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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256944, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364507

ABSTRACT

In order to ensure the timely and uninterrupted supply of medicinal plant raw materials, the methods of cultivation of plant cell cultures, namely, the production of plant root cultures, are relevant. In this paper, the geroprotective potential of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey root cultures is studied. They were cultured under in vitro conditions by transforming the rhizome (H. neglectum) and seed seedlings (P. ginseng) with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. To identify the geroprotective potential, the antimicrobial disc-diffusion method and the antioxidant activity were analyzed by titration of KMnO4 extracts of plant root cultures. The qualitative and quantitative composition was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. In the course of the work, the presence of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of plant root culture extracts was established. Biologically active substances contained in extracts of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb root crops and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey are characterized by geroprotective potential, so they can act as a source of natural antioxidants in the functional nutrition of the geroprotective orientation.


Para garantir o abastecimento em tempo e ininterrupto de matérias-primas de plantas medicinais, são relevantes os métodos de cultivo de culturas de células vegetais, nomeadamente a produção de culturas de raízes vegetais. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o potencial geroprotetor de culturas de raízes de Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb e Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Eles foram cultivados em condições in vitro pela transformação do rizoma (H. neglectum) e mudas de sementes (P. ginseng) com Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. Para identificar o potencial geroprotetor, o método antimicrobiano de difusão em disco e a atividade antioxidante foram analisados por titulação de extratos de KMnO4 de raízes de plantas. A composição qualitativa e quantitativa foi analisada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia gasosa com espectrometria de massa. No decorrer do trabalho, foi constatada a presença de atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante dos extratos de raízes de plantas. Substâncias biologicamente ativas contidas em extratos de raízes de H. neglectum Ledeb e P. ginseng C. A. Mey são caracterizadas pelo potencial geroprotetor, podendo atuar como fonte de antioxidantes naturais na nutrição funcional da orientação geroprotetora.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Plant Roots , Panax , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1815-1823, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981399

ABSTRACT

It is generally believed that high-quality Bupleurum scorzonerifolium roots possess specific morphological characteristics, being red, robust, and long with strong odor. However, the scientific connotation of these characteristics has not been elucidated. According to the theory of "quality evaluation through morphological identification", we studied the correlations between appearance traits(the RGB value of root surface, root length, root diameter, dry weight, and ratio of phloem to xylem) and content of main chemical components(volatile oils, total saponins, total flavonoids, total polysaccharides, and seven saikosaponins) of B. scorzonerifolium roots. Epson Scanner and ImageJ were used to scan the root samples and measure the appearance traits. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry and HPLC were employed to determine the content of chemical components. The correlation, regression, and cluster analyses were performed to study the correlations between the appearance traits and the content of chemical components. The results showed that the content of volatile oils and saikosaponins were significantly correlated with RGB value, root length, and root diameter, indicating that within a certain range, the roots being redder, longer, and thicker had higher content of volatile oils and saikosaponins. According to the appearance traits and chemical component content, the 14 samples from different producing areas were classified into four grades, and the differences in morphological traits and chemical component content were consistent among different grades. The findings in this study demonstrate that appearance traits(RGB value, root length, and root diameter) can be used to evaluate the quality of B. scorzonerifolium roots. Meanwhile, this study lays a foundation for establishing an objective quality evaluation method for B. scorzonerifolium roots.


Subject(s)
Bupleurum/chemistry , Saponins/analysis , Oleanolic Acid/analysis , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2781-2791, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981381

ABSTRACT

Rosae Radix et Rhizoma is a herbal medicine in a variety of famous Chinese patent medicines, while the quality standard for this medicine remains to be developed due to the insufficient research on the quality of Rosae Radix et Rhizoma from different sources. Therefore, this study comprehensively analyzed the components in Rosae Radix et Rhizoma of different sources from the aspects of extract, component category content, identification based on thin-lay chromatography, active component content determination, and fingerprint, so as to improve the quality control. The results showed that the content of chemical components varied in the samples of different sources, while there was little difference in the chemical composition among the samples. The content of components in the roots of Rosa laevigata was higher than that in the other two species, and the content of components in the roots was higher than that in the stems. The fingerprints of triterpenoids and non-triterpenoids were established, and the content of five main triterpenoids including multiflorin, rosamultin, myrianthic acid, rosolic acid, and tormentic acid in Rosae Radix et Rhizoma was determined. The results were consistent with those of major component categories. In conclusion, the quality of Rosae Radix et Rhizoma is associated with the plant species, producing area, and medicinal parts. The method established in this study lays a foundation for improving the quality standard of Rosae Radix et Rhizoma and provides data support for the rational use of the stem.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Quality Control
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2767-2780, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981380

