduced number of parameters equaling the steps of the decomposition process, no difficulties of convergence were observed in Olson model. So, this model can be used to describe decomposition curves in different types of environments, estimating K appropriately.


O estudo da ciclagem de nutrientes através da decomposição de serapilheira é essencial para conhecer a estrutura e funcionamento das florestas tropicais nativas. Em decorrência da sua dependência de variáveis ambientais, o uso de modelos matemáticos pode ajudar a compreender as variações locais e temporais da decomposição do folhedo. O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a adequação dos modelos matemáticos para avaliar a dinâmica da decomposição da serapilheira em um mosaico de Floresta Tropical Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil. O estudo foi realizado em quatro remanescentes de mata nativa no Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, parte da Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlântica, onde se instalou 200 bolsas decompositoras feitas de tela de nylon 20×20 cm de 2 mm, com 10 gramas de serapilheira recém-colhida. Mensalmente, de 09/2007 a 04/2009, 10 litterbags foram removidos por área, para limpeza, secagem e posterior determinação da perda de massa. Comparamos três modelos não lineares: 1 – Modelo exponencial de Olson (1963), que considera a constante K, 2 – Modelo proposto por Fountain and Schowalter (2004), 3 – Modelo proposto por Coelho e Borges (2005), que considera a variável K através do QMR, SQR, SQTC, DMA e Teste F. O modelo de Fountain and Schowalter (2004) mostrou-se inadequado por superestimar a taxa de decomposição. A análise mostrou que a curva de decaimento do modelo com K variável foi o mais adequado, embora os valores de QMR e DMA não revelaram nenhuma diferença significativa (p> 0,05) entre os modelos. A análise mostrou um melhor ajustamento do DMA usando a variável K, que foi reforçada com os valores do coeficiente de calibração (R2). No entanto, problemas de convergência foram observados neste modelo, que não foi capaz de estimar com precisão os valores “outliers” para cada área de estudo, o que não ocorreu com o modelo de Olson. Entretanto, parece que os problemas de não convergência podem estar relacionados ao ajuste não linear dos dados de massa por tempo, utilizados para gerar o modelo. Quando submetido ao ensaio de parâmetros iguais, o modelo com K constante (Olson, 1963) mostrou-se adequado para descrever a curva de decomposição por áreas de estudo separadamente, de modo que o seu melhor ajuste não compensou os problemas de convergência encontrados. Os resultados demonstraram a aptidão do modelo proposto por Olson (1963) para estimar a decomposição de serapilheira de florestas tropicais, mesmo que eventualmente não detecte diferenças entre as etapas do processo de decomposição. Este modelo não apresenta dificuldades de convergência, permitindo descrever as curvas de decomposição em diferentes tipos de ambientes, estimando os valores de K mais apropriadamente e com mais acurácia.


Subject(s)
Forests , Models, Biological , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Brazil
15.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(2): 206-213, Mar-Apr/2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-752508

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a percepção dos enfermeiros gestores da atenção primária à saúde sobre o processo de enfermagem. Método: estudo qualitativo em que os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas e analisados a partir da Análise de Conteúdo proposta por Bardin. Resultados: os gestores reconhecem a importância do processo de enfermagem, embora sua implementação não seja prioridade no momento. Existe dificuldade conceitual e não compreensão de que a implementação da metodologia de assistência deva perpassar pela gestão municipal. Conclusão: necessita-se de ampliação da visão dos gestores quanto à importância do processo de enfermagem e qualificação dos profissionais. Acredita-se na participação ativa dos órgãos legisladores de enfermagem, gestão local de saúde e governo federal para que a implementação do processo de enfermagem seja viabilizada. .


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar las percepciones de los gerentes de enfermería de atención primaria de salud en el proceso de enfermería. Métodos: estudio cualitativo; los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas y analizados desde el Análisis de Contenido propuesta por Bardin referencial teórico. Resultados: los gerentes reconocen la importancia del proceso de enfermería, aunque su aplicación no es la prioridad en este momento. No hay ninguna dificultad conceptual y la comprensión de que la ejecución de la ayuda metodología debe impregnar la gestión municipal. Conclusión: es necesario ampliar la visión de los administradores en cuanto a la importancia del proceso y la calificación de enfermería. Cree en la participación activa de los órganos legislativos de enfermería, administración de salud local y el gobierno federal para la aplicación del proceso de enfermería es factible. .


ABSTRACT Objective: this qualitative study aimed to analyze the perceptions of primary health care management nurses on the nursing process. Method: data were collected through interviews and analyzed by the Content Analysis proposed by Bardin’s theoretical framework. Results: managers recognize the importance of the nursing process, although its implementation was not a priority at the time of the interviews. A conceptual diffi culty and a lack of understanding that the implementation of the care methodology should be a cross-departmental action in the local healthcare management were clearly observed. Conclusion: managers should have their perspectives broadened concerning the relevance of the nursing process and the professional training. The active participation of legislative nursing bodies, local healthcare management and the federal government may open the way for the effective implementation of the nursing process. .


