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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256944, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364507

ABSTRACT

In order to ensure the timely and uninterrupted supply of medicinal plant raw materials, the methods of cultivation of plant cell cultures, namely, the production of plant root cultures, are relevant. In this paper, the geroprotective potential of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey root cultures is studied. They were cultured under in vitro conditions by transforming the rhizome (H. neglectum) and seed seedlings (P. ginseng) with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. To identify the geroprotective potential, the antimicrobial disc-diffusion method and the antioxidant activity were analyzed by titration of KMnO4 extracts of plant root cultures. The qualitative and quantitative composition was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. In the course of the work, the presence of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of plant root culture extracts was established. Biologically active substances contained in extracts of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb root crops and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey are characterized by geroprotective potential, so they can act as a source of natural antioxidants in the functional nutrition of the geroprotective orientation.


Para garantir o abastecimento em tempo e ininterrupto de matérias-primas de plantas medicinais, são relevantes os métodos de cultivo de culturas de células vegetais, nomeadamente a produção de culturas de raízes vegetais. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o potencial geroprotetor de culturas de raízes de Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb e Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Eles foram cultivados em condições in vitro pela transformação do rizoma (H. neglectum) e mudas de sementes (P. ginseng) com Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. Para identificar o potencial geroprotetor, o método antimicrobiano de difusão em disco e a atividade antioxidante foram analisados por titulação de extratos de KMnO4 de raízes de plantas. A composição qualitativa e quantitativa foi analisada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia gasosa com espectrometria de massa. No decorrer do trabalho, foi constatada a presença de atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante dos extratos de raízes de plantas. Substâncias biologicamente ativas contidas em extratos de raízes de H. neglectum Ledeb e P. ginseng C. A. Mey são caracterizadas pelo potencial geroprotetor, podendo atuar como fonte de antioxidantes naturais na nutrição funcional da orientação geroprotetora.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Plant Roots , Panax , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240118, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278559

ABSTRACT

Abstract For many centuries human populations have been suffering and trying to fight with disease-bearing mosquitoes. Emerging and reemerging diseases such as Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya affect billions of people around the world and recently has been appealing to control with chemical pesticides. Malathion (MT) is one of the main pesticides used against mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases. This study aimed to assess cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the malathion for the bioindicator Allium cepa L. using a multivariate and integrative approach. Moreover, an appendix table was compiled with all available literature of insecticides assessed by the Allium cepa system to support our discussion. Exposures during 48h to 0.5 mg mL-1 and 1.0 mg mL-1 MT were compared to the negative control (distilled water) and positive control (MMS solution at 10 mg L-1). The presence of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, and mitotic index abnormalities was evaluated. Anaphase bridges were the alterations with higher incidence and presented a significantly elevated rate in the concentration of 0.5 mg mL-1, including when compared to the positive control. The integrative discriminant analysis summarizes that MT in assessed concentrations presented effects like the positive control, corroborating its potential of toxicity to DNA. Therefore, it is concluded that MT in its pure composition and in realistic concentrations used, has genotoxic potential in the biological assessment of A. cepa cells. The multivariate integrative analysis was fundamental to show a whole response of all data, providing a global view of the effect of MT on DNA.


Resumo Por muitos séculos, as populações humanas sofrem e tentam combater os mosquitos transmissores de doenças. Doenças emergentes e reemergentes como Dengue, Zika e Chikungunya afetam bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e, recentemente, vem apelando ao controle com pesticidas químicos. O Malation (MT) é um dos principais pesticidas usados ​​contra mosquitos, vetores dessas doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a citotoxicidade e a mutagenicidade do MT para o bioindicador Allium cepa L. usando uma abordagem multivariada e integrativa. Além disso, uma tabela suplementar foi compilada com toda a literatura disponível de inseticidas avaliada pelo sistema Allium cepa para apoiar nossa discussão. Exposições ao MT durante 48h a 0,5 mg mL-1 e 1,0 mg mL-1 foram comparadas a um controle negativo (água destilada) e um controle positivo (10 mg L-1 de MMS). Foram avaliadas a presença de aberrações cromossômicas, frequência de micronúcleos e anormalidades no índice mitótico. As pontes anafásicas foram as alterações com maior incidência e apresentaram uma taxa significativamente elevada na concentração de 0,5 mg mL-1, inclusive quando comparadas ao controle positivo. A análise discriminante integrativa resume que o MT nas concentrações avaliadas apresentou efeitos semelhantes ao controle positivo, corroborando seu potencial de toxicidade para o DNA. Portanto, conclui-se que o MT, em sua composição pura e nas concentrações realistas utilizadas, possui potencial genotóxico na avaliação biológica de células de A. cepa. A análise integrativa multivariada foi fundamental para mostrar uma resposta completa de todos os dados, fornecendo uma visão global do efeito da MT no DNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection , Insecticides/toxicity , DNA Damage , Chromosome Aberrations , Plant Roots , Onions , Mosquito Vectors , Malathion/toxicity , Mitotic Index
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242676, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278552