ABSTRACT

The chemical compositions of Rodgersia aesculifolia were isolated and purified using a combination of silica gel, reverse phase silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and semi-preparative HPLC. The structures were determined according to the physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data. The MTT method and the ABTS kit were used to measure the cytotoxicity and antioxidant capacity of all isolates, respectively. Thirty-four compounds were isolated from R. aesculifolia and elucidated as stigmastane-6β-methoxy-3β,5α-diol(1), stigmastane-3β,5α,6β triol(2), β-sitosterol(3), β-daucosterol(4), stigmast-4-en-3-one(5), bergenin(6), 11-β-D-glucopyranosyl-bergenin(7), 11-O-galloybergenin(8), 1,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose(9), gallic acid(10), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester(11), ethyl gallate(12), ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate(13), caffeic acid ethyl ester(14), p-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid(15), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid(16), 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propan-1-one(17), 3,7-dimethyl-2-octene-1,7-diol(18), crocusatin-B(19), neroplomacrol(20), geniposide(21), 3-hydroxyurs-12-en-27-oic acid(22), 3β-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-olean-12-en-27-oic acid(23), aceriphyllic acid G(24), isolariciresinol(25), trans-rodgersinine B(26), cis-rodgersinine A(27), neo-olivil(28),(7S,8R)-dihydro-3'-hydroxy-8-hydroxy-methyl-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy phenyl)-1'-benzofuranpropanol(29), 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone(30), quercetin 3-rutinoside(31), catechin-[8,7-e]-4β-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-dihydro-2(3H)-pyranone(32), ethyl α-L-arabino-furanoside(33), and l-linoleoylglycerol(34). One new compound was discovered(compound 1), 25 compounds were first isolated from R. aesculifolia, and 22 compounds were first isolated from the Rodgersia plant. The results indicated that compounds 22-24 possessed cytotoxicity for HepG2, MCF-7, HCT-116, BGC-823, and RAFLS cell lines(IC_(50) ranged from 5.89 μmol·L~(-1) to 20.5 μmol·L~(-1)). Compounds 8-14 and 30-32 showed good antioxidant capacity, and compound 9 showed the strongest antioxidant activity with IC_(50) of(2.00±0.12) μmol·L~(-1).


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , Silica Gel/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2725-2731, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981375

ABSTRACT

To solve the serious problem of stem and leaf shading in the middle and late stage of traditional flat planting of Codonopsis pilosula, this study analyzed the effects of different stereoscopic traction heights on the photosynthetic characteristics and growth of C. pilosula and explored the optimal traction height to improve the yield and quality of C. pilosula. The experiment designed three stereo-scopic traction heights [H1(60 cm), H2(90 cm), and H3(120 cm)] with natural growth without traction as the control(CK). The results showed that the increase in stereoscopic traction heights broadened the growth space of stems and leaves of C. pilosula, enhanced the ventilation effect, significantly increased the average daily net photosynthetic rate of C. pilosula, promoted the absorption of intercellular CO_2, decreased the transpiration rate, and reduced the evaporation of water. Moreover, it effectively avoided the problem of weakened photosynthesis, maintained the carbon balance of individual plants, and promoted the growth and development of the C. pilosula roots. In terms of the seed yield of C. pilosula, it was ranked as H2>H1>H3>CK. To be specific, H1 increased by 213.41% compared with CK, H2 increased by 282.43% compared with CK, and H3 increased by 133.95% compared with CK. The yield and quality of C. pilosula were the highest in the H3 treatment group, with the fresh yield of 6 858.33 kg·hm~(-2), 50.59% higher than CK, dry yield of 2 398.33 kg·hm~(-2), 76.54% higher than CK, and lobetyolin content of 0.56 mg·g~(-1), 45.22% higher than CK. Therefore, the stereoscopic traction height has a great influence on the photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and quality of C. pilosula. Particularly, the yield and quality of C. pilosula can be optimized and improved in the traction height treatment of H3(120 cm). This planting method is worth popularizing and applying in the cultivated management of C. pilosula.


Subject(s)
Codonopsis , Traction , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Plant Roots
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2020-2040, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981335

ABSTRACT

Codonopsis Radix is a traditional tonic medicine commonly used in China, which has the effects of strengthening the spleen and tonifying the lung, as well as nourishing blood and engendering liquid. The chemical constituents of Codonopsis species are mainly polyacetylenes, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, lignans, terpenoids and saponins, flavonoids, steroids, organic acids, saccharides, and so on. Modern pharmacological studies showed that Codonopsis Radix also has a variety of pharmacological effects such as enhancing body immunity, protecting gastrointestinal mucosa and resisting ulcers, promoting hematopoietic function, regulating blood sugar, and delaying aging. In this paper, the chemical constituents of Codonopsis species and the pharmacological effects of Codonopsis Radix were summarized, and on this basis, the quality markers of Codonopsis Radix were analyzed. It was predicted that lobetyolin, tangshenoside I, codonopyrrolidium A, and the oligosaccharides were the possible Q-markers of Codonopsis Radix. This paper will provide scientific references for the quality evaluation and profound research and the development of Codonopsis Radix.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Codonopsis , Alkaloids , Medicine, Traditional , Plant Roots
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2298-2306, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981305