Subject(s)
Bambusa/metabolism , Carbon Sequestration/physiology , Carbon/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Trees/metabolism , Bambusa/chemistry , China , Carbon/metabolism , Forests , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Seasons , Tropical Climate , Trees/chemistry
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 138-141, 03/02/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741607

ABSTRACT

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important respiratory pathogens among children between zero-five years old. Host immunity and viral genetic variability are important factors that can make vaccine production difficult. In this work, differences between biological clones of HRSV were detected in clinical samples in the absence and presence of serum collected from children in the convalescent phase of the illness and from their biological mothers. Viral clones were selected by plaque assay in the absence and presence of serum and nucleotide sequences of the G2 and F2 genes of HRSV biological clones were compared. One non-synonymous mutation was found in the F gene (Ile5Asn) in one clone of an HRSV-B sample and one non-synonymous mutation was found in the G gene (Ser291Pro) in four clones of the same HRSV-B sample. Only one of these clones was obtained after treatment with the child's serum. In addition, some synonymous mutations were determined in two clones of the HRSV-A samples. In conclusion, it is possible that minor sequences could be selected by host antibodies contributing to the HRSV evolutionary process, hampering the development of an effective vaccine, since we verify the same codon alteration in absence and presence of human sera in individual clones of BR-85 sample.


Subject(s)
Aluminum Oxide/chemistry , Cocos/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/growth & development , Fruit/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Pelargonium/growth & development , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/economics , Crops, Agricultural/metabolism , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Iran , Industrial Waste/analysis , Industrial Waste/economics , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/economics , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Pelargonium/chemistry , Pelargonium/metabolism , Perfume/chemistry , Perfume/economics , Perfume/isolation & purification , Perfume/metabolism , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Silicates/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Terpenes/metabolism
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Feb; 53(2): 116-123
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158392

ABSTRACT

The heavy metal resistant bacterium isolated from field soil and identified as Enterobacter sp. RZS5 tolerates a high concentration (100-2000 mM) of various heavy metal ions such as Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, CO2+ and Fe2+ when grown in such environment and produces exopolysaccharides (EPS). Here, we have demonstrated EPS production by Enterobacter sp. RZS5 during 60 h of growth in yeast extract mannitol broth (YEMB). The yield increased by two fold after the addition of 60 M of Ca2+; 50 M of Fe2+ and 60 M of Mg2+ ions in YEMB, and the optimization of physico-chemical parameters. EPS was extracted with 30% (v/v) of isopropanol as against the commonly used 50% (v/v) isopropanol method. EPS-rich broth promoted seed germination, shoot height, root length, number of leaves and chlorophyll content of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds. The higher colony-forming unit of Enterobacter sp. in soil inoculated with EPS rich broth of Enterobacter sp. indicated the root colonizing potential and rhizosphere competence of the isolate. The FTIR spectra of the EPS extract confirmed the presence of the functional group characteristics of EPS known to exhibit a high binding affinity towards certain metal ions. This overall growth and vigour in plants along with the effective root colonization, reflected the potential of the isolate as an efficient bio-inoculant in bioremediation.


Subject(s)
Arachis/drug effects , Arachis/growth & development , Arachis/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental/drug effects , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Enterobacter/drug effects , Enterobacter/metabolism , Enterobacter/physiology , Germination/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/microbiology , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/biosynthesis , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/metabolism , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Triticum/drug effects , Triticum/growth & development
18.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-9, 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Salinity is a serious factor limiting the productivity of agricultural plants. One of the potential problems for plants growing under saline conditions is the inability to up take enough K+. The addition of K+ may considerably improve the salt tolerance of plants grown under salinity. It is assumed that increasing the K+ supply at the root zone can ameliorate the reduction in growth imposed by high salinity. The present study aims to determine whether an increase in the K/Na ratio in the external media would enhance the growth of date palm seedlings under in vitro saline conditions. METHODS: Date palm plants were grown at four concentrations of Na + K/Cl (mol/m³) with three different K/Na ratios. The 12 salt treatments were added to modified MS medium. The modified MS medium was further supplemented with sucrose at 30 g/l. RESULTS: Growth decreased substantially with increasing salinity. Growth expressed as shoot and root weight, enhanced significantly with certain K/Na ratios, and higher weight was maintained in the presence of equal K and Na. It is the leaf length, leaf thickness and root thickness that had significant contribution on total dry weight. Na+ contents in leaf and root increased significantly increased with increasing salinity but substantial decreases in Na+ contents were observed in the leaf and root with certain K/Na ratios. This could be attributed to the presence of a high K+ concentration in the media. The internal Na+ concentration was higher in the roots in all treatments, which might indicate a mechanism excluding Na+ from the leaves and its retention in the roots. K/Na ratios up to one significantly increased the leaf and root K+ concentration, and it was most pronounced in leaves. The K+ contents in leaf and root was not proportional to the K+ increase in the media, showing a high affinity for K+ uptake at lower external K+ concentrations, but this mechanism continues to operate even with high external Na+ concentrations. CONCLUSION: Increasing K/Na ratios in the growing media of date plam significantly reduced the absorption of Na+ less than 200 mM and also balance ions compartmentalization.