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trees occurring on the margins of agricultural areas can mitigate damage from residual herbicides. Rhizospheric microbial activity associated with trees is one of the main remedial capacity indicators. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rhizospheric microbiological activity in tree species subjected to the herbicides atrazine and sulfentrazone via the rhizosphere. The experiment was designed in four blocks and a 6 × 3 factorial scheme. The first factor consisted of six tree species from Brazil and the second of atrazine, sulfentrazone, and water solutions. Four herbicide applications were performed via irrigation. The total dry mass of the plants, mycorrhizal colonization, number of spores, basal respiration of the rhizospheric soil, and survival rate of bioindicator plants after phytoremediation were determined. Trichilia hirta had higher biomass when treated with atrazine and sulfentrazone. Herbicides decreased the microbial activity in Triplaris americana and did not affect the microbiological indicators of Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba, and Toona ciliata. Fewer bioindicator plants survived in soil with Triplaris americana and sulfentrazone. Microbiological indicators were influenced in different ways between species by the presence of herbicides in the rhizosphere.


Resumo As árvores que ocorrem nas margens das áreas agrícolas podem mitigar os danos dos herbicidas residuais. A atividade microbiana rizosférica associada às árvores é um dos principais indicadores de capacidade corretiva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade microbiológica rizosférica em espécies arbóreas submetidas aos herbicidas atrazina e sulfentrazone via rizosfera. O experimento foi estruturado em quatro blocos e esquema fatorial 6 × 3. O primeiro fator consistiu em seis espécies de árvores do Brasil e o segundo em soluções de atrazine, sulfentrazone e água. Quatro aplicações de herbicidas foram realizadas via irrigação. Foram determinados a massa seca total das plantas, colonização micorrízica, número de esporos, respiração basal do solo rizosférico e taxa de sobrevivência de plantas bioindicadoras após fitorremediação. Trichilia hirta apresentou maior biomassa quando tratada com atrazina e sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas diminuíram a atividade microbiana em Triplaris americana e não afetaram os indicadores microbiológicos de Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba e Toona ciliata. Menos plantas bioindicadoras sobreviveram no solo com Triplaris americana e sulfentrazone. Os indicadores microbiológicos foram influenciados de formas distintas entre as espécies pela presença dos herbicidas na rizosfera.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants , Mycorrhizae/chemistry , Herbicides , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Trees , Brazil , Plant Roots/chemistry , Seedlings , Rhizosphere
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e256277, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364494

ABSTRACT

The wax apple or jambu madu, is a non-climacteric tropical fruit from Myrtaceae family and widely cultivated in South East Asia. The limited availability of good quality seedlings of wax apple is the main problem to development of flourish it's market share in the current fruit industry. Therefore, in order to produce good quality planting materials, a study aimed at optimizing propagation and adventitious rooting technique and survivability of wax apple air layer was conducted. In this study, four different levels of Indole-3-Butyric Acid (IBA) concentration (0, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg L-1) and three rooting media (sphagnum moss, vermicompost and garden soil) were applied after removal of bark (phloem) on the shoot to determine the effect on rooting and survivability of the wax apple air layer under field conditions. The results showed that the wax apple shoots treated with 2000 mg L-1 IBA produced the significantly higher number of roots, increased length of root, diameter of branch, length of branch, number of leaf and leaf area of air layers. In addition, the highest chlorophyll content and stomatal aperture were recorded in 2000 mg L-1 IBA treatment compared to other treatments including control. Vermicompost medium was better than garden soil and sphagnum moss in respect of rooting and survivability of air layers. The results showed that the combination of 2000 mg L-1 IBA and vermicompost as rooting media give the best combination to root initiation, root number, root length and survival rate (100%) of wax apple air layers. From this study, it can be concluded that 2000 mg L-1 IBA and vermicompost treatment enhance the root initiation, early establishment and survivability of wax apple air layered under field conditions.