ABSTRACT

Tanshinones are one of the main effective components of Salvia miltiorrhiza, which play important roles in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Microbial heterogony production of tanshinones can provide a large number of raw materials for the production of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) preparations containing S. miltiorrhiza, reduce the extraction cost, and relieve the pressure of clinical medication. The biosynthetic pathway of tanshinones contains multiple P450 enzymes, and the catalytic element with high efficiency is the basis of microbial production of tanshinones. In this study, the protein modification of CYP76AK1, a key P450-C20 hydroxylase in tanshinone pathway, was researched. The protein modeling methods SWISS-MODEL, Robetta, and AlphaFold2 were used, and the protein model was analyzed to obtain the reliable protein structure. The semi-rational design of mutant protein was carried out by molecular docking and homologous alignment. The key amino acid sites affecting the oxidation activity of CYP76AK1 were identified by molecular docking. The function of the obtained mutations was studied with yeast expression system, and the CYP76AK1 mutations with continuous oxidation function to 11-hydroxysugiol were obtained. Four key amino acid sites that affected the oxidation acti-vity were analyzed, and the reliability of three protein modeling methods was analyzed according to the mutation results. The effective protein modification sites of CYP76AK1 were reported for the first time in this study, which provides a catalytic element for different oxidation activities at C20 site for the study of the synthetic biology of tanshinones and lays a foundation for the analysis of the conti-nuous oxidation mechanism of P450-C20 modification.


Subject(s)
Oxidoreductases , Biosynthetic Pathways , Molecular Docking Simulation , Reproducibility of Results , Salvia miltiorrhiza/chemistry , Amino Acids/metabolism , Plant Roots/genetics
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1664-1672, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970638

ABSTRACT

In this study, the Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI) were searched comprehensively for the literature about the research on Polygalae Radix. After manual screening, 1 207 Chinese articles and 263 English articles were included in this study. Excel was used to draw the line chart of the annual number of relevant publications. CiteSpace 6.1.R3 was used for the visual analysis of author cooperation, publishing institutions, keyword co-occurrence, keyword clustering, and bursts in the research on Polygalae Radix. The results showed that the number of articles published in Chinese and English increased linearly, which indicated the rising research popularity of Polygalae Radix. WANG J and LIU X were the authors publishing the most articles in Chinese and English, respectively. Shanxi University of Chinese Medicine and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences were the research institutions with the largest number of Chinese and English publications in this field, respectively. The institutions publishing the relevant articles in English formed a system with the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences as the core. According to the keywords, the research hotspots of Polygalae Radix included variety selection and breeding, quality standard, extraction and identification of active chemical components, prescription compatibility, processing, clinical medication rules, and pharmacological mechanism. The research frontiers were the molecular mechanisms of Polygalae Radix and its active components in exerting the protective effect on brain nerve, regulating receptor pathways, alleviating anxiety and Alzheimer's disease, as well as data mining and clinical medication summary. This study has reference significance for the topic selection and frontier identification of the future research on Polygalae Radix.


Subject(s)
Plant Breeding , China , Plant Roots/chemistry , Brain , Publications
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1553-1557, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970627

ABSTRACT

Two prenylated 2-arylbenzofurans were isolated from roots of Artocarpus heterophyllus, with a combination of various chromatographic approaches, including ODS, MCI, Sephadex LH-20, and semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). They were identified as 5-[6-hydroxy-4-methoxy-5,7-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)benzofuran-2-yl]-1,3-benzenediol(1) and 5-[2H,9H-2,2,9,9-tetramethyl-furo[2,3-f]pyrano[2,3-h][1]benzopyran-6-yl]-1,3-benzenediol(2) with spectroscopic methods, such as HR-ESI-MS, IR, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR, and named artoheterins B(1) and C(2), respectively. The anti-respiratory burst activities of the two compounds were evaluated with rat polymorphonuclear neutrophils(PMNs) stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate(PMA). The results showed that 1 and 2 exhibited significant inhibitory effect on respiratory burst of PMNs with IC_(50) values of 0.27 and 1.53 μmol·L~(-1), respectively.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Molecular Structure , Artocarpus/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Plant Roots/chemistry
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1518-1525, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970623

ABSTRACT

Since Curcumae Radix decoction pieces have multiple sources, it is difficult to distinguish depending on traditional cha-racters, and the mixed use of multi-source Curcumae Radix will affect its clinical efficacy. Heracles Neo ultra-fast gas phase electronic nose was used in this study to quickly identify and analyze the odor components of 40 batches of Curcumae Radix samples from Sichuan, Zhejiang, and Guangxi. Based on the odor fingerprints established for Curcumae Radix decoction pieces of multiple sources, the odor components was identified and analyzed, and the chromatographic peaks were processed and analyzed to establish a rapid identification method. Principal component analysis(PCA), discriminant factor analysis(DFA), and soft independent modeling cluster analysis(SIMCA) were constructed for verification. At the same time, one-way analysis of variance(ANOVA) combined with variable importance in projection(VIP) was employed to screen out the odor components with P<0.05 and VIP>1, and 13 odor components such as β-caryophyllene and limonene were hypothesized as the odor differential markers of Curcumae Radix decoction pieces of diffe-rent sources. The results showed that Heracles Neo ultra-fast gas phase electronic nose can well analyze the odor characteristics and rapidly and accurately discriminate Curcumae Radix decoction pieces of different sources. It can be applied to the quality control(e.g., online detection) in the production of Curcumae Radix decoction pieces. This study provides a new method and idea for the rapid identification and quality control of Curcumae Radix decoction pieces.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Electronic Nose , China , Plant Roots/chemistry , Limonene/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1483-1490, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970619