Subject(s)
Potassium/metabolism , Sodium/metabolism , Crops, Agricultural , Salinity , Phoeniceae/physiology , Sucrose/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Cell Compartmentation/physiology , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Phoeniceae/growth & development , Absorption, Physicochemical
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Nov; 52(11): 1122-1127
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153802

ABSTRACT

The medicinal plant Plumbago contains a very potent secondary metabolite, plumbagin having many therapeutic properties. Callus culture was induced using explants, leaf, stem and shoot apex, from P. auriculata. Murashige and Skoog media fortified with various growth hormones like NAA, IAA, IBA and 2, 4-D individually and in various combinations were checked for callus induction. Among the growth hormones used, 1 mg/L 2, 4-D showed best callusing. The hormonal combinations of 1 mg/L IAA and 1.5 mg/L NAA in the media exhibited best callus induction using stem internode as an explant. Plumbagin content from root, stem, leaf and callus was analyzed by using thin layer chromatographic technique. The callus derived from stem showed comparable plumbagin content to the in vivo plant parts. Quantitative spectrophotometric analysis of plumbagin from plant samples and callus indicated that plumbagin content was maximum in roots which was followed by callus, stem and leaf samples respectively. Generation of in vitro sources for plumbagin, for therapeutic applications will serve as a continuous supply and will contribute to preserve the natural plant recourses.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Thin Layer , Colorimetry , Cytokinins/pharmacology , Indoleacetic Acids/pharmacology , Naphthoquinones/analysis , Naphthoquinones/metabolism , Organ Specificity , Organoids/drug effects , Plant Cells/drug effects , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Plant Stems/metabolism , Plants, Medicinal/growth & development , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Plumbaginaceae/growth & development , Plumbaginaceae/metabolism , Tissue Culture Techniques
20.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(3): 513-520, jul.-set. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-722270

ABSTRACT

Com o objetivo de verificar o potencial antimicrobiano de Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus var. pseudocaryophyllus, foi avaliado em condições de laboratório o óleo essencial extraído de suas folhas quanto à atividade nos microrganismos: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verrucosum, Escherichia coli, e Staphylococcus aureus. A metodologia utilizada foi o método do papel de filtro embebido no óleo essencial a ser testado. A extração do óleo essencial foi feita por hidrodestilação em aparelho Clevenger modificado por Wasicky em 1963. Testou-se o óleo essencial de plantas provenientes de Campos do Jordão e de Itaquaquecetuba. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o óleo da planta procedente de Campos do Jordão apresentou atividade antimicrobiana muito próxima à do citral, inibindo em 72,7 % e 71,5 %, respectivamente, o crescimento dos microrganismos; porém, foi significativamente superior ao da planta procedente de Itaquaquecetuba, que apresentou 38,8 % de inibição. Quanto aos microrganismos, a inibição do crescimento foi maior para P. verrucosum (83,3%), seguido por A. niger (71,9%) e S. aureus (70,3%), que não apresentaram diferença entre si. A menor inibição foi apresentada por E. coli (18,4%). Com exceção de E. coli, que apresentou a mesma característica de inibição para os dois óleos e o citral, todos os demais fatores apresentaram interação significativa, demonstrando especificidade de reação para cada um dos níveis desses fatores e o potencial antimicrobiano, do óleo essencial de Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus var. pseudocaryophyllus. O rendimento do óleo essencial da planta coletada em Campos do Jordão foi de 2,3% e da coletada em Itaquaquecetuba foi de 1,9% (p/v).


The essential oils of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus var. pseudocaryophyllus specimens from two distinct locations: Campos do Jordão and Itaquaquecetuba, were tested to detect antimicrobial activity to the microorganisms Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verrucosum, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in medium culture. The method utilized was impregnated filter paper in essential oils . The essential oil extraction was made through method of Clevenger modified for Wasicky in 1963, for the hydrodistilation. The monoterpene citral was tested under the same conditions of the essential oils. The microorganisms development under these conditions presented the following results: the oil of P. pseudocaryophyllus var. pseudocaryophyllus from Campos do Jordão had the same antimicrobial activity that citral, inhibiting in 72,7 % and 71,5%, the growth of the microorganisms, significantly higher than the level of the oil originated from Itaquaquecetuba that presented 38,8% of inhibition. About to the microorganisms, the growth inhibition was higher for P. verrucosum (83,3%), followed by A. niger (71,9%) and S. aureus (70,3%). The minimal inhibitory activity was presented by E. coli (18,4%). Except for E. coli, which presented the same characteristic of inhibition for two oils and the citral, all the other factors presented significant interaction, showing specificity of reaction for each one of the levels of these factors. These data demonstrated the antimicrobial potential of the essential oil of the Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus var. pseudocaryophyllus The yield of essential oil collected in Campos do Jordão was 2,3% and the species collected in Itaquaquecetuba was 1,9% (w/v).


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Genus Pimenta/metabolism , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents , Biology
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