A maçã de cera, ou jambu madu, é uma fruta tropical não climatérica da família Myrtaceae e amplamente cultivada no Sudeste Asiático. A disponibilidade limitada de mudas de macieira de boa qualidade é o principal problema para o desenvolvimento de sua participação de mercado na fruticultura atual. Portanto, com o objetivo de produzir materiais de plantio de boa qualidade, foi realizado um estudo visando otimizar a técnica de propagação e enraizamento adventício e a sobrevivência da camada aérea da cera de macieira. Neste estudo, quatro diferentes níveis de concentração de ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB) (0, 1000, 1500 e 2000 mg L-1) e três meios de enraizamento (musgo esfagno, vermicomposto e solo de jardim) foram aplicados após a remoção da casca (floema) na parte aérea para determinar o efeito no enraizamento e capacidade de sobrevivência da camada de ar da macieira em condições de campo. Os resultados mostraram que os brotos de macieira tratados com 2000 mg L-1 de AIB produziram significativamente maior número de raízes, maior comprimento de raiz, diâmetro de galho, comprimento de galho, número de folhas e área foliar das camadas aéreas. Além disso, o maior teor de clorofila e abertura estomática foram registrados no tratamento 2000 mg L-1 IBA em comparação com outros tratamentos, incluindo o controle. O meio de vermicomposto foi melhor do que o solo de jardim e o musgo esfagno em relação ao enraizamento e capacidade de sobrevivência das camadas aéreas. Os resultados mostraram que a combinação de 2000 mg L-1 de AIB e vermicomposto como meio de enraizamento proporciona a melhor combinação para iniciação radicular, número de raízes, comprimento radicular e taxa de sobrevivência (100%) das camadas aéreas de macieira. A partir deste estudo, pode-se concluir que 2.000 mg L-1 de AIB e tratamento com vermicomposto melhoram a iniciação radicular, o estabelecimento precoce e a capacidade de sobrevivência de macieiras em camadas de ar em condições de campo.


Subject(s)
Agricultural Cultivation , Plant Roots/growth & development , Malus/growth & development , Fertilizers
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929253

ABSTRACT

Two new neolignans and one new lignan (1-3) were obtained from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora. Their structures were unambiguously elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and the calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compound 1 was a racemic mixture and successfully resolved into the anticipated enantiomers via chiral-phase HPLC. Compound 3 demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against human carboxylesterase 2A1 (hCES2A1) with an IC50 value of 7.28 ± 0.94 μmol·-1.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Humans , Lignans/chemistry , Paeonia , Plant Roots/chemistry , Stereoisomerism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928182

ABSTRACT

In order to realize the rapid and non-destructive detection of SO_2 content in sulphur-fumigated Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, this paper first prepared the sulphur-fumigated Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix samples with the usage amount of sulphur being 0, 2.5%, and 5% of the mass of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix pieces. The SO_2 content in different batches of sulphur-fumigated Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix was determined using the method in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, followed by the acquisition of their hyperspectral data within both visible-near infrared(435-1 042 nm) and short-wave infrared(898-1 751 nm) regions by hyperspectral imaging. Meanwhile, the first derivative, AUTO, multiplicative scatter correction, Savitzky-Golay(SG) smoothing, and standard normal variable transformation algorithms were used to pre-process the original hyperspectral data, which were then subjected to characteristic band extraction based on competitive adaptive reweighted sampling(CARS) and the partial least square regression analysis for building a quantitative model of SO_2 content in sulphur-fumigated Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix. It was found that the accuracy of the quantitative model built depending on the visible-near infrared spectra was high, with the determination coefficient of prediction set(R■) reaching 0.900 1. The established quantitative model has enabled the rapid and non-destructive detection of SO_2 content in sulphur-fumigated Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, which can serve as an effective supplement to the method described in Chinese Pharmacopeia.