ABSTRACT

In this study, the effect of brassinosteroid(BR) on the physiological and biochemical conditions of 2-year-old Panax notoginseng under the cadmium stress was investigated by the pot experiments. The results showed that cadmium treatment at 10 mg·kg~(-1) inhibited the root viability of P. notoginseng, significantly increased the content of H_2O_2 and MDA in the leaves and roots of P. noto-ginseng, caused oxidative damage of P. notoginseng, and reduced the activities of SOD and CAT. Cadmium stress reduced the chlorophyll content of P. notoginseng, increased leaf F_o, reduced F_m, F_v/F_m, and PIABS, and damaged the photosynthesis system of P. notoginseng. Cadmium treatment increased the soluble sugar content of P. notoginseng leaves and roots, inhibited the synthesis of soluble proteins, reduced the fresh weight and dry weight, and inhibited the growth of P. notoginseng. External spray application of 0.1 mg·L~(-1) BR reduced the H_2O_2 and MDA content in P. notoginseng leaves and roots under the cadmium stress, alleviated cadmium-induced oxidative damage to P. notoginseng, improved the antioxidant enzyme activity and root activity of P. notoginseng, increased the content of chlorophyll, reduced the F_o of P. notoginseng leaves, increased F_m, F_v/F_m, and PIABS, alleviated the cadmium-induced damage to the photosynthesis system, and improved the synthesis ability of soluble proteins. In summary, BR can enhance the anti-cadmium stress ability of P. notoginseng by regulating the antioxidant enzyme system and photosynthesis system of P. notoginseng under the cadmium stress. In the context of 0.1 mg·L~(-1) BR, P. notoginseng can better absorb and utilize light energy and synthesize more nutrients, which is more suitable for the growth and development of P. notoginseng.


Subject(s)
Cadmium/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Panax notoginseng , Brassinosteroids/pharmacology , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Plant Roots/metabolism , Stress, Physiological
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 45-51, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970500

ABSTRACT

Violet root rot is one of the main root diseases in the production process of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. To clarify the pathogenic species that cause the violet root rot of P. heterophylla in Fujian province, the roots and the sclerotia with violet root rot symptoms were collected from the main producing areas of P. heterophylla(Fujian province) from 2017 to 2021, and the pathogens were isolated by tissue separation method and identified by morphology and multi-gene phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, the biological characteristics of the pathogens were studied and the fungicides were determined. The results showed that 78 strains of violet root rot were isolated from the collected root samples, which belonged to one type after preliminary morphological identification. Two represen-tative strains were selected from the pathogens for multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, and they were clustered with Helicobasidium mompa together. The suitable culture conditions for the mycelium were OA medium, 25 ℃, pH 6, and ammonium oxalate as the nitrogen source. The lethal temperature of the mycelium was 50 ℃ for 10 minutes. Moreover, 99.1% propiconazole and 98.7% azoxystrobin had the optimal bacteriostatic effect, and the concentrations with the 50% bacteriostatic rate were 16.85 and 12.24 μg·mL~(-1), respectively. On the basis of the above results, the pathogen causing violet root rot of P. heterophylla in Fujian province was H. mompa. The medium type, growth temperature, pH value, nitrogen source, etc. had significant effect on the growth of mycelium.


Subject(s)
Plant Roots , Phylogeny , Temperature , Caryophyllaceae , Nitrogen
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 349-355, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970471

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to explore the effects of inoculation of Rhizophagus intraradices on the biomass, effective component content, and endogenous hormone content of Salvia miltiorrhiza through pot experiments. The number of leaves, plant height, dry weight of aboveground and underground parts, branch number, root number, root length, root diameter, and other biomass were mea-sured by weighing and counting methods. The content of salvianolic acid B, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, tanshinone Ⅰ, tanshinone Ⅱ_A, cryptotanshinone, and other effective components was determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The content of ABA and GA_3 was determined by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The correlations between biomass and effective components and between effective components and plant hormones ABA and GA_3 were analyzed. The results showed that R. intraradices significan-tly increased the aboveground dry weight, leaf number, and root number of S. miltiorrhiza by 0.24-0.65 times, respectively. The content of salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid in the aboveground part and the content of salvianolic acid B, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, tanshinone Ⅰ, and tanshinone Ⅱ_A in the underground part were significantly increased by 0.44-1.78 times, respectively. R. intraradices infection significantly increased the GA_3/ABA values of aboveground and underground parts by 3.82 and 76.47 times, respectively. The correlation analysis showed that caffeic acid, the effective component of the aboveground part, was significantly positively correlated with plant height, tanshinone Ⅱ_A, the effective component of the underground part, was significantly positively correlated with biomass root number, cryptotanshinone, and dry weight, while rosmarinic acid was significantly negatively correlated with dry weight. There were significant positive correlations between cryptotanshinone and ABA, tanshinone Ⅱ_A and ABA and GA_3, and caffeic acid and GA_3. In conclusion, R. intraradices can promote the accumulation of biomass and secondary metabolites of S. miltiorrhiza and regulate the balance between plant hormones ABA and GA_3, thereby promoting the growth of S. miltiorrhiza.