Subject(s)
Hyperspectral Imaging , Least-Squares Analysis , Plant Roots , Sulfur
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928172

ABSTRACT

Astragali Radix, a medicinal herb for invigorating Qi, has anti-aging, anti-tumor, immunoregulatory, blood sugar-and lipid-lowering, anti-fibrosis, anti-radiation and other pharmacological effects. This article reviewed the studies about the chemical components and pharmacological effects of Astragali Radix. According to the theory of quality markers(Q-markers) of Chinese medicinal materials, we predicted the Q-markers of Astragali Radix from traditional efficacy, chemical component validity, measurability, plant phylogeny, and pharmacokinetis. The results showed that total polysaccharides, flavonoids(e.g., calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, formononetin, calycosin, quercetin, and ononin), and saponins(e.g., astragalosides Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ) can be taken as the main Q-markers. This review lays a foundation for regulating the quality research and standard establishment of Astragali Radix, and benefits the control and quality supervision of the production process of Astragali Radix and its related products.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Flavonoids , Plant Roots
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928099

ABSTRACT

By the in-depth excavation of prescriptions containing herbal pair Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma-Polygalae Radix in the Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions, this study analyzed their formulation rules, so as to provide reference for their clinical application and new drug development. First, the prescriptions containing Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma-Polygalae Radix were collected from the Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions, and their indications, herbal compatibility, and dosage forms were analyzed statistically using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System(TCMISS). Meanwhile, the formulation rules and common dosage forms for the top four indications(amnesia, palpitation, mania, and epilepsy) sorted by frequency were analyzed with Apriori algorithm. A total of 507 prescriptions containing Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma-Polygalae Radix were screened out, involving 15 indications(frequency>10) like amnesia, palpitation, mania, and epilepsy. There were 30 commonly used Chinese herbs(frequency≥60), with the Qi-tonifying herbs(Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizome), mind-tranquilizing herbs(Poria and Poria cum Radix Pini), and Yin-nourishing herbs(Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Ophiopogonis Radix) being the core ones. The commonly used dosage forms were honey pill, paste pill, decoction, and powder. These have indicated that the herbal pair Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma-Polygalae Radix is often combined with Qi-tonifying, Yin-nourishing, and mind-tranquilizing herbs for the treatment of "heart or brain diseases" caused by phlegm production due to spleen deficiency, Qi and blood deficiency, and phlegm-turbidity blocking orifice. In the treatment of amnesia, supplementing essence and replenishing marrow are considered on the basis of tonifying Qi, nourishing Yin, and tranquilizing mind. In the treatment of palpitation and mania, tranquilizing mind is emphasized. In the treatment of epilepsy, the emphasis is placed on resolving phlegm, extinguishing wind, and stopping convulsion.


Subject(s)
Data Mining , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots , Prescriptions , Rhizome
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928050

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effects of chemical ingredient groups B and C in Kansui Radix stir-fried with vinegar on the diversity of gut microbiota in the rat model of malignant ascites, identify the key differential microbial taxa, and reveal the biological mechanism of water-expelling effect of the two chemical ingredient groups. The rat model of malignant ascites induced by Walker-256 cells was established, and phenolphthalein was used as the positive drug. The rats were orally administrated with corresponding agents for consecutive 7 days. On day 6, fresh feces samples were collected from the rats, and 16 S rDNA high-throughput sequencing and GC-MS were employed to determine the composition of gut microbiota and the content of short-chain fatty acids, respectively. On day 7, serum and intestinal tissue samples were collected for the determination of related indicators. Compared with the control group, the model group showed decreased feces volume and urine volume(P<0.01), increased volume of ascites and levels of Na~+, K~+, and Cl~- in urine(P<0.01), down-regulated mRNA and protein levels of intestinal AQP8(P<0.01), lowered abundance of beneficial Lactobacillus(P<0.01) while risen abundance of potential pathogenic Lachnospiraceae and Anaeroplasma(P<0.01), and reduced content of short-chain fatty acids(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, administration with chemical ingredient groups B and C alleviated all the above indicators(P<0.01). In conclusion, chemical ingredient groups B and C in Kansui Radix stir-fried with vinegar could alleviate the disordered gut microbiota in rats with malignant ascites to expel water through increasing the abundance of beneficial Lactobacillus and reducing the abundance of harmful Lachnospiraceae and Anaeroplasma. This study can provide a reference for the reasonable clinical application of Kansui Radix stir-fried with vinegar.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid/chemistry , Animals , Ascites/drug therapy , Euphorbia/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Plant Roots/chemistry , Rats
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928049

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effect of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix(EPR) on intestinal flora structure before and after vinegar processing and explored the detoxification mechanism of vinegar-processed EPR. In this study, the extraction efficiency of casbane diterpenes from EPR with different solvents was investigated, and the optimal solvent was selected to enrich these components. After 14 days of intragastric administration of total diterpene extract of EPR and vinegar-processed EPR, 16 S rDNA sequencing technology was used to detect the structural changes of intestinal flora. The flora related to the intestinal toxicity of EPR was screened out based on the results of intestinal pathological damage by correlation analysis. The results showed that Soxhlet extraction with chloroform as extraction solvent could enrich Casbane diterpenes in EPR. As revealed by 16 S rDNA sequencing results, EPR could significantly change the structure of intestinal flora, which could be reversed by vinegar-processing EPR. Some intestinal flora candidates might be related to detoxification of vinegar processing. The correlation analysis of intestinal flora candidates and indexes related to intestinal mucosal injury showed that compared with EPR, vinegar-processed EPR could down-regulate the abundance of some pathogenic bacteria such as Mucispirillum, Bilophila, and Ruminiclostridium, and up-regulated some probiotics such as Enterorhabdus, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014, Barnesiella, and Candidatus. The intestinal toxicity caused by EPR may be related to the disturbance of intestinal flora, and vinegar-processed EPR can improve intestinal flora disorder by up-regulating the abundance of probiotics and down-regulating the abundance of pathogenic bacteria to remodel the intestinal mucosal barrier and reduce toxicity.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid/chemistry , Colon , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Plant Roots
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927997

ABSTRACT

UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and serum pharmacochemistry were employed to study the migrating components in rat sera after intragastric administration of the water extracts of Puerariae Lobatae Radix(PLR) and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix(PTR). After the respective intragastric administration of PLR and PTR extracts, blood samples were collected from the orbital vein. The serum samples were treated by protein precipitation method with methanol and acetonitrile at a ratio of 1∶1 and then passed through Agilent ZORBAX RRHD SB-C_(18) column(3 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) and Agilent SB-C_(18) pre-column(3 mm×5 mm, 1.8 μm) with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution(A)-acetonitrile(B) as the mobile phase. The elution was performed at the flow rate of 0.25 mL·min~(-1), the column temperature of 40 ℃, and the injection volume of 2 μL. By comparison of the total ion chromatogram and secondary fragment ion information of PLR and PTR water extracts, PLR-and PTR-containing sera, and blank serum, we found 42 migrating components(including 17 prototype components and 25 metabolites) in the sera of rats treated with PLR and 35 migrating components(including 15 prototype components and 20 metabolites) in the sera of rats treated with PTR. Thirty-three common components were shared by the two treatments, including 13 prototype components and 20 metabolites. The differences of migrating components in the PLR-and PTR-treated rat sera provide a scientific basis for further study of the active components and quality markers of PLR and PTR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Roots , Pueraria , Rats , Serum
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927944

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to establish a method for synchronous detection of 14 mycotoxins in Pseudostellariae Radix and investigate its contamination with mycotoxins, so as to provide technical guidance for monitoring the quality of Chinese medicinal materials and medication safety. The sample was extracted with 80% acetonitrile in an oscillator for 1 h, purified using the modified QuEChERS purifying agent(0.1 g PSA + 0.3 g C_(18) + 0.3 g MgSO_4), and separated on a Waters HSS T3 chromatographic column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm). The gradient elution was carried out with 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile, followed by the scanning in the multi-reaction monitoring(MRM) mode and the analysis of mycotoxin contamination in 26 Pseudostellariae Radix samples. The recovery rates of the established method were within the range of 82.17%-113.6%, with the RSD values less than 7% and the limits of quantification(LOQ) being 0.019-0.976 μg·kg~(-1). The detection rate of 14 mycotoxins in 26 batches of medicinal materials was 53.85%. The detection rate of sterigmatocystin(ST) was the highest, followed by those of zearalenone(ZEN), aflatoxin G_2(AFG_2), fumonisin B_1(FB_1), HT-2 toxin, and nivalenol(NIV). Their respective detection rates were 38.46%, 26.92%, 23.08%, 11.54%, 11.54%, and 7.69%, with the pollution ranges being 1.48-69.65, 0.11-31.05, 0.11-0.66, 0.28-0.83, 20.86-42.56, and 0.46-1.84 μg·kg~(-1), respectively. The established method for the detection of 14 mycotoxins is accurate, fast and reliable. The research results have very important practical significance for guiding the monitoring and prevention and control of exogenous fungal contamination of Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drug Contamination , Food Contamination/analysis , Mycotoxins/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927918