Subject(s)
Salvia miltiorrhiza/chemistry , Plant Growth Regulators/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3765-3773, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981509

ABSTRACT

Small-molecule compounds with rich sources have diverse structures and activities. The active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) provide new sources for the discovery of new antitumor drugs. Aconitum plants as Chinese medicinal plants have the effects of dispelling wind, removing dampness, warming meridian, and relieving pain. They are mainly used to treat inflammation, pain, rheumatism, and tumors, improve heart function, and dilate blood vessels in clinical practice. Diterpenoid alkaloids are the main active components of Aconitum plants, including C20-, C19-, C18-diterpenoid alkaloids and bis-diterpenoid alkaloids. Stu-dies have demonstrated that diterpenoid alkaloids can effectively treat lung cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer and other cancers. Diterpenoid alkaloids are considered as the most promising natural compounds against cancers. In this review, we summarized the chemical structures and antitumor activities of C20-, C19-, C18-diterpenoid alkaloids and bis-diterpenoid alkaloids extracted from plants of Aconitum, aiming to provide reference for further development of diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum as antitumor drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aconitum/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Alkaloids/analysis , Diterpenes/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242676, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278552

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trees occurring on the margins of agricultural areas can mitigate damage from residual herbicides. Rhizospheric microbial activity associated with trees is one of the main remedial capacity indicators. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rhizospheric microbiological activity in tree species subjected to the herbicides atrazine and sulfentrazone via the rhizosphere. The experiment was designed in four blocks and a 6 × 3 factorial scheme. The first factor consisted of six tree species from Brazil and the second of atrazine, sulfentrazone, and water solutions. Four herbicide applications were performed via irrigation. The total dry mass of the plants, mycorrhizal colonization, number of spores, basal respiration of the rhizospheric soil, and survival rate of bioindicator plants after phytoremediation were determined. Trichilia hirta had higher biomass when treated with atrazine and sulfentrazone. Herbicides decreased the microbial activity in Triplaris americana and did not affect the microbiological indicators of Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba, and Toona ciliata. Fewer bioindicator plants survived in soil with Triplaris americana and sulfentrazone. Microbiological indicators were influenced in different ways between species by the presence of herbicides in the rhizosphere.


Resumo As árvores que ocorrem nas margens das áreas agrícolas podem mitigar os danos dos herbicidas residuais. A atividade microbiana rizosférica associada às árvores é um dos principais indicadores de capacidade corretiva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade microbiológica rizosférica em espécies arbóreas submetidas aos herbicidas atrazina e sulfentrazone via rizosfera. O experimento foi estruturado em quatro blocos e esquema fatorial 6 × 3. O primeiro fator consistiu em seis espécies de árvores do Brasil e o segundo em soluções de atrazine, sulfentrazone e água. Quatro aplicações de herbicidas foram realizadas via irrigação. Foram determinados a massa seca total das plantas, colonização micorrízica, número de esporos, respiração basal do solo rizosférico e taxa de sobrevivência de plantas bioindicadoras após fitorremediação. Trichilia hirta apresentou maior biomassa quando tratada com atrazina e sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas diminuíram a atividade microbiana em Triplaris americana e não afetaram os indicadores microbiológicos de Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba e Toona ciliata. Menos plantas bioindicadoras sobreviveram no solo com Triplaris americana e sulfentrazone. Os indicadores microbiológicos foram influenciados de formas distintas entre as espécies pela presença dos herbicidas na rizosfera.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants , Mycorrhizae/chemistry , Herbicides , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Trees , Brazil , Plant Roots/chemistry , Seedlings , Rhizosphere
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240118, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278559

ABSTRACT

Abstract For many centuries human populations have been suffering and trying to fight with disease-bearing mosquitoes. Emerging and reemerging diseases such as Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya affect billions of people around the world and recently has been appealing to control with chemical pesticides. Malathion (MT) is one of the main pesticides used against mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases. This study aimed to assess cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the malathion for the bioindicator Allium cepa L. using a multivariate and integrative approach. Moreover, an appendix table was compiled with all available literature of insecticides assessed by the Allium cepa system to support our discussion. Exposures during 48h to 0.5 mg mL-1 and 1.0 mg mL-1 MT were compared to the negative control (distilled water) and positive control (MMS solution at 10 mg L-1). The presence of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, and mitotic index abnormalities was evaluated. Anaphase bridges were the alterations with higher incidence and presented a significantly elevated rate in the concentration of 0.5 mg mL-1, including when compared to the positive control. The integrative discriminant analysis summarizes that MT in assessed concentrations presented effects like the positive control, corroborating its potential of toxicity to DNA. Therefore, it is concluded that MT in its pure composition and in realistic concentrations used, has genotoxic potential in the biological assessment of A. cepa cells. The multivariate integrative analysis was fundamental to show a whole response of all data, providing a global view of the effect of MT on DNA.