ABSTRACT

Four cyclic peptides were isolated from the 75% ethanol extract of the fibrous roots of Pseudostellaria heterophylla by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and semi-preparative HPLC. Through mass spectrometry, NMR and other methods, they were identified as pseudostellarin L(1), heterophyllin B(2), pseudostellarin B(3), and pseudostellarin C(4). Among them, compound 1 was a new cyclic peptide, and compounds 2-4 were isolated from the fibrous roots of P. heterophylla for the first time. None of these compounds displayed cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, A549, HCT-116, and SGC-7901 cells.


Subject(s)
Caryophyllaceae/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927917

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the chemical constituents of Scrophulariae Radix and their antitumor activities in vitro. The compounds in the ethyl acetate extract were separated and purified by conventional column chromatographies(such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS column) and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and their structures were identified by various spectral techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and mass spectrometry(MS). Twenty-three compounds were isolated and identified as benzyl-β-D-(3',6'-di-O-acetyl) glucoside(1), 5-O-p-methoxybenzoyl kojic acid(2), 5-O-methoxybenzoyl kojic acid(3), 7-O-methylbenzoyl kojic acid(4), 5-O-benzoyl kojic acid(5), methyl ferulate ethyl ether(6), trans-ferulic acid(7), trans-isoferulic acid(8), trans-caffeic acid(9), trans-caffeic acid methyl ester(10), caffeic acid ethyl ester(11), trans-cinnamic acid(12), trans-p-methoxycinnamic acid(13), trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid(14), trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid methyl ester(15), 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl) alcohol(16),(p-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid(17), coniferaldehyde(18), sinapaldehyde(19), benzyl β-primeveroside(20), 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural(21), furan-2-carboxylic acid(22), and decanedioic acid(23). Among them, compound 1 is a new benzyl glucoside, compounds 2-4 are new pyranone compounds, compound 5 is a new natural product of pyranone. The NMR data of compounds 5 and 6 are reported for the first time. Compounds 6 and 20 were isolated from the Scrophularia plant for the first time. Compounds 8, 11, 14, 16, 18, 19, 22, and 23 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of these compounds against three tumor cell lines(HepG2, A549, and 4 T1) were evaluated. The results showed that compounds 10 and 15 showed cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cells with IC_(50) values of(19.46±0.48) μmol·L~(-1) and(46.10±1.21) μmol·L~(-1).


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Scrophularia/chemistry
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927912

ABSTRACT

Dof(DNA binding with one finger), a unique class of transcription factors in plants, play an important role in seed development, tissue differentiation, and metabolic regulation. To identify the number and function of Dof gene family members in Panax ginseng, this study identified the members of Dof gene family in P. ginseng and systematically analyzed their structures, evolution, functional differentiation, expression patterns, and interactions using bioinformatics methods at the transcriptome level. At the same time, the association analysis of Dof genes from P. ginseng with key enzyme genes for ginsenoside synthesis was carried out to screen the candidate PgDof genes involved in the regulation of ginsenoside biosynthesis. The results showed that there were 54 genes belonging to the Dof gene family in P. ginseng from Jilin. All PgDof genes had Zf-Dof conserved motifs, implying that they were evolutionarily conserved and could be divided into five groups. Expression pattern analysis confirmed that the expression of PgDof gene family members in different tissues, different year-old P. ginseng, and different farm varieties varied significantly. Simultaneously, as revealed by "gene-saponin content" and "gene-gene" linkage analysis, an important candidate PgDof14-1 gene involved in the regulation of ginsenoside biosynthesis was obtained. From the established genetic transformation system of this gene in the hairy roots of P. ginseng, a positive hairy root clone was determined. This study has laid a theoretical foundation for the study of Dof gene family in P. ginseng.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Ginsenosides , Panax , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plant Roots/metabolism , Transcriptome
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927908

ABSTRACT

Derived from Curcuma plants, Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, Curcumae Rhizoma, Wenyujin Rhizoma Concisum, and Curcumae Radix are common blood-activating and stasis-resolving medicinals in clinical practice, which are mainly used to treat amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, chest impediment and heart pain, and rheumatic arthralgia caused by blood stasis block. According to modern research, the typical components in medicinals derived from Curcuma plants, like curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, curdione, germacrone, curcumol, and β-elemene, have the activities of hemorheology improvement, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, and anti-fibrosis, thereby activating blood and resolving stasis. However, due to the difference in origin, medicinal part, processing, and other aspects, the efficacy and clinical application are different. The efficacy-related substances behind the difference have not yet been systematically studied. Thus, focusing on the efficacy-related substances, this study reviewed the background, efficacy and clinical application, efficacy-related substances, and "prediction-identification-verification" research method of blood-activating and stasis-resolving medicinals derived from Curcuma plants, which is expected to lay a theoretical basis for the future research on the "similarities and differences" of such medicinals based on integrated evidence chain and to guide the scientific and rational application of them in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Curcuma , Curcumin , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Roots , Platelet Aggregation , Rhizome
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1915-1928, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927827

ABSTRACT

In this study, the effects of two plant growth-promoting bacteria Klebsiella michiganensis TS8 and Lelliottia Jeotgali MR2 on the growth and cadmium (Cd) uptake of Arabidopsis thaliana under Cd stress were explored. A wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana was selected as the experimental plant and was planted at different Cd concentrations. MR2 and TS8 bacterial suspensions were sprayed onto the rhizospheric soil during the planting process. The initial Cd concentration of the bought soil was 14.17 mg/kg, which was used as the pot soil of the low-concentration Cd treatment group (LC). The concentration of soil Cd at high-concentration Cd treatment group (HC) were 200 mg/kg higher than that at LC group. Compared with the control group, MR2 suspension significantly promoted the growth of A. thaliana at both low and high concentrations, while TS8 strain and MR2_TS8 mixture only exhibited growth-promoting effect at high concentration. However, it was noteworthy that, TS8 suspension significantly reduced the Cd content in the underground parts of A. thaliana (60% and 59%), and significantly improved the Cd content in the aboveground parts of A. thaliana (234% and 35%) at both low and high concentrations. In addition, at low concentration, both single strain and mixed strains significantly improved the transformation from reducible Cd to acid-extractable Cd in soil, promoted Cd intake, and thereby reduced the total Cd content in soil. Therefore, the rational application of plant growth-promoting bacteria may improve crop yield and remediate Cd contamination in soil.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis , Bacteria , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cadmium/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil , Soil Pollutants
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936324

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the volatile constituents and their contents in the roots of 5 cultivated Angelica dahurica and one wild A. dahurica and analyze the chemical relationship among the plants of A. dahurica.@*METHODS@#The essential oil was extracted from the roots of 5 cultivated plants of Angelica dahurica and one wild A. dahurica by water steam distillation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to separate and identify all the volatile oil components in the extracts, and their relative contents were calculated with area normalization method. We also conducted clustering analysis and principal component analysis of the volatile oil components.@*RESULTS@#We identified a total of 81 compounds from the roots of the 6 plants of Angelica dahurica, including 27 in Chuanbaizhi (Angelica dahurica cv. 'Hangbaizhi'), 34 in Hangbaizhi (Angelica dahurica cv. 'Hangbaizhi'), 24 in Qibaizhi (Angelica dahurica cv. 'Qibaizhi'), 32 in Yubaizhi (Angelica dahurica cv.'Qibaizhi'), 28 in Bobahizhi (Angelica dahurica cv.'Qibaizhi'), and 34 in Xinganbaizhi (Angelica dahuirca). These compounds included, in the order of their relative contents (from high to low), alkanes, olefins, esters, organic acids and alcohols. Among the common components found in the roots of all the plants of A. dahurica, nonylcyclopropane, cyclododecane and hexadecanoic acid were identified as the volatile oil components that showed the highest relative contents. Clustering analysis of the volatile oil components showed that wild Angelica dahurica (Xing'anbaizhi) and the 5 cultivated Angelica dahurica (Chuanbaizhi, Hangbaizhi, Qibaizhi, Yubaizhi, Bobaizhi) could be divided into two groups, and the cultivated Angelica dahurica could be divided into two subgroups: Chuanbaizhi, Yubaizhi and Hangbahizhi were clustered in one subgroup, and Qibaizhi and Bobaizhi in another. The results of principal component analysis was consistent with those of clustering analysis.@*CONCLUSION@#The main volatile oil components and their contents vary among the 6 plants of A. dahurica. Nonylcyclopropane, cyclododecane and hexadecanoic acid are the most abundant volatile oil components in all the plants of A. dahurica, which can be divided into two clusters.