Resumo Por muitos séculos, as populações humanas sofrem e tentam combater os mosquitos transmissores de doenças. Doenças emergentes e reemergentes como Dengue, Zika e Chikungunya afetam bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e, recentemente, vem apelando ao controle com pesticidas químicos. O Malation (MT) é um dos principais pesticidas usados ​​contra mosquitos, vetores dessas doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a citotoxicidade e a mutagenicidade do MT para o bioindicador Allium cepa L. usando uma abordagem multivariada e integrativa. Além disso, uma tabela suplementar foi compilada com toda a literatura disponível de inseticidas avaliada pelo sistema Allium cepa para apoiar nossa discussão. Exposições ao MT durante 48h a 0,5 mg mL-1 e 1,0 mg mL-1 foram comparadas a um controle negativo (água destilada) e um controle positivo (10 mg L-1 de MMS). Foram avaliadas a presença de aberrações cromossômicas, frequência de micronúcleos e anormalidades no índice mitótico. As pontes anafásicas foram as alterações com maior incidência e apresentaram uma taxa significativamente elevada na concentração de 0,5 mg mL-1, inclusive quando comparadas ao controle positivo. A análise discriminante integrativa resume que o MT nas concentrações avaliadas apresentou efeitos semelhantes ao controle positivo, corroborando seu potencial de toxicidade para o DNA. Portanto, conclui-se que o MT, em sua composição pura e nas concentrações realistas utilizadas, possui potencial genotóxico na avaliação biológica de células de A. cepa. A análise integrativa multivariada foi fundamental para mostrar uma resposta completa de todos os dados, fornecendo uma visão global do efeito da MT no DNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection , Insecticides/toxicity , DNA Damage , Chromosome Aberrations , Plant Roots , Onions , Mosquito Vectors , Malathion/toxicity , Mitotic Index
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20229, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439493

ABSTRACT

Abstract Malaria, a disease of public health concern is a known cause of kidney failure, and dependence on herbal medicines for its treatment is increasing due to the high cost of drugs. So this study is designed to evaluate the ameliorating effect of ethanol extract from Salacia nitida root bark on electrolyte and renal perturbations in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Thirty malariainfected mice divided into five groups of six mice each and another group of six uninfected mice were used for the study. 280, 430, and 580 mg/kg of extract were given to infected mice in groups B, C, and D, 4 mg/kg of artesunate given to group E mice, and 4 ml/kg of physiological saline given to group A and uninfected group F mice for five days. Serum Na+, K+, HCO3, Cl-, TB, urea, creatinine, BUN concentrations, and BUN/creatinine ratio were determined using standard methods. Results showed significant increases (p < 0.05) in Na+, K+, and HCO3 and decreases in Cl-, TB, urea, creatinine, BUN, and BUN/creatinine ratio in the infected treated mice in groups B - E. This study showed that ethanol extract of S. nitida root bark is efficient in the treatment of renal disorders and blood electrolyte perturbations


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Plant Roots/adverse effects , Salacia/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Malaria/pathology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Costs and Cost Analysis/classification , Electrolytes/agonists , Artesunate/antagonists & inhibitors
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | SaludCR, LILACS | ID: biblio-1423031

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En condiciones naturales, las raíces del arbusto, Phyllanthus acuminatus, producen bajas concentraciones de metabolitos secundarios de interés medicinal. Esto abre una oportunidad para el cultivo in vitro, para aumentar la concentración de metabolitos. Objetivo: Determinar las condiciones óptimas de cultivo líquido para raíces pilosas de P. acuminatus. Métodos: Se utilizó la evaluación del crecimiento de la biomasa según porcentaje de inóculo inicial (0.50 y 0.10 %), porcentaje de nutrientes de los medios (100, 50 y 25 %) y tasa de agitación (90, 100 y 110 min-1) (N= 15 repeticiones). Resultados: Las mejores condiciones de cultivo líquido fueron: 0.10 % de inóculo inicial, nutrientes al 25 % y 90 min-1 para la tasa de agitación. Hay diferencias entre las raíces pilosas y las raíces no transformadas. Conclusiones: es factible producir raíces pilosas de P. acuminatus a gran escala, aplicando e implementando las condiciones evaluadas de porcentaje de inóculo, nutrientes en el medio y tasas de agitación utilizadas en este estudio.