Subject(s)
Angelica/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Palmitic Acid/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry
19.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 104-113, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929213

ABSTRACT

Aconitum heterophyllum (Patrees) is a critically endangered medicinal herb of the northwestern Himalayas and has enormous pharmacological potential. It is the only nonpoisonous member of the genus Aconitum, and has been used as a medicinal herb since ancient times. A. heterophyllum is an important ingredient in many traditional systems of medicine. Mostly, it is harvested for its roots, and its medicinal properties are due to the presence of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites, commonly known as aconites. Our understanding of the pharmacological properties of this intriguing genus is continuously growing due to its broad chemical diversity. The therapeutic uses identified by traditional medicinal practice are receiving extensive study. Multiple in vitro experimental investigations of A. heterophyllum have reported the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiarrhythmic, antiparasitic and anticancer properties, as well as its effects on the central nervous system. In this review, we highlight the classification, distribution, commerce, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and conservation measures relevant to this species. Additionally, this review includes the biosynthetic pathways of A. heterophyllum's key constituents, which could be targeted to enhance the expression levels of desired metabolites via genetic interventions. Studying the genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomic aspects of this species would be helpful in developing highly designed genotypes and chemotypes of this species to be used in commercial production.


Subject(s)
Aconitum/genetics , Ethnopharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243628, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249260

ABSTRACT

Abstract Flavoring additives are of great technological importance for the food industry. However, there is little information regarding the toxicological properties of these micro-ingredients, especially at the cellular level. The present study used meristematic root cells of Allium cepa L. to evaluate the toxicity of a liquid, aroma and flavor synthetic chocolate additive, manufactured and widely marketed throughout Brazil and exported to other countries in South America. The flavoring concentrations evaluated were 100.00; 50.00; 25.00; 1.00; 0.50 and 0.25 µL/L, where the highest concentration established was one-hundred times lower than that commercially suggested for use. The concentration 100 µL/L substantially reduced cell division of meristems within 24- and 48-hours exposure. Concentrations from 100.00 to 0.50 µL/L resulted in a significant number of prophases to the detriment of the other phases of cell division, indicating an aneugenic activity, and induced a significant number of cellular changes, with emphasis on micronuclei, nuclear buds and chromosomal breaks. Under the established analysis conditions, with the exception of concentration 0.25 µL/L, the flavoring of chocolate caused cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity to root meristems.


Resumo Os aditivos aromatizantes têm grande importância tecnológica para a indústria de alimentos. Contudo, poucas são as informações quanto as propriedades toxicológicas desses microingredientes, especialmente, em nível celular. No presente estudo avaliou-se, sobre as células meristemáticas de raízes de Allium cepa L., a toxicidade de um aditivo sintético líquido de aroma e sabor de chocolate, fabricado e amplamente comercializado em todo Brasil, e exportado para outros países da América do Sul. As concentrações de aromatizante avaliadas foram 100,00; 50,00; 25,00; 1,00; 0,50 e 0,25 µL/L, onde a maior concentração estabelecida foi cem vezes menor que a sugerida comercialmente para uso. Com base na interpretação dos resultados, a concentração 100 µL/L reduziu substancialmente a divisão celular dos meristemas nas 24 e 48 horas de exposição. As concentrações 100,00 a 0,50 µL/L demonstraram número significativo de prófases em detrimento as outras fases da divisão celular, indicando ação aneugênica, e induziram número significativo de alterações celulares, com ênfase a micronúcleos, broto nucleares e quebras cromossômicas. Nas condições de análises estabelecidas, com exceção a concentração 0,25 µL/L, o aromatizante de chocolate causou citotoxicidade, genotoxicidade e mutagenicidade aos meristemas radiculares.


Subject(s)
Chocolate , Mutagens/toxicity , DNA Damage , Brazil , Plant Roots , Onions , Food Additives
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