Introduction: Under natural conditions, the roots of the shrub, Phyllanthus acuminatus, produce low concentrations of secondary metabolites of medicinal interest. This opens an opportunity for in vitro culture, to increase metabolite concentration. Objective: To determine the optimal liquid culture conditions for hairy roots of P. acuminatus. Methods: We used biomass growth evaluation according to initial inoculum percentage (0.50 and 0.10 %), percentage of medium nutrients (100, 50 and 25 %) and agitation rate (90, 100 and 110 min-1) (N=15 replications). Results: The best liquid culture conditions were: 0.10 % of initial inoculum, nutrients at 25 % and 90 min-1 for the agitation rate. There are differences among hairy roots and non-transformed roots. Conclusions: It is feasible to produce P. acuminatus hairy roots at a large scale, applying and implementing the evaluated conditions of inoculum percentage, nutrients in the medium and agitation rates.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques , Plant Roots , Phyllanthus/growth & development , Biotechnology , Costa Rica
19.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1019-1032, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414336

ABSTRACT

Arctium lappa L. é indicada no Formulário de Fitoterápicos da Farmacopeia Brasileira para o tratamento de distúrbios urinários leves. Estudos já demonstraram o potencial antioxidante, anti-inflamatório e antidiabético deste extrato, onde foram identificados fenóis, lignanas, taninos e flavonoides. O objetivo deste trabalho foi otimizar o método extrativo de raízes de A. lappa. Realizou-se o preparo de extratos por diferentes métodos: Ultrassom, Soxhlet, maceração e turbo extração. A otimização foi realizada por turbo extração seguindo um planejamento fatorial 23, empregando como fatores: teor alcoólico, concentração da matéria prima e tempo de extração. Os extratos foram avaliados quanto ao resíduo seco, teores de fenóis e flavonoides, e atividade antioxidante. Com relação ao resíduo seco, e aos teores de fenóis e flavonoides, os métodos de ultrassom e turbo extração demonstraram melhor poder extrativo. Devido ao menor tempo e custo operacional, a otimização foi realizada por turbo extração, e o extrato otimizado foi obtido utilizando álcool 60%, em proporção matéria prima solvente 1:10 e tempo de extração de 15 minutos. Estas análises poderão nortear futuros testes de transposição de método para escala industrial, diminuindo mão de obra, tempo e custos, visando obter produtos fitoterápicos mais eficientes, com valor acessível à população.


Arctium lappa L. is indicated in the Brazilian Pharmacopeia Herbal Medicines Form for the treatment of mild urinary disorders. Studies have already demonstrated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic potential of this extract, where phenols, lignans, tannins and flavonoids were identified. The objective of this work was to optimize the extractive method of A. lappa roots. Extracts were prepared by different methods: Ultrasound, Soxhlet, maceration and vortical extraction. The optimization was performed by vortical extraction following a 23 full factorial design, using as factors: alcohol content, drug concentration and extraction time. The extracts were evaluated for dry residue, phenols and flavonoids contents, and antioxidant activity. Regarding the dry residue, and the phenols and flavonoids contents, the ultrasound and vortical extraction methods showed better extractive power. Due to the lower operating time and cost, the optimization was performed by vortical extraction, and the optimized extract was obtained using 60% alcohol, in a 1:10 drug solvent ratio and extraction time of 15 minutes. These assessments guide the future tests of transposition of the method to an industrial scale, reducing manpower, time and costs, aiming to obtain more efficient phytotherapic products, with affordable value for the population.


Arctium lappa L. está indicado en la Formulacao de Fitoterápicos da Farmacopeia Brasileira para el tratamiento de trastornos urinarios leves. Los estudios han demostrado el potencial antioxidante, antiinflamatorio y antidiabético de este extracto, donde se identificaron fenoles, lignanos, taninos y flavonoides. El objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar el método extractivo de las raíces de A. lappa. Los extractos se prepararon por diferentes métodos: Ultrasonido, Soxhlet, maceración y turboextracción. La optimización se realizó mediante turboextracción siguiendo una planificación factorial de 23, empleando como factores: tenor alcohólico, concentración de materia prima y tiempo de extracción. Se evaluaron los extractos para determinar el residuo seco, el contenido de fenoles y flavonoides y la actividad antioxidante. En cuanto al contenido de residuo seco, fenoles y flavonoides, los métodos de extracción por ultrasonidos y turbo demostraron un mejor poder de extracción. Debido al menor tiempo y coste operativo, la optimización se realizó mediante turboextracción, y el extracto optimizado se obtuvo utilizando alcohol 60%, en proporción disolvente-materia 1:10 y tiempo de extracción de 15 minutos. Estos análisis podrán orientar futuros ensayos de transposición del método para escala industrial, reduciendo mano de obra, tiempo y costes, con el objetivo de obtener productos fitoterapéuticos más eficientes, con valor accesible para la población.


Subject(s)
Arctium/drug effects , Phytotherapeutic Drugs , Process Optimization , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Plant Roots/drug effects , Phenolic Compounds , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
20.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1248-1266, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414496

ABSTRACT

Monteverdia ilicifolia, conhecida popularmente como espinheira-santa, é uma planta da família Celastraceae de relevante ação terapêutica devido às suas propriedades medicinais, principalmente a sua atividade gastroprotetora, possuindo efeitos comprovados sobre acidez e úlceras estomacais. Desta forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi encontrar na literatura evidências para o uso terapêutico da M. ilicifolia, como uma alternativa frente aos fármacos sintéticos disponíveis na indústria farmacêutica voltados para o tratamento de problemas estomacais. Foi utilizado no presente trabalho a base de dados Google acadêmico. Os distúrbios estomacais afetam milhares de pessoas, influenciando de forma negativa na qualidade de vida da população e gerando prejuízos ao sistema de saúde. Os fármacos com atividade sobre a secreção da acidez gástrica são as medicações mais prescritas para essas enfermidades, destacando-se os antagonistas do receptor H2 de histamina e os inibidores da bomba de prótons, amplamente utilizados para o tratamento de úlceras e gastrite. Com o tempo, esses medicamentos passaram a ser indiscriminadamente utilizados, prática que põem em risco a saúde íntegra dos pacientes, mediante aos diversos efeitos adversos que esses medicamentos podem causar. As plantas medicinais têm sido aplicadas na terapia de diversas doenças em toda a história da humanidade. Nesse contexto, a espinheira-santa surge como uma alternativa segura e eficaz para a prevenção e tratamento dessas patologias. Dentre os compostos bioativos que podem desempenhar a atividade gastroprotetora, destacam-se os taninos, triterpenos e flavonóides. Os estudos analisados demonstram que a M. ilicifolia possui relevante ação terapêutica, com potencial para substituir os fármacos usualmente empregados no tratamento de úlceras e gastrite.


The Monteverdia ilicifolia, popularly known as espinheira-santa, is a plant of the Celastraceae's family with relevant therapeutic action due to its medicinal properties, mainly its gastroprotective activity, and possesses proven effects on acidity and stomach ulcers. The aim of this work was to find in the literature evidence for the therapeutic use of M. ilicifolia, as an alternative to the synthetic drugs available in the pharmaceutical industry for the treatment of stomach problems. The academic Google database was used in this work. Stomach disorders affect thousands of people, negatively influencing the population's quality of life and causing damage to the health system. The drugs with activity on gastric acid secretion are the most prescribed medications for these diseases, especially histamine H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors, widely used for the treatment of ulcers and gastritis. Over time, these drugs began to be used indiscriminately, a practice that jeopardizes the health of patients, due to the various adverse effects that these drugs can cause. Medicinal plants have been applied in the therapy of various diseases throughout human history. In this context, the espinheira-santa emerges as a safe and effective alternative for the prevention and treatment of these pathologies. Among the bioactive compounds that can perform a gastroprotective activity, tannins, triterpenes, and flavonoids stand out. The analyzed studies demonstrate that M. ilicifolia has relevant therapeutic action, with the potential to replace the drugs usually used in the treatment of ulcers and gastritis.


Monteverdia ilicifolia, conocida popularmente como espinheira-santa, es una planta de la familia Celastraceae de relevante acción terapéutica por sus propiedades medicinales, principalmente su actividad gastroprotectora, con efectos probados sobre la acidez y las úlceras estomacales. Así, el objetivo de este trabajo fue encontrar evidencia en la literatura para el uso terapéutico de M. ilicifolia, como alternativa a las drogas sintéticas disponibles en la industria farmacéutica destinadas al tratamiento de problemas estomacales. En este trabajo se utilizó la base de datos académica de Google. Los trastornos estomacales afectan a miles de personas, influyendo negativamente en la calidad de vida de la población y provocando daños en el sistema de salud. Los fármacos con actividad sobre la secreción ácida gástrica son los más prescritos para estas enfermedades, especialmente los antagonistas de los receptores H2 de histamina y los inhibidores de la bomba de protones, muy utilizados para el tratamiento de úlceras y gastritis. Con el tiempo, estos medicamentos comenzaron a utilizarse de forma indiscriminada, práctica que pone en riesgo la salud de los pacientes, debido a los diversos efectos adversos que estos fármacos pueden ocasionar. Las plantas medicinales se han aplicado en la terapia de diversas enfermedades a lo largo de la historia humana. En este contexto, la espinheira-santa surge como una alternativa segura y eficaz para la prevención y el tratamiento de estas patologías. Entre los compuestos bioactivos que pueden realizar actividad gastroprotectora destacan los taninos, los triterpenos y los flavonoides. Los estudios analizados demuestran que M. ilicifolia tiene una acción terapéutica relevante, con potencial para reemplazar los fármacos habitualmente utilizados en el tratamiento de úlceras y gastritis.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Celastraceae/drug effects , Therapeutic Uses , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Plant Roots , Plant Leaves , Gastric Acid , Gastritis/drug therapy